This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves from 10 to 40 junior college students each semester. The students come from several ethnic groups and are from low-income families in a small rural town. They represent various age groups, including adults returning to school after years of absence. Begun in 1971, the program…
Schroeder, Emma Gene
Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).
Wise, James H.
Describes a simple circuit based on an inexpensive quad operational amplifier that permits a direct-reading temperature instrument to be constructed using silicon diodes. Encourages the use of this equipment in introductory thermal experiments. (DDR)
Kirkup, L.; Tonthat, C.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Direct Instruction summer reading intervention program designed to minimize summer reading regression. The summer intervention program targeted the lowest quartile of readers in grades kindergarten through third grade from a suburban school district over a three-week period before…
Pechous, Donald J.
A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.
Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.
Technique for reading heart and respiration rates is more accurate and direct than the previous method. Index of a plastic calibrated card is aligned with a point on the electrocardiogram. Complexes are counted as indicated on the card and heart or respiration rate is read directly from the appropriate scale.
Wise, J. P.
By providing definitions of key concepts, outlines of major models, and practical suggestions for classroom implementation, this pamphlet gives teachers access to current research on the interactive model of reading. The topics covered include: Vygotsky's learning theory, metacomprehension, prior knowledge, chapter mapping, cooperative learning,…
International Reading Association, Newark, DE.
Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and teachers new to material culture can readily use artefacts to reveal rich and complex networks of narratives. We illustrate this point by describing our own lay encounter with an artefact turned over for our analysis during a week-long workshop at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. The text explains how elements as disparate as the military appearance of the instrument, the crest stamped on its body, the manipulation of its telescopes, or a luggage tag revealed the object's scientific and political significance in different national contexts. In this way, the presence of the instrument in the classroom vividly conveyed the nature of geophysics as a field practice and an international science, and illuminated relationships between pure and applied science for early twentieth century geologists. We conclude that artefact study can be an unexpectedly powerful and accessible tool in the study of science, making visible the connections between past and present, laboratory and field, texts and instruments.
Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Mélanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry
Describes the construction of a direct-reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) used for mapping fracture and joint-surface orientations in underground mines where magnetic disturbances affect typical geologic pocket transit. (SL)
Larson, William C.; Pugliese, Joseph M.
Model #6367, believed to be manufactured December 15, 1898 by the Weston Electrical Instrument Company, Newark, New Jersey. Edward Weston introduced this type of meter in 1889 and was a serious competitor of Thomas Edison in the development of electricity. This ammeter was the first pivoted moving c...
...bodies, and manufacturers of direct-reading instrumentation and are compatible with the Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society guidelines. The addendum to the document expands the applicability of the Components by presenting methods to...
Two experiments examined whether phonological receding is an obligatory stage in reading for meaning or whether direct access\\u000a to a word’s semantic representation is the general rule. The first study demonstrated that the time to make a semantic decision\\u000a about a pair of words was much more delayed by misspelling than was the time to make a phonological one. The
David W. Green; Tim Shallice
Compares the reading achievement of second graders who were taught with a direct instruction program to second graders who were taught with a basal reading program in three areas: vocabulary, comprehension, and language. Finds Direct Instruction was more successful than the basal reading program. (NH)
Ashworth, Deborah R.
Reflecting recent insights on the process of learning to read and its relationship to oral language development and writing, the articles in this book provide a range of perspectives, ideas for further empirical investigations in classrooms, extensive reference lists for further reading, and implications for practice throughout a child's…
Clark, Margaret M., Ed.
Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort in pursuit of other, more meaningful goals. In view of the alarming dropout rates in this country, it appears that PI research has much to offer in understanding students' motivations to stay in school and hence to become employed in their field of choice. Because academic achievement motivation can be affected by gender and ethnicity, particularly for specific components of the curriculum, and because curricular content varies across grade levels and school settings, this line of research offers significant potential for understanding and improving student outcomes. This research examined the development of PI among suburban 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th graders from a school district in the southwestern United States. Twelve hundred students completed a one-time paper and pencil survey measuring the perceived instrumentality of mathematics, literacy and science courses in terms of the students' occupational choices. MANOVA was used to determine factors that may affect students' overall PI and individual subject PI. Grade, gender, ethnicity, occupational choice, expectancy and value were the independent variables. A school setting variable was examined for effects on 12th graders. For the 8th through 12th grade sample, significant main effects were observed for grade, gender, minority status, occupational choice and expectancy on PI. Results show that PI is highest in the 6 th grade. Males reported higher Math PI than females. Females reported higher Reading PI and Science PI than males. Minority students reported lower overall PI and Science PI than non-minority students. Students who aspire to professional careers report the highest PI; and students who expect to achieve their occupational choice score higher than those who do not. Among 12th graders, significant two-way interaction effects on PI were observed between school type and gender; school type and occupational value; and, occupational expectancy and value.
