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Sample records for direct reading instrument

  1. Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Corder, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic instruments (specially configured digital cameras) for reading direct-marked data-matrix symbols on the surfaces of optically reflective objects (including specularly reflective ones) are undergoing development. Data-matrix symbols are two-dimensional binary patterns that are used, like common bar codes, for automated identification of objects. The first data-matrix symbols were checkerboard-like patterns of black-and-white rectangles, typically existing in the forms of paint, ink, or detachable labels. The major advantage of direct marking (the marks are more durable than are painted or printed symbols or detachable labels) is offset by a major disadvantage (the marks generated by some marking methods do not provide sufficient contrast to be readable by optoelectronic instruments designed to read black-and-white data-matrix symbols). Heretofore, elaborate lighting, lensing, and software schemes have been tried in efforts to solve the contrast problem in direct-mark matrix- symbol readers. In comparison with prior readers based on those schemes, the readers now undergoing development are expected to be more effective while costing less. All of the prior direct-mark matrix-symbol readers are designed to be aimed perpendicularly to marked target surfaces, and they tolerate very little angular offset. However, the reader now undergoing development not only tolerates angular offset but depends on angular offset as a means of obtaining the needed contrast, as described below. The prototype reader (see Figure 1) includes an electronic camera in the form of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector equipped with a telecentric lens. It also includes a source of collimated visible light and a source of collimated infrared light for illuminating a target. The visible and infrared illumination complement each other: the visible illumination is more useful for aiming the reader toward a target, while the infrared illumination is more useful for reading symbols on highly reflective surfaces. By use of beam splitters, the visible and infrared collimated lights are introduced along the optical path of the telecentric lens, so that the target is illuminated and viewed from the same direction.

  2. Performing T-tests to Compare Autocorrelated Time Series Data Collected from Direct-Reading Instruments.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Industrial hygienists now commonly use direct-reading instruments to evaluate hazards in the workplace. The stored values over time from these instruments constitute a time series of measurements that are often autocorrelated. Given the need to statistically compare two occupational scenarios using values from a direct-reading instrument, a t-test must consider measurement autocorrelation or the resulting test will have a largely inflated type-1 error probability (false rejection of the null hypothesis). A method is described for both the one-sample and two-sample cases which properly adjusts for autocorrelation. This method involves the computation of an "equivalent sample size" that effectively decreases the actual sample size when determining the standard error of the mean for the time series. An example is provided for the one-sample case, and an example is given where a two-sample t-test is conducted for two autocorrelated time series comprised of lognormally distributed measurements. PMID:26011524

  3. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L; Ogle, Burton R; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters were examined to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. Both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Therefore, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. The bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring. PMID:25625686

  4. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bau, Sébastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, François; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak™ 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  5. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  6. Direct reading dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, I.

    1984-11-20

    A direct reading dosimeter having a range such that it can be used by personnel workers in the medical, nuclear and industrial fields, and provides and indication of dose rate as well as total received dosage. The dosimeter uses a semiconductor sensor of MOS or bipolar transistor or MOS capacitor form which traps positive charge under the influence of ionizing radiation. A current is applied to the sensor substrate, the voltage across a portion of the substrate is sensed, differentiated and displayed. The dosimeter circuit can be integrated and packaged in a wrist watchcase, in a probe, or other convenient form.

  7. Directed Studies Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Emma Gene

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves from 10 to 40 junior college students each semester. The students come from several ethnic groups and are from low-income families in a small rural town. They represent various age groups, including adults returning to school after years of absence. Begun in 1971, the program…

  8. Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

  9. A Direct Reading Thermometer Based on a Silicon Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, L.; Tonthat, C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a simple circuit based on an inexpensive quad operational amplifier that permits a direct-reading temperature instrument to be constructed using silicon diodes. Encourages the use of this equipment in introductory thermal experiments. (DDR)

  10. Minimizing Reading Regression through a Direct Instruction Summer Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechous, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Direct Instruction summer reading intervention program designed to minimize summer reading regression. The summer intervention program targeted the lowest quartile of readers in grades kindergarten through third grade from a suburban school district over a three-week period before…

  11. Direct reading of electrocardiograms and respiration rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, J. P.

    1969-01-01

    Technique for reading heart and respiration rates is more accurate and direct than the previous method. Index of a plastic calibrated card is aligned with a point on the electrocardiogram. Complexes are counted as indicated on the card and heart or respiration rate is read directly from the appropriate scale.

  12. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  13. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  14. New versatile computer-controlled direct reading emission spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasheim, A.; Thain, M. E.; Walters, N. M.; Claase, C.; Human, H. G. C.; Ferreira, N. P.

    This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a 20-channel direct-reading 1.5 m Paschen Runge type vacuum spectrometer. Computer control allows the changing from one analytical programme to another in a relatively short time with ease and also allows the instrument to function as a dual scanning monochromator.

  15. A Modified Direct-Reading Azimuth Protractor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, William C.; Pugliese, Joseph M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the construction of a direct-reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) used for mapping fracture and joint-surface orientations in underground mines where magnetic disturbances affect typical geologic pocket transit. (SL)

  16. A Direct-Reading Inertial Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzzi, Luciana

    1978-01-01

    Describes the construction of a direct-reading inertial balance that works on the same principle as that used by astronauts in space when weightless. It is used to help demonstrate and measure inertial mass. (GA)

  17. Weston Direct-Reading Ammeter

    Model #6367, believed to be manufactured December 15, 1898 by the Weston Electrical Instrument Company, Newark, New Jersey. Edward Weston introduced this type of meter in 1889 and was a serious competitor of Thomas Edison in the development of electricity. This ammeter was the first pivoted moving c...

  18. Direct-reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  19. Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and

  20. Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and…

  1. Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Mélanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

    2013-05-01

    Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and teachers new to material culture can readily use artefacts to reveal rich and complex networks of narratives. We illustrate this point by describing our own lay encounter with an artefact turned over for our analysis during a week-long workshop at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. The text explains how elements as disparate as the military appearance of the instrument, the crest stamped on its body, the manipulation of its telescopes, or a luggage tag revealed the object's scientific and political significance in different national contexts. In this way, the presence of the instrument in the classroom vividly conveyed the nature of geophysics as a field practice and an international science, and illuminated relationships between pure and applied science for early twentieth century geologists. We conclude that artefact study can be an unexpectedly powerful and accessible tool in the study of science, making visible the connections between past and present, laboratory and field, texts and instruments.

  2. Developing Sight-Reading Skills on Mallet Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Sight-reading while playing a mallet instrument can present serious obstacles for the developing percussionist. Many young players who have solid snare drum technique usually cite fear of playing the wrong note as the number-one hurdle to overcome in order to begin making real progress. Greg Byrne, associate director of bands at the University of…

  3. New Directions in the Study of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret M., Ed.

    Reflecting recent insights on the process of learning to read and its relationship to oral language development and writing, the articles in this book provide a range of perspectives, ideas for further empirical investigations in classrooms, extensive reference lists for further reading, and implications for practice throughout a child's…

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates efficiency of reading processes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Doruk, Deniz; Mascio, Bryan; Fregni, Felipe; Cerruti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that offers promise as an investigative method for understanding complex cognitive operations such as reading. This study explores the ability of a single session of tDCS to modulate reading efficiency and phonological processing performance within a group of healthy adults. Half the group received anodal or cathodal stimulation, on two separate days, of the left temporo-parietal junction while the other half received anodal or cathodal stimulation of the right homologue area. Pre- and post-stimulation assessment of reading efficiency and phonological processing was carried out. A larger pre-post difference in reading efficiency was found for participants who received right anodal stimulation compared to participants who received left anodal stimulation. Further, there was a significant post-stimulation increase in phonological processing speed following right hemisphere anodal stimulation. Implications for models of reading and reading impairment are discussed. PMID:25852513

  5. Left lateralizing transcranial direct current stimulation improves reading efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Benson, Jennifer; Hamilton, Roy H.; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Coslett, H. Branch

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor reading efficiency is the most persistent problem for adults with developmental dyslexia. Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between left posterior temporal cortex (pTC) function and reading ability, regardless of dyslexia status. Objective/Hypothesis In this study, we tested whether enhancing left lateralization of pTC using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves reading efficiency in adults without dyslexia. Method Twenty-five right-handed adults with no history of learning disorder participated. Real and sham “Left lateralizing” tDCS were applied to the pTC in separate sessions. Standardized word and nonword reading tests were given immediately after stimulation. Results Modeling of the induced electrical field confirmed that tDCS was likely to increase left pTC excitability and reduce right pTC excitability as intended. Relative to sham, real tDCS induced improvements in word reading efficiency in below average readers. Conclusions Enhancing left lateralization of the pTC using tDCS improves word reading efficiency in below-average readers. This demonstrates that left lateralization of the pTC plays a role in reading ability, and provides stimulation parameters that could be used for a trial of tDCS in adults with developmental dyslexia. Such short-term gains could amplify the effect of appropriate reading interventions when performed in conjunction with them. PMID:22305346

  6. Experiences with Flow-direction Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, B

    1941-01-01

    The method of recording the direction of flows on the basis of the hydrodynamic zero-point measurement has now reached a certain limit, in spite of the good results achieved. While the available flow-direction devices are accurate enough for many purposes, they are all insufficient for perfectly exact prediction of the flow direction. The next problem will be to achieve a point-by point flow-direction record, whereby the test procedure must be simplified, accelerated, and the degree of accuracy of the test data improved.

  7. Direct-reading group-delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.

  8. Progress Monitoring Instrument Development: Silent Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension. Technical Report #1110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Anderson, Daniel; Hoelscher, Kyle; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is designed to measure students' academic status and growth so the effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated. In the most popular forms of reading CBM, the student's oral reading fluency is assessed. This behavior is difficult to sample in a computer-based format, a limitation that may be a function of the…

  9. Development of Perceived Instrumentality for Mathematics, Reading and Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Steve L.

    2010-01-01

    Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort…

  10. Field evaluation of direct-reading continuous ethylene oxide monitors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.A.; Carpenter, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Central Processing Section (WHMC/SGLP) uses ethylene oxide (EtO) as a primary sterilizing agent. Because of their concern about the health effects of EtO, SGLP has searched for a continuous-monitoring EtO system. In their search, they found two units (AMSCO's Envirogard III and Baseline Industries, Inc.'s Model 5500 Gas Analyzer). The objective of this evaluation was to conduct a field study to compare the performances of the two direct-reading continuous EtO monitors against the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) acceptable charcoal-tube sampling method. In addition, the 3M EtO passive monitor sampling method was compared with the charcoal-tube method and direct-reading instrumental method as well. Neither the Baseline Industries, Inc. nor the AMSCO continuous monitors corresponded to OSHA acceptable charcoal tube method of air sampling. Both instruments reported EtO concentrations much higher than those detected by the charcoal tubes. There is no way of knowing which method, the direct-reading continuous monitor or the charcoal tube/passive monitor, is more correct. However, the OSHA standard for EtO is based on measuring EtO by the charcoal tube method.

  11. Active Reading Experience Questionnaire: Development and Validation of an Instrument for Studying Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of mobile platforms and digital textbooks in university classrooms continues to have a profound impact on higher education. Advocates believe that providing students digital textbooks with built-in annotation features and interactive study tools will improve learning by facilitating active reading, a task essential to

  12. Active Reading Experience Questionnaire: Development and Validation of an Instrument for Studying Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of mobile platforms and digital textbooks in university classrooms continues to have a profound impact on higher education. Advocates believe that providing students digital textbooks with built-in annotation features and interactive study tools will improve learning by facilitating active reading, a task essential to…

  13. Using Directed Reading Thinking Activity Strategies To Teach Students Reading Comprehension Skills in Middle Grades Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFoe, Marguerite Corbitt

    This practicum was designed to use directed reading thinking activity strategies to teach reading comprehension skills to middle grades language arts students who frequently failed to make passing scores in reading comprehension exercises. The program included three specific strategies. The first strategy was to teach the students higher-order…

  14. Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.

    2010-01-01

    Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension…

  15. How directional change in reading/writing habits relates to directional change in displayed pictures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hachoung; Oh, Songjoo

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that reading/writing habits may influence the appreciation of pictures. For example, people who read and write in a rightward direction have an aesthetic preference for pictures that face rightward over pictures that face leftward, and vice versa. However, correlations for this phenomenon have only been found in cross-cultural studies. Will a directional change in reading/writing habits within a culture relate to changes in picture preference? Korea is a good place to research this question because the country underwent gradual changes in reading/writing direction habits, from leftward to rightward, during the 20th century. In this study, we analyzed the direction of drawings and photos published in the two oldest newspapers in Korea from 1920-2013. The results show that the direction of the drawings underwent a clear shift from the left to the right, but the direction of the photos did not change. This finding suggests a close psychological link between the habits of reading/writing and drawing that cannot be accounted for simply by an accidental correspondence across different cultures. PMID:26299545

  16. FREEPORT PUBLIC SCHOOLS EXPERIMENT ON EARLY READING USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENT INSTRUMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, JOHN H.

    OBJECTIVES WERE TO DETERMINE WHETHER A TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICE COULD TEACH 5-YEAR-OLDS TO READ, OVER WHAT INTELLIGENCE RANGES THE INSTRUMENT WOULD BE EFFECTIVE, WHETHER NEGRO CHILDREN FROM A RECENTLY CLOSED SEGREGATED SCHOOL WOULD RESPOND, AND WHETHER THE DEVICE COULD TEACH MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN. SUBJECTS WERE 22 KINDERGARTEN PUPILS FROM ONE…

  17. Foreword: planning for the future through advance directive instruments.

    PubMed

    Winick, B J

    1998-09-01

    The Foreword traces the development of advance directive instruments and discusses their legal enforceability and many benefits. Despite their advantages, advance directives remain underused and are frequently ignored by service providers. The contributors to this special issue discuss why this is so and offer and debate a variety of remedial proposals. They analyze the various legal, clinical, ethical, and practical issues presented by the use of advance directives for health and mental health care and examine new directions in their application. The Foreword describes the organization of this special issue, summarizes the articles it contains, and comments on their significance. PMID:12803208

  18. Performance of vintage direct reading pocket ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Robert J; Harvey, John A; Kearfott, Kimberlee J

    2010-05-01

    The linearity, accuracy, and precision of each of two groups of vintage 51.6 microC-kg-1 maximum scale passive direct reading pocket ionization chambers, each from a different manufacturer and all aged at least 50 years since manufacture, were tested. The pocket ionization chambers were suspended on a phantom and exposed using a 137Cs source. Variations from trial to trial were smaller than variations from chamber to chamber. The average percent standard deviations ranged from 5.7% to 14% across all exposures. The accuracy of the dosimeter readings increased as the exposure level increased. Percent error from known exposure values decreased as exposure increased. An independent samples t test indicated there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups only at a delivered exposure of 6.45 microC-kg-1. Testing was performed in a 222Rn drum to determine the effect of Rn on the pocket ionization chambers. Exposure of five chambers to an average Rn level of 4.70 kBq m-3 and thirty chambers to 3.86 kBq m-3 over a 7-d period produced abnormally high readings at least three times background in eight of the 35 chambers tested. PMID:20386193

  19. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

  20. Reading Performance of Elementary Students: Results of a Five-Year Longitudinal Study of Direct Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, Dana; Kazelskis, Richard; Kazelskis, Carolyn Reeves

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the impact of a direct reading instruction program, "Reading Mastery (RM)," on literacy performance of students over a five-year period. Initially, 700 students in grades K-3 were randomly selected from six elementary schools to participate in the study; an additional 100 randomly-selected…

  1. The Nexus between Direct Reading Instruction, Reading Theoretical Perspectives, and Pedagogical Practices of University of Swaziland Bachelor of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Jabulani

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence direct reading instruction had on university student teachers' reading cognition and the influence their theoretical perspectives had on their pedagogical practices. The study was conducted on all the seven year 2 (2008) Bachelor of Education (primary) students at the University of Swaziland.…

  2. Direct-reading dosimeters for space life science experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, I.; Mackay, G.

    Future space missions will require more detailed knowledge of radiation effects on electronics and humans. The longer the flight duration, the greater the potential hazard, as is shown in an overview of space radiation issues. Space radiation is very different from radiation of concern in terrestrial applications; not only is the physical nature of the radiation different, but its temporal and spatial variations add another dimension of complexity. It is very important to be able to measure space radiation with real time electronic devices which are small and can measure the different types of space radiation and warn of dangerously high levels. New, direct-reading electronic radiation monitoring techniques are described along with their application to dosimetry in space. It is shown that miniature silicon sensors can be used for the separate measurement of trapped high-energy protons and electrons, and cosmic rays. Two examples are used to illustrate the potential of these new technologies in life sciences and electronics applications.

  3. Effects of Direct Instruction on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Margaret M.; Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated effects of a Direct Instruction reading comprehension program implemented with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities (DD). There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students with ASD and no research as to the effectiveness of reading comprehension Direct…

  4. A Comparison of Two Direct Instruction Reading Programs for Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippen,Margaret E.; Houchins,David E.; Steventon,Candace; Sartor,Donya

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the differential effects of two direct instruction (DI) reading programs, one with overt decoding strategies and one with more covert decoding strategies, on the reading achievement of struggling seventh graders in an urban middle school. The students participating in this study (N = 55) were 2 to 4 years behind in reading

  5. Single-Word Reading: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Naples, Adam J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As the first title in the new series, "New Directions in Communication Disorders Research: Integrative Approaches", this volume discusses a unique phenomenon in cognitive science, single-word reading, which is an essential element in successful reading competence. Single-word reading is an interdisciplinary area of research that incorporates…

  6. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane – a cross-cultural comparison

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Silke M.

    2015-01-01

    Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. Participants were either from a left-to-right reading culture (UK) or from a mixed (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) reading culture (Hong Kong). In Experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical, and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In Experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left-to-right or in top-to-bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults started counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction. PMID:25852583

  7. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane - a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Silke M

    2015-01-01

    Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. Participants were either from a left-to-right reading culture (UK) or from a mixed (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) reading culture (Hong Kong). In Experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical, and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In Experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left-to-right or in top-to-bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults started counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction. PMID:25852583

  8. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  9. The Impact of Direct Reading Instructional Strategies on Reading Achievement in 8th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Lynne Marie

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, about 60% of students cannot read proficiently at their current grade level. Findings from the National Reading Panel (NRP) indicate that there is not sufficient research on the topic of struggling middle school readers. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact…

  10. Direct Instruction of Comprehension: Instructional Examples from Intervention Research on Listening and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Michael D.; Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.; Chard, David J.; Faggella-Luby, Michael; Ruby, Maureen; Santoro, Lana E.; Baker, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of direct instruction in promoting listening and reading comprehension. Instructional examples from 2 programs of intervention research focused on improving comprehension; the Story Read Aloud Program and the Embedded Story Structure Routine are used to illustrate principles of direct instruction. An analysis of…

  11. A Critical Review of Randall Ryder's Report of Direct Instruction Reading in Two Wisconsin School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gary L.; Slocum, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    A recent report by Dr. Randall Ryder evaluated the use of Direct Instruction (DI) reading programs in 2 school districts in Wisconsin. In the report, Ryder claimed that students in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade who received Direct Instruction scored significantly lower on several standardized tests of reading than students who received more traditional

  12. Patient Monitoring in the Operating Room: Validation of Instrument Readings by Artificial Intelligence Methods

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, D.; Matsiras, P.V.; Mavrides, T.; McAdams, J.; Aukburg, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological monitoring in the operating room is needed to follow the patient's state of ventilation, circulation, etc. Parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas content are observed with devices of uncertain reliability. These provide speedy information in the form of cautions and alarms, which may indicate that corrective action is needed. In practice the large number of alarms when there is no hazard to the patient (false alarms) is a considerable problem. We describe a method of comparing and validating instrument readings in this situation involving a knowledge base whose core is a set of 36 rules. This was applied to 7803 warnings (6287 cautions and 1516 alarms) from 68 day surgery patients undergoing 115 hours of surgery. Most of the cautions were validated by our analysis, but 734 of the 1516 alarms were invalidated while 419 were validated and 363 left indeterminate. This translates to a potential reduction from one alarm every 4 minutes to one every 16 minutes.

  13. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  14. The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Research in four areas has the potential to dramatically improve how practitioners address the challenges of integrating digital texts and tasks into their literacy curriculum. Advances in defining and measuring key components of online reading comprehension are rapidly emerging. In addition, instructional models, such as Internet reciprocal

  15. The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Research in four areas has the potential to dramatically improve how practitioners address the challenges of integrating digital texts and tasks into their literacy curriculum. Advances in defining and measuring key components of online reading comprehension are rapidly emerging. In addition, instructional models, such as Internet reciprocal…

  16. Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement…

  17. The Effects of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity on EFL Students' Referential and Inferential Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

    2006-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity on Egyptian first-year secondary stage EFL students' referential and inferential reading comprehension. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. The subjects consisted of 72 first-year secondary students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at…

  18. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  19. Direction for Alabama Reading Teachers #1: Commercial Materials for Title I Reading Teachers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Birmingham.

    Intended for use by Title I reading teachers, this handbook is designed to aid in answering questions about the selection and use of instructional materials. The handbook lists materials according to the following skill areas: (1) auditory discrimination, (2) comprehension, (3) critical thinking, (4) dictionary skills; (5) fine motor skills, (6)

  20. Put Reading First: Positive Effects of Direct Instruction and Scaffolding for ESL Learners Struggling with Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Staden, Annalene

    2011-01-01

    The inability of many English second-language (ESL) learners to read at desirable levels is universal, but reasons for this and solutions have not yet been addressed. Within the South African teaching context especially there is a paucity of evidence-based research findings available on the literacy challenges faced by ESL learners and the…

  1. Direction for Alabama Reading Teachers #1: Commercial Materials for Title I Reading Teachers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Birmingham.

    Intended for use by Title I reading teachers, this handbook is designed to aid in answering questions about the selection and use of instructional materials. The handbook lists materials according to the following skill areas: (1) auditory discrimination, (2) comprehension, (3) critical thinking, (4) dictionary skills; (5) fine motor skills, (6)…

  2. Aerosol Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Douglas E.; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M. Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H.

    2010-01-01

    Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO2 were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 × 106 cm−3, were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m−3, were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control recommendations were described for processes as required. PMID:20447936

  3. Curriculum-Based Measurement: Developing a Computer-Based Assessment Instrument for Monitoring Student Reading Progress on Multiple Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Natalie; Souvignier, Elmar

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the technical adequacy of a computer-based assessment instrument which is based on hierarchical models of text comprehension for monitoring student reading progress following the Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) approach. At intervals of two weeks, 120 third-grade students finished eight CBM tests. To…

  4. Teaching Practice and the Reading Growth of First-Grade English Learners: Validation of an Observation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Scott K.; Gersten, Russell; Haager, Diane; Dingle, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Validation of a classroom observation measure for use with English Learners (ELs) in grade 1 was the focus of this study. Fourteen teachers were observed during reading and language arts instruction with an instrument used to generate ratings of instructional quality on a number of dimensions. In these classrooms we assessed the reading…

  5. Curriculum-Based Measurement: Developing a Computer-Based Assessment Instrument for Monitoring Student Reading Progress on Multiple Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Natalie; Souvignier, Elmar

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the technical adequacy of a computer-based assessment instrument which is based on hierarchical models of text comprehension for monitoring student reading progress following the Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) approach. At intervals of two weeks, 120 third-grade students finished eight CBM tests. To

  6. Direct Reading of Bona Fide Barcode Assays for Diagnostics with Smartphone Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jessica X. H.; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Frank S. F.; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-06-01

    The desire to develop new point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools has led to the adaptation of smartphones to tackle limitations in state-of-the-art instrumentation and centralized laboratory facilities. Today’s smartphones possess the computer-like ability to image and process data using mobile apps; barcode scanners are one such type of apps. We demonstrate herein that a diagnostic assay can be performed by patterning immunoassay strips in a bona fide barcode format such that after target binding and signal enhancement, the linear barcode can be read directly with a standard smartphone app. Quantitative analysis can then be performed based on the grayscale intensities with a customized mobile app. This novel diagnostic concept has been validated for a real-world application, i.e., the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin, a pregnancy hormone. With the possibility of multiplex detection, the barcode assay protocol promises to boost POC diagnosis research by the direct adaptation of mobile devices and apps.

  7. Direct Reading of Bona Fide Barcode Assays for Diagnostics with Smartphone Apps

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jessica X. H.; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Frank S. F.; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The desire to develop new point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools has led to the adaptation of smartphones to tackle limitations in state-of-the-art instrumentation and centralized laboratory facilities. Today’s smartphones possess the computer-like ability to image and process data using mobile apps; barcode scanners are one such type of apps. We demonstrate herein that a diagnostic assay can be performed by patterning immunoassay strips in a bona fide barcode format such that after target binding and signal enhancement, the linear barcode can be read directly with a standard smartphone app. Quantitative analysis can then be performed based on the grayscale intensities with a customized mobile app. This novel diagnostic concept has been validated for a real-world application, i.e., the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin, a pregnancy hormone. With the possibility of multiplex detection, the barcode assay protocol promises to boost POC diagnosis research by the direct adaptation of mobile devices and apps. PMID:26122608

  8. 75 FR 64309 - Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors and Addendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading... addendum are entitled, respectively, ``Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors'' and ``Addendum to Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and...

  9. Factorial and Construct Validity of a New Instrument for the Assessment of Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefele, Ulrich; Schaffner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Reading motivation has been defined consistently as a multidimensional construct. However, there is some disagreement regarding the number and nature of the dimensions of reading motivation. In particular, there is a lack of studies investigating the dimensional structure and measurement invariance (e.g., across gender) of reading motivation…

  10. Dealing with the size-of-source effect in the calibration of direct-reading radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, P.

    2013-09-11

    The majority of general-purpose low-temperature handheld radiation thermometers are severely affected by the size-of-source effect (SSE). Calibration of these instruments is pointless unless the SSE is accounted for in the calibration process. Traditional SSE measurement techniques, however, are costly and time consuming, and because the instruments are direct-reading in temperature, traditional SSE results are not easily interpretable, particularly by the general user. This paper describes a simplified method for measuring the SSE, suitable for second-tier calibration laboratories and requiring no additional equipment, and proposes a means of reporting SSE results on a calibration certificate that should be easily understood by the non-specialist user.