Garcia, Steve L.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that offers promise as an investigative method for understanding complex cognitive operations such as reading. This study explores the ability of a single session of tDCS to modulate reading efficiency and phonological processing performance within a group of healthy adults. Half the group received anodal or cathodal stimulation, on two separate days, of the left temporo-parietal junction while the other half received anodal or cathodal stimulation of the right homologue area. Pre- and post-stimulation assessment of reading efficiency and phonological processing was carried out. A larger pre-post difference in reading efficiency was found for participants who received right anodal stimulation compared to participants who received left anodal stimulation. Further, there was a significant post-stimulation increase in phonological processing speed following right hemisphere anodal stimulation. Implications for models of reading and reading impairment are discussed. PMID:25852513
Thomson, Jennifer M.; Doruk, Deniz; Mascio, Bryan; Fregni, Felipe; Cerruti, Carlo
This document provides the technical basis for use of remote reading capabilities with radiological control instruments at River Protection Project facilities. The purpose of this document is to evaluate applications of remote reading capabilities with Radiological Control instrumentation to allow continuous monitoring of radiation dose rates at River Protection Project (RPP) facilities. In addition this document provides a technical basis and implementing guidelines for remote monitoring of dose rates and their potential contribution to maintaining radiation exposures ALARA.
Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…
Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.
Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is designed to measure students' academic status and growth so the effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated. In the most popular forms of reading CBM, the student's oral reading fluency is assessed. This behavior is difficult to sample in a computer-based format, a limitation that may be a function of the…
Nese, Joseph F. T.; Anderson, Daniel; Hoelscher, Kyle; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie
Commercially available silicon diodes are suitable as temperature sensors over a wide range of temperature. Despite their robustness, abundance and very low cost, they are seldom used in high school or junior undergraduate laboratories as temperature sensors. Here we describe a simple circuit based on an inexpensive quad operational amplifier that permits a direct reading temperature instrument to be constructed using silicon diodes, thereby encouraging their use in introductory thermal experiments.
Kirkup, L.; Tonthat, C.
Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort…
Garcia, Steve L.
The purpose of this reference guide is to enable test consumer to identify published measures which may meet their particular needs. The basic features include notations of whether norm data are reported in the test manual; indexes to "Buro's Mental Measurement Yearbooks" or "Reading Tests and Reviews" for evaluation; complete publishers'…
Griffin, Margaret; And Others
The Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Central Processing Section (WHMC/SGLP) uses ethylene oxide (EtO) as a primary sterilizing agent. Because of their concern about the health effects of EtO, SGLP has searched for a continuous-monitoring EtO system. In their search, they found two units (AMSCO's Envirogard III and Baseline Industries, Inc.'s Model 5500 Gas Analyzer). The objective of this evaluation was to conduct a field study to compare the performances of the two direct-reading continuous EtO monitors against the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) acceptable charcoal-tube sampling method. In addition, the 3M EtO passive monitor sampling method was compared with the charcoal-tube method and direct-reading instrumental method as well. Neither the Baseline Industries, Inc. nor the AMSCO continuous monitors corresponded to OSHA acceptable charcoal tube method of air sampling. Both instruments reported EtO concentrations much higher than those detected by the charcoal tubes. There is no way of knowing which method, the direct-reading continuous monitor or the charcoal tube/passive monitor, is more correct. However, the OSHA standard for EtO is based on measuring EtO by the charcoal tube method.
Hossain, M.A.; Carpenter, D.R.
Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) with 737 students in an introductory biology course required
Jennifer G. Cromley; Lindsey E. Snyder-Hogan; Ulana A. Luciw-Dubas
Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension…
Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.
We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.
Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.