  11. A non-contacting instrument for direct stress mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, David E.

    An instrument called SPATE (stress pattern analysis by measurement of thermal emission) developed for noncontact measurements of stress in structures and components under cyclic load or vibration is described. The method is based on the phenomenon called the thermoelastic or Kelvin effect, whereby cyclic changes in the volume or pressure in a material produce cyclic temperature changes that are proportional to stress. The temperature changes measured by SPATE are totally reversible and are independent of heating due to material hysteresis damping. Two instrument was used to test structural materials including steels, aluminum alloys, a magnesium alloy, titanium, Nimonic 90, copper, brass, silicon nitride, Hylox 961, plexiglass, epoxy, polyester, rubber, Kevlar, wood, brick, concrete, 'live' bone, glass, boron, and various composites. The results of SPATE test on a stage-one turbine blade (tested at 9224 Hz) and a notched aluminum plate loaded in tension at 20 Hz are presented together with a diagram of the SPATE equipment.

  12. Development of a drift-correction procedure for a direct-reading spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. B., II; Gordon, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure which provides automatic correction for drifts in the radiometric sensitivity of each detector channel in a direct-reading emission spectrometer is described. Such drifts are customarily controlled by the regular analyses of standards, which provide corrections for changes in the excitational, optical, and electronic components of the instrument. This standardization procedure, however, corrects for the optical and electronic drifts. It is a step that must be taken if the time, effort, and cost of processing standards is to be minimized. This method of radiometric drift correction uses a 1,000-W tungsten-halogen reference lamp to illuminate each detector through the same optical path as that traversed during sample analysis. The responses of the detector channels to this reference light are regularly compared with channel response to the same light intensity at the time of analytical calibration in order to determine and correct for drift. Except for placing the lamp in position, the procedure is fully automated and compensates for changes in spectral intensity due to variations in lamp current. A discussion of the implementation of this drift-correction system is included.

  13. Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction

  14. Advance directives as an instrument in an ageing Europe.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Tom

    2012-04-01

    Advance directives are written or oral statements that are intended to govern healthcare decision-making for their authors, for both positive and negative decisions, should they lose decisional capacity in the future. In a Europe which is facing an ageing population, advance directives play an increasing role to (help) formulate the wishes from elderly patient once they start losing the capacity to decide independently. Advance directives should not only be used as a formulation of the patients' previously made decision, but can also be used as guidelines to better understand the previous expressed wishes of the patient. If the advance directive is formulated in too vague form, the healthcare proxy and/or the healthcare trustee can help the physician interpret the directive. This broader approach towards advance directives is reflected in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as on the European legislative level. PMID:22558655

  15. Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms: Validating a Direct Observation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their study's…

  16. Development of a Direct Observation Instrument to Measure Environmental Characteristics of Parks for Physical Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study's purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity. A direct observation instrument ...

  17. Reading direction and the central perceptual span: evidence from Arabic and English.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Almabruk, Abubaker A A; Gadalla, Eman A; McGowan, Victoria A; White, Sarah J; Abedipour, Lily; Paterson, Kevin B

    2014-04-01

    In English and other alphabetic languages read from left to right, useful information acquired during each fixational pause is generally reported to extend much further to the right of each fixation than to the left. However, the asymmetry of the perceptual span for alphabetic languages read in the opposite direction (i.e., from right to left) has received very little attention in empirical research. Accordingly, we investigated the perceptual span for Arabic, which is one of the world's most widely read languages and is read from right to left, using a gaze-contingent window paradigm in which a region of text was displayed normally around each point of fixation, while text outside this region was obscured. Skilled Arabic readers who were bilingual in Arabic and English read Arabic and English sentences while a window of normal text extended symmetrically 0.5(o) to the left and right of fixation or asymmetrically, by increasing this window to 1.5(o) or 2.5(o) to either the left or the right. When English was read, performance across window conditions was superior when windows extended rightward. However, when Arabic was read, performance was superior when windows extended leftward and was essentially the reverse of that observed for English. These findings show for the first time that a leftward asymmetry in the central perceptual span occurs when Arabic is read and, for the first time in over 30 years, provide a new indication that the perceptual span for alphabetic languages is modified by the overall direction of reading. PMID:24065283

  18. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    1992-01-01

    Explores what is meant by reading, noting that to read is to respond appropriately to a specific consensus centered on certain values and that the consensus is achieved among persons whose paths through life have come together with members of dominant discourses in society. (SLD)

  19. Development of a directional hearing instrument based on array technology.

    PubMed

    Soede, W; Berkhout, A J; Bilsen, F A

    1993-08-01

    A directional hearing aid might be beneficial in reducing background noise in relation to the desired speech signal. Conventional hearing aids with a directional cardioid microphone are insufficient because of the low directivity of cardioids. Research was done to develop microphone(s) with strong directional characteristics using array techniques. Particular emphasis was given to optimization and stability. Free-field simulations of several robust models show that a directivity index of 9 dB can be obtained at the higher frequencies. Simulations were verified with a laboratory model. The results of the measurements show a good agreement with the simulations. Based on simulations and measurements, two portable models were developed and tested with a KEMAR manikin. The KEMAR measurements show that the two models give an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 7.5 dB in a diffuse sound field. It may be concluded that the developed microphones have the capability to reach a significant improvement of speech intelligibility in noise under practical circumstances. PMID:8370885

  20. Low-cost coding of directivity information for the recording of musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, Jonas; Martens, William L.; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2001-05-01

    Most musical instruments radiate sound according to characteristic spatial directivity patterns. These patterns are usually not only strongly frequency dependent, but also time-variant functions of various parameters of the instrument, such as pitch and the playing technique applied (e.g., plucking versus bowing of string instruments). To capture the directivity information when recording an instrument, Warusfel and Misdariis (2001) proposed to record an instrument using four channels, one for the monopole and the others for three orthogonal dipole parts. In the new recording setup presented here, it is proposed to store one channel at a high sampling frequency, along with directivity information that is updated only every few milliseconds. Taking the binaural sluggishness of the human auditory system into account in this way provides a low-cost coding scheme for subsequent reproduction of time-variant directivity patterns.

  1. Improved reading measures in adults with dyslexia following transcranial direct current stimulation treatment.

    PubMed

    Heth, Inbahl; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the contribution of the dorsal system to word reading, we explored transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects when adults with developmental dyslexia received active stimulation over the visual extrastriate area MT/V5, which is dominated by magnocellular input. Stimulation was administered in 5 sessions spread over two weeks, and reading speed and accuracy as well as reading fluency were assessed before, immediately after, and a week after the end of the treatment. A control group of adults with developmental dyslexia matched for age, gender, reading level, vocabulary and block-design WAIS-III sub-tests and reading level was exposed to the same protocol but with sham stimulation. The results revealed that active, but not sham stimulation, significantly improved reading speed and fluency. This finding suggests that the dorsal stream may play a role in efficient retrieval from the orthographic input lexicon in the lexical route. It also underscores the potential of tDCS as an intervention tool for improving reading speed, at least in adults with developmental dyslexia. PMID:25701796

  2. The Development of an Instrument to Predict Modality Preference for Learning to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Donald

    Project objective was development of an experimental form of the Test of Modality Aptitude in Reading (TOMAR). The TOMAR was designed to classify children as visual, auditory, or kinesthetic learners in reading, to have sound measurement characteristics, and to be suitable for administration to groups of children rather than to an individual.…

  3. Instrument Development Procedures for Silent Reading Measures. Technical Report Number 08-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kimy; Sundstrom-Hebert, Krystal; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and gather validity evidence for silent reading fluency passages. A number of passages were written following a traditional story grammar structure (character, setting, events) and placed on a computer for students to read silently. We describe in detail, the manner in which content-related evidence was

  4. Matching is not Naming: A direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2014-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of automatic activation of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a non-reading task for studying reading effects by directly comparing BOLD activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in reading-related regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs naming) by string type (word vs pseudoword vs nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type by timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions, and is thus non-automatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. PMID:22711620

  5. Reading changes in children and adolescents with dyslexia after transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Floriana; Varuzza, Cristiana; Rossi, Serena; Sdoia, Stefano; Varvara, Pamela; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Koch, Giacomo; Vicari, Stefano; Menghini, Deny

    2016-03-23

    Noninvasive brain stimulation offers the possibility to induce changes in cortical excitability and it is an interesting option as a remediation tool for the treatment of developmental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on reading and reading-related skills of children and adolescents with dyslexia. Nineteen children and adolescents with dyslexia performed different reading and reading-related tasks (word, nonword, and text reading; lexical decision; phonemic blending; verbal working memory; rapid automatized naming) in a baseline condition without tDCS and after 20 min of exposure to three different tDCS conditions: left anodal/right cathodal tDCS to enhance left lateralization of the parietotemporal region, right anodal/left cathodal tDCS to enhance right lateralization of the parietotemporal region, and sham tDCS. In text reading, results showed a significant reduction in errors after left anodal/right cathodal tDCS and an increase in errors after left cathodal/right anodal tDCS. No effect was found in the other reading and reading-related tasks. Our findings indicate for the first time that one session of tDCS modulates some aspects of reading performance of children and adolescents with dyslexia and that the effect is polarity dependent. These single-session results support a potential role of tDCS for developing treatment protocols and suggest possible parameters for tDCS treatment customization in children and adolescents with dyslexia. PMID:26848997

  6. The direct segment of the arcuate fasciculus is predictive of longitudinal reading change.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Margaret M; Booth, James R

    2015-06-01

    Structural coherence across the arcuate fasciculus has previously been related to reading skill, but the arcuate may be divisible into distinct subtracts which support different functions. Here, we examine longitudinal data from 30 children between the ages of 8 and 14 to determine whether initial coherence in any of the arcuate's subsections is predictive of changes in reading across a longitudinal interval of approximately three years. The arcuate was divided using probabilistic tractography; mean fractional anisotropy across each subtract was extracted for each participant. Time 1 to Time 2 change in reading skill (identification, fluency score average) was significantly and uniquely predicted by only direct fronto-temporal arcuate segment coherence. Participants with lower direct segment FA demonstrated decreases in reading scores, potentially reflecting lessened improvements due to continued inefficient processing. These results were consistent in the older and younger halves of the sample. As such, we demonstrate that it is specifically the direct segment of the arcuate that may support and be predictive of reading skill both initially and longitudinally across development. PMID:26011750

  7. Reading direction causes spatial biases in mental model construction in language understanding

    PubMed Central

    Román, Antonio; Flumini, Andrea; Lizano, Pilar; Escobar, Marysol; Santiago, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that the experience of reading and writing in a certain direction is able to induce spatial biases at both low-level perceptuo-motor skills and high-level conceptual representations. However, in order to support a causal relationship, experimental evidence is required. In this study, we asked whether the direction of the script is a sufficiente cause of spatial biases in the mental models that understanders build when listening to language. In order to establish causality, we manipulated the experience of reading a script with different directionalities. Spanish monolinguals read either normal (left-to-right), mirror reversed (right-to-left), rotated downward (up-down), or rotated upward (down-up) texts, and then drew the contents of auditory descriptions such as “the square is between the cross and the triangle”. The directionality of the drawings showed that a brief reading experience is enough to cause congruent and very specific spatial biases in mental model construction. However, there were also clear limits to this flexibility: there was a strong overall preference to arrange the models along the horizontal dimension. Spatial preferences when building mental models from language are the results of both short-term and long-term biases. PMID:26667996

  8. Reading direction causes spatial biases in mental model construction in language understanding.

    PubMed

    Román, Antonio; Flumini, Andrea; Lizano, Pilar; Escobar, Marysol; Santiago, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that the experience of reading and writing in a certain direction is able to induce spatial biases at both low-level perceptuo-motor skills and high-level conceptual representations. However, in order to support a causal relationship, experimental evidence is required. In this study, we asked whether the direction of the script is a sufficiente cause of spatial biases in the mental models that understanders build when listening to language. In order to establish causality, we manipulated the experience of reading a script with different directionalities. Spanish monolinguals read either normal (left-to-right), mirror reversed (right-to-left), rotated downward (up-down), or rotated upward (down-up) texts, and then drew the contents of auditory descriptions such as "the square is between the cross and the triangle". The directionality of the drawings showed that a brief reading experience is enough to cause congruent and very specific spatial biases in mental model construction. However, there were also clear limits to this flexibility: there was a strong overall preference to arrange the models along the horizontal dimension. Spatial preferences when building mental models from language are the results of both short-term and long-term biases. PMID:26667996

  9. The Fabric of Thought: Priming Tactile Properties during Reading Influences Direct Tactile Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Walters, Eliza K.; Ditman, Tali; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined whether implied tactile properties during language comprehension influence subsequent direct tactile perception, and the specificity of any such effects. Participants read sentences that implicitly conveyed information regarding tactile properties (e.g., "Grace tried on a pair of thick corduroy pants while shopping")

  10. The Fabric of Thought: Priming Tactile Properties during Reading Influences Direct Tactile Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Walters, Eliza K.; Ditman, Tali; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined whether implied tactile properties during language comprehension influence subsequent direct tactile perception, and the specificity of any such effects. Participants read sentences that implicitly conveyed information regarding tactile properties (e.g., "Grace tried on a pair of thick corduroy pants while shopping")…

  11. The Effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the Enhancement of Reading Comprehension Skills of Preparatory Stage Pupils with English Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Nifayee, Amani Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the enhancement of the reading comprehension skills of learners with English Language Learning Difficulties. It aims at identifying the reading comprehension skills required for preparatory stage English language learners, re-develop and teach sample materials…

  12. The Construction of an Instrument to Measure Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of a Subskills Approach to Teaching Reading. Technical Report No. 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Betty

    An instrument to assess elementary school teachers' knowledge of a subskills approach to teaching reading has been developed. In the first phase of the development, an outline of test content was devised and submitted to four reading authorities for evaluation. The second phase involved writing and selecting items for the preliminary test form.…

  13. Reading direction shifts visuospatial attention: an Interactive Account of attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Luca; Di Luca, Samuel; Henik, Avishai; Girelli, Luisa

    2014-09-01

    A growing amount of evidence confirms the influence of reading and writing habits on visuospatial processing, although this phenomenon has been so far testified mainly as a lateralized shift of a single behavioral sign (e.g., line bisection), with lack of proof from pure right-to-left readers. The present study contributed to this issue by analyzing multiple attentional and motor indexes in monolingual Italian (i.e., reading from left-to-right), and monolingual (i.e., reading from right-to-left) and bilingual Israeli (i.e., reading from right-to-left in Hebrew but also from left-to-right in English) participants' visuospatial performance. Subjects were administered a computerized standard star cancellation task and a modified version in which English letters and words were replaced by Hebrew ones. Tasks were presented on a graphics tablet, allowing recording of both chronometric and spatial parameters (i.e., measured in (x, y) vector coordinates). Results showed that reading direction modulated the on-line visuomotor performance (i.e., left-to-right vs. right-to-left shifts) from the beginning (i.e., first mark) to the end of the task (i.e., spatial distribution of omissions and subjective epicenter). Additionally, the spatial bias observed in a computerized line bisection task was also related to the participants' habitual reading direction. Overall, the results favor the proposal of an Interactive Account of visuospatial asymmetries, according to which both cultural factors, such as the directional scanning associated with language processing, and biological factors, such as hemispheric specialization, modulate visuospatial processing. Results are discussed in light of recent behavioral and neuroanatomical findings. PMID:24968311

  14. Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that separation anxiety symptoms were negatively predicted by fluency performance and harm avoidance symptoms were positively predicted by decoding performance. Fluency performance was positively predicted by harm avoidance and total anxiety (for girls only) symptoms, while decoding was not predicted by any anxiety subscale. PMID:21822734

  15. Gray Matter Features of Reading Disability: A Combined Meta-Analytic and Direct Analysis Approach1234

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Tsu, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry dyslexia studies and direct analysis of 293 reading disability and control cases from six different research sites were performed to characterize defining gray matter features of reading disability. These analyses demonstrated consistently lower gray matter volume in left posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus regions and left orbitofrontal gyrus/pars orbitalis regions. Gray matter volume within both of these regions significantly predicted individual variation in reading comprehension after correcting for multiple comparisons. These regional gray matter differences were observed across published studies and in the multisite dataset after controlling for potential age and gender effects, and despite increased anatomical variance in the reading disability group, but were not significant after controlling for total gray matter volume. Thus, the orbitofrontal and posterior superior temporal sulcus gray matter findings are relatively reliable effects that appear to be dependent on cases with low total gray matter volume. The results are considered in the context of genetics studies linking orbitofrontal and superior temporal sulcus regions to alleles that confer risk for reading disability. PMID:26835509

  16. Instrument Development Procedures for Rapid Reading Rate Measures. Technical Report # 08-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kimy; Carling, Kristy; Geller, Leanne Ketterlin; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we describe the development of rapid reading measures, sentences presented to students in a nearly subliminal manner, with a literal comprehension question asked following their removal. After administering alternate forms of these measures to students, we present the results from three statistical analyses to ascertain their…

  17. The effects of direct instruction on the single-word reading skills of children who require augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Karen A; Light, Janice; McNaughton, David; Drager, Kathryn; Hammer, Carol

    2004-12-01

    Current literature suggests a lack of empirically validated strategies for teaching reading skills to children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The current study implemented a single-subject, multiple-probe-across-subjects design to investigate the effects of direct instruction in single-word reading on the performance of students who use AAC. The instructional program targeted the reading skills of 5 participants who had severe speech impairments and ranged in age from 9 to 14 years old. All 5 participants reached criterion for matching targeted written words to corresponding pictures. Three of the 5 participants demonstrated generalization of reading skills to novel-word reading, and 4 of the 5 generalized reading skills to book contexts. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:15842020

  18. Testing for dual brain processing routes in reading: a direct contrast of chinese character and pinyin reading using FMRI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiping; Fu, Shimin; Iversen, Susan D; Smith, Steve M; Matthews, Paul M

    2002-10-01

    Chinese offers a unique tool for testing the effects of word form on language processing during reading. The processes of letter-mediated grapheme-to-phoneme translation and phonemic assembly (assembled phonology) critical for reading and spelling in any alphabetic orthography are largely absent when reading nonalphabetic Chinese characters. In contrast, script-to-sound translation based on the script as a whole (addressed phonology) is absent when reading the Chinese alphabetic sound symbols known as pinyin, for which the script-to-sound translation is based exclusively on assembled phonology. The present study aims to contrast patterns of brain activity associated with the different cognitive mechanisms needed for reading the two scripts. fMRI was used with a block design involving a phonological and lexical task in which subjects were asked to decide whether visually presented, paired Chinese characters or pinyin "sounded like" a word. Results demonstrate that reading Chinese characters and pinyin activate a common brain network including the inferior frontal, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, the inferior and superior parietal lobules, and the extrastriate areas. However, some regions show relatively greater activation for either pinyin or Chinese reading. Reading pinyin led to a greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex bilaterally, the precuneus, and the anterior middle temporal gyrus. In contrast, activation in the left fusiform gyrus, the bilateral cuneus, the posterior middle temporal, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus were greater for nonalphabetic Chinese reading. We conclude that both alphabetic and nonalphabetic scripts activate a common brain network for reading. Overall, there are no differences in terms of hemispheric specialization between alphabetic and nonalphabetic scripts. However, differences in language surface form appear to determine relative activation in other regions. Some of these regions (e.g., the inferior parietal cortex for pinyin and fusiform gyrus for Chinese characters) are candidate regions for specialized processes associated with reading via predominantly assembled (pinyin) or addressed (Chinese character) procedures. PMID:12419131

  19. Balance Calibration – A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Stears

    2010-07-01

    Paper Title: Balance Calibration – A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customer’s location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom spreadsheet. The spreadsheet uses measurement results, along with the manufacturer’s specifications, to assign a direct-read measurement uncertainty to the balance. The fact that the assigned uncertainty is a best-case uncertainty is discussed with the customer; the assigned uncertainty contains no allowance for contributions associated with the unknown weighing sample, such as density, static charges, magnetism, etc. The attendee will learn uncertainty considerations associated with balance calibrations along with one method for assigning an uncertainty to a balance used for non-comparison measurements.

  20. Cyclic fatigue resistance of newly manufactured rotary nickel titanium instruments used in different rotational directions.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, Gianlucca; Gergi, Richard; Grande, Nicola Maria; Osta, Nada; Plotino, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel titanium instruments manufactured with improved heating processes in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. The instruments compared were produced either using the R-phase heat treatment (K3XF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or the M-wire alloy (ProFile Vortex; DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments in curved artificial canals. Results indicated no significant difference in resistance to cyclic fatigue when rotary nickel titanium instruments are used in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. In both directions of rotation, size 04-25 K3XF showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 04-25 ProFile Vortex. PMID:24279663

  1. Direct and Indirect Teaching: Using E-Books for Supporting Vocabulary, Word Reading, and Story Comprehension for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of direct and indirect teaching of vocabulary and word reading on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children following use of an electronic storybook (e-book). The children in each age group were randomly assigned to an intervention group which read the e-book or to a control group which was afforded the regular school…

  2. Effect of Repeated Reading and Self-Directed Behavior on Reading Skills and Generalization of the Reading Skills of Third-Grade Hill Tribe Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compan, Boonlert; Iamsupasit, Sompoch; Samuels, Jay

    A study tested a method for developing reading fluency with third-grade Hill Tribe children in a welfare school in Chiang Mai, a city located in northern Thailand. Most of the students were bilingual, speaking their native tongues and Thai, their second language. Only 18.7% of the Hill Tribe population can read Thai, and many students fail to…

  3. Developing the Self-Directed Learning Instructional Model to Enhance English Reading Ability and Self-Directed Learning of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop the instructional model for enhancing self-directed learning skills of Bangkok University students, study the impacts of the model on their English reading comprehension and self-directed learning ability as well as explore their opinion towards self-directed learning. The model development process…

  4. Structural determinants of an internal ribosome entry site that direct translational reading frame selection

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qian; Au, Hilda H.T.; Wang, Qing S.; Lee, Seonghoon; Jan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The dicistrovirus intergenic internal ribosome entry site (IGR IRES) directly recruits the ribosome and initiates translation using a non-AUG codon. A subset of IGR IRESs initiates translation in either of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), resulting in expression of the 0 frame viral structural polyprotein and an overlapping +1 frame ORFx. A U–G base pair adjacent to the anticodon-like pseudoknot of the IRES directs +1 frame translation. Here, we show that the U-G base pair is not absolutely required for +1 frame translation. Extensive mutagenesis demonstrates that 0 and +1 frame translation can be uncoupled. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) structural probing analyses reveal that the mutant IRESs adopt distinct conformations. Toeprinting analysis suggests that the reading frame is selected at a step downstream of ribosome assembly. We propose a model whereby the IRES adopts conformations to occlude the 0 frame aminoacyl-tRNA thereby allowing delivery of the +1 frame aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site to initiate translation of ORFx. This study provides a new paradigm for programmed recoding mechanisms that increase the coding capacity of a viral genome. PMID:25038250

  5. Native reading direction influences lateral biases in the perception of shape from shading

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Austen K.; Szelest, Izabela; Friedrich, Trista E.; Elias, Lorin J.

    2015-01-01

    Although neurologically normal individuals often exhibit leftward biases of perception and attention, known as pseudoneglect, factors such as lighting, spatial location and native reading direction have been found to modulate these biases. To investigate lighting and spatial biases in left-to-right and right-to-left readers search times were measured in a target finding task where lighting and target locations were manipulated. Target search times under upper-left lighting were significantly shorter than lower-left, upper-right and lower-right lighting among left-to-right readers. Right-to-left readers did not display the same leftward bias, even displaying significantly shorter search times under upper-right lighting than those of left-to-right readers. Significantly shorter search times for targets located in the upper-left quadrant (compared to other quadrants) were observed for left-to-right readers, while search times for upper-right located targets were significantly shorter for right-to-left readers compared to those of left-to-right readers. Participant scan times of stimuli divided into equal quadrants were monitored by an eye-tracking camera. Both groups displayed greater scan times in upper quadrants. These findings suggest that native reading direction modulates spatial and light perception biases resulting in weaker leftward, or a lack of lateral biases among right-to-left readers. PMID:25537526

  6. Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating

  7. Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…

  8. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Field Independence on the Development of Rhythm Sight-Reading Skills of Middle School Instrumental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach rhythm reading skills may be influenced by subjects' level of field dependence/independence. The subjects for the study consisted of 120 middle school instrumental music students divided into four groups based on scores from the Group Embedded Figures…

  9. Occupational Exposure Assessment in Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Primary and Secondary Manufacturers: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling

    PubMed Central

    DAHM, MATTHEW M.; EVANS, DOUGLAS E.; SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN, MARY K.; BIRCH, M. EILEEN; DEDDENS, JAMES A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Significance Toxicological evidence suggests the potential for a wide range of health effects from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). To date, there has been much focus on the use of direct-reading instruments (DRIs) to assess multiple airborne exposure metrics for potential exposures to CNTs and CNFs due to their ease of use and ability to provide instantaneous results. Still, uncertainty exists in the usefulness and interpretation of the data. To address this gap, air-monitoring was conducted at six sites identified as CNT and CNF manufacturers or users and results were compared with filter-based metrics. Methods Particle number, respirable mass, and active surface area concentrations were monitored with a condensation particle counter, a photometer, and a diffusion charger, respectively. The instruments were placed on a mobile cart and used as area monitors in parallel with filter-based elemental carbon (EC) and electron microscopy samples. Repeat samples were collected on consecutive days, when possible, during the same processes. All instruments in this study are portable and routinely used for industrial hygiene sampling. Results Differences were not observed among the various sampled processes compared with concurrent indoor or outdoor background samples while examining the different DRI exposure metrics. Such data were also inconsistent with results for filter-based samples collected concurrently at the same sites [Dahm MM, Evans DE, Schubauer-Berigan MK et al. (2012) Occupational exposure assessment in CNT and nanofiber primary and secondary manufacturers. Ann Occup Hyg; 56: 542–56]. Significant variability was seen between these processes as well as the indoor and outdoor backgrounds. However, no clear pattern emerged linking the DRI results to the EC or the microscopy data (CNT and CNF structure counts). Conclusions Overall, no consistent trends were seen among similar processes at the various sites. The DRI instruments employed were limited in their usefulness in assessing and quantifying potential exposures at the sampled sites but were helpful for hypothesis generation, control technology evaluations, and other air quality issues. The DRIs employed are nonspecific, aerosol monitors, and, therefore, subject to interferences. As such, it is necessary to collect samples for analysis by more selective, time-integrated, laboratory-based methods to confirm and quantify exposures. PMID:23100605

  10. Direct lexical control of eye movements in reading: evidence from a survival analysis of fixation durations.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Eyal M; Reichle, Erik D; Glaholt, Mackenzie G; Sheridan, Heather

    2012-09-01

    Participants' eye movements were monitored in an experiment that manipulated the frequency of target words (high vs. low) as well as their availability for parafoveal processing during fixations on the pre-target word (valid vs. invalid preview). The influence of the word-frequency by preview validity manipulation on the distributions of first fixation duration was examined by using ex-Gaussian fitting as well as a novel survival analysis technique which provided precise estimates of the timing of the first discernible influence of word frequency on first fixation duration. Using this technique, we found a significant influence of word frequency on fixation duration in normal reading (valid preview) as early as 145ms from the start of fixation. We also demonstrated an equally rapid non-lexical influence on first fixation duration as a function of initial landing position (location) on target words. The time-course of frequency effects, but not location effects was strongly influenced by preview validity, demonstrating the crucial role of parafoveal processing in enabling direct lexical control of reading fixation times. Implications for models of eye-movement control are discussed. PMID:22542804

  11. [Direct electric conduction glove for laparoscopic surgical instruments. Preliminary results of a prototype].

    PubMed

    Gentilli, Sergio; Morgandoa, Andrea; Velardocchia, Mauro; Pessione, Silvia; Pizzorno, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    The authors present their prototype of a system for electrical conduction in direct contact with laparoscopic tools, devised, designed and produced by them at the Politecnico di Torino Department of Mechanical Engineering. The system consists of a two-sided plate, one side being a non-conducting adhesive surface to stick to the surgical glove and the other a thin, flexible conductor shell. The authors used the instrument with surgical tools with metal handles during 4 laparoscopic procedures. Nowadays the method commonly used to electrify laparoscopic tools is by using a wire plugged to a fixed conducting point on the instrument. The prototype described here was devised and produced to avoid some of the awkwardness encountered during the numerous manoeuvres required to connect and disconnect the wire at the time of surgical intervention. This device permits the direct transfer (by contact) of electrical energy from the wire to surgical tools. The advantage is greater rapidity in changing surgical tools, with the possibility of immediately obtaining an electrified instrument in the surgeon's hand. PMID:17663378

  12. Passive, Direct-Read Monitoring System for Selective Detection and Quantification of Hydrogen Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, K. B.; Mihaylov, G. M.; Kirollos, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring the exposure of an employee to hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid in the presence of other acids has been a challenge to the industrial hygiene community. The capability of a device to differentiate the levels of acid vapors would allow for more accurate determinations of exposure and therefore improved occupational health. In this work, a selective direct-read colorimetric badge system was validated for Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) monitoring of hydrogen chloride. The passive colorimetric badge system consists of a direct reading badge and a color scale. The badge has a coated indicator layer with a diffusive resistance in the shape of an exclamation mark. An exclamation mark will appear if hydrogen chloride is present in the atmosphere at concentrations at or above 2.0 ppm. By using the color scale, the intensity of the color formed on the badge can be further quantified up to 25 ppm. The system was validated according to a protocol based on the NIOSH Protocol for the Evaluation of Passive Monitors. The badge was exposed to relative humidities ranging from 11% to 92%, temperatures ranging from 7 C to 400 C and air velocities ranging from 5 cm/sec to 170 cm/sec. All experiments were conducted in a laboratory vapor generation system. Hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and organic acids showed no effect on the performance of the hydrogen chloride monitoring system. The passive badge and color scale system exceeded the accuracy requirements as defined by NIOSH. At ambient conditions, the mean coefficient of variation was 10.86 and the mean bias was 1.3%. This data was presented previously at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition in Toronto, Canada in June 1999.

  13. Student Aptitudes and Methods of Teaching Beginning Reading: A Predictive Instrument for Determining Interaction Patterns. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Jane A.; Keepes, Bruce D.

    The question of whether reading methods interact differentially with student sequencing abilities was investigated. One hundred and thirty-one children from three schools in Palo Alto, California, were given reading instruction using a linguistic approach (Palo Alto Reading Program), and 115 children from three Palo Alto schools used a whole-word…

  14. Rethinking Strategy Instruction: Direct Reading Strategy Instruction versus Computer-Based Guided Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhard, Wolfgang; Baier, Herbert; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    There are many established reading strategy training programmes, which explicitly teach strategic and meta-cognitive knowledge to improve reading comprehension. Although instruction in strategy knowledge leads to improvements in meta-cognitive skills, the effects do not always transfer to reading comprehension. Therefore, to investigate…

  15. Rethinking Strategy Instruction: Direct Reading Strategy Instruction versus Computer-Based Guided Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhard, Wolfgang; Baier, Herbert; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    There are many established reading strategy training programmes, which explicitly teach strategic and meta-cognitive knowledge to improve reading comprehension. Although instruction in strategy knowledge leads to improvements in meta-cognitive skills, the effects do not always transfer to reading comprehension. Therefore, to investigate

  16. Effectiveness of Guided Co-Construction versus Direct Instruction for Beginning Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snel, M. J.; Terwel, J.; Aarnoutse, C. A. J.; van Leeuwe, J. F. J.

    2012-01-01

    In a field experiment with 178 first-grade pupils, the effects of an experimental beginning reading programme were investigated. Both an experimental and a control group worked with the most frequently used Dutch beginning reading programme, "Learning to Read Safely." The instructional approach implemented in the experimental group was guided…

  17. Lab-on-a-bubble: direct and indirect assays with portable Raman instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, Keith; Schmit, Virginia; Scott, Brandon; Martoglio, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Lab-on-a-Bubble (LoB) is a new method for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) assays that combines separationand concentration of the assay results. A direct LoB assay is comprised of gold nanoparticles coupled directly to the ~30 μm diameter buoyant silica bubble. The direct LoB method was evaluated with cyanide and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). An indirect assay uses the same ~ 30 μm diameter buoyant silica bubble and a silica coated SERS reporter. Both the bubble and SERS reporter are coated with a coupling agent for the analyte. The assay measures the amount of SERS reporter coupled to the bubble through a sandwich created by the analyte. The couling agent could consist of an immunological coupling agent (antibody) or a nucleic acid coupling agent (single strand DNA). The indirect LoB method was examined with Cholera toxin (CT) and antibodies against the β subunit. An LOD of ~ 170 pptrillion was measured for cyanide and a limit of detection of 1100 ng was found for CT. Instrumentation for the assay and a novel technique of dynamic SERS (DSERS) will also be discussed. The instrument is a small hand-held Raman device called the CBEx (Chemical Biological Explosive) with a novel raster system to detect heterogeneous or light sensitive materials. DSERS is a mathematical algorithm which eliminates background interference in SERS measurements with colloidal nanoparticles.

  18. An instrument for direct observations of seismic and normal-mode rotational oscillations of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Cowsik, R

    2007-04-24

    The rotations around the vertical axis associated with the normal mode oscillations of the Earth and those induced by the seismic and other disturbances have been very difficult to observe directly. Such observations will provide additional information for 3D modeling of the Earth and for understanding earthquakes and other underground explosions. In this paper, we describe the design of an instrument capable of measuring the rotational motions associated with the seismic oscillations of the Earth, including the lowest frequency normal mode at nu approximately 3.7 x 10(-4) Hz. The instrument consists of a torsion balance with a natural frequency of nu(0) approximately 1.6 x 10(-4) Hz, which is observed by an autocollimating optical lever of high angular resolution and dynamic range. Thermal noise limits the sensitivity of the apparatus to amplitudes of approximately 1.5 x 10(-9) rad at the lowest frequency normal mode and the sensitivity improves as nu(-3/2) with increasing frequency. Further improvements in sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude may be achieved by operating the balance at cryogenic temperatures. Alternatively, the instrument can be made more robust with a reduced sensitivity by increasing nu(0) to approximately 10(-2) Hz. This instrument thus complements the ongoing effort by Igel and others to study rotational motions using ring laser gyroscopes and constitutes a positive response to the clarion call for developments in rotation seismology by Igel, Lee, and Todorovska [H. Igel, W.H.K. Lee and M.I. Todorovska, AGU Fall Meeting 2006, Rotational Seismology Sessions: S22A,S23B, Inauguration of the International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS)]. PMID:17438268

  19. An instrument for direct observations of seismic and normal-mode rotational oscillations of the Earth

    PubMed Central

    Cowsik, R.

    2007-01-01

    The rotations around the vertical axis associated with the normal mode oscillations of the Earth and those induced by the seismic and other disturbances have been very difficult to observe directly. Such observations will provide additional information for 3D modeling of the Earth and for understanding earthquakes and other underground explosions. In this paper, we describe the design of an instrument capable of measuring the rotational motions associated with the seismic oscillations of the Earth, including the lowest frequency normal mode at ν ≈ 3.7 × 10−4 Hz. The instrument consists of a torsion balance with a natural frequency of ν0 ≈ 1.6 × 10−4 Hz, which is observed by an autocollimating optical lever of high angular resolution and dynamic range. Thermal noise limits the sensitivity of the apparatus to amplitudes of ≈ 1.5 × 10−9 rad at the lowest frequency normal mode and the sensitivity improves as ν−3/2 with increasing frequency. Further improvements in sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude may be achieved by operating the balance at cryogenic temperatures. Alternatively, the instrument can be made more robust with a reduced sensitivity by increasing ν0 to ≈10−2 Hz. This instrument thus complements the ongoing effort by Igel and others to study rotational motions using ring laser gyroscopes and constitutes a positive response to the clarion call for developments in rotation seismology by Igel, Lee, and Todorovska [H. Igel, W.H.K. Lee and M.I. Todorovska, AGU Fall Meeting 2006, Rotational Seismology Sessions: S22A,S23B, Inauguration of the International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS)]. PMID:17438268

  20. Multilaboratory study of the Biomic automated well-reading instrument versus MicroScan WalkAway for reading MicroScan antimicrobial susceptibility and identification panels.

    PubMed

    Fader, Robert C; Weaver, Emily; Fossett, Rhonda; Toyras, Michele; Vanderlaan, John; Gibbs, David; Wang, Andrew; Thierjung, Nikolaus

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the Biomic automated well reader results to the MicroScan WalkAway results for reading MicroScan antimicrobial susceptibility and identification panels at four different sites. Routine fresh clinical isolates and quality control (QC) organisms were tested at each study site. A total of 46,176 MicroScan panel drug-organism combinations were read. The Biomic category agreement for 3,117 Gram-negative bacteria was 98.4%, with 1.4% minor and 0.2% major discrepancies. The Biomic category agreement for 5,233 Gram-positive bacteria was 98.7%, with 0.9% minor, 0.3% major, and 0.1% very major errors. Essential agreement, defined as Biomic results that were within ±1 2-fold dilution of the MicroScan results, was 99.3% for Gram-negative bacteria and 98.3% for Gram-positive bacteria. Biomic reading of MicroScan identification panels provided an overall agreement (first- and second-choice organism match) of 99.5% with 846 Gram-negative isolates and 99.5% with 430 Gram-positive isolates. These results suggest that the Biomic automated reader can provide accurate reading of MicroScan panels and has the capability of a visual panel read for manual adjustment of results. PMID:23486713

  1. Effectiveness of Direct Instruction for Teaching Statement Inference, Use of Facts, and Analogies to Students with Developmental Disabilities and Reading Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Margaret Munro; Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) reading comprehension program implemented with students who had developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and reading delays. There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students with ASD and no research as to the effectiveness of…

  2. Instrument for measuring the volume scattering function in the backward direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Robert A.; Honey, Richard C.

    1992-12-01

    A unique underwater optical instrument is described that measures the volume scattering function (VSF) in the retro (180 degree(s)) direction, i.e., (beta) ((pi) ). The instrument, referred to as Beta Pi, was designed and built at SRI International and was recently deployed in Monterey Bay. Spectral measurements of direct backscatter are achieved by imaging the backward scattered light from a laser beam with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera. A large beam splitter, approximately 23 cm in diameter, is used to obtain the necessary monostatic geometry for imaging light scattered from the beam in the retro direction. With a 200 mm focal length, f/2 lens, measurements of volume scattering over the angular range from exactly 180 degree(s) to about 179 degree(s) are achieved. The angular resolution of the CCD/lens system is 0.0057 degree(s). The resolution of the scattering measurements, however, is determined by the divergence half-angle of the beam, which is about 0.02 degree(s). A fiber optic cable transmits the laser flux from the surface to a collimator in the underwater housing, so that almost any laser with a fiber optic coupler can be used as the source. An in-water calibration scheme is described and it is shown that the accuracy of the measured VSF at 180 degree(s) is only slightly less than the accuracy of the measured spectral beam attenuation coefficient. A measurement of the VSF from 179 degree(s) to 180 degree(s), made in shallow waters in Monterey Bay using a Nd:YAG (532 nm) laser, is shown.

  3. Teaching Reading Comprehension and Language Skills to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities Using Direct Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Margaret M.; Nelson, Cynthia; Hinton, Vanessa; Franklin, Toni M.; Strozier, Shaunita D.; Terry, LaTonya; Franklin, Susan

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research demonstrating Direct Instruction (DI) as an effective reading comprehension intervention for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities (DD). Previous research has shown that DI, when portions of the program were implemented, resulted in increased skills (Flores & Ganz, 2007; Flores…

  4. Teaching Written Expression; Directed Reading and Writing; Self-Instructional Strategy Training; and Computers and Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Stephen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Principles for effectively teaching writing skills to mildly handicapped and learning-disabled students are outlined, and then three varying approaches are presented: (1) Direct Reading and Writing program, integrating regular class content with writing instruction; (2) self-instructional control strategies to reduce the complexity of writing…

  5. Reading Comprehension of Informative Texts in Secondary School: A Focus on Direct and Indirect Effects of Reader's Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarchi, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Text comprehension plays a fundamental role in the processes of acquisition, sharing, and construction of knowledge. Most definitions share the focus on the interaction between text and reader's prior knowledge. In this paper both direct and indirect effects of prior knowledge on reading comprehension have been analyzed, along with other…

  6. The Neurobiological Basis of Skilled and Impaired Reading: Recent Findings and New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandak, Rebecca; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Pugh, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in the study of reading and reading disability with the use of functional neuroimaging techniques. There is substantial converging evidence that skilled word recognition requires the development of a highly integrated cortical system that includes left hemisphere dorsal, ventral, and anterior…

  7. Testing and Refining the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Azevedo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    A significant proportion of American high school students struggle with reading comprehension. Theoretical models of reading comprehension might help researchers understand these difficulties, because they can point to variables that make the largest contributions to comprehension. On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we created…

  8. Explaining Individual Differences in Reading: Theory and Evidence. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Susan A., Ed.; Braze, David, Ed.; Fowler, Carol A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Research into reading development and reading disabilities has been dominated by phonologically guided theories for several decades. In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections. The

  9. New Directions in Apprentice Selection: Self-Perceived "On the Job" Literacy (Reading) Demands of Apprentices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Peter; Gould, Warren

    A study investigated the self-perceived, on-the-job literacy tasks of electrical mechanic apprentices in Victoria, Australia. A random sample of 401 apprentices from 19 locations representing all levels of apprenticeship training were questioned about their reading needs and the consequences of making a reading error in their work. Data were…

  10. Explaining Individual Differences in Reading: Theory and Evidence. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Susan A., Ed.; Braze, David, Ed.; Fowler, Carol A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Research into reading development and reading disabilities has been dominated by phonologically guided theories for several decades. In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections. The…

  11. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  12. Gray Matter Features of Reading Disability: A Combined Meta-Analytic and Direct Analysis Approach(1,2,3,4).

    PubMed

    Eckert, Mark A; Berninger, Virginia W; Vaden, Kenneth I; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Tsu, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry dyslexia studies and direct analysis of 293 reading disability and control cases from six different research sites were performed to characterize defining gray matter features of reading disability. These analyses demonstrated consistently lower gray matter volume in left posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus regions and left orbitofrontal gyrus/pars orbitalis regions. Gray matter volume within both of these regions significantly predicted individual variation in reading comprehension after correcting for multiple comparisons. These regional gray matter differences were observed across published studies and in the multisite dataset after controlling for potential age and gender effects, and despite increased anatomical variance in the reading disability group, but were not significant after controlling for total gray matter volume. Thus, the orbitofrontal and posterior superior temporal sulcus gray matter findings are relatively reliable effects that appear to be dependent on cases with low total gray matter volume. The results are considered in the context of genetics studies linking orbitofrontal and superior temporal sulcus regions to alleles that confer risk for reading disability. PMID:26835509

  13. Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

    2012-06-01

    Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

  14. Evolution of SILS Cholecystectomy in the Caribbean: The Direct Transfascial Puncture Technique Using Conventional Instruments without Working Ports.

    PubMed

    Cawich, Shamir O; Thomas, Dexter; Hassranah, Dale; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has become accepted as an alternative to conventional multiport cholecystectomy. However, SILC is still limited in applicability in low resource centres due to the expense associated with specialized access platforms, curved instruments, and flexible scopes. Presentation of Case. We present three cases where a modified SILC technique was used with conventional instruments and no working ports. The evolution of this technique is described. Discussion. In order to contain cost, we used conventional instruments and three transfascial ports placed in an umbilical incision, but we noted significant instrument clashes that originated at the port platforms. Therefore, we modified our technique by omitting ports for the working instruments. The technique allowed us to exchange instruments as necessary, maximized ergonomics, and prevented collisions from the bulky port platforms. Finally, the puncture left by the instrument alone did not require fascial closure at the termination of the procedure. Conclusion. The direct transfascial puncture using conventional laparoscopic instruments without working ports is a feasible option that minimizes cost and increases ergonomics. PMID:25349766

  15. Carbon Nanotube Emissions from Arc Discharge Production: Classification of Particle Types with Electron Microscopy and Comparison with Direct Reading Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Linus; Isaxon, Christina; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Tinnerberg, Hakan; Messing, Maria E.; Rissler, Jenny; Skaug, Vidar; Gudmundsson, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Hedmer, Maria; Pagels, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An increased production and use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is occurring worldwide. In parallel, a growing concern is emerging on the adverse effects the unintentional inhalation of CNTs can have on humans. There is currently a debate regarding which exposure metrics and measurement strategies are the most relevant to investigate workplace exposures to CNTs. This study investigated workplace CNT emissions using a combination of time-integrated filter sampling for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and direct reading aerosol instruments (DRIs). Material and Methods: Field measurements were performed during small-scale manufacturing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using the arc discharge technique. Measurements with highly time- and size-resolved DRI techniques were carried out both in the emission and background (far-field) zones. Novel classifications and counting criteria were set up for the SEM method. Three classes of CNT-containing particles were defined: type 1: particles with aspect ratio length:width >3:1 (fibrous particles); type 2: particles without fibre characteristics but with high CNT content; and type 3: particles with visible embedded CNTs. Results: Offline sampling using SEM showed emissions of CNT-containing particles in 5 out of 11 work tasks. The particles were classified into the three classes, of which type 1, fibrous CNT particles contributed 37%. The concentration of all CNT-containing particles and the occurrence of the particle classes varied strongly between work tasks. Based on the emission measurements, it was assessed that more than 85% of the exposure originated from open handling of CNT powder during the Sieving, mechanical work-up, and packaging work task. The DRI measurements provided complementary information, which combined with SEM provided information on: (i) the background adjusted emission concentration from each work task in different particle size ranges, (ii) identification of the key procedures in each work task that lead to emission peaks, (iii) identification of emission events that affect the background, thereby leading to far-field exposure risks for workers other than the operator of the work task, and (iv) the fraction of particles emitted from each source that contains CNTs. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for a standardized/harmonized method for electron microscopy (EM) analysis of CNTs. The SEM method developed in this study can form the basis for such a harmonized protocol for the counting of CNTs. The size-resolved DRI techniques are commonly not specific enough to selective analysis of CNT-containing particles and thus cannot yet replace offline time-integrated filter sampling followed by SEM. A combination of EM and DRI techniques offers the most complete characterization of workplace emissions of CNTs today. PMID:26748380

  16. Effect of interferents on the performance of direct-reading organic vapor monitors

    PubMed Central

    LeBouf, Ryan F.; Coffey, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Direct-reading organic vapor monitors are often used to measure volatile organic compound concentrations in complex chemical gas mixtures. However, there is a paucity of data on the impact of multiple gases on monitor performance, even though it is known that monitor sensitivity may vary by chemical. This study investigated the effects of interferents on the performance of the MIRAN SapphIRe Portable Ambient Air Analyzer (SAP) and Century Portable Toxic Vapor Analyzer (TVA-1000) when sampling a specific agent of interest (cyclohexane). The TVA-1000 contained a dual detector: a photoionization detector (PID) and a flame ionization detector (FID). Three devices of each monitor were challenged with different combinations of cyclohexane and potential interferent vapors (hexane, methyl ethyl ketone, trichloroethylene, and toluene) at 21°C and 90% relative humidity (RH), an extreme environmental condition. Five replicates at four target concentrations were tested: 30, 150, 300, and 475 ppm. Multiple proportions of cyclohexane to interferent enabled the determination of the interferent effect on monitor performance. The monitor concentrations were compared to reference concentrations measured using NIOSH Method 1500. Three scenarios were investigated: no response factor, cyclohexane response factor, and weighted-mixed response factor applied. False negatives occurred more frequently for PID (21.1%), followed by FID (4.8%) and SAP (0.2%). Measurements from all monitors generally had a positive bias compared to the reference measurements. Some monitor measurements exceeded twice the reference concentrations: PID (36.8%), SAP (19.8%), and FID (6.3%). Evaluation of the 95% confidence intervals indicated that performance of all monitors varied by concentration. In addition, the performance of the PID and SAP varied by presence of an interfering compound, especially toluene and hexane for the PID and trichloroethylene for the SAP. Variability and bias associated with all these monitors preclude supplanting traditional sorbent-based tube methods for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially for compliance monitoring. Implications Industrial hygienists need to use care when using any of the three monitor detection types to measure the concentration of unknown chemical mixtures. Monitor performance is affected by the presence of interferents. Application of manufacturer recommended response factors may not adequately scale measurements to minimize monitor bias when compared to standard reference methods. Users should calibrate their monitors to a known reference method prior to use, if possible. Each of the monitors has its own limitations, which should be considered to ensure quality measurements are reported. PMID:25947122

  17. Lateral Biases and Reading Direction: A Dissociation between Aesthetic Preference and Line Bisection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yukiko; Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Imai, Hisato

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual asymmetries for tasks involving aesthetic preference or line bisection can be affected by asymmetrical neurological mechanisms or left/right reading habits. This study investigated the relative contribution of these mechanisms in 100 readers of Japanese and English. Participants made aesthetic judgments between pairs of mirror-reversed…

  18. Using Literature-Based Prompts To Teach Writing Competencies: Directed Reading and Writing Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelsinger, Barry D.

    Intended to help teachers integrate writing instruction with the study of literature, this teaching guide offers a philosophy of writing instruction, describes a procedure for teaching reading and writing lessons, and provides a sequence of writing skills. For various literature selections, the guide defines vocabulary, provides topic discussion…

  19. Teaching/Directing Children How To Read a Script and Deliver Dialogue with Meaning and Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Camille A.

    Children can become script masters if they have a teacher/director who follows certain procedures, such as: (1) select a script that has relevancy to the cast; (2) audition the children via an interview process prior to reading the script for the first time; (3) cast the children based on appearance, sound of the voice, and personality more than…

  20. Michael Pressley's Educational Legacy and Directions He Identified for Future Research in Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to document the legacy and continuing influence of Michael Pressley's work in the field of reading research and instruction. Descriptions are provided to demonstrate how he translated his data from the cognitive sciences into highly effective pedagogy. A second component of this article discusses how Michael…

  1. Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literacy Works. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Terry C., Ed.

    This sourcebook presents reading guides for 39 literary works frequently used by scondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

  2. Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literacy Works. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Terry C., Ed.

    This sourcebook presents reading guides for 27 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

  3. Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literary Works. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Terry C., Ed.

    This sourcebook presents reading guides for 22 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

  4. Direct Instruction in Reading in Special Education: Evaluation of an Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sherry D.

    2010-01-01

    All children can learn. Each child learns in numerous ways and at a different pace. When children are given opportunity, appropriate foundation, support, and precise instruction, learning is enhanced and encouraged. This study investigated an instructional approach for teaching reading to elementary students who were determined to have a learning…

  5. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  6. High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument.

    PubMed

    Fusco, T; Rousset, G; Sauvage, J-F; Petit, C; Beuzit, J-L; Dohlen, K; Mouillet, D; Charton, J; Nicolle, M; Kasper, M; Baudoz, P; Puget, P

    2006-08-21

    The detection of extrasolar planets implies an extremely high-contrast, long-exposure imaging capability at near infrared and probably visible wavelengths. We present here the core of any Planet Finder instrument, that is, the extreme adaptive optics (XAO) subsystem. The level of AO correction directly impacts the exposure time required for planet detection. In addition, the capacity of the AO system to calibrate all the instrument static defects ultimately limits detectivity. Hence, the extreme AO system has to adjust for the perturbations induced by the atmospheric turbulence, as well as for the internal aberrations of the instrument itself. We propose a feasibility study for an extreme AO system in the frame of the SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument, which is currently under design and should equip one of the four VLT 8-m telescopes in 2010. PMID:19529118

  7. Direct Evidence for Two Different Neural Mechanisms for Reading Familiar and Unfamiliar Words: An Intra-Cerebral EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Juphard, Alexandra; Vidal, Juan R.; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    After intensive practice, unfamiliar letter strings become familiar words and reading speed increases strikingly from a slow processing to a fast and with more global recognition of words. While this effect has been well documented at the behavioral level, its neural underpinnings are still unclear. The question is how the brain modulates the activity of the reading network according to the novelty of the items. Several models have proposed that familiar and unfamiliar words are not processed by separate networks but rather by common regions operating differently according to familiarity. This hypothesis has proved difficult to test at the neural level because the effects of familiarity and length on reading occur (a) on a millisecond scale, shorter than the resolution of fMRI and (b) in regions which cannot be isolated with non-invasive EEG or MEG. We overcame these limitations by using invasive intra-cerebral EEG recording in epileptic patients. Neural activity (gamma-band responses, between 50 and 150 Hz) was measured in three major nodes of reading network – left inferior frontal, supramarginal, and inferior temporo-occipital cortices – while patients silently read familiar (words) and unfamiliar (pseudo-words) items of two lengths (short composed of one-syllable vs. long composed of three-syllables). While all items elicited strong neural responses in the three regions, we found that the duration of the neural response increases with length only for pseudo-words, in direct relation to orthographic-to-phonological conversion. Our results validate at the neural level the hypothesis that all words are processed by a common network operating more or less efficiently depending on words’ novelty. PMID:21960968

  8. On Assessing Language and Reading Comprehension: The Development of a Diagnostic Instrument. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Harvey; And Others

    The work reported here is part of an ongoing project to develop a language comprehension assessment instrument that: (1) is sensitive enough to pinpoint the particular language phenomena that are causing difficulty or have not been mastered, and (2) is also broad enough in scope to provide a credible and useful description of language proficiency.