This report describes a program for advancing reading skills in order to improve reading scores and individual achievement. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in a middle class community located in a Midwestern state. Standardized test scores and local assessment scores revealed that many elementary students were lacking the…
Hennenfent, Merris; Russell, Janet
Intended for use by Title I teachers, this handbook is designed to aid in the selection and use of commercially prepared reading games and game-like teaching materials that teach or reinforce (1) basic sight vocabulary, (2) spelling, (3) word meaning, (4) comprehension, (5) reading readiness, (6) perception, (7) study, (8) listening, (9) fluency,…
Alabama Univ., Birmingham.
Struggling readers are more likely to learn essential reading skills and strategies if the direct or explicit model of instruction is part of the teacher's repertoire of teaching methods. Directly/explicitly teaching reading means imparting new information to students through meaningful teacher-student interactions and teacher guidance of student…
Rupley, William H.; Blair, Timothy R.; Nichols, William D.
Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. Participants were either from a left-to-right reading culture (UK) or from a mixed (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) reading culture (Hong Kong). In Experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical, and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In Experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left-to-right or in top-to-bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults started counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction. PMID:25852583
Göbel, Silke M.
The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.
Stroud, Nathan Paul
The inability of many English second-language (ESL) learners to read at desirable levels is universal, but reasons for this and solutions have not yet been addressed. Within the South African teaching context especially there is a paucity of evidence-based research findings available on the literacy challenges faced by ESL learners and the…
Van Staden, Annalene
Intended for use by Title I reading teachers, this handbook is designed to aid in answering questions about the selection and use of instructional materials. The handbook lists materials according to the following skill areas: (1) auditory discrimination, (2) comprehension, (3) critical thinking, (4) dictionary skills; (5) fine motor skills, (6)…
Alabama Univ., Birmingham.
Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO2 were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 × 106 cm?3, were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m?3, were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control recommendations were described for processes as required. PMID:20447936
Evans, Douglas E.; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M. Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H.
A study investigated the effects of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity on Egyptian first-year secondary stage EFL students' referential and inferential reading comprehension. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. The subjects consisted of 72 first-year secondary students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at…
El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek
The performances of five portable direct-reading dust monitors were investigated in a wind tunnel for a range of industrial dusts and three sizes of aluminium oxide test dust to mainly determine their suitability for measuring the inhalable fraction of airborne dust in workplaces. The instruments tested were Split 2 (SKC Ltd), Sidepak (TSI Inc.), Dataram (Thermo Electron Ltd), PDS-2 (Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd) and the Respicon TM (Hund Ltd). The instruments' responses were compared with reference dust samplers. These were the IOM sampler for the inhalable fraction and the Casella cyclone sampler for the respirable fraction. All instruments are predominantly responsive to and are designed to measure particles in the respirable size range, although two of the instruments, the Split 2 and Respicon TM, are claimed to be capable of measuring inhalable-sized particles. For the purpose of the tests, major modifications to an existing wind tunnel dust injection system were made to facilitate the generation of uniform concentrations of large inhalable-sized dust particles at low air velocities. Each monitor greatly underestimated the measurement of inhalable concentration for all the dusts tested, although the linearity was good over a wide range of concentrations for any particular size distribution of dust. However, their calibration factors, defined as the ratio of reference inhalable concentration to monitor concentration, were especially sensitive to changes in particle size as the response of the instruments decreased rapidly with increasing particle size. The monitors generally overestimated the measurement of respirable dust concentration by up to a factor of about 2, apart from the PDS-2, which underestimated it by a factor of up to 3. There was, however, a great deal more scatter in the reference respirable concentration measurements owing to the collection of small dust samples. Therefore, monitor linearity and effects of monitor response to changes in particle size could not be accurately investigated for the respirable fraction. The sampling head of the Split 2 monitor incorporates an IOM inlet and filter to gravimetrically collect the inhalable fraction of airborne dust. This can give a concurrent reference measure of inhalable airborne dust concentration. However, poor sealing within the sampling head resulted in some of the sampled dust not reaching the backup filter. This resulted in the Split 2 underestimating the reference inhalable dust concentration, which meant that it could not be accurately used as a calibration standard. Communications with the manufacturers have since revealed that the sampling head has recently been redesigned in order to improve the seal and eliminate leakage. The Respicon sampler gravimetrically underestimated the inhalable dust concentration, and did so increasingly as the particle size increased. PMID:16799158
The development of the Primary Pupil Reading Attitude Inventory to measure recreational reading attitudes is described. Twenty second and third graders were interviewed to determine favorite after school and weekend activities. The nine most frequently named activities and three reading activities were then depicted by an artist in separate…
Askov, Eunice N.