  9. The role of central reading centers--current practices and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Colin S; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2015-05-01

    Central reading centers (CRCs) have several crucial roles in the conduct of clinical trials, providing key input during the study design, preparation of the operations manual, as well as site and photographer certification. They provide objective, standardized grading of images from study subjects, which determines study eligibility, and also evaluate lesion features at subsequent study visits. CRCs need to adhere strictly to Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines, as well as the established standard operating procedures in order to ensure that images are graded properly. The role of CRCs will continue to evolve, and include the use of web-based image transmission and grading platforms. PMID:26139801

  10. Direct reading measurement of absorbed dose with plastic scintillators--the general concept and applications to ophthalmic plaque dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Flühs, D; Heintz, M; Indenkämpen, F; Wieczorek, C

    1996-03-01

    We have developed dosemeters based on plastic scintillators for a variety of applications in radiation therapy. The dosemeters consist basically of a tissue-substituting scintillator probe, an optical fiber light guide, and a photomultiplier tube. The background light generated in the light guide can be compensated by a simultaneous measurement of the light from a blind fiber. Plastic scintillator dosemeters combine several advantageous properties which render them superior to other dosemeter types for many applications: minimal disturbance of the radiation field because of the homogeneous detector volume and the approximate water equivalence; no dependence on temperature and pressure (under standard clinical conditions) and angle of radiation incidence; no high voltage in the probe; high spatial resolution due to small detector volumes; direct reading of absorbed doses; and a large dynamical range. The high spatial resolution together with direct reading make these detectors suitable for real-time 3-D dosimetry using multi-channel detector systems. Such a system has been developed for eye plaque dosimetry and successfully employed for dosimetric treatment optimization. The plaque optimization can be performed by dosimetric measurements for the individual patient ("dosimetric treatment planning"). The time consumption for this procedure is less than for a physically correct computer-based therapy planning, e.g., by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:8815386

  11. Multicolor instrumentation for direct fluorescent detection of nucleic acids in a microchip format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Valery L.; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Lan, Guang; Boyce-Jacino, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Deposition of nucleic acids on solid support in the form of high density arrays (a DNA microarray) creates a powerful nonelectrophoretic technology for highly parallel genetic analysis. Microarrays have applications in the areas of DNA sequencing, genetic mutation detection and gene expression monitoring. We report here the design and utility of an experimental instrument for microchip parallel hyperspectral fluorescent imaging. The instrument integrates in-line laser excitation of microarray, parallel fluorescent spectrometry with cooled CCD and dye-base spectral classification software. Instrument has been applied for imaging detection, spectral analysis and base classification of Genetic Bit Analysis (GBA) reactions in a microchip format on a glass support. GBA is a solid phase DNA sequence analysis method that provides single nucleotide resolution by specific extension of dye-labeled dideoxynucleotidetriphosphates (ddNTPs). GBA testing yields one or two different ddNTPs on any given microarray spot, so analysis must resolve any pair wise combination of all possible ddNTPs labeled with distinct fluorescent dyes.

  12. Using a Model of Direct Instruction to Teach Summary Writing in a College Reading Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casazza, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes using a model of direct instruction, called EMQA (Explanation, Modeling, Questioning, and Application), as a framework for teaching the rules of summary writing. Argues that teaching students to summarize increases their comprehension of expository text. (SR)

  13. Optimization of the uniformity of light yield from scintillator tiles read out directly by silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Mironov, D.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovskiy, E.

    2015-07-01

    The scintillator tiles with direct readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been studied. The SiPM is placed inside the dimple machined in the center of the big face of 30×30×3 mm3 tile. The different dimple geometries were studied. The tiles with the optimal dimple design show the uniformity of response comparable to the tiles with fiber readout. The direct-readout approach provides a reasonable way for the construction of supermultichannel calorimeters.

  14. The effect of perspective geometry on judged direction in spatial information instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael Wallace; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the methodology and results of an experiment examining design aspects of panel-mounted displays that (1) incorporate a planar grid in their symbology, (2) subtend a narrow visual angle, and (3) are mounted so that they can be viewed face-on rather than obliquely. An analysis of direction judgments in such perspective displays shows that the perspective geometry of the stimulus image has a significant effect on direction judgment accuracy. Target elevation direction is generally overestimated; azimuth error varies sinusoidally with target azimuth direction, and is modulated by field-of-view angle.

  15. Rapid DNA Sequencing by Direct Nanoscale Reading of Nucleotide Bases on Individual DNA Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, James Weifu; Meller, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Since the independent invention of DNA sequencing by Sanger and by Gilbert 30 years ago, it has grown from a small scale technique capable of reading several kilobase-pair of sequence per day into today's multibillion dollar industry. This growth has spurred the development of new sequencing technologies that do not involve either electrophoresis or Sanger sequencing chemistries. Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) involves multiple parallel micro-sequencing addition events occurring on a surface, where data from each round is detected by imaging. New High Throughput Technologies for DNA Sequencing and Genomics is the second volume in the Perspectives in Bioanalysis series, which looks at the electroanalytical chemistry of nucleic acids and proteins, development of electrochemical sensors and their application in biomedicine and in the new fields of genomics and proteomics. The authors have expertly formatted the information for a wide variety of readers, including new developments that will inspire students and young scientists to create new tools for science and medicine in the 21st century. Reviews of complementary developments in Sanger and SBS sequencing chemistries, capillary electrophoresis and microdevice integration, MS sequencing and applications set the framework for the book.

  16. Design of an intelligent instrument for large direct-current measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Zhipeng

    2000-05-01

    The principle and structure of an intelligent large direct current measurement is presented in this paper. It is of reflective type and detects signal by employing the high direct current sensor. The single-chip microcomputer of this system provides a powerful function of control and processing and greatly improves the extent of intelligence. The value can be displayed and printed automatically or manually.

  17. Contextual Modulation of Reading Rate for Direct versus Indirect Speech Quotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., "Mary said: "I'm hungry"") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., "Mary said [that] she was hungry"). However, the processing consequences of this distinction are largely unclear. In two experiments, participants were asked to either orally (Experiment 1) or silently (Experiment 2,…

  18. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Matthew Sigelman on Reading the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Matthew Sigelman, CEO of Burning Glass Technologies, a Boston-based labor market

  19. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Matthew Sigelman on Reading the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Matthew Sigelman, CEO of Burning Glass Technologies, a Boston-based labor market…

  20. Template-Directed Instrumentation Reduces Cost and Improves Efficiency for Total Knee Arthroplasty: An Economic Decision Analysis and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Blevins, Jason L; DeNegre, Scott T; Mayman, David J; Jerabek, Seth A

    2015-10-01

    Template-directed instrumentation (TDI) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may streamline operating room (OR) workflow and reduce costs by preselecting implants and minimizing instrument tray burden. A decision model simulated the economics of TDI. Sensitivity analyses determined thresholds for model variables to ensure TDI success. A clinical pilot was reviewed. The accuracy of preoperative templates was validated, and 20 consecutive primary TKAs were performed using TDI. The model determined that preoperative component size estimation should be accurate to ±1 implant size for 50% of TKAs to implement TDI. The pilot showed that preoperative template accuracy exceeded 97%. There were statistically significant improvements in OR turnover time and in-room time for TDI compared to an historical cohort of TKAs. TDI reduces costs and improves OR efficiency. PMID:26021908

  1. Optimization of the light yield properties from scintillator tiles read out directly by silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Mironov, D.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovskiy, E.

    2016-02-01

    The research of the light yield from the scintillator tiles with direct readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) has been performed. The tile size is 30 x 30 x 3 mm3 as planned for the AHCAL of the ILD at the ILC. The different tile geometries were studied. The uniformity of light yield has been optimized and one geometry has been selected. The results are compared to the studies on the same topic, performed by another groups.

  2. Readings in American History (In Their Own Words), Book III. New Directions for the United States and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jack

    This skills-text is the third of four books in the series "Readings in American History." The materials allow opportunities to improve reading and comprehension skills in a subject matter context by using certain primary sources related to the topic. Book 3 covers the period from the Civil War to 1900. Each lesson includes short readings with…

  3. The validity and reliability of the self-directed learning instrument (SDLI) in mainland Chinese nursing students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-directed learning is crucial to the professional development of nursing students, and which enables them to expand the knowledge and enhance the quality of their practice. A validated self-directed learning instrument is important not only in assessing the individual’s self-directed learning level, but also in evaluating the effectiveness of teaching or learning methods. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the SDLI in mainland Chinese nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional design with convenience sampling was used to recruit participants from three nursing schools. The mainland Chinese version of SDLI was tested with respect to validity and reliability in 1,499 nursing students, and another 30 nursing students were invited to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the scale in 7 days interval. Results Explorary factor analysis identified a four-factor structure, accounting for 56.101% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a good overall fit of this four-factor model. Convergent validity was supported by the highly positive Pearson’s correlation between SDLI score and SRSSDL score (r = .876, p = .000). Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency of overall scale was .916, and 4 dimensions were between .755-.825.The test-retest reliability of overall scale was .850, and 4 dimensions were between .708-.821. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of overall scale was .916, and 4 dimensions were .822-.889. Conclusions This study indicates that the SDLI is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing self-directed learning in mainland Chinese nursing students. Nurse educators could use such knowledge to develop their roles and plan to support nursing students in becoming self-directed learners and lifelong learner. PMID:24885557

  4. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and less than 2 meters per second velocity accuracy. The instrument design, technologies and predicted performance will be presented.

  5. Direct vision in minimally invasive epicardial procedures: preliminary tests of prototype instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Hack, B J; Ramon, S G; Hagen, Z A; Theran, M E; Burkhardt, J D; Gillies, G T

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of direct visualization to enhance minimally invasive epicardial procedures. A commercially available miniature camera was placed in a prototype subxiphoid introducer needle and bench top, in vitro and in vivo tests of system performance were made during simulated and actual attempts at pericardial access and cardio-endoscopy. This system had an unshielded field of view of 100° and a resolution of 220 × 224 pixels. When a sleeve used to maintain depth of field was slid past the distal tip of the camera probe, the field of view would decrease by ≈15° per millimetre of sleeve extension, but without loss of image quality. While tests during in vivo subxiphoid access in a porcine model revealed that the pericardial membrane was difficult to localize, the results also showed excellent resolution of the coronary arteries on the epicardial surface. These findings and potential improvements are discussed in detail. PMID:26005103

  6. A Direct Method for Calculating Instrument Noise Levels in Side-by-Side Seismometer Evaluations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, L. Gary

    1989-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The subject of determining the inherent system noise levels present in modem broadband closed loop seismic sensors has been an evolving topic ever since closed loop systems became available. Closed loop systems are unique in that the system noise can not be determined via a blocked mass test as in older conventional open loop seismic sensors. Instead, most investigators have resorted to performing measurements on two or more systems operating in close proximity to one another and to analyzing the outputs of these systems with respect to one another to ascertain their relative noise levels. The analysis of side-by-side relative performance is inherently dependent on the accuracy of the mathematical modeling of the test configuration. This report presents a direct approach to extracting the system noise levels of two linear systems with a common coherent input signal. The mathematical solution to the problem is incredibly simple; however the practical application of the method encounters some difficulties. Examples of expected accuracies are presented as derived by simulating real systems performance using computer generated random noise. In addition, examples of the performance of the method when applied to real experimental test data are shown.

  7. Instrumental Direction-dependent Effects in Wide-field Wide-band Interferometric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Rau, U.; Golap, K.

    2014-04-01

    Many next generation radio telescopes, some now in operation, offer significant improvement in the sensitivity and angular resolution compared to the telescopes operated in the past decades. This improvement in sensitivity is achieved with the use of wide-band receivers and larger collecting area. The effects of wide instantaneous fractional bandwidths that classical calibration and imaging algorithms ignore, lead to errors higher than the sensitivity that these new telescopes offer. Examples, relevant for some of the telescopes already in operation include the effects of time and frequency variant primary beams, frequency dependence of the emission from the sky and antenna pointing errors. The effects of wide fractional bandwidth and ionospheric phase screen limit the imaging performance below ~1 GHz. Additionally, significant variations in the shape of the wide-band primary beams (PB) for aperture array telescopes leads to errors of similar magnitude. Corrections for these effects increases the required computing power by many orders of magnitude. Furthermore, both wide fractional bandwidths and larger collecting area lead to many orders of magnitude increase in the data volume also, putting severe constraints on the run-time performance of the algorithms for calibration and imaging. In this talk, I will review the state-of-the-art algorithms for wide-field wide-band imaging and the run-time costs of the different approaches for correction of various direction-dependent effects and discuss the computational challenges in thermal noise-limited wide-field imaging with current and future radio telescopes.

  8. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  9. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Their Effects on Reading Decoding Skills: g Has Indirect Effects, More Specific Abilities Have Direct Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    This study employed structural equation modeling to examine the effects of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities on reading decoding skills using five age-differentiated subsamples from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Using the Spearman Model including only g, strong direct effects of g on…

  10. The Effects of Reading Racetrack with Direct Instruction Flashcards and a Token System on Sight Word Acquisition for Two Primary Students with Severe Conduct Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopewell, Kim; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reading racetracks and direct instruction flashcards with two students with behavior disorders. A token economy with a response cost component was also implemented to increase on-task behavior during data collection. Method: The participants were two eight-year-old males.…

  11. Effects of Teacher-Directed and Student-Interactive Summarization Instruction on Reading Comprehension and Written Summarization of Korean Fourth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Jongseong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean fourth graders' performance on reading comprehension and written summarization changes as a function of instruction in summarization across test times. Seventy five Korean fourth graders from three classes were randomly assigned to the collaborative summarization, direct instruction, and…

  12. The Effect of Student-Directed Transition Planning with a Computer-Based Reading Support Program on the Self-Determination of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngsun; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Palmer, Susan B.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra; Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of student-directed transition planning instruction ("Whose Future Is It Anyway?" curriculum) with a computer-based reading support program ("Rocket Reader") on the self-determination, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy, and transition planning knowledge of students with disabilities. This…

  13. Semantic Constructs and Beginning Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, George E.; Blanton, William E.

    This study was designed to determine (1) the relevance of a child's "language map"--his expressed attitude toward reading as developed by early experiences with reading material and oral reading--to his potential reading achievement and (2) the accuracy of a previously developed instrument for measuring the "language map" and thus the semantic…

  14. Direct-reading design charts for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, William A; Dow, Norris F

    1951-01-01

    Direct-reading design charts are presented for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners. These charts, which cover a wide range of proportions, make possible the direct determination of the stress and all panel dimensions required to carry a given intensity of loading with a given skin thickness and effective length of panel.

  15. Left visual-field advantage in the dual-stream RSVP task and reading-direction: a study in three nations.

    PubMed

    Smigasiewicz, Kamila; Shalgi, Shani; Hsieh, Shulan; Möller, Friderike; Jaffe, Sagi; Chang, Chi-Chih; Verleger, Rolf

    2010-08-01

    In the dual-stream Rapid Serial Visual Presentation task, a stream of stimuli containing two target stimuli is rapidly presented left and right. In previous studies, the second target was better identified in the left than in the right hemifield. In all those studies, alphanumeric stimuli were used both as targets and distracters. We examined to what extent this left visual-field advantage is dependent on reading-direction. The task was performed by Germans (with Latin characters), Israelis (with Latin and Hebrew characters) and Taiwanese (with Latin and Chinese characters). If caused by overlearnt associative links between Latin characters and left-to-right reading, the prominent left visual-field bias should be reversed in Hebrew and disappear in Chinese. Furthermore, if caused by direction of reading in the participant's native language, the left visual-field advantage in Latin conditions should be larger in Germans than in Israelis and Taiwanese. A left visual-field advantage was always observed, though slightly smaller in Hebrew and in Chinese, and there was no difference in the Latin conditions between the three nations. Therefore, it seems that the left visual-field advantage in speeded target identification is not primarily caused by the left-to-right reading-direction, but may be a combined effect resulting from the asymmetric organization of general mechanisms of visual processing and from stimulus-induced preferences. PMID:20546763

  16. Direct force-measuring transducer used in blood pressure research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eige, J. J.; Newgard, P. M.; Pressman, G. L.

    1965-01-01

    Direct force measuring transducer acts as an arterial tonometer, gives a direct readout to instrumentation, and is unaffected by ambient noise. It uses a semiconductor strain gage which is deflected by pressure pulses in the artery. The deflection changes the resistance of the gage and alters the voltage reading on the associated instrumentation.

  17. Development of electrical-erosion instrument for direct write micro-patterning on large area conductive thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, Ángel Luis; Coya, Carmen; García-Vélez, Miguel

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a complete instrument to perform direct, dry, and cost-effective lithography on conductive materials, based on localized electrical discharges, which avoids using masks or chemicals typical of conventional photolithography. The technique is considered fully compatible with substrate transport based systems, like roll-to-roll technology. The prototype is based on two piezo nano-steppers coupled to three linear micro-stages to cover a large scale operation from micrometers to centimeters. The operation mode consists of a spring probe biased at low DC voltage with respect to a grounded conductive layer. The tip slides on the target layer keeping contact with the material in room conditions, allowing continuous electric monitoring of the process, and also real-time tilt correction via software. The sliding tip leaves an insulating path (limited by the tip diameter) along the material, enabling to draw electrically insulated tracks and pads. The physical principle of operation is based in the natural self-limitation of the discharge due to material removal or insulation. The so produced electrical discharges are very fast, in the range of μs, so features may be performed at speeds of few cm/s, enabling scalability to large areas. The instrument has been tested on different conducting materials as gold, indium tin oxide, and aluminum, allowing the fabrication of alphanumeric displays based on passive matrix of organic light emitting diodes without the use of masks or photoresists. We have verified that the highest potential is achieved on graphene, where no waste material is detected, producing excellent well defined edges. This allows manufacturing graphene micro-ribbons with a high aspect ratio up to 1200:1.

  18. Development of electrical-erosion instrument for direct write micro-patterning on large area conductive thin films.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ángel Luis; Coya, Carmen; García-Vélez, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a complete instrument to perform direct, dry, and cost-effective lithography on conductive materials, based on localized electrical discharges, which avoids using masks or chemicals typical of conventional photolithography. The technique is considered fully compatible with substrate transport based systems, like roll-to-roll technology. The prototype is based on two piezo nano-steppers coupled to three linear micro-stages to cover a large scale operation from micrometers to centimeters. The operation mode consists of a spring probe biased at low DC voltage with respect to a grounded conductive layer. The tip slides on the target layer keeping contact with the material in room conditions, allowing continuous electric monitoring of the process, and also real-time tilt correction via software. The sliding tip leaves an insulating path (limited by the tip diameter) along the material, enabling to draw electrically insulated tracks and pads. The physical principle of operation is based in the natural self-limitation of the discharge due to material removal or insulation. The so produced electrical discharges are very fast, in the range of μs, so features may be performed at speeds of few cm/s, enabling scalability to large areas. The instrument has been tested on different conducting materials as gold, indium tin oxide, and aluminum, allowing the fabrication of alphanumeric displays based on passive matrix of organic light emitting diodes without the use of masks or photoresists. We have verified that the highest potential is achieved on graphene, where no waste material is detected, producing excellent well defined edges. This allows manufacturing graphene micro-ribbons with a high aspect ratio up to 1200:1. PMID:26329218

  19. Development of electrical-erosion instrument for direct write micro-patterning on large area conductive thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Ángel Luis; Coya, Carmen; García-Vélez, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a complete instrument to perform direct, dry, and cost-effective lithography on conductive materials, based on localized electrical discharges, which avoids using masks or chemicals typical of conventional photolithography. The technique is considered fully compatible with substrate transport based systems, like roll-to-roll technology. The prototype is based on two piezo nano-steppers coupled to three linear micro-stages to cover a large scale operation from micrometers to centimeters. The operation mode consists of a spring probe biased at low DC voltage with respect to a grounded conductive layer. The tip slides on the target layer keeping contact with the material in room conditions, allowing continuous electric monitoring of the process, and also real-time tilt correction via software. The sliding tip leaves an insulating path (limited by the tip diameter) along the material, enabling to draw electrically insulated tracks and pads. The physical principle of operation is based in the natural self-limitation of the discharge due to material removal or insulation. The so produced electrical discharges are very fast, in the range of μs, so features may be performed at speeds of few cm/s, enabling scalability to large areas. The instrument has been tested on different conducting materials as gold, indium tin oxide, and aluminum, allowing the fabrication of alphanumeric displays based on passive matrix of organic light emitting diodes without the use of masks or photoresists. We have verified that the highest potential is achieved on graphene, where no waste material is detected, producing excellent well defined edges. This allows manufacturing graphene micro-ribbons with a high aspect ratio up to 1200:1.

  20. Pedicle Screw Instrumentation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: The Insertion Technique, the Fusion Levels and Direct Vertebral Rotation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The pedicle is a power nucleus of the vertebra and offers a secure grip of all 3 columns. Pedicle screw instrumentation has advantages of rigid fixation with improved three-dimensional (3D) correction and it is accepted as a reliable method with a high margin of safety. Accurate placement of the pedicle screws is important to reduce possible irreversible complications. Many methods of screw insertion have been reported. The author has been using the K-wire method coupled with the intraoperative single posteroanterior and lateral radiographs, which is the most safe, accurate and fast method. Identification of the curve patterns and determining the fusion levels are very important. The ideal classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis should address the all patterns, predict the extent of accurate fusion and have good inter/intraobserver reliability. My classification system matches with the ideal classification system, and it is simple and easy to learn; and my classification system has only 4 structural curve patterns and each curve has 2 types. Scoliosis is a 3D deformity; the coronal and sagittal curves can be corrected with rod rotation, and rotational deformity has to be corrected with direct vertebral rotation (DVR). Rod derotation and DVR are true methods of 3D deformity correction with shorter fusion and improved correction of both the fused and unfused curves, and this is accomplished using pedicle screw fixation. The direction of DVR is very important and it should be opposite to the direction of the rotational deformity of the vertebra. A rigid rod has to be used to prevent rod bend-out during the derotation and DVR. PMID:21629468

  1. Acquisition and performance of goal-directed instrumental actions depends on ERK signaling in distinct regions of dorsal striatum in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiflett, Michael W.; Brown, Robert A.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of goal-directed actions relies on an animal’s prior knowledge of the outcomes or consequences that result from its actions. Additionally, a sensorimotor learning process linking environmental stimuli with actions influences instrumental performance by selecting actions for further evaluation. These distinct decision-making processes in rodents depend on separate sub-regions of the dorsal striatum. Whereas the posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS) is required for the encoding of actions with their outcomes or consequences, the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) mediates action-selection based on sensorimotor learning. However, the molecular mechanisms within these brain regions that support learning and performance of goal-directed behavior are not known. Here we show that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the dorsal striatum has a critical role in learning and performance of instrumental goal-directed behavior in rodents. We observed an increase in p42 ERK (ERK2) activation in both the pDMS and DLS during both the acquisition and performance of recently acquired instrumental goal-directed actions. Furthermore, disruption of ERK activation in the pDMS prevented both the acquisition of action-outcome associations, as well as the performance of goal-directed actions guided by previously acquired associations, whereas disruption of ERK activation in the DLS disrupted instrumental performance while leaving instrumental action-outcome learning intact. These results provide evidence of a critical, region-specific role for ERK signaling in the dorsal striatum during the acquisition of instrumental learning and suggest that processes sensitive to ERK signaling within these striatal subregions interact to control instrumental performance after initial acquisition. PMID:20181592

  2. Teaching Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating

  3. Teaching Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  4. What Do Diagnostic Reading Tests Really Diagnose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkley, Carol K.

    A study was made of nine reading tests, including both group and individually-administered measures, which are claimed to be chiefly diagnostic. Instruments analyzed were the following: Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests (Bond, Balow, and Hoyt), Botel Reading Inventory, Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, Gates-McKillop Reading Diagnostic Tests,…

  5. Content Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belk, Elizabeth Joann; Seed, Allen H.; Abdi, Wali

    2005-01-01

    Reading comprehension skills promote achievement in science, so how can teachers help students to develop these skills? Research indicates that students who read well are more likely to be successful in school and in life (Belk 1999). Furthermore, there is a direct link between science skills and reading skills (Carter and Simpson 1978). There are…

  6. Observation of gravity waves by limb-viewing satellite instruments: Impact of the measuring direction on the observational-filter effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Verena; Wst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Limb-viewing satellite instruments are often used to observe atmospheric gravity waves (GW) on global scales. Derived parameters (amplitudes, wavelengths) give information about GW activity, for example, as input for models. However, small-scale processes like GWs cannot be completely resolved by remote sensing instruments because they integrate over relatively large air volumes along their ray-of-sight, known as the observational-filter effect. Radiosonde measurements are used as reference to temperature profiles of the satellite-based instrument TIMED/SABER in order to compare signatures of present GWs in both data sets. Results show that among known aspects (e.g. the wavelengths) the measuring direction of the satellite with regard to the direction of wave propagation influences the intensity of the observational-filter effect. If GWs have a prevailing orientation in particular regions, e.g. orographic induced GWs, this leads to systematic errors in observed GW activity derived by satellite instruments. Since the wave orientation cannot be determined solely by the temperature profiles of an instrument, it is not possible to specify a general correction function for this effect. This implies a need for the development of improved techniques concerning the measuring geometry of satellite instruments.

  7. There Is More to Mind Reading than Having Theory of Mind Concepts: New Directions in Theory of Mind Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Dana; Apperly, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    For more than 30 years, researchers have focused on the important transition that children undergo between the ages of 3 and 5, when they start to solve mind-reading problems that require reasoning about complex mental states, such as beliefs. The main question for debate has been whether, during that transition, children acquire new concepts…

  8. There Is More to Mind Reading than Having Theory of Mind Concepts: New Directions in Theory of Mind Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Dana; Apperly, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    For more than 30 years, researchers have focused on the important transition that children undergo between the ages of 3 and 5, when they start to solve mind-reading problems that require reasoning about complex mental states, such as beliefs. The main question for debate has been whether, during that transition, children acquire new concepts

  9. The Psychomotor Base for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciani, Alfred J.; Klenke, Rita M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the possible relationships between reading instruction and five areas of the psychomotor domain--space, laterality, directionality, following directions, and self-concept--and suggests methodological implications for the teaching of reading. (RL)

  10. Correlative Observations with Space-Borne Direct Doppler Wind Instruments of the Rapid Transport of Shuttle Exhaust Plumes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niciejewski, R.; Meier, R. R.; Stevens, M. H.; Skinner, W. R.; Cooper, M.; Marshall, A.; Ortland, D. A.; Wu, Q.

    2010-12-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched by Space Shuttle STS-48 on 12 September 1991 and included a direct Doppler experiment, the High Resolution Doppler Imager, HRDI. Ten years later, the TIMED Doppler Interferometer, TIDI, joined HRDI in direct neutral wind observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The removal of instrumental artifacts from the raw spectra, complicated by the loss of good attitude knowledge for HRDI and unexpected signal contamination for TIDI has matured to a level where excellent agreement exists for common volume measurements between them. The two experiments were able to perform overlapping measurements of tidal and planetary wave fields for three years permitting unprecedented clarity in the description of the cyclical behaviour of the MLT. The exhaust plume left in the wake of the launch of STS-107 (16 January 2003) provided a stringent test between TIDI, HRDI, and independent imagery, the latter of which showed rapid transport across the equator to the Antarctic. Though TIDI and HRDI observed the atmosphere at the plume’s location at different local solar times, all correlative observations supported the hypothesis indicated by once-a-day images of the plume - rapid southern transport over thousands of kilometers. A simple spectral analysis of simultaneous observations of the neutral winds by HRDI and TIDI indicates that a classical two-day wave (longitudinal wavenumber = 3) exists in the southern hemisphere during the ~80-hour transit time coinciding with the transport of the plume exhaust from launch to the Antarctic. A least-squares fit of the wave in the meridional wind indicates maximum amplitude in the MLT of ~80 m/s southwards. Other shuttle launches have also been accompanied by evidence that implies rapid transport of exhaust plumes to Arctic latitudes. This paper will summarize correlative HRDI and/or TIDI wind observations of these events and associated spectral analysis of the meridional wind in the MLT. There is no question that TIDI and HRDI confirm the rapid implied motion suggested by space-borne imagery of shuttle exhaust plumes. Empirical and first-principle physical models of MLT dynamics fall short in describing the amplitude and long life of strong meridional flow. The consistency between TIDI, HRDI, and independent observations of rapid plume transport indicate that our understanding of MLT dynamics is far from complete.

  11. Preliminary investigation of pilot scanning techniques of dial pointing instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Two pilots' methods of looking at instruments with needle pointers in a fixed base helicopter simulation were observed. A total of 45 runs were analyzed for each pilot. The data indicated that two apparently different techniques were being used; one looking at the needle point, the other looking at a fixed spot on the instrument and reading the needle direction parafoveally. The latter technique is found to be somewhat faster with both pilots accomplishing the flying task.

  12. A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovardas, Tasos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss

  13. A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovardas, Tasos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss…

  14. Exploration of the Consortium on Reading Excellence Phonics Survey: An Instrument for Assessing Primary-Grade Students' Phonics Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Brandt, Lorilynn; Fawson, Parker C.; Jones, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the Consortium on Reading Excellence-Phonics Survey (CORE-PS), an informal, inexpensive, and widely disseminated assessment tool that is used to determine primary-grade students' knowledge of and abilities to apply key alphabetic and phonics understandings to decode a mix of real and pseudo-words. Evidence is reported of…

  15. Radial vibration measurements directly from rotors using laser vibrometry: The effects of surface roughness, instrument misalignments and pseudo-vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Steve J.; Halkon, Ben J.; Tirabassi, Mario; Pusey, Chris

    2012-11-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) offers an attractive solution when radial vibration measurement directly from a rotor surface is required. Research to date has demonstrated application on polished-circular rotors and rotors coated with retro-reflective tape. In the latter case, however, a significant cross-sensitivity to the orthogonal radial vibration component occurs and post-processing is required to resolve individual radial vibration components. Until now, the fundamentally different behaviour observed between these cases has stood as an inconsistency in the published literature, symptomatic of the need to understand the effect of surface roughness. This paper offers the first consistent mathematical description of the polished-circular and rough rotor behaviours, combined with an experimental investigation of the relationship between surface roughness and cross-sensitivity. Rotors with surface roughness up to 10 nm satisfy the polished-circular rotor definition if vibration displacement is below 100% beam diameter, for a 90 μm beam, and below 40% beam diameter, for a 520 μm beam. On rotors with roughness between 10 nm and 50 nm, the polished-circular rotor definition is satisfied for vibration displacements up to 25% beam diameter, for a 90 μm beam, and up to 10% beam diameter, for a 520 μm beam. As roughness increases, cross-sensitivity increases but only rotors coated in retro-reflective tape satisfied the rough rotor definition fully. Consequently, when polished-circular surfaces are not available, rotor surfaces must be treated with retro-reflective tape and measurements post-processed to resolve individual vibration components. Through simulations, the value of the resolution and correction algorithms that form the post-processor has been demonstrated quantitatively. Simulations incorporating representative instrument misalignments and measurement noise have enabled quantification of likely error levels in radial vibration measurements. On a polished-circular rotor, errors around 0.2% for amplitude and 2 mrad for phase are likely, rising a little at the integer orders affected by pseudo-vibration. Higher pseudo-vibration levels and the need for resolution increase errors in the rough rotor measurements, especially around the synchronous frequency where errors reach 20% by amplitude and 100 mrad for phase. Outside a range of half an order either side of first order, errors are ten times lower and beyond fifth order errors are similar to those for the polished-circular rotor. Further simulations were performed to estimate sensitivities to axial vibration, speed variation and bending vibrations.

  16. Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.; Fusco, T.; Paul, B.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Several exoplanet direct-imaging instruments (VLT-SPHERE, Gemini Planet Imager, etc.) will soon be in operation, providing original data for comparative exoplanetary science to the community. To this end, exoplanet imagers use an extreme adaptive optics (XAO) system to correct the atmospheric turbulence and provide a highly corrected beam to a near-infrared (NIR) coronagraph for suppressing diffracted stellar light. The performance of the coronagraph is, however, limited by the non-common path aberrations (NCPA) due to the differential wavefront errors existing between the visible XAO sensing path and the NIR science path and leading to residual speckles that hide the faintest exoplanets in the coronagraphic image. Aims: Accurate calibration of the NCPA in exoplanet imagers is mandatory to correct the residual, quasi-static speckles remaining in the coronagraphic images after XAO correction in order to allow the observation of exoplanets that are at least 106 fainter than their host star. Several approaches have been developed during these past few years to reach this goal. We propose an approach based on the Zernike phase-contrast method operating in the same wavelength as the coronagraph for the measurements of the NCPA between the optical path seen by the visible XAO wavefront sensor and that seen by the NIR coronagraph. Methods: This approach uses a focal plane phase mask of size ~λ/D, where λ and D denote the wavelength and the telescope aperture diameter, respectively, to measure the quasi-static aberrations in the upstream pupil plane by encoding them into intensity variations in the downstream pupil image. The principle of this approach as described in several classical optical textbooks is simplified by the omission of the spatial variability of the amplitude diffracted by the phase mask. We develop a more rigorous formalism, leading to highly accurate measurement of the NCPA, in a quasi-linear way during the observation. Results: With prospects of achieving subnanometric measurement accuracy with this approach for a static phase map of standard deviation 44 nm rms at λ = 1.625 μm (0.026 λ), we estimate a possible reduction of the NCPA due to chromatic differential optics by a factor ranging from 3 to 10 in the presence of adaptive optics (AO) residuals compared with the expected performance of a typical current-generation system. This would allow a reduction of the level of quasi-static speckles in the detected images by a factor 10 to 100, thus correspondingly improving the capacity to observe exoplanets.

  17. Reading(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

    Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

  18. Reading Practices in Singapore Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mee, Cheah Yin; Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Conducted a pilot questionnaire study on Singaporean family reading practices. Found that in the majority of homes, the mother initiated reading of mostly fictional material borrowed from public libraries. Reading aloud to children occurred in about one-third of homes, with direct reading instruction occurring in over two-thirds of families. Found…

  19. A direct correlation among indoor Rn, soil gas Rn and geology in the Reading Prong near Boyertown, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Gundersen, L.C.S.

    1989-01-01

    We feel that this study suggests a relationship among geology, soil gas Rn and the potential for indoor Rn accumulation in this portion of the Reading Prong. There are deviations from a perfect correlation but these are related to inhomogeneities in the geologic environment and perhaps variations in construction techniques of homes in the area. This study also demonstrates that several analyses in a small area may be necessary to adequately determine the Rn distribution for a particular geologic unit. That scale would be determined by the complexity of the local geology. Where no discrete source of elevated Rn supply is found for dwellings having a significant Rn accumulation, the implication is that overall gross permeability may be sufficient to supply Rn from a larger volume of soil and rock.

  20. Space science instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1989-03-01

    This grant was intended to be used for the purchase of high quality laboratory and data analysis instrumentation for the pursuit of space plasma physics research. Two of the first purchases were a 6250 BPI magnetic tape drive and a large, fast disk drive. These improved the satellite data analysis capability greatly and reduced the system backup time. With the big disk drive it became possible to dump entire magnetic tapes to disk for faster, more efficient processing. Several microcomputers improve both personnel computing as well as general connectivity within the group and on campus in general. Other microcomputers function in the laboratory setting by acting as hosts for several instrument interfaces for communication with satellite and balloon payloads as well as laboratory VLF signal processing equipment. Perhaps the single most expensive item purchased was an analog tape drive for reading and writing 16 in. analog magnetic tapes. This analog tape drive is used for the direct processing of FM and directly recorded telemetry data from the balloon and rocket payloads.

  1. Prose reading in neglect.

    PubMed

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers. PMID:24321197

  2. A Sphere-Scanning Radiometer for Rapid Directional Measurements of Sky and Ground Radiance: the PARABOLA Field Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.; Leone, P.

    1984-01-01

    A unique field instrument, called the PARABOLA, a collapsable support boom, which is self contained and easily transportable to remote sites to enable the acquisition of radiance data for almost the complete (4 pi) sky and ground-looking hemispheres in only 11 seconds was designed. The PARABOLA samples in 15 deg instantaneous field of view sectors in three narrow bandpass spectral channels simultaneously. Field measurement on a variety of earth surface cover types using a truck boom, a specially designed pickup truck mounting system, and a hot air balloon were studied. The PARABOLA instrument has potential for climatological and other studies which require characterization of the distribution of diffuse solar radiation within the sky hemisphere.

  3. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  4. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of

  5. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  6. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  7. Direct reading of charge multipliers with a self-triggering CMOS analog chip with 105 k pixels at 50 μm pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Cavalca, F.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Massai, M. M.; Sgro', C.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.; Krummenacher, F.; de Oliveira, R.

    2006-10-01

    We report on a large area (15×15 mm2), high channel density (470 pixel/mm2), self-triggering CMOS analog chip that we have developed as a pixelized charge collecting electrode of a Micropattern Gas Detector. This device represents a big step forward both in terms of size and performance, and is in fact the last version of three generations of custom ASICs of increasing complexity. The top metal layer of the CMOS pixel array is patterned in a matrix of 105,600 hexagonal pixels with a 50 μm pitch. Each pixel is directly connected to the underlying full electronics chain which has been realized in the remaining five metal and single poly-silicon layers of a 0.18 μm VLSI technology. The chip, which has customizable self-triggering capabilities, also includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. Thanks to these advances it is possible to significantly reduce the read-out time and the data volume by limiting the signal output only to those pixels belonging to the region of interest. In addition to the reduced read-out time and data volume, the very small pixel area and the use of a deep sub-micron CMOS technology has allowed bringing the noise down to 50 electrons ENC. Results from in depth tests of this device when coupled to a fine pitch (50 μm on a triangular pattern) Gas Electron Multiplier are presented. It was found that matching the read-out and gas amplification pitch allows getting optimal results. The experimental detector response to polarized and unpolarized X-ray radiation when working with two gas mixtures and two different photon energies is shown and the application of this detector for Astronomical X-ray Polarimetry is discussed. Results from a full Monte-Carlo simulation for several galactic and extragalactic astronomical sources are also reported.

  8. Curriculum Biases in Reading Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Pany, Darlene

    1978-01-01

    Examines the extent and direction of curriculum bias in standardized reading achievement tests by comparing the relative overlap in the contents of five separate reading achievement tests with the content of seven commercial reading series. (HOD)

  9. Aeronautic Instruments. Section IV : Direction Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, W S; Stillman, M H; Sanford, R L; Warner, John A C; Sylvander, R C; Rounds, E W

    1923-01-01

    Part one points out the adequacy of a consideration of the steady state gyroscopic motion as a basis for the discussion of displacements of the gyroscope mounted on an airplane, and develops a simple theory on this basis. Principal types of gyroscopic inclinometers are described and requirements stated. Part two describes a new type of stabilizing gyro mounted on top of a spindle by means of a universal joint, the spindle being kept in a vertical position by supporting it as a pendulum of which the bob is the driving motor. Methods of tests and the difficulties in designing a satisfactory and reliable compass for aircraft use in considered in part three. Part four contains a brief general treatment of the important features of construction of aircraft compasses and description of the principal types used.

  10. Assessing Motivation To Read. Instructional Resource No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    The Motivation to Read Profile (MRP) is a public-domain instrument designed to provide teachers with an efficient and reliable way to assess reading motivation qualitatively and quantitatively by evaluating students' self-concept as readers and the value they place on reading. The MRP consists of two basic instruments: the Reading Survey (a…

  11. Reading Diagnosis: Informal Reading Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    The reading diagnosis tests and observations in this book provide a systematic way of gathering information about a student. The first 10 chapters test the following: (1) general reading level through oral reading of graded paragraphs; (2) silent reading comprehension; (3) phonics skills through oral reading of nonsense words and phoneme grapheme…

  12. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  13. READ 180. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "READ 180" is a reading program designed for students in elementary through high school whose reading achievement is below the proficient level. The goal of "READ 180" is to address gaps in students' skills through the use of a computer program, literature, and direct instruction in reading skills. The software component of the program aims to…

  14. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  15. Characterization of thermal desorption instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition calibration method for trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene quantitation.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; Giordano, Braden C; Rogers, Duane A; Lubrano, Adam L; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermal desorption systems for the analysis of trace vapors typically requires establishing a calibration curve from vapors generated with a permeation tube. The slow equilibration time of permeation tubes causes such an approach to become laborious when covering a wide dynamic range. Furthermore, many analytes of interest, such as explosives, are not available as permeation tubes. A method for easily and effectively establishing calibration curves for explosive vapor samples via direct deposition of standard solutions on thermal desorption tubes was investigated. The various components of the thermal desorption system were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet. Calibration curves using the direct liquid deposition method with a thermal desorption unit coupled to a cryo-focusing inlet were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet, and a statistical difference was observed but does not eliminate or deter the use of the direct liquid deposition method for obtaining quantitative results for explosive vapors. PMID:22265176

  16. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

  17. Read Aloud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egawa, Kathy; Katahira, Jenifer

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that reading aloud: incorporates into any language program, is cost effective, requires little preparation, develops listening habits, builds language skills, aids reading comprehension, and impacts students' attitudes toward reading. Lists 15 books that are good to read aloud for K-1, 14 books for grades 2-3, and 13 books good for…

  18. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  19. Assessing Adolescents' Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Sharon M.; Albright, Lettie K.; DeLaney, Carol J.; Walker, Nancy T.; Seunarinesingh, Krishna; Mogge, Stephen; Headley, Kathy N.; Ridgeway, Victoria Gentry; Peck, Sharon; Hunt, Rebecca; Dunston, Pamela J.

    2007-01-01

    A team of researchers revised the Motivation to Read Profile for use with adolescents. Instruments to assess adolescents' in- and out-of-school reading motivations were administered. A survey adapted for adolescents was administered to 384 teens at eight sites throughout the United States and Trinidad, and 100 students were interviewed using a…

  20. The National Reading Conference: The College and Adult Reading Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Norman A.; Smith-Burke, M. Trika

    1999-01-01

    Delves into the birth, childhood, and adolescence of the National Reading Conference, with direct attention given to the germination of the "Journal of Reading Behavior," the former title of this journal. Notes the National Reading Conference has a long and honored history spanning a period of nearly 50 years. (RS)

  1. Impact of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and directional sampling on the retrieval of cloud droplet size by the POLDER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, H.; Chen, L.; Bréon, F. M.; Letu, H.; Li, S.; Wang, Z.; Su, L.

    2015-11-01

    The principles of cloud droplet size retrieval via Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance (POLDER) requires that clouds be horizontally homogeneous. The retrieval is performed by combining all measurements from an area of 150 km × 150 km to compensate for POLDER's insufficient directional sampling. Using POLDER-like data simulated with the RT3 model, we investigate the impact of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and directional sampling on the retrieval and analyze which spatial resolution is potentially accessible from the measurements. Case studies show that the sub-grid-scale variability in droplet effective radius (CDR) can significantly reduce valid retrievals and introduce small biases to the CDR (~ 1.5 μm) and effective variance (EV) estimates. Nevertheless, the sub-grid-scale variations in EV and cloud optical thickness (COT) only influence the EV retrievals and not the CDR estimate. In the directional sampling cases studied, the retrieval using limited observations is accurate and is largely free of random noise. Several improvements have been made to the original POLDER droplet size retrieval. For example, measurements in the primary rainbow region (137-145°) are used to ensure retrievals of large droplet (> 15 μm) and to reduce the uncertainties caused by cloud heterogeneity. We apply the improved method using the POLDER global L1B data from June 2008, and the new CDR results are compared with the operational CDRs. The comparison shows that the operational CDRs tend to be underestimated for large droplets because the cloudbow oscillations in the scattering angle region of 145-165° are weak for cloud fields with CDR > 15 μm. Finally, a sub-grid-scale retrieval case demonstrates that a higher resolution, e.g., 42 km × 42 km, can be used when inverting cloud droplet size distribution parameters from POLDER measurements.

  2. Reading Diagrams. E & I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the area of electrical and instrumentation contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. The objective for the lesson is for the student to learn to locate and apply…

  3. Parental Involvement in Reading Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgan, Karen A.

    Research indicates that parental involvement in activities that support academic areas is directly correlated with reading achievement and development. This study stresses the importance of reading aloud to your child, the connections between reading aloud at home and at school, the value of implementing hands-on literacy based activities that

  4. Reconstructing mitochondrial genomes directly from genomic next-generation sequencing readsa baiting and iterative mapping approach

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Christoph; Bachmann, Lutz; Chevreux, Bastien

    2013-01-01

    We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of non-model organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) datamitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are available as starting-reference sequences or seeds, respectively. We demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in case studies using real NGS data sets of the two monogenean ectoparasites species Gyrodactylus thymalli and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides including their respective teleost hosts European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). MITObim appeared superior to existing tools in terms of accuracy, runtime and memory requirements and fully automatically recovered mitochondrial genomes exceeding 99.5% accuracy from total genomic DNA derived NGS data sets in <24 h using a standard desktop computer. The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR. We furthermore demonstrate the applicability of MITObim for metagenomic/pooled data sets using simulated data. MITObim is an easy to use tool even for biologists with modest bioinformatics experience. The software is made available as open source pipeline under the MIT license at https://github.com/chrishah/MITObim. PMID:23661685

  5. Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for NMR/MRI Instruments at Low-Field

    PubMed Central

    Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to “enjoy” from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed. PMID:24287540

  6. Changes in Reading Habits by Low Literate Adults through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne; Segal, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of two reading interventions on reading habits by 181 low literate adults who read at the 3-5.9 grade levels. One intervention implemented extensive reading (ER group) and the other one had direct instruction (no-ER group). A Reading Pattern survey was administered at the beginning, at the end, and 6 months after the…

  7. Changes in Reading Habits by Low Literate Adults through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne; Segal, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of two reading interventions on reading habits by 181 low literate adults who read at the 3-5.9 grade levels. One intervention implemented extensive reading (ER group) and the other one had direct instruction (no-ER group). A Reading Pattern survey was administered at the beginning, at the end, and 6 months after the

  8. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  9. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  10. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Strings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Philip

    A course in music which emphasizes harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing orchestral string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody…

  11. ZEPLIN-III direct dark matter search : final results and measurements in support of next generation instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhart, Lea

    2013-12-01

    Astrophysical observations give convincing evidence for a vast non-baryonic component, the so-called dark matter, accounting for over 20% of the overall content of our Universe. Direct dark matter search experiments explore the possibility of interactions of these dark matter particles with ordinary baryonic matter via elastic scattering resulting in single nuclear recoils. The ZEPLIN-III detector operated on the basis of a dualphase (liquid/gas) xenon target, recording events in two separate response channels { scintillation and ionisation. These allow discrimination between electron recoils (from background radiation) and the signal expected from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) elastic scatters. Following a productive first exposure, the detector was upgraded with a new array of ultra-low background photomultiplier tubes, reducing the electron recoil background by over an order of magnitude. A second major upgrade to the detector was the incorporation of a tonne-scale active veto detector system, surrounding the WIMP target. Calibration and science data taken in coincidence with ZEPLIN-III showed rejection of up to 30% of the dominant electron recoil background and over 60% of neutron induced nuclear recoils. Data taking for the second science run finished in May 2011 with a total accrued raw fiducial exposure of 1,344 kg days. With this extensive data set, from over 300 days of run time, a limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section of 4.8 10-8 pb near 50 GeV/c2 WIMP mass with 90% confidence was set. This result combined with the first science run of ZEPLIN-III excludes the scalar cross-section above 3.9 10-8 pb. Studying the background data taken by the veto detector allowed a calculation of the neutron yield induced by high energy cosmic-ray muons in lead of (5.8 0.2) 10-3 neutrons/muon/(g/cm2) for a mean muon energy of 260 GeV. Measurements of this kind are of great importance for large scale direct dark matter search experiments and future rare event searches in general. Finally, this work includes a comprehensive measurement of the energy dependent quenching factor for low energy nuclear recoils in a plastic scintillator, such as from the ZEPLIN-III veto detector, increasing accuracy for future simulation packages featuring large scale plastic scintillator detector systems.

  12. Portable instruments for measuring tailpipe diesel particulate in underground mines

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.; Volkwein, J.; Janisko, S.; Patts, L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for direct tailpipe sampling of diesel vehicles in mines in order to determine the effects of an emissions-based maintenance program, evaluate control technologies such as diesel particulate filters and identify the worst diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitters in a fleet of vehicles. Therefore, this study examined the performance of three portable instruments: a personal dust monitor (PDM) manufactured by Thermo Scientific, a prototype elemental carbon monitor (Airtec) manufactured by FLIR and a prototype AE91 instrument from Magee Scientific. These instruments were evaluated on the basis of their ability to provide direct reading tailpipe analysis for DPM. It was determined that the average bias of the tailpipe results from the PDM and the Airtec were 3±12% and 4±20%, respectively, when compared to the standard method of determining tailpipe particulate concentrations from a diluted exhaust. It was also determined that the AE91 instrument correlated with the standard method. PMID:26190861

  13. Exploring Motivational Constructs in Foreign Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ismail Hakki; Zehir Topkaya, Ece; Karakas, Muge

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces an instrument that has been developed to explore motivation and attitudes of students towards reading in a foreign language (FL). To develop the instrument, initially 123 students were asked a set of qualitative questions to determine their affective reactions to reading in a FL. A content analysis of emergent data yielded…

  14. Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

  15. Multicultural Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  16. Reading & Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Several large-scale studies confirm that students nationwide are eschewing reading for other pursuits. Less than one third of 13-year-olds read daily; the percentage of 17-year-olds who read nothing for pleasure has ballooned. In a span of 20 years, American students have transformed from being among the most to the least avid readers of…

  17. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    PubMed Central

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  18. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  19. Geometric-Optical Modeling of Directional Thermal Radiance for Improvement of Land Surface Temperature Retrievals from MODIS, ASTER, and Landsat-7 Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Friedl, Mark; Strahler, Alan

    2002-01-01

    The general objectives of this project were to improve understanding of the directional emittance properties of land surfaces in the thermal infrared (TIR) region of the electro-magnetic spectrum. To accomplish these objectives our research emphasized a combination of theoretical model development and empirical studies designed to improve land surface temperature (LST) retrievals from space-borne remote sensing instruments. Following the proposal, the main tasks for this project were to: (1) Participate in field campaigns; (2) Acquire and process field, aircraft, and ancillary data; (3) Develop and refine models of LST emission; (4) Develop algorithms for LST retrieval; and (5) Explore LST retrieval methods for use in energy balance models. In general all of these objectives were addressed, and for the most part achieved. The main results from this project are described in the publications arising from this effort. We summarize our efforts related to each of the objectives.

  20. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  1. Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance program (now called Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices) is a guided reading intervention in which teachers direct student reading of text. It involves two components. Reading Renaissance, the first component, is a set of recommended principles on guided reading (or teachers' direction of…

  2. Mappability and read length

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 − 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

  3. Reading Mastery. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Reading Mastery" is designed to provide explicit reading instruction to students in grades pre-K-5. One of several Direct Instruction curricula from McGraw-Hill, "Reading Mastery" is available in two versions: (1) "Reading Mastery Classic" (for grades pre-K-2) aims to help beginning readers identify letter sounds, segment words into sounds, blend…

  4. Understanding Shifts in Reading and Its Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a new understanding of what reading is, using that understanding to propose a new sense of balanced reading instruction. Discusses shifts in reading instruction over the years, examines three goals of reading (automatic word recognition, comprehension, and motivation), and describes the balance needed between direct instruction of skills…

  5. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment and Burn-up of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-16

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to utilize non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium (Pu) content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA). In the third year of the NGSI Spent Fuel NDA project, the research focus is on the integration of a few NDA techniques. One of the reoccurring challenges to the accurate determination of Pu content has been the explicit dependence of the measured signal on the presence of neutron absorbers which build up in the assembly in accordance with its operating and irradiation history. The history of any SFA is often summarized by the parameters of burn-up (BU), initial enrichment (IE) and cooling time (CT). While such parameters can typically be provided by the operator, the ability to directly measure and verify them would significantly enhance the autonomy of the IAEA inspectorate. Within this paper, we demonstrate that an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique is in principle capable of direct measurement of IE and, should the CT be known, also the BU.