A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.
Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.
The majority of general-purpose low-temperature handheld radiation thermometers are severely affected by the size-of-source effect (SSE). Calibration of these instruments is pointless unless the SSE is accounted for in the calibration process. Traditional SSE measurement techniques, however, are costly and time consuming, and because the instruments are direct-reading in temperature, traditional SSE results are not easily interpretable, particularly by the general user. This paper describes a simplified method for measuring the SSE, suitable for second-tier calibration laboratories and requiring no additional equipment, and proposes a means of reporting SSE results on a calibration certificate that should be easily understood by the non-specialist user.
Saunders, P. [Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)] [Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)
MORE (Minimal Objectives for Reading Essentials) in English and Korean is organized by levels for the purpose of diagnostic testing and instruction for limited English proficient Korean students in bilingual and/or English as a second language classrooms. This program suggests that the development of English reading skills by limited English…
Chu, Harold S.
The effectiveness of directionality training in alleviating a tendency to reverse letters and/or words was tested with 24 children (ages 8-9 years) with reading and math problems, who had such tendencies. The strategies used to teach directionality were based upon strategies used in previous studies with younger children that resulted in a…
Steen, Marcia; Jansson, Deborah
The study's purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity. A direct observation instrument ...
In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their study's…
Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand
This research investigates the effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the enhancement of the reading comprehension skills of learners with English Language Learning Difficulties. It aims at identifying the reading comprehension skills required for preparatory stage English language learners, re-develop and teach sample materials…
AL-Nifayee, Amani Mohammed
Two instruments are described which are used for three dimensional measurement of stationary objects. Available computer software for the equipment is discussed. It is designed to run on an IBM Personal Computer and allows the user to specify his own measuring requirements from a library of standard routines. Applications to research in dentistry, medicine and anthropology are also discussed.
Scott, P. J.
Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the…
Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig
Advance directives are written or oral statements that are intended to govern healthcare decision-making for their authors, for both positive and negative decisions, should they lose decisional capacity in the future. In a Europe which is facing an ageing population, advance directives play an increasing role to (help) formulate the wishes from elderly patient once they start losing the capacity to decide independently. Advance directives should not only be used as a formulation of the patients' previously made decision, but can also be used as guidelines to better understand the previous expressed wishes of the patient. If the advance directive is formulated in too vague form, the healthcare proxy and/or the healthcare trustee can help the physician interpret the directive. This broader approach towards advance directives is reflected in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as on the European legislative level. PMID:22558655
Graduate Health Insurance Selection/Reporting Information and Directions Please read Student Health Insurance Plan (QSHIP) meets J1/J2 visa requirements, MA State Regulations, and PPACA or to select the QSHIP provided through Brandeis. Check list for required student health insurance coverage
Snider, Barry B.
By the time most young children come to kindergarten they have been exposed to a barrage of print in their environment such as logos, billboards, signs, labels, clothing, and fast?food paraphernalia. A study was conducted to ascertain if there were any significant differences in the early reading ability of kindergarten children who received direct instruction with environmental print; those who
Patricia Kuby; Jerry Aldridge
The present studies examined whether implied tactile properties during language comprehension influence subsequent direct tactile perception, and the specificity of any such effects. Participants read sentences that implicitly conveyed information regarding tactile properties (e.g., "Grace tried on a pair of thick corduroy pants while shopping")…
Brunye, Tad T.; Walters, Eliza K.; Ditman, Tali; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.
The Fabric of Thought: Priming Tactile Properties During Reading Influences Direct Tactile of thick corduroy pants while shopping) that were either related or unrelated to fabrics and varied an unrelated rating task during which they felt and rated the texture of a presented fabric. Results
Patel, Aniruddh D.