  6. Awareness of Reading Strategy Use of Indian ESL Students and the Relationship with Reading Comprehension Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhumathi, P.; Ghosh, Arijit

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the study that assessed the first year Indian ESL students' awareness of reading strategy use. It also investigated the relationship that exists between reading strategy use and the reading comprehension achievements of the Indian ESL students. The study utilized two instruments such as SORS and RCT which is the…

  7. The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandesburgi 1598, Nuremberg 1602). One of Tycho's instruments in original size was reconstructed in Oldenburg University and in the Steno Museum in Aarhus, Denmark. In Munich, in the Deutsches Museum's permanent astronomy exhibition (opened in 1992), the Uraniborg observatory and its instruments are shown at a scale of 1:10. A similar but larger model (scale 1:5) from the workshop of the Deutsches Museum was given to the Technical Museum in Malmø, Sweden. Tycho's later observatory Stjerneborg can be seen as a reconstruction on the island Hven (Ven/Sweden) with the original foundations for the instruments.

  8. Eye Movement Instrumentation for Reading Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieger, George R.; Hirschfeld, Rafael

    A method and apparatus for collecting and interpreting eye movement data is described that is both relatively inexpensive and portable. The study lists and describes hardware and software components of a data collection and data analysis system which provides precise information regarding the location, duration, and sequence of eye fixations while…

  9. Reading Remixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  10. Beginning Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southgate, Vera

    From among the papers the author has presented at various conferences and the articles she has written for different journals, nine were selected to form this book. They are all concerned with beginning reading, and each forms a chapter of the book. Chapter one, "Approaches to Beginning Reading in Great Britain," discusses background factors,

  11. Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delo, Lynda

    2008-01-01

    Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful…

  12. Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a major issue in literacy instruction today is whether commercial reading programs emphasizing phonemic awareness and phonics are more effective than teacher-designed programs that focus on literature-based reading and process writing with integrated skill instruction. Reviews two books that address this controversy. Presents seven…

  13. Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a major issue in literacy instruction today is whether commercial reading programs emphasizing phonemic awareness and phonics are more effective than teacher-designed programs that focus on literature-based reading and process writing with integrated skill instruction. Reviews two books that address this controversy. Presents seven

  14. Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  15. Slow Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In the early elementary years, teachers generally pay attention to the act of reading--to the appropriate skill level and pace. But as students move on in the educational system and get to an age when teachers expect them to read on their own, the author suspects teachers pay less and less attention to this problem of pace. When they push students…

  16. Read Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

  17. Reading Remixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to

  18. Slipover urethral instrument system.

    PubMed

    Heyman, A M; Kogler, P; Vogel, M; Goodwin, D A

    1982-10-01

    An inovative system has been devised using an elongated hollow guide and slipover urethral instruments. Inherent in this concept are many safety features. A slipover follower and sound will replace current instruments with the threaded locking mechanism. The versatility of the system is demonstrated by the passage of the Councill catheter, cystoscope and direct vision urethrotome over the guide. The orderly interaction of all instruments facilitates their use. PMID:7143597

  19. Corrective Reading: An Evidence-Based Remedial Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempenstall, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    This article first examines recent theoretical and empirical research on reading development and instruction in English-speaking countries. Then, a study is described that examines the effects of a synthetic phonics-emphasis Direct Instruction remedial reading program on the phonological processes of students, with teacher-identified serious…

  20. Television and the Classroom Reading Program. Reading Aids Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, George J.

    This booklet is intended for classroom teachers who would like to teach reading within the context of television. Most of the activities presented in this booklet pertain directly to reading, but other aspects of a language arts program (listening, speaking, and writing) are also given some attention. The activities are designed to serve as a…

  1. Improving Reading and Language Arts Skills of At-Risk First Graders through Direct Instruction of Print Awareness, Phoneme Awareness, and Phonological Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Sandra K.; Swedberg, Trina L.; Yates, Carol R.

    This report describes a program to improve reading and language arts skills. The targeted population consisted of students in 2 first grade classrooms (average class size 25) from a midwestern elementary school in a predominantly white, middle to upper-middle class neighborhood. Data documenting the problem was obtained from the previous year's…

  2. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  3. Reading: A Behavior Modification Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edlund, Calvin V.

    This report provides illustrations of practical applications of behavior modification to a variety of reading skills and is intended to be directly implemented in any classroom where reading is taught. The initial chapter is a brief orientation to behavior modification. It stresses that the trainer must answer the question of what behavior is to…

  4. Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

    1923-01-01

    This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

  5. Reading Networks at Rest

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clare; Shehzad, Zarrar; Penesetti, Deepak; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approaches offer a novel tool to delineate distinct functional networks in the brain. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we elucidated patterns of RSFC associated with 6 regions of interest selected primarily from a meta-analysis on word reading (Bolger DJ, Perfetti CA, Schneider W. 2005. Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: universal structures plus writing system variation. Hum Brain Mapp. 25: 92–104). In 25 native adult readers of English, patterns of positive RSFC were consistent with patterns of task-based activity and functional connectivity associated with word reading. Moreover, conjunction analyses highlighted the posterior left inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior left middle temporal gyrus (post-LMTG) as potentially important loci of functional interaction among 5 of the 6 reading networks. The significance of the post-LMTG has typically been unappreciated in task-based studies on unimpaired readers but is frequently reported to be a locus of hypoactivity in dyslexic readers and exhibits intervention-induced changes of activity in dyslexic children. Finally, patterns of negative RSFC included not only regions of the so-called default mode network but also regions involved in effortful controlled processes, which may not be required once reading becomes automatized. In conclusion, the current study supports the utility of resting-state fMRI for investigating reading networks and has direct relevance for the understanding of reading disorders such as dyslexia. PMID:20139150

  6. Reading Aloud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 34 children's books that are excellent for reading aloud: some of them for inviting interaction, for laughing out loud, for prompting discussion, for living vicariously, for lingering over language, and for making curricular connections. (SR)

  7. Does E-Reading Enhance Reading Fluency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Rahima S.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Dashti, Abdulmohsin A.; Sadeq, Taiba M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is reading as much as possible, for one's own pleasure, at a difficulty level at which one can read smoothly and quickly. In the domain of reading, this paper investigates the effect of extensive reading from e-books, through utilizing a number of downloadable reading application programs on the students' e-devices, as opposed to…

  8. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-13

    An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) ({sigma} < 5%); (3) Determination of burn up (BU) ({sigma} {approx} 6%); (4) Determination of cooling time (CT) ({sigma} {approx} 20-50%); and (5) DDA instrument as a standalone device. DDA response (fresh fuel vs. spent fuel) is: (1) Fresh fuel => DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

  9. Unlocking Short Read Sequencing for Metagenomics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodrigue, Sébastien; Materna, Arne C.; Timberlake, Sonia C.; Blackburn, Matthew C.; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Alm, Eric J.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Gilbert, Jack Anthony

    2010-07-28

    We describe an experimental and computational pipeline yielding millions of reads that can exceed 200 bp with quality scores approaching that of traditional Sanger sequencing. The method combines an automatable gel-less library construction step with paired-end sequencing on a short-read instrument. With appropriately sized library inserts, mate-pair sequences can overlap, and we describe the SHERA software package that joins them to form a longer composite read.

  10. Unlocking Short Read Sequencing for Metagenomics.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigue, S A. C.; Materna, S C; Timberlake, M C; Blacburn, R R; Malmstrom, E J. Alm; Chisholm, S W

    2010-01-01

    We describe an experimental and computational pipeline yielding millions of reads that can exceed 200 bp with quality scores approaching that of traditional Sanger sequencing. The method combines an automatable gel-less library construction step with paired-end sequencing on a short-read instrument. With appropriately sized library inserts, mate-pair sequences can overlap, and we describe the SHERA software package that joins them to form a longer composite read.

  11. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  12. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  13. Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

  14. Additivity of detector responses of a portable direct-reading 10. 2 eV photoionization detector and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for atmospheres of multicomponent organics: use of PID/FID ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, I.N.; Hee, S.S.Q.; Clark, C.S.

    1987-05-01

    The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2 eV and Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixtures of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was accounted for the PID. The PI-101 was not as precise as the Century OVA-128 for 90% RH atmospheres. PID/FID ratios did not change in the presence of 90% RH as long as the effect of RH also was accounted for in the PID reading. The compounds investigated included: toluene, benzaldehyde; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, methyl chloroform, methylene dichloride, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol and acetonitrile.

  15. Reading Mastery. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Reading Mastery," one of several curriculum components that constitute the "Direct Instruction" curriculum from SRA/McGraw-Hill, is designed to provide systematic instruction in reading to students in grades K-6. "Reading Mastery," which can be used as an intervention program for struggling readers, as a supplement to a school's core reading…

  16. Assessing Children's Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Valerie

    1987-01-01

    Less is known about how children read connected text in silent reading, and the range of reading strategies used in an ordinary primary school classroom, than about the reading of single words, oral reading and reading by skilled adults. This paper describes and evaluates a method of testing children's silent reading in which they are their own…

  17. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  18. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed

  19. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  20. Effect of air-scattered. beta. particles on instrument and dosimeter response

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Air-scattered ..beta.. particles are responsible for many of the inaccuracies encountered when readings are obtained with many types of ..beta.. survey instrument and personnel dosimeters. The ratio of ..beta.. particles scattered at various angles to ..beta..'s coming directly from the source increases as the distance from the source increases. This ratio, at a given distance from the source, is also a function of the ..beta.. energy, becoming larger for lower-energy ..beta.. sources. Changes in this ratio cause the response of ..beta.. instruments to have an apparent change in the directional response. Air-scattered ..beta..'s also cause personnel dosimeters, which are not properly designed to detect them, to have responses that are low. The authors give experimental results to confirm the above effects. Design changes to survey instruments and dosimeters are suggested that would eliminate the errors created by the failure of the instruments to detect these air-scattered ..beta.. particles.

  1. Measurement Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    International Technology Corporation (INTEC) manufactures a line of instruments used for determining the optical properties of materials used in solar energy applications. Some of INTEC's instruments are based on NASA technology, including the Willey Alpha Meter and McDonald Emissometer. The emissometer is a commercial version of a system developed by Lewis Research Center to test efficiency- increasing coatings on solar panels. These instruments are used by manufacturers of solar equipment, government, university and private laboratories.

  2. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  3. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  4. Reading Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Patricia

    This paper describes a first-year English-as-foreign-language junior college reading course in Japan that utilized a combination of whole class instruction and cooperative learning techniques to encourage group discussion and language skill development. Students were randomly divided into groups of eight--a group which became the students' home…

  5. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  6. DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test: Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Irene; Williams, Virginia

    The DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test is to be used as one means of identifying some strengths and weaknesses in certain areas of pre-reading skills. It is intended to be used as a screening instrument for beginning first graders. The areas of pre-reading skills to be screened are (1) auditory perception, (2) letter knowledge,

  7. Assessing Adult/Child Storybook Reading Practices. CIERA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea

    This paper reviews the existing research on joint storybook reading practices, outlining the behaviors essential for success. It then describes and reports on the efficacy of an assessment instrument, the Adult/Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI). The ACIRI is an observational tool for assessing the joint reading behaviors of both adults…

  8. Effects of Corrective Reading on the Reading Abilities and Classroom Behaviors of Middle School Students with Reading Deficits and Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingo, Amy S.; Slaton, Deborah Bott; Jolivette, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    A multiple probe design was employed for this study to assess the effectiveness of the "Corrective Reading" program (Engelmann et al., 1999) on students' reading fluency and behavior during reading-related instruction. Direct observations assessed the effect on students' behavior in both general and special education classrooms. Reading fluency…

  9. Interpreting the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index observed with the OMI satellite instrument to understand absorption by organic aerosols: implications for atmospheric oxidation and direct radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, M. S.; Martin, R. V.; van Donkelaar, A.; Buchard, V.; Torres, O.; Ridley, D. A.; Spurr, R. J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite observations of the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index (UVAI) are sensitive to absorption of solar radiation by aerosols; this absorption affects photolysis frequencies and radiative forcing. We develop a global simulation of the UVAI using the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem coupled with the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model (VLIDORT). The simulation is applied to interpret UVAI observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the year 2007. Simulated and observed values are highly consistent in regions where mineral dust dominates the UVAI, but a large negative bias (-0.32 to -0.97) exists between simulated and observed values in biomass burning regions. We determine effective optical properties for absorbing organic aerosol, known as brown carbon (BrC), and implement them into GEOS-Chem to better represent observed UVAI values over biomass burning regions. The addition of absorbing BrC decreases the mean bias between simulated and OMI UVAI values from -0.57 to -0.09 over West Africa in January, from -0.32 to +0.0002 over South Asia in April, from -0.97 to -0.22 over southern Africa in July, and from -0.50 to +0.33 over South America in September. The spectral dependence of absorption after adding BrC to the model is broadly consistent with reported observations for biomass burning aerosol, with Absorbing Angstrom Exponent (AAE) values ranging from 2.9 in the ultraviolet (UV) to 1.3 across the UV-Near IR spectrum. We assess the effect of the additional UV absorption by BrC on atmospheric photochemistry by examining tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in GEOS-Chem. The inclusion of BrC decreases OH by up to 35 % over South America in September, up to 25 % over southern Africa in July, and up to 20 % over other biomass burning regions. Global annual mean OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem decrease due to the presence of absorbing BrC, increasing the methyl chloroform lifetime from 5.62 to 5.68 years, thus reducing the bias against observed values. We calculate the direct radiative effect (DRE) of BrC using GEOS-Chem coupled with the radiative transfer model RRTMG (GC-RT). Treating organic aerosol as containing absorbing BrC rather than as primarily scattering changes global annual mean all-sky top of atmosphere (TOA) DRE by +0.05 W m-2 and all-sky surface DRE by -0.06 W m-2. Regional changes of up to +0.5 W m-2 at TOA and down to -1 W m-2 at the surface are found over major biomass burning regions.

  10. Interpreting the ultraviolet aerosol index observed with the OMI satellite instrument to understand absorption by organic aerosols: implications for atmospheric oxidation and direct radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Melanie S.; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Buchard, Virginie; Torres, Omar; Ridley, David A.; Spurr, Robert J. D.

    2016-03-01

    Satellite observations of the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI) are sensitive to absorption of solar radiation by aerosols; this absorption affects photolysis frequencies and radiative forcing. We develop a global simulation of the UVAI using the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem coupled with the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model (VLIDORT). The simulation is applied to interpret UVAI observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the year 2007. Simulated and observed values are highly consistent in regions where mineral dust dominates the UVAI, but a large negative bias (-0.32 to -0.97) exists between simulated and observed values in biomass burning regions. We determine effective optical properties for absorbing organic aerosol, known as brown carbon (BrC), and implement them into GEOS-Chem to better represent observed UVAI values over biomass burning regions. The inclusion of absorbing BrC decreases the mean bias between simulated and OMI UVAI values from -0.57 to -0.09 over West Africa in January, from -0.32 to +0.0002 over South Asia in April, from -0.97 to -0.22 over southern Africa in July, and from -0.50 to +0.33 over South America in September. The spectral dependence of absorption after including BrC in the model is broadly consistent with reported observations for biomass burning aerosol, with absorbing Ångström exponent (AAE) values ranging from 2.9 in the ultraviolet (UV) to 1.3 across the UV-Near IR spectrum. We assess the effect of the additional UV absorption by BrC on atmospheric photochemistry by examining tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in GEOS-Chem. The inclusion of BrC decreases OH by up to 30 % over South America in September, up to 20 % over southern Africa in July, and up to 15 % over other biomass burning regions. Global annual mean OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem decrease due to the presence of absorbing BrC, increasing the methyl chloroform lifetime from 5.62 to 5.68 years, thus reducing the bias against observed values. We calculate the direct radiative effect (DRE) of BrC using GEOS-Chem coupled with the radiative transfer model RRTMG (GC-RT). Treating organic aerosol as containing more strongly absorbing BrC changes the global annual mean all-sky top of atmosphere (TOA) DRE by +0.03 W m-2 and all-sky surface DRE by -0.08 W m-2. Regional changes of up to +0.3 W m-2 at TOA and down to -1.5 W m-2 at the surface are found over major biomass burning regions.

  11. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C.J.

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  12. Reading Mastery/SRA/McGraw-Hill. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Reading Mastery" is a direct instruction program designed to provide explicit, systematic instruction in English language reading. Reading Mastery is available in two versions, "Reading Mastery Classic" levels I and II (for use in grades K-3) and "Reading Mastery Plus," an integrated reading-language program for grades K-6. The program begins by…

  13. Quantifying uniformity of mapped reads

    PubMed Central

    Hower, Valerie; Starfield, Richard; Roberts, Adam; Pachter, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Summary: We describe a tool for quantifying the uniformity of mapped reads in high-throughput sequencing experiments. Our statistic directly measures the uniformity of both read position and fragment length, and we explain how to compute a P-value that can be used to quantify biases arising from experimental protocols and mapping procedures. Our method is useful for comparing different protocols in experiments such as RNA-Seq. Availability and implementation: We provide a freely available and open source python script that can be used to analyze raw read data or reads mapped to transcripts in BAM format at http://www.math.miami.edu/~vhower/ReadSpy.html Contact: lpachter@math.berkeley.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22815359

  14. Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

  15. The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9–12. Students were paired within classes and pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: repeated reading (N = 33), wide reading (N = 34), or typical instruction (N = 29). Intervention was provided daily for approximately 15–20 minutes for 10 weeks. Results indicated no overall statistically significant differences for any condition, with effect sizes ranging from −.31 to .27. Findings do not support either approach for severely impaired readers at the high school level. We hypothesize that these students require more intensive interventions that include direct and explicit instruction in word- and text-level skills as well as engaged reading practice with effective feedback. PMID:21076693

  16. The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A

    2010-02-01

    This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9-12. Students were paired within classes and pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: repeated reading (N = 33), wide reading (N = 34), or typical instruction (N = 29). Intervention was provided daily for approximately 15-20 minutes for 10 weeks. Results indicated no overall statistically significant differences for any condition, with effect sizes ranging from -.31 to .27. Findings do not support either approach for severely impaired readers at the high school level. We hypothesize that these students require more intensive interventions that include direct and explicit instruction in word- and text-level skills as well as engaged reading practice with effective feedback. PMID:21076693

  17. Academic English Reading for International College Students: The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language…

  18. Academic English Reading for International College Students: The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language

  19. Exploring Dispositions toward Online Reading: Analyzing the Survey of Online Reading Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, S. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on the literacy practices of today's students. Acknowledging the complex processes associated with reading online, the Survey of Online Reading Attitudes and Behaviors (SORAB) was created to further our understandings in this area. A factor analysis revealed the instrument included five factors that…

  20. Exploring Dispositions toward Online Reading: Analyzing the Survey of Online Reading Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, S. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on the literacy practices of today's students. Acknowledging the complex processes associated with reading online, the Survey of Online Reading Attitudes and Behaviors (SORAB) was created to further our understandings in this area. A factor analysis revealed the instrument included five factors that

  1. The Effects of Family Cultural Capital and Reading Motivation on Reading Behaviour in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Hsiu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a structural model of the effects of family cultural capital and reading motivation on reading behaviour in elementary school students. Participants were 467 fifth and sixth graders from elementary schools in Changhua County, Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study included the Family Cultural Capital Scale,…

  2. Using Reading Circles Strategy for Developing Preparatory Students' Critical Reading Skills and Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrasoul, Mohamed Mahmoud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at developing the necessary critical reading skills and social skills of the Egyptian EFL second year preparatory school students, through a proposed program based on using reading circles strategy. The study participants were 44 students from Sohag Experimental Preparatory School in Sohag Governorate. Instruments of the…

  3. Reading Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

  4. Issues in Evaluating Reading. Linguistics and Reading Series: 1. Papers in Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Stanley F., Ed.

    Six papers are included in this collection. "How Misconceptions about Language Affect Judgments about Intelligence," by Roger W. Shuy, and "The Cultural Context of Learning to Read," by R. P. McDermott, deal with contexts in which evaluation of a student's reading are made: a teacher's direct evaluation of a student's reading performance, and a…

  5. Instrumentation '79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

  6. Accurate reading comprehension rate as an indicator of broad reading in students in first, second, and third grades.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Dennis; Thompson, Kelly; Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reading comprehension rate measures and broad reading skill development was examined using data from approximately 1425 students (grades 1-3). Students read 3 passages, from a pool of 30, and answered open-ended comprehension questions. Accurate reading comprehension rate (ARCR) was calculated by dividing the percentage of questions answered correctly (%QC) by seconds required to read the passage. Across all 30 passages, ARCR and its two components, %QC correct and time spent reading (1/seconds spent reading the passage), were significantly correlated with broad reading scores, with %QC resulting in the lowest correlations. Two sequential regressions supported previous findings which suggest that ARCR measures consistently produced meaningful incremental increases beyond %QC in the amount of variance explained in broad reading skill; however, ARCR produced small or no incremental increases beyond reading time. Discussion focuses on the importance of the measure of reading time embedded in brief accurate reading rate measures and directions for future research. PMID:26407836

  7. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of functions. The sensor data is processed in a distributed fashion across the network, providing a large pool of resources in real time to meet stringent latency requirements.

  8. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  9. Oceanographic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

  10. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  11. Reading To Learn: Study Reading for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia

    This paper discusses the concept of "study reading" as used at a learning disabilities clinic at the University of Southampton, England. Study reading is defined as attentive reading to learn and remember, as different from reading that is performed simply to follow a narrative or browsing for one's own, self-set purposes. Results obtained with…

  12. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  13. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  14. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for

  15. Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Karl A.

    A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

  16. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made

  17. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  18. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  19. Adapting a Multiple-Baseline Design Rationale for Evaluating Instructional Interventions: Implications for the Adoption of Direct Instruction Reading Curricula for Evidence-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Michael R.; Kaniuka, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    Present national methodological standards for evaluating the credibility of the design of individual research studies have resulted in findings reporting the pre-­post effectiveness of Direct Instruction programs to be eliminated from consideration by educational leaders involved in making curricular decisions intended to advance local school…

  20. Using School Reform Models to Improve Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction and Success for All in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Nunnery, John A.; Goldfeder, Elizabeth; McDonald, Aaron; Rachor, Robert; Hornbeck, Matthew; Fleischman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness in an urban school district of 2 of the most widely used Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs-Direct Instruction (DI), implemented in 9 district elementary schools, and Success for All (SFA), implemented in 2 elementary schools. In examining impacts on student achievement and school change outcomes…

  1. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  2. A Framework for Analysis of Case Studies of Reading Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Kelcey, Ben; Rosaen, Cheryl; Phelps, Geoffrey; Vereb, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and study of a framework to provide direction and guidance for practicing teachers in using a web-based case studies program for professional development in early reading; the program is called Case Studies Reading Lessons (CSRL). The framework directs and guides teachers' analysis of reading instruction by…

  3. Early reading performance: a comparison of teacher-based and test-based assessments.

    PubMed

    Kenny, D T; Chekaluk, E

    1993-04-01

    An unresolved question in early screening is whether test-based or teacher-based assessments should form the basis of the classification of children at risk of educational failure. Available structured teacher rating scales are lacking in predictive validity, and teacher predictions of students likely to experience reading difficulties have yielded disappointing true positive rates, with teachers failing to identify the majority of severely disabled readers. For this study, three educational screening instruments were developed: (a) a single teacher rating, categorizing children into three levels of reading ability (advanced, average, poor); (b) a 15-item teacher questionnaire designed to measure students' cognitive and language ability, attentional and behavioral characteristics, and academic performance; and (c) a battery of language and reading tests that are predictive of, or correlate with, reading failure. The concurrent validity of each instrument was assessed in a sample of 312 Australian schoolchildren from kindergarten, Year 1, and Year 2. Students were assessed at the end of the 1989 school year after having completed 1, 2, or 3 years of schooling. The results suggest that the nature of the skills required for success in reading changes in the first 3 years of schooling. Both teachers and tests concur more closely as children progress through the elementary years and as the risk behavior (reading) becomes more accessible to direct measurement. Carefully focused teacher rating scales may be a cost-effective means of identifying children at risk of reading failure. Improved teacher rating scales should be developed and used to assist in the early screening process. PMID:8515187

  4. Reading Consultant's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Penny, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook contains brief essays concerning aspects of reading and reading skills, activities designed to promote those skills, and biographies of reading specialists. The first section of the handbook discusses reading readiness, word recognition, word analysis, word meaning, comprehension, and content area reading. After discussion of each…

  5. Read It New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Presents two exercises that offer some ways to read anything creatively. Explains that, in "page skips," a page is read and then pages are flipped randomly to continue reading; and in "reading the blank page," a bound volume of blank pages is "read" starting at the top center of the first page (where a title would be). (PA)

  6. All About Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights Into Open Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Focusing on reading, this issue of "Insights" contains three sections. The first, by Clara A. Pedersen, lists 20 questions which teachers and administrators should ask themselves before administering reading tests. The second, "What's Wrong with Reading Tests" by Deborah Meier, defines reading, describes learning to read, and analyzes the problems…

  7. Reading problems and depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Barbara; Rowe, Richard; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2003-04-01

    Although reading difficulties show well-established overlaps with disruptive behavior disorders in childhood, much less is known about reading-disabled children's vulnerability to emotional difficulties. Using longitudinal data from 6 assessments of boys in the Pittsburgh Youth Study, we found robust links between severe, persistent reading problems and increased risk for depressed mood in a community sample of boys aged 7 and 10 years at initial assessment, though not in those who had already entered their teens. These associations could not be accounted for in terms of selected family risks or comorbid disruptive behaviors; instead, the pattern of the findings pointed to the existence of more direct causal processes whereby reading problems influence younger boys' risk of depressed mood. PMID:12735404

  8. RHIC instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  9. Laboratory Investigation of Direct Measurement of Ice Water Content, Ice Surface Area, and Effective Radius of Ice Crystals Using a Laser-Diffraction Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, H.; DeMott, P. J.; Rogers, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    The aircraft microphysics probe, PVM-100A, was tested in the Colorado State University dynamic cloud chamber to establish its ability to measure ice water content (IWC), PSA, and Re in ice clouds. Its response was compared to other means of measuring those ice-cloud parameters that included using FSSP-100 and 230-X 1-D optical probes for ice-crystal concentrations, a film-loop microscope for ice-crystal habits and dimensions, and an in-situ microscope for determining ice-crystal orientation. Intercomparisons were made in ice clouds containing ice crystals ranging in size from about 10 microns to 150 microns diameter, and ice crystals with plate, columnar, dendritic, and spherical shapes. It was not possible to determine conclusively that the PVM accurately measures IWC, PSA, and Re of ice crystals, because heat from the PVM evaporated in part the crystals in its vicinity in the chamber thus affecting its measurements. Similarities in the operating principle of the FSSP and PVM, and a comparison between Re measured by both instruments, suggest, however, that the PVM can make those measurements. The resolution limit of the PVM for IWC measurements was found to be on the order of 0.001 g/cubic m. Algorithms for correcting IWC measured by FSSP and PVM were developed.

  10. "Why are Your Kids Writing during Reading Time?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Bill

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hypothetical situation of an elementary school principal's concern at students writing during reading time, and offers a possible teacher's response with information about the direct tie between writing and reading improvement. (JC)

  11. Reading: The Human Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roswell, Florence G.

    1978-01-01

    Reading programs must be reassessed, and fragmented, isolated, and repetitive exercises must be eliminated. The goal of any reading program is to get the child to experience the joys of reading and learning. (Author/WI)

  12. Reading Through Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional data matrix symbols, which contain encoded letters and numbers, are permanently etched on items for identification. They can store up to 100 times more information than traditional bar codes. While the symbols provide several advantages over bar codes, once they are covered by paint they can no longer be read by optical scanners. Since most products are painted eventually, this presents a problem for industries relying on the symbols for identification and tracking. In 1987, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center began studying direct parts marking with matrix symbols in order to track millions of Space Shuttle parts. Advances in the technology proved that by incorporating magnetic properties into the paints, inks, and pastes used to apply the matrix symbols, the codes could be read by a magnetic scanner even after being covered with paint or other coatings. NASA received a patent for such a scanner in 1998, but the system it used for development was not portable and was too costly. A prototype was needed as a lead-in to a production model. In the summer of 2000, NASA began seeking companies to build a hand-held scanner that would detect the Read Through Paint data matrix identification marks containing magnetic materials through coatings.

  13. Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading…

  14. Developing Reading Fluency with Repeated Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Kubina, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    Repeated reading has gained popularity as a technique for helping students achieve reading fluency. It is widely implemented and can be used for students with and without disabilities. Repeated reading has several components that make it more efficient. This article shares those components and provides a framework for setting up and using repeated…

  15. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who

  16. EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF VARIABILITY IN READING RATE IN GRADES FOUR, FIVE AND SIX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRIS, THEODORE L.; AND OTHERS

    METHODS OF TESTING, EVALUATING, AND TEACHING READING IN THE FOURTH, FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES ARE DESCRIBED. CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF VARIABILITY IN READING SPEED ARE DISCUSSED. DESIGN WAS BASED ON THE RATIONALE THAT A MEANINGFUL READING-TIME SCORE DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE SUBJECT'S PURPOSE FOR READING. WHILE READING SPEED MAY

  17. Bloomfield-Barnhart Developmental Reading Mastery Test: Evaluator's Handbook [and] Individual Pupil Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Cynthia A.; And Others

    The Developmental Reading Mastery Test of oral reading, comprehension, spelling, and language skills is based on curriculum materials by the Bloomfield-Barnhart reading program, Let's Read. The non-graded program teaches reading in eleven steps (skill sequences), with corresponding subtests, as follows: (1) shape discrimination, directionality;

  18. Learning to Read in Different Languages. Linguistics and Literacy Series: 1. Papers in Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudelson, Sarah, Ed.

    The following papers on acquisition of reading skills are included: (1) "Miscue Analysis and Future Research Directions" (Goodman); (2) "Reading in Spanish: Insights from Children's Miscues" (Barrera); (3) "An Investigation of the Oral Reading Behaviors of Native Spanish Speakers Reading in Spanish" (Hudelson); (4) "A Study of Oral Reading in…

  19. Development of a Single DoD Reading Grade Level (RGL) Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Brian K.

    Research on military reading abilities has shown a direct relationship between reading ability and training and job performance. The objectives of this study of the development of a reading scale were to: (1) measure the reading ability of military applicants using six commonly used reading tests; (2) use the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude

  20. Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction. Reading Research Report No. 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.; And Others

    A 2-year project was designed to reorganize basal reading instruction as to stress fluent reading and automatic word recognition. The reorganized reading program had three components: a redesigned basal reading lesson, stressing repeated reading and partner reading; a choice reading period during the day; and a home reading program. Over the 2…

  1. Factoring AAVE into Reading Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Rebecca; Cartwright, Kelly B.; Swords, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In our increasingly diverse schools, students bring diverse ways of speaking to the classroom. In turn, as features from students' home language varieties transfer into their readings of texts, teachers' assessment and intervention plans may be directly affected. If teachers conflate dialect influence with reading error in Standard English, they

  2. Speech, the Alphabet, and Teaching to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Isabelle Y.; Shankweiler, Donald

    The dependence of reading on speech is based on three assumptions: speech is the primary language system, acquired naturally without direct instruction; alphabetic writing systems are more or less phonetic representations of oral language; and speech appears to be an essential foundation for the acquisition of reading ability. By presupposing…

  3. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  4. Oral Language and Reading: Reply to Bracken

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developmental Psychology, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Early language competence in preschool relates both directly and indirectly to elementary school reading in both 1st and 3rd grades. Further, comprehensive language skills are more strongly related to early reading than are vocabulary scores alone. In response to a challenge by S. A. Bracken (2005), the current article reaffirms the National…

  5. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP

  6. Factoring AAVE into Reading Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Rebecca; Cartwright, Kelly B.; Swords, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In our increasingly diverse schools, students bring diverse ways of speaking to the classroom. In turn, as features from students' home language varieties transfer into their readings of texts, teachers' assessment and intervention plans may be directly affected. If teachers conflate dialect influence with reading error in Standard English, they…

  7. A Never-Get-Lost Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a reading support technique for Arabic students of English. These students must overcome the L1 interference "reversal of reading direction." PowerPoint presentations, utilizing a simple fade effect with adjustable delay between words such that the text appears nicely in a left-to-right manner, line by line with voice roughly…

  8. Three-dimensional direct simulation Monte-Carlo modeling of the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by the VIRTIS and ROSINA instruments on board Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fougere, N.; Altwegg, K.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Bieler, A.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Calmonte, U.; Capaccioni, F.; Combi, M. R.; De Keyser, J.; Debout, V.; Erard, S.; Fiethe, B.; Filacchione, G.; Fink, U.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Huang, Z.; Le Roy, L.; Leyrat, C.; Migliorini, A.; Piccioni, G.; Rinaldi, G.; Rubin, M.; Shou, Y.; Tenishev, V.; Toth, G.; Tzou, C.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Since its rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), the Rosetta spacecraft has provided invaluable information contributing to our understanding of the cometary environment. On board, the VIRTIS and ROSINA instruments can both measure gas parameters in the rarefied cometary atmosphere, the so-called coma, and provide complementary results with remote sensing and in situ measurement techniques, respectively. The data from both ROSINA and VIRTIS instruments suggest that the source regions of H2O and CO2 are not uniformly distributed over the surface of the nucleus even after accounting for the changing solar illumination of the irregularly shaped rotating nucleus. The source regions of H2O and CO2 are also relatively different from one another. Aims: The use of a combination of a formal numerical data inversion method with a fully kinetic coma model is a way to correlate and interpret the information provided by these two instruments to fully understand the volatile environment and activity of comet 67P. Methods: In this work, the nonuniformity of the outgassing activity at the surface of the nucleus is described by spherical harmonics and constrained by ROSINA-DFMS data. This activity distribution is coupled with the local illumination to describe the inner boundary conditions of a 3D direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach using the Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS) code applied to the H2O and CO2 coma of comet 67P. Results: We obtain activity distribution of H2O and CO2 showing a dominant source of H2O in the Hapi region, while more CO2 is produced in the southern hemisphere. The resulting model outputs are analyzed and compared with VIRTIS-M/-H and ROSINA-DFMS measurements, showing much better agreement between model and data than a simpler model assuming a uniform surface activity. The evolution of the H2O and CO2 production rates with heliocentric distance are derived accurately from the coma model showing agreement between the observations from the different instruments and ground-based observations. Conclusions: We derive the activity distributions for H2O and CO2 at the surface of the nucleus described in spherical harmonics, which we couple to the local solar illumination to constitute the boundary conditions of our coma model. The model presented reproduces the coma observations made by the ROSINA and VIRTIS instruments on board the Rosetta spacecraft showing our understanding of the physics of 67P's coma. This model can be used for further data analyses, such as dust modeling, in a future work.

  9. Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

  10. Psychometric Research in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frederick B.

    This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

  11. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  12. Improving Reading Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Roger, Ed.; And Others

    This book includes papers related to reading research from the International Reading Association's 1974 preconvention institute on research held in New Orleans. The introduction by Samuel Weintraub and Roger Farr discusses such questions as: Where does reading research need to be improved? What is research? What areas of reading research demand…

  13. Reading with Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linderholm, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    In college-level courses, the vast majority of students read expository textbooks with a primary purpose in mind: to memorize and, hopefully, understand enough information to receive a particular grade on a course exam. Intuitively, this kind of reading is different than the kind of reading that these same students do when reading a novel while…

  14. Theme: Reading for Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The articles in this journal for reading teachers stress the importance of enjoyment in the reading process. The topics discussed include the following: the role of comic books in the classroom, the effect of story telling on oral language and imagination development, the place of the library in reading for enjoyment, reading motivation through…

  15. Theme: Parents and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue concentrates on the theme "Parents and Reading." It presents articles on sharing books with young children, using public relations in a reading program, guiding preschool learning, assessing language readiness, working with reading problems, and teaching reading readiness in Wisconsin kindergartens. Resources and a review of…

  16. Developing Reading Skills, Advanced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirasawa, Louise; Markstein, Linda

    This text for students of English as a second language is designed to develop reading skills and to expand general vocabulary as a preparatory step toward reading and understanding college texts. Particular attention is given to reading technique and to the development of reading speed. The articles, representative of current newspaper and…

  17. What Should Students Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The reading students are required to do for school bears little semblance to the reading they do outside of school. Students today are reading the same texts in school that students read a generation ago, but the varieties of text used outside of school are much different. One result is that many students are unmotivated to become readers.…

  18. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading

  19. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  20. Performance determined instruction for training in remedial reading1

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Burl B.; Baker, Richard D.; Stancyk, Susan E.

    1969-01-01

    A system called Performance Determined Instruction (PDI) is presented as a methodological tactic for training in remedial reading. The system incorporates aspects of binary logic, instrumental conditioning, and programmed instruction. Results suggest that PDI is a high-precision instructional procedure effective in obtaining desired changes in reading-task performance. PMID:16795229

  1. Examining and Influencing the Home Reading Behaviors of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romatowski, Jane A.; Trepanier, Mary L.

    A survey was conducted of parents of preschool children in a child development center to determine the current level of home reading behavior. Twenty-five parents completed the survey instrument, which consisted of questions concerning the number of available children's books in the home, the time spent reading with the child, and the quality or…

  2. The Prediction of Reading Achievement in Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James B., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to devise a simple instrument that could be helpful in predicting reading success by classroom teachers and school administrators who are not experts in the field of reading. The subjects, 190 randomly selected first graders, were given "Alphabet" and "Numbers" of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests and "Information" and…

  3. A Comparison of Piagetian Conservation Concepts with Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caballero, Jane Alexis

    This study involved a comparison of first and second grade students' performance on the Piagetian Task Administration Instrument (PTAI), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) with actual reading achievement measured by placement on the Indiviudally Paced Instruction (IPI) Tracking Card in Reading, which was…

  4. Mathematics Reading Ability. SMESG Working Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begle, E. G.

    Examined was the importance of the ability to read mathematical prose to the learning of mathematics by fifth graders. Early in the fall, a battery of instruments was administered; these included a computation test of division, four simple geometric questions, some non-routine problems, and an arithmetic reasoning test. A week later a reading test…

  5. The Criterion-Referenced Measurement of an Early Reading Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Sean A.

    In recent years, increasing criticism of norm-referenced measures of reading ability has sparked researchers' and educators' interest in criterion-referenced instruments. This study attempted to shed light on these issues by constructing a criterion-referenced test of early reading behavior, by presenting a rationale for its construction from both…

  6. Exploration of the Structure of Selected Reading Readiness Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Arthur V.; Rosen Carl L.

    A variety of factor analysis techniques were employed to explore the structure of five reading readiness instruments (Gates Reading Readiness Test, Developmental Tests of Visual Perception, Metropolitan Readiness Tests, Specially Constructed Readiness Test by Olson, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) as predictor variables of performance on…

  7. Incorporating Reading Skills into Art Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peragallo, Anne M.

    1981-01-01

    Using a ceramics unit, the author illustrates ways of incorporating the following reading skills into an art lesson: following directions; pronunciation, spelling, and vocabulary development; interpreting illustrations; using reference books and materials; notetaking; and skimming. (SJL)

  8. 46 CFR 151.20-10 - Cargo system instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... instrumentation. (a) Each tank operated at other than ambient temperature shall be provided with at least one remote reading temperature sensor located in the liquid phase of the cargo. The temperature gauge...

  9. 46 CFR 151.20-10 - Cargo system instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... instrumentation. (a) Each tank operated at other than ambient temperature shall be provided with at least one remote reading temperature sensor located in the liquid phase of the cargo. The temperature gauge...

  10. 46 CFR 151.20-10 - Cargo system instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... instrumentation. (a) Each tank operated at other than ambient temperature shall be provided with at least one remote reading temperature sensor located in the liquid phase of the cargo. The temperature gauge...

  11. GIFT (Good Ideas for Teaching): Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa.

    This handbook provides the guidelines, procedures, and techniques for teaching basic reading to adults. The chapters outline the scope and sequence of an adult Basic Education course, characteristics of the adult learner, terminology, an ABE assessment instrument, vocabulary, comprehension, study skills, materials and a bibliography. Included in…

  12. Possible Relationships between Depressive Symptoms and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ronald W.; Heath, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five students (average age of 127 months) were tested using the WRAT-3 reading and arithmetic subtests, the Self-Perception Profile for Children with Learning Disabilities (SPPLD) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). One year later they were again tested with the same instruments. The authors hypothesised that…

  13. The Effects of an Extensive Reading Program on Improving English as Foreign Language Proficiency in University Level Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of extensive reading on improving reading proficiency. The study tried to find the effect of ER on EFL student's reading, vocabulary and grammar. The researcher designed two instruments; a program based on the extensive reading strategy and general test. Forty-one university students who study English…

  14. I Can't Read (Directions)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Notation systems for the arts were developed to educate students in performing the art form. Soon notation systems were used in research and archiving performances and skills that could have been lost to the following generations. Virtual travel through the written notations brings experts to students rather than having students go to the…

  15. Reading Mastery. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Reading Mastery," one of several curriculum components that constitute the "Direct Instruction" program from SRA/McGraw-Hill, is designed to provide systematic instruction in reading to students in grades K-6. "Reading Mastery," which can be used as an intervention program for struggling readers, as a supplement to a…

  16. The Dynamics of Language Learning: Research in Reading and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James R., Ed.

    Focusing on future directions for English and reading research, the papers presented in this book examine the complex interplay of skills, processes, and classroom conditions that influence the development of children's competence in reading, writing, and the language arts. The titles and authors of the essays are as follows: (1) "Reading and…

  17. Building a Comprehensive High School Reading Program that Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniak, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Following a nationwide trend, reading scores at Homewood-Flossmoor Community High School in suburban Chicago began dropping with the entrance of the new millennium. However, through its newly created Reading Department, Homewood-Flossmoor Community High School is providing comprehensive, direct reading instruction throughout grade and skill…

  18. Wilson Reading System[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Wilson Reading System"[R] is a reading and writing program developed by Barbara Wilson and distributed by Wilson Language Training. It provides a curriculum for teaching reading and spelling to individuals of any age who have difficulty with written language. The program directly teaches the structure of words in the English language, aiming…

  19. University Students' Reading of Their First-Year Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the observed behaviors and difficulties that 11 precalculus and calculus students exhibited in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. To gauge the "effectiveness" of these students' reading, we asked them to attempt straightforward mathematical tasks, based directly on what they had just read. The students had…

  20. Curriculum Biases in Reading Achievement Tests. Technical Report No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Pany, Darlene

    The extent and direction of curriculum bias in standardized reading achievement tests were examined. Bias was estimated by comparing the relative overlap in the contents of five separate reading achievement tests with the contents of seven commercial reading series at first-grade and second-grade levels. Overlap between each achievement test and…

  1. Reading to Preschoolers Exposed: Is the Emperor Really Naked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.

    1994-01-01

    Argues there is reason for more optimism concerning the effects of reading to preschoolers than suggested by the Scarborough and Dobrich review in this issue (PS522390). Discusses methodological problems in many studies; cites studies indicating direct and indirect links between reading to preschoolers and reading achievement, suggesting that…

  2. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to

  3. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  4. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  5. Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.; And Others

    A two-year study examined the effectiveness of a program to reorganize basal reading instruction to stress fluent reading and automatic word recognition. The reorganized reading program had three components--a redesigned basal reading lesson, stressing repeated reading and partner reading; a choice reading period during the day; and a home reading…

  6. Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.; Heubach, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a two-year project designed to reorganize basal reading instruction to stress fluent reading and automatic word recognition. The reorganized reading program had three components: a redesigned basal reading lesson that included repeated reading and partner reading, a choice reading period during the day, and a home…

  7. Optical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  8. Beginning Readers' Reading Performance and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Ulla; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective relationships between reading performance and reading habits among Finnish children during the first and second grades of primary school. One hundred and ninety-five children were examined twice during their first primary school year and once during the spring term of Grade 2. The results showed, first, that…

  9. Reading Disabilities and PASS Reading Enhancement Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…

  10. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  11. Teacher Need-Structure and Instructional Preference in Reading: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Patricia H.

    Thirty-one experienced teachers enrolled in graduate reading courses served as subjects in a study conducted to determine whether simple instruments could be developed to assess teacher need structure, frequency of teacher behaviors related to reading, and the relationship between the two. A 25-item instrument was developed based on Abraham…

  12. Reading Attitudes of Middle School Students: Results of a U.S. Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Michael C.; Conradi, Kristin; Lawrence, Camille; Jang, Bong Gee; Meyer, J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    To examine the current state of reading attitudes among middle school students in the United States, a survey was developed and administered to 4,491 students in 23 states plus the District of Columbia. The instrument comprised four subscales measuring attitudes toward: recreational reading in print settings, recreational reading in digital…

  13. A Report on the Reading Habits of College-Aged Senegalese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, JoAnne E.; And Others

    A total of 59 Senegalese adult and college students filled out a questionnaire in a study designed to gather data about their reading habits. The 15-item instrument, written in English and French, required yes or no responses to questions that described students' satisfaction with reading ability, types of materials read, perceptions of reading…

  14. The Impact of a Reading Initiative on Students' Early Reading Development K-3: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Iline P.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the relationship of the Reading First Initiative (RFI) in terms of its impact on students' early reading development K-3 and teachers' delivery of instruction. Extant test data were used to establish quantitative data. Direct observation utilizing a checklist consisting of five categories--management, environment, setting…

  15. Teaching Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Read: An Experimental Examination of a Comprehensive Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allor, Jill H.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Jones, Francesca G.; Champlin, Tammi M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of our research was to determine if a comprehensive, phonics-based, direct instruction reading program would be effective in teaching early reading and language skills to students with moderate intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 28 elementary students from 10 public schools in an urban school district and one…

  16. Assessing Reading. Using Cloze Procedure To Assess Reading Skills. [Packet] and Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Judy

    These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…

  17. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading

  19. Team Assessment when Members Have Low Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlepage, Glen E.; Brower, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Work teams sometimes include individuals with low levels of reading proficiency. Traditional team assessment instruments may not be suitable for use with such teams. A well-known teamwork instrument, the Team Excellence survey (LaFasto & Larson, 1987), was simplified to enhance readability. Fifty-two participants completed both the original and

  20. Team Assessment when Members Have Low Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlepage, Glen E.; Brower, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Work teams sometimes include individuals with low levels of reading proficiency. Traditional team assessment instruments may not be suitable for use with such teams. A well-known teamwork instrument, the Team Excellence survey (LaFasto & Larson, 1987), was simplified to enhance readability. Fifty-two participants completed both the original and…

  1. Assessing Affective Constructs in Reading: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradi, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating affective dimensions in reading has long been plagued by vaguely defined constructs and, consequently, by an array of potentially problematic instruments designed to measure them. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship among three popular group-administered instruments intended to tap affective constructs in…

  2. Reading 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the further back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicate that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks.

    In figure 1, the layer labeled 'A' in this picture contains broken-up rocks that most closely resemble those of 'Eagle Crater.' Layers 'B,C and D' appear less broken up and more finely laminated. Layer 'E,' on the other hand, looks more like 'A.' At present, the rover is examining layer 'D.'

    So far, data from the rover indicates that the first four layers consist of sulfate-rich, jarosite-containing rocks like those observed in Eagle Crater. This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks, though the materials themselves may have been laid down by wind.

    This image was taken by Opportunity's navigation camera on sol 134 (June 9, 2004).

  3. Reading Processes in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorm, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    Separate experiments investigated parietal lobe malfunction; developmental v acquired dyslexia; whole-word, syllabic, and alphabetical reading ability; phonological recoding; and spelling. Reading processes and memory of normal and aphasic children were compared. (CP)

  4. Assessing Motivation to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP), which assesses children's self-concepts as readers and the value they see in reading. Discusses its development and offers suggestions for its use with elementary students. Includes the MRP. (SR)

  5. Reading with the ears.

    PubMed

    Maier, J; Hartvig, N Vaever; Green, A C; Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H

    2004-07-01

    We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian language areas, prefrontal cortex, and premotor cortex. In a within-subject comparison between reading Morse code and reading print, the activation pattern in the left temporoparietal association cortex was similar for both forms of reading, suggesting that reading Morse code shares part of its cortical networks with reading print. PMID:15196672

  6. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  7. Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A. Crowe); (3) "Reading…

  8. Reading difficulties in Albanian.

    PubMed

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years old were tested. They had to read 120 stimuli varied in lexicality, frequency, and length. The results in terms of reading accuracy as well as in reading times show that both groups were affected by lexicality and length effects. In both groups, length and lexicality effects were significantly modulated by school year being greater in early grades and later diminish in length and just the opposite in lexicality. However, the reading difficulties group was less accurate and slower than the control group across all school grades. Analyses of the error patterns showed that phonological errors, when the letter replacement leading to new nonwords, are the most common error type in both groups, although as grade rises, visual errors and lexicalizations increased more in the control group than the reading difficulties group. These findings suggest that Albanian normal children use both routes (lexical and sublexical) from the beginning of reading despite of the complete regularity of Albanian, while children with reading difficulties start using sublexical reading and the lexical reading takes more time to acquire, but finally both routes are functional. PMID:22739980

  9. Reading Difficulties in Albanian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years…

  10. Time for Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William R.

    1989-01-01

    Reading for pleasure and enlightenment is a critical, and endangered, element in a well-informed citizenry. As a basis for intellectual growth, reading is threatened by media misuse and lack of encouragement of recreational reading. Solutions include emphasis on integrated skills, improved time allocation, and cooperation among parents, teachers,…

  11. Issues in Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Presently, reading is much discussed by senators, representatives, and state legislatures--the debate is on the following issues in reading instruction: (1) having all students in public school achieve at grade level as a reading minimum; (2) accountability of teachers for student achievement; (3) teachers having high achievement expectations from…

  12. The Future of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

  13. Reading for Profit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    Reading First is a $900-million-a-year project that offers states grants to improve reading instruction for children in kindergarten through third grade. However, Reading First is now awash in allegations of mismanagement and conflicts of interest. The Education Department's inspector general issued a report that declared that the program's…

  14. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  15. Reading/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These seven projects comprise the reading and language arts section of a report on Elementary Secondary Education Act Title IV programs for the state of Illinois. Complete descriptions are furnished for the following: a multi-text, individualized reading skills program for grades four through eight; a reading program which stresses phonetic and…

  16. Summer Library Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Carole D.

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore…

  17. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  18. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  19. Developing a Reading Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, F. H. Th.; And Others

    A course for improving Dutch reading proficiency of entering university students was developed by the Linguistic and Literacy Studies department of the University of Tilburg in the Netherlands. Dutch secondary school students receive instruction in text-specific approaches to reading but no instruction in reading methodology. The course focuses on…

  20. Content Area Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The theme for this focused journal issue is reading in the content areas. Articles discuss the following topics: (1) teaching reading strategies instead of skills; (2) teaching reading in elementary content areas; (3) metacognition and mapping; (4) a summer school program designed to appeal to poorly motivated junior high school students who are…

  1. Theme: Diagnostic Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    The theme of this special journal issue is diagnostic reading instruction. The first of two main articles discuss ways to teach reading in a diagnostic-prescriptive way and the second deals with how to select a reading instruction approach for the mainstreamed child. Regular journal features discuss research on assessing readers' strategies…

  2. Evaluating Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrenker, Cecilia, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The seven articles in this journal issue focus on the evaluation of reading programs at the elementary and secondary school levels. The articles contain (1) guidelines for evaluating reading materials, (2) a checklist designed to provide a broad overview of a school reading program, (3) an interview with Wayne Otto concerning techniques for…

  3. PAWs for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program at an Illinois middle school that was designed to increase reading achievement, vocabulary, and the enjoyment of reading. Highlights include the library's role; use of the Standardized Test for Assessment of Reading; the Accelerated Reader program; teacher training; teacher comments; and grant funds. Four appendices include:…

  4. Read to Your Bunny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin.

    This packet of materials consists of reproducible flyers to promote parents' reading aloud to children. Included are five benefits of reading aloud for children and parents; tips for reading to babies and children and for exposing them to books; suggestions for selecting books for infants; toddlers and preschoolers; a descriptive list of selected…

  5. Early Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    Second language reading is a vital skill that aids the communication process. It provides language input and reinforces spoken language. Because the modern world is print-oriented, foreign language and English-as-a-Second-Language learners need to develop reading skills as rapidly as possible. Reading must be taught rather than acquired passively.…

  6. Gifted and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; And Others

    This article reviews the literature and practice (especially in New Mexico) concerning reading instruction of gifted children. It considers early or "precocious" reading, instruction in the early grades, and identification of the gifted in New Mexico. Reading teachers in New Mexico are urged to be aware of specific conflicts in the area of gifted…

  7. Indicators of Reading Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.

    Monitoring the effectiveness of reading education is central to the appraisal of the productivity of schooling, yet most measures currently being used do not take into account the full range of processes which lead to successful reading education. A model of indicators relevant to reading education (outcome, process, and input) can be used to

  8. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  9. Pennsylvania Jumps into Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Barbara A.; Strain, Richard L.