Part 1(50%) Instructions: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed. Q zi; its students party animals), higher education is a major societal player. The borders between%*fAO*3 1 f % N ~ f t a i443?-# 3 W% 2 2 *%B [%%%+I m#B 1. Summarizethe main ideas of the entire passage
This engineering note documents the Dzero Superconducting Solenoid Platinum RTD, Carbon Glass RTD, and Helium level gage instrumentation values upon receipt at Fermilab. This note is concerned with the internal instrumentation, the external instrumentation can easily be repaired if any problems arise. The Solenoid was Purchased from Toshiba and shipped from the Kehin Works in Japan. The Solenoid was received at Dzero May 12, 1997. The Solenoid was shipped in three large components. They are the Solenoid, Control Dewar, and Chimney. There are 2 main instrumentation port areas where all the internal instrumentation is available to the outside world. These 2 places are the top of the Control Dewar and the North end of the Solenoid. These two instrumentation feedthrough area's have Cyocera hermetic feedthrough port connectors welded into place. The Cyocera connector can and does mate with the Burndy Bantom cable end connector of the same pin/socket number. Since the Hermetic feedthrough and cable connector are different manufacturers, the pin layout pattern is not the same. The Toshiba drawings show both manufacturers pin numbers. The Dzero engineering notes show only the Burndy pin numbers.
Markley, D.; /Fermilab
A growing amount of evidence confirms the influence of reading and writing habits on visuospatial processing, although this phenomenon has been so far testified mainly as a lateralized shift of a single behavioral sign (e.g., line bisection), with lack of proof from pure right-to-left readers. The present study contributed to this issue by analyzing multiple attentional and motor indexes in monolingual Italian (i.e., reading from left-to-right), and monolingual (i.e., reading from right-to-left) and bilingual Israeli (i.e., reading from right-to-left in Hebrew but also from left-to-right in English) participants' visuospatial performance. Subjects were administered a computerized standard star cancellation task and a modified version in which English letters and words were replaced by Hebrew ones. Tasks were presented on a graphics tablet, allowing recording of both chronometric and spatial parameters (i.e., measured in (x, y) vector coordinates). Results showed that reading direction modulated the on-line visuomotor performance (i.e., left-to-right vs. right-to-left shifts) from the beginning (i.e., first mark) to the end of the task (i.e., spatial distribution of omissions and subjective epicenter). Additionally, the spatial bias observed in a computerized line bisection task was also related to the participants' habitual reading direction. Overall, the results favor the proposal of an Interactive Account of visuospatial asymmetries, according to which both cultural factors, such as the directional scanning associated with language processing, and biological factors, such as hemispheric specialization, modulate visuospatial processing. Results are discussed in light of recent behavioral and neuroanatomical findings. PMID:24968311
Rinaldi, Luca; Di Luca, Samuel; Henik, Avishai; Girelli, Luisa
The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that separation anxiety symptoms were negatively predicted by fluency performance and harm avoidance symptoms were positively predicted by decoding performance. Fluency performance was positively predicted by harm avoidance and total anxiety (for girls only) symptoms, while decoding was not predicted by any anxiety subscale. PMID:21822734
Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Fletcher, Jack M; Vaughn, Sharon R; Stuebing, Karla K
The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that separation anxiety symptoms were negatively predicted by fluency performance and harm avoidance symptoms were positively predicted by decoding performance. Fluency performance was positively predicted by harm avoidance and total anxiety (for girls only) symptoms, while decoding was not predicted by any anxiety subscale. PMID:21822734
Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.
Chinese offers a unique tool for testing the effects of word form on language processing during reading. The processes of letter-mediated grapheme-to-phoneme translation and phonemic assembly (assembled phonology) critical for reading and spelling in any alphabetic orthography are largely absent when reading nonalphabetic Chinese characters. In contrast, script-to-sound translation based on the script as a whole (addressed phonology) is absent when reading the Chinese alphabetic sound symbols known as pinyin, for which the script-to-sound translation is based exclusively on assembled phonology. The present study aims to contrast patterns of brain activity associated with the different cognitive mechanisms needed for reading the two scripts. fMRI was used with a block design involving a phonological and lexical task in which subjects were asked to decide whether visually presented, paired Chinese characters or pinyin "sounded like" a word. Results demonstrate that reading Chinese characters and pinyin activate a common brain network including the inferior frontal, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, the inferior and superior parietal lobules, and the extrastriate areas. However, some regions show relatively greater activation for either pinyin or Chinese reading. Reading pinyin led to a greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex bilaterally, the precuneus, and the anterior middle temporal gyrus. In contrast, activation in the left fusiform gyrus, the bilateral cuneus, the posterior middle temporal, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus were greater for nonalphabetic Chinese