    The Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce addressed family literacy through the promotion of a "Jump into Reading" videotape and its accompanying brochure in local businesses and schools as well as throughout Pennsylvania. Jump into Reading was designed to teach parents the importance of reading aloud to their children and offer techniques to do so.…

  10. Monster Moose Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Frank

    Monster Moose (MM) Reading is a program specifically aimed at improving children's language, beginning reading, and self-concept development through the creation and utilization of student-authored reading materials which feature a series of wordless picture books about a magical moose. The MM Program is based on the following general principles…

  11. Reading as a Whole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Constance

    Underlying virtually all of the basal reading series available in the United States today is the assumption that learning to read is a skill-by-skill and word-by-word process. This part-to-whole approach to teaching reading is based on principles of behavioral psychology and "scientific management" developed a half century ago and treats meaning…

  12. Reading is Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohann, Rosemary

    1979-01-01

    The focus article in this newsletter contains a discussion of the theory of reading as a thinking process and offers practical suggestions for implementing instruction in teaching reading as a thinking process. The section on theory is based on observations of the reading process as perceived by psycholinguists such as Frank Smith and Kenneth…

  13. Psycholinguistics and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frank, (Ed.)

    Psycholinguistics has offered many new insights into the development of reading, e.g., only a small part of the information necessary for reading comprehension comes from the printed page, comprehension must precede the identification of individual words, and reading is not decoding to spoken language. These views are elaborated in this collection…

  14. Current Issues in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Articles in this journal issue focus on reading acquisition and instruction. The titles and authors are as follows: (1) "10 Good Ways to Involve Parents in the Reading Program," by Nickolas Criscuolo; (2) "A Parent Guide for Helping the Child with A Reading Disability," by Frederick Duffelmeyer and Dale Baum; (3) "Promoting a Good Attitude toward…

  15. Reading in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taschow, Horst G.

    Difficulties inherent in the reading of mathematics at secondary and college levels are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the reading of arithmetic numerals, literal numbers, operational symbols, and expressions of relationships, as well as the reading of technical vocabularies and specialized meanings of general words. While each…

  16. Improving Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Kristine; Nelson, Amy L.; O'Donnell, Katie; Walker, Megan C.

    This report describes a program for improving pre-reading and reading skills. Some students of the targeted kindergarten, first, and fourth grade classes typically exhibited poor reading development due to personal, social, and educational problems. The documents that supported this evidence were observational checklists, parent surveys, pretests,…

  17. Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyutaya, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser .

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  19. A portable instrument for quantifying erythema induced by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L; Oliver, R J; Farr, P M

    1984-12-01

    The design and performance of an instrument for quantifying ultraviolet-induced cutaneous erythema are discussed. If the instrument is used to record an 'erythema index' at a site on the skin before and after irradiation, the difference between those two readings is essentially related to an increase in vasodilation and is largely independent of the melanin content of the epidermis. PMID:6508999

  20. Design and Development of the Aircraft Instrument Comprehension Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Norman C.

    The Aircraft Instrument Comprehension (AIC) Program is a self-instructional program designed to teach undergraduate student pilots to read instruments that indicate the position of the aircraft in flight, based on sequential instructional stages of information, prompted practice, and unprompted practice. The program includes a 36-item multiple…

  1. 14 CFR 61.65 - Instrument rating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... powered-lift rating appropriate to the instrument rating sought; (2) Be able to read, speak, write, and... training device that represents an airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift appropriate to the instrument... airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift appropriate to the rating sought; or (ii) A flight simulator or...

  2. A Review of the Psychometric Properties of Retell Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    This narrative synthesis reviews the psychometric properties of commercially and publicly available retell instruments used to assess the reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Eleven instruments met selection criteria and were systematically coded for data related to the administration procedures, scoring procedures, and technical…

  3. Simulating a Direction-Finder Search for an ELT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A computer program simulates the operation of direction-finding equipment engaged in a search for an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) aboard an aircraft that has crashed. The simulated equipment is patterned after the equipment used by the Civil Air Patrol to search for missing aircraft. The program is designed to be used for training in radio direction-finding and/or searching for missing aircraft without incurring the expense and risk of using real aircraft and ground search resources. The program places a hidden ELT on a map and enables the user to search for the location of the ELT by moving a 14 NASA Tech Briefs, March 2005 small aircraft image around the map while observing signal-strength and direction readings on a simulated direction- finding locator instrument. As the simulated aircraft is turned and moved on the map, the program updates the readings on the direction-finding instrument to reflect the current position and heading of the aircraft relative to the location of the ELT. The software is distributed in a zip file that contains an installation program. The software runs on the Microsoft Windows 9x, NT, and XP operating systems.

  4. Reading program-Remedial, integrated, and innovative.

    PubMed

    Butler, S R

    1991-01-01

    An innovative integrated remedial reading program has been developed based on recent research findings. My longitudinal studies have revealed that poor reading compounds itself over the years. The majority of children with reading disabilities currently remain in regular classrooms with varying techniques being used depending upon individual school directives and current educational theory.Despite current remedial techniques, the poorer reader tends to remain so throughout the school years. Innovative techniques must be developed in the hope of altering this pattern.This paper presents one alternative strategy which can be used to upgrade reading skills and break the cycle of reading failure. The Reading Assistance Tutorial Pack (R.A.T. Pack) is a carefully sequenced series of activities that enables the learner to experience the motivating and reinforcing properties of success through all stages of phonetic and reading skills development.It is a systematic, multidisciplinary remedial reading program based on sound behavior, psycholinguistic and cognitive theories of learning-incorporating listening, speaking, seeing, writing, thinking, and comprehension skills. The R.A.T. Pack demands a high percentage of on-task behavior and trains phonological processing strategies. Functional language use is promoted through enjoyable activities involving sentence construction, cloze passages, puzzles, games, and other creative manipulations of the surface features of languages. The program has proven successful in schools, homes, and clinics. PMID:24233760

  5. Methodological Variables in Choral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Meredith A.; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study explored changes in prosodic variability during choral reading and investigated whether these changes are affected by the method of eliciting choral reading. Ten typical adult talkers recorded three reading materials (poetry, fiction and textbook) in three reading conditions: solo (reading aloud alone), track (reading aloud…

  6. Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote

  7. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition"[R] ("CIRC") is a comprehensive reading and writing program for students in grades 2 through 8. It includes story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated reading and language arts activities. Pairs of students (grouped either by or across ability levels) read…

  8. Examining the Cross-Lagged Relationships between RAN and Word Reading in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; Georgiou, George K.; Deng, Ciping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 4-year longitudinal study was to specify the direction of the relationship between RAN and word reading (accuracy and fluency) in Chinese. This is important in light of arguments that the developmental relationships between RAN and reading can disclose changes in the reading processes underlying reading as development proceeds.…

  9. Examining the Cross-Lagged Relationships between RAN and Word Reading in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; Georgiou, George K.; Deng, Ciping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 4-year longitudinal study was to specify the direction of the relationship between RAN and word reading (accuracy and fluency) in Chinese. This is important in light of arguments that the developmental relationships between RAN and reading can disclose changes in the reading processes underlying reading as development proceeds.

  10. 240 Students and 1 and 3/5 Teachers-A Junior High Developmental Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Roger M.

    This paper outlines the seventh-grade developmental reading program at Finn Hill Junior High School in Kirkland, Washington. The program format is discussed, as well as the operation of the program, the directed reading and follow-up activities, library and free reading time, the reading laboratory, record keeping and grading, and advantages and…

  11. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  12. A Machine that Reads (Reading Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickelman, Robert J.; Henk, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Xerox/Kurzweil Personal Reader which is an advanced optical scanner that reads a greater range of typeset or typewritten text than its predecessors, and converts it into highly naturalistic speech. (MG)

  13. How Psychological Science Informs the Teaching of Reading.

    PubMed

    Rayner, K; Foorman, B R; Perfetti, C A; Pesetsky, D; Seidenberg, M S

    2001-11-01

    This monograph discusses research, theory, and practice relevant to how children learn to read English. After an initial overview of writing systems, the discussion summarizes research from developmental psychology on children's language competency when they enter school and on the nature of early reading development. Subsequent sections review theories of learning to read, the characteristics of children who do not learn to read (i.e., who have developmental dyslexia), research from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience on skilled reading, and connectionist models of learning to read. The implications of the research findings for learning to read and teaching reading are discussed. Next, the primary methods used to teach reading (phonics and whole language) are summarized. The final section reviews laboratory and classroom studies on teaching reading. From these different sources of evidence, two inescapable conclusions emerge: (a) Mastering the alphabetic principle (that written symbols are associated with phonemes) is essential to becoming proficient in the skill of reading, and (b) methods that teach this principle directly are more effective than those that do not (especially for children who are at risk in some way for having difficulty learning to read). Using whole-language activities to supplement phonics instruction does help make reading fun and meaningful for children, but ultimately, phonics instruction is critically important because it helps beginning readers understand the alphabetic principle and learn new words. Thus, elementary-school teachers who make the alphabetic principle explicit are most effective in helping their students become skilled, independent readers. PMID:26151366

  14. How psychological science informs the teaching of reading.

    PubMed

    Rayner, K; Foorman, B R; Perfetti, C A; Pesetsky, D; Seidenberg, M S

    2001-11-01

    This monograph discusses research, theory, and practice relevant to how children learn to read English. After an initial overview of writing systems, the discussion summarizes research from developmental psychology on children's language competency when they enter school and on the nature of early reading development. Subsequent sections review theories of learning to read, the characteristics of children who do not learn to read (i.e., who have developmental dyslexia), research from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience on skilled reading, and connectionist models of learning to read. The implications of the research findings for learning to read and teaching reading are discussed. Next, the primary methods used to teach reading (phonics and whole language) are summarized. The final section reviews laboratory and classroom studies on teaching reading. From these different sources of evidence, two inescapable conclusions emerge: (a) Mastering the alphabetic principle (that written symbols are associated with phonemes) is essential to becoming proficient in the skill of reading, and (b) methods that teach this principle directly are more effective than those that do not (especially for children who are at risk in some way for having difficulty learning to read). Using whole-language activities to supplement phonics instruction does help make reading fun and meaningful for children, but ultimately, phonics instruction is critically important because it helps beginning readers understand the alphabetic principle and learn new words. Thus, elementary-school teachers who make the alphabetic principle explicit are most effective in helping their students become skilled, independent readers. PMID:11878018

  15. Electric-Field Instrument With Ac-Biased Corona Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markson, R.; Anderson, B.; Govaert, J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements indicative of incipient lightning yield additional information. New instrument gives reliable readings. High-voltage ac bias applied to needle point through high-resistance capacitance network provides corona discharge at all times, enabling more-slowly-varying component of electrostatic potential of needle to come to equilibrium with surrounding air. High resistance of high-voltage coupling makes instrument insensitive to wind. Improved corona-point instrument expected to yield additional information assisting in safety-oriented forecasting of lighting.

  16. Simulating Responses of Gravitational-Wave Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, John; Edlund, Jeffrey; Vallisneri. Michele

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic LISA is a computer program for simulating the responses of the instrumentation of the NASA/ESA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, the purpose of which is to detect and study gravitational waves. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the time-delay-interferometry (TDI) observables. (TDI is a method of canceling phase noise in temporally varying unequal-arm interferometers.) Synthetic LISA provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves, according to a full model of TDI (including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the arm lengths). Synthetic LISA is written in the C++ programming language as a modular package that accommodates the addition of code for specific gravitational wave sources or for new noise models. In addition, time series for waves and noises can be easily loaded from disk storage or electronic memory. The package includes a Python-language interface for easy, interactive steering and scripting. Through Python, Synthetic LISA can read and write data files in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), which is a commonly used astronomical data format.

  17. Reading Grade Level and Completeness of Freely Available Materials on Thyroid Nodules: There Is Work to Be Done

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient education is one of the key components required for patients to participate in decision making for their care. Sources of information should be complete and understandable. The objective of this study was to assess the quality and reading grade level of freely available materials pertaining to the evaluation and treatment of thyroid nodules. Methods: All available materials were gathered through a comprehensive Internet search or direct contact with each identified organization associated with thyroid care. Materials meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for completeness of content and reading grade level using the SMOG readability formula. Then, the DISCERN instrument was utilized to assess the quality of the five materials which had the best (lowest) and the five materials that had the worst (highest) SMOG reading grade levels. Results: A total of 63 materials on thyroid nodule evaluation and management were identified. A minority of materials presented readers with a complete picture of the topic, describing both benefits and cautions of thyroid nodule evaluation, benefits and cautions of fine-needle thyroid nodule biopsy, or risks, benefits, and long-term effects of thyroidectomy. The SMOG reading grade level assessment was well above recommended levels. The range was eighth grade to college level; the mean and median reading grade level were 13. Lastly, the DISCERN instrument revealed that most of the materials with both the best and the worst reading grade levels assessed had “extensive or serious shortcomings” that would impede their usefulness as high-quality sources of information regarding management options. Conclusions: Existing thyroid nodule evaluation and management materials have serious shortcomings. Future work should focus on the development of patient materials that are both grade level appropriate and meet the DISCERN criteria for topic completeness and accuracy. PMID:25384093

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  19. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability. PMID:21205259

  20. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  1. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA)

    1994-01-01

    Instrumentation for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials.

  2. Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K–12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument. PMID:23125521

  3. Can Read, Can Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking…

  4. Can Read, Can Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking

  5. Evaluating musical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  6. Binocular Coordination during Reading and Non-Reading Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkby, Julie A.; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Blythe, Hazel I.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature on binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks in adult, child, and dyslexic populations. The review begins with a description of the basic characteristics of eye movements during reading. Then, reading and non-reading studies investigating binocular coordination are evaluated.…

  7. Reading Strategy: Tackling Reading through Topic and Main Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Bharathi; Briewin, Marshal; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the four skills essential in learning English. In a reading class, students tend to read all the information provided in reading materials, but how much do they actually retain? This study explores whether learners use identification of the topic and main ideas as a reading strategy to assist in reading…

  8. Read Hard, Play Later: Putting Summer Reading into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemett, Lisa C.; Bolan, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of "Read on the Wild Side," a summer reading program for young adults established by the Webster (New York) Public Library, and "Read Hard, Play Later," a young adult summer reading program of the Pioneer Library System (New York). Highlights include reading logs, T-shirts, publicity, program evaluation, benefits, summer

  9. Repeated Reading of Poetry Can Enhance Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faver, Sherri

    2008-01-01

    Using poetry to teach fluency through repeated reading is an effective way to improve students' reading fluency. Repeated reading of poetry is effective with students whose instructional reading level is between the first and third grades. Ten to 15 minutes of repeated reading per day over an extended length of time has proven successful for both…

  10. Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.; Wigfield, Allan, Ed.; Perencevich, Kathleen C., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a…

  11. Read Hard, Play Later: Putting Summer Reading into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemett, Lisa C.; Bolan, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of "Read on the Wild Side," a summer reading program for young adults established by the Webster (New York) Public Library, and "Read Hard, Play Later," a young adult summer reading program of the Pioneer Library System (New York). Highlights include reading logs, T-shirts, publicity, program evaluation, benefits, summer…

  12. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyunseung

    Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with inferential results that are robust to mis-specifications of the covariate-outcome model. We also provide a sensitivity analysis should the instrument turn out to be invalid, specifically violate (A3). Fourth, in application work, we study the causal effect of malaria on stunting among children in Ghana. Previous studies on the effect of malaria and stunting were observational and contained various unobserved confounders, most notably nutritional deficiencies. To infer causality, we use the sickle cell genotype, a trait that confers some protection against malaria and was randomly assigned at birth, as an IV and apply our nonparametric IV method. We find that the risk of stunting increases by 0.22 (95% CI: 0.044,1) for every malaria episode and is sensitive to unmeasured confounders.

  13. Creating a line-shaped weakening in a polymer skin/foam bilaminate sheet while minimizing read-through

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Kevin R.

    When a line shaped weakening in a polymer skin/foam bilaminate is created by mechanically scoring the backside of the skin, where it is bonded to the foam, the weakness of the bilaminate is determined by the depth of the score groove. The deeper the groove, the weaker the bilaminate and the easier it is to achieve a location-controlled fragmentation-free failure. But also, the deeper the groove, the greater the tendency for read-through. Read-through is seeing on the front surface of the skin the location of the groove that was created on the back surface. This is why it is often important to minimize the groove depth required to achieve a location-controlled fragmentation-free failure and to minimize read-through for a given groove depth. The immediate application of this technology is found in the weakening of a car instrument panel to allow the passenger-side airbag to deploy through it. This work has focused on understanding how the skin fails, how the foam fails, and what leads to a location-controlled fragmentation-free failure of the bilaminate. Quasi-shear and tensile tests were conducted to achieve this. The knowledge acquired was used to develop tests to predict how a bilaminate will fail and to make general bilaminate design recommendations to minimize the groove depth required to achieve a location-controlled fragmentation-free failure. This work has also focused on understanding what topographical feature on the skin's surface constitutes read-through, what strains are induced by mechanical scoring, and how these strains lead to read-through. Scored and mounted skins were viewed with an optical interferometer and measured with a profilometer to better understand what topographical features constitute read-through. Skins of different color and gloss level were viewed with incident light directed in various directions to better understand the affect of incident light direction, color, and gloss on read-through. Several model systems were used to determine what strains are induced by mechanical scoring. This knowledge was used to identify factors that may affect read-through. The factors were then varied to verify their effect. It may be possible to use this increased knowledge to minimize read-through at a given score groove depth.

  14. The Gravity Probe B Science Instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turneaure, John

    2007-04-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment employs a unique state-of-the-art science instrument to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity for gyroscopes orbiting a massive spinning body, in this case the Earth. The GP-B instrument comprises four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, each of which is independently subject to both the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions, and a telescope that tracks the guide star, IM Pegasi. Each gyroscope is read out with a dc SQUID system utilizing the London magnetic moment of the spinning gyroscope. The two axes of the telescope are read out with an image divider assembly, solid-state photo detectors and JFET preamplifiers. The telescope and gyroscopes are mechanically and thermally linked by a fused quartz block, which forms the metrology bench for the experiment. The instrument is located in a probe/helium dewar system, which provides a low-temperature environment of about 2.7 K for the instrument, as well as the ultra-low magnetic field, the ultrahigh magnetic shielding of the on-orbit ambient magnetic field, and the ultrahigh vacuum environments. The instrument was designed to allow a measurement of the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions to an accuracy of better than 0.5 mill-arc second/year for one year of science data collection. The instrument also provides the signals needed for drag-free and attitude control of the space vehicle. This presentation will include a description of the instrument and its principal on-orbit performance characteristics. Many persons at various institutions contributed to the development of the instrument. Numerous contributed presentations in a poster session will provide more detail.

  15. Ultrasensitive visual read-out of nucleic acids using electrocatalytic fluid displacement

    PubMed Central

    Besant, Justin D.; Das, Jagotamoy; Burgess, Ian B.; Liu, Wenhan; Sargent, Edward H.; Kelley, Shana O.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of disease outside of sophisticated laboratories urgently requires low-cost, user-friendly devices. Disposable, instrument-free testing devices are used for home and physician office testing, but are limited in applicability to a small class of highly abundant analytes. Direct, unambiguous visual read-out is an ideal way to deliver a result on a disposable device; however, existing strategies that deliver appropriate sensitivity produce only subtle colour changes. Here we report a new approach, which we term electrocatalytic fluid displacement, where a molecular binding event is transduced into an electrochemical current, which drives the electrodeposition of a metal catalyst. The catalyst promotes bubble formation that displaces a fluid to reveal a high contrast change. We couple the read-out system to a nanostructured microelectrode and demonstrate direct visual detection of 100 fM DNA in 10 min. This represents the lowest limit of detection of nucleic acids reported using high contrast visual read-out. PMID:25901450

  16. Ultrasensitive visual read-out of nucleic acids using electrocatalytic fluid displacement.

    PubMed

    Besant, Justin D; Das, Jagotamoy; Burgess, Ian B; Liu, Wenhan; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of disease outside of sophisticated laboratories urgently requires low-cost, user-friendly devices. Disposable, instrument-free testing devices are used for home and physician office testing, but are limited in applicability to a small class of highly abundant analytes. Direct, unambiguous visual read-out is an ideal way to deliver a result on a disposable device; however, existing strategies that deliver appropriate sensitivity produce only subtle colour changes. Here we report a new approach, which we term electrocatalytic fluid displacement, where a molecular binding event is transduced into an electrochemical current, which drives the electrodeposition of a metal catalyst. The catalyst promotes bubble formation that displaces a fluid to reveal a high contrast change. We couple the read-out system to a nanostructured microelectrode and demonstrate direct visual detection of 100 fM DNA in 10 min. This represents the lowest limit of detection of nucleic acids reported using high contrast visual read-out. PMID:25901450

  17. A School Policy for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane

    1992-01-01

    Offers a school policy for reading, arrived at as a product of a whole school inservice program. Discusses word recognition, sound-symbol correspondence, prediction, classroom environment, reading with an adult, parents and reading, assessment of reading, and reading material selection. (RS)

  18. Reading with a Special Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Mary

    Disadvantaged secondary school students with special reading needs can be motivated in the reading room. The school year can start with "popcorn" reading involving materials that are funny, interesting, and exciting. The teacher reads to the students or the students read silently, using materials on the students' independent rather than…

  19. Reading Activities of American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Amiel T.

    A reading activities survey as part of the Targeted Research and Development Reading Program was done by interviewing 3,504 adults, aged 16 years or older, selected by area probability sampling. Among the preliminary findings was that the most frequent type of reading is newspaper reading. Seven out of 10 people read or look at a newspaper during…

  20. Extending Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    The April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language" featured a discussion forum on extensive reading (ER). Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice

  1. Reading for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKearney, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Reading Agency has been backing and building a movement in libraries called reader development. The movement is creating a livelier, more interventionist reading service that's both much more attractive and socially relevant. A focus on reader development is changing the way public libraries work, and transforming people's lives in the…

  2. Reading: Process and Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; Niles, Olive S.

    Broad and major concerns dealing with reading are set forth in this monograph to provoke discussion and examination by both researchers and practitioners. In Part 1, Kenneth S. Goodman presents a psycholinguistic view of language and reading (within a transformational-generative framework) as essentially a set of processes of recoding, decoding,

  3. Readings in Ecosocial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Ross, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    Forty-one readings are presented on the social ecology variables and interventions that characterize the life of persons with disabilities. The readings are grouped into six categories dealing respectively with background, assessment of student-centered variables, interventions relating to student-centered variables, program-centered variables,…

  4. Reading, Writing, and Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis M.; And Others

    Reading, writing, and computing, which are interrelated and can thrive on each other for literacy and intellectual growth, are in the process of becoming linked in instructional practice. As reading and writing become more demanding, their task is eased with computer use. The computer seems to provide the connection between composing,…

  5. Maryland Reading First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    In years past, Maryland has provided little guidance toward adoption and implementation of Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR) programs. Only recently, with the implementation of the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program and the Reading Excellence Act (REA) program, have schools or local education agencies been required to…

  6. Books for Summer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soder, Roger

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author, Roger Soder, discusses past books he has read throughout the year on his own and with his book club. He also makes suggestions for summer reading selections. He thanks valued and nearby colleagues and friends for blessing him with books of great wisdom throughout the year.

  7. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  8. Anything but Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

  9. Motivating Students To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Roberta S.; Warner, Dori

    This action research project implemented a program for motivating students to read so that they would become enthusiastic, lifelong readers. The targeted population consisted of first- and second-grade students in a middle class community located in a western suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem of lack of motivation in reading was documented…

  10. Reading and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikov, Sergei N.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a short historical and sociological analysis of reading in the Soviet Union from the beginning of the twentieth century to perestroika. Discusses some sociocultural problems associated with reading, including the prevailing social, economic and political crises in all spheres of life, particularly the cultural. (RS)

  11. Motivating Teachers To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreher, Mariam Jean

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to motivate teachers to read. Proposes that teachers who exhibit the characteristics of engaged readers will help create students who exhibit the same characteristics. Suggests that in order to engage teachers in reading, teachers' social interaction with books and teachers' access to books should increase; existing practices should…

  12. Families Read Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bow Corridor Adult Literacy Project, Canmore (Alberta).

    This packet contains 12 family literacy activities to encourage parents in adult literacy classes in Alberta, Canada to help their children learn to read and write. Each one-page activity provides tips for conducting the activity and information for parents. The following activities are included: (1) read aloud; (2) encourage family activities;…

  13. Read across the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Carl A., II; Satterlee, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project between several year-round elementary schools in Indianapolis (Indiana) to promote reading, based on the National Education Association's campaign using Dr. Seuss books. Discusses planning with library media specialists, activities that included writing about reading, volunteers and funding, and evaluation. (LRW)

  14. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  15. The Virtues of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    In Danny DeVito's film "Matilda," Harry Wormwood berates his young daughter, the title character, when she insists on reading. He tells her, "There's nothing you can get from a book that you can't get faster from television." Matilda's would-be visionary father, however, is blind to crucial habits of mind fostered by reading books that are not…

  16. Television and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

  17. Reading Stars. 2013 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Literacy Trust's Premier League Reading Stars has now been running for 10 years. During this time, hundreds of thousands of children and families have been inspired by the power of football to develop a love of reading. Although the programme has grown and evolved over this period, the premise remains the same: harnessing the…

  18. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  19. Reading Where It Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teachers are reminded that their content subject areas require acquainting children with special words or symbols related to that subject area (e.g. mathematics or social studies). Because children can read well does not mean they would be understanding of any special reading skill required in a content subject area; that the…

  20. Reading Methods Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This working paper explores contemporary research related to methods for teaching reading in Spanish and English in bilingual, foreign language, and English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Changes stemming from innovations in research and learning are identified and a table is provided to compare methods of teaching reading in Spanish and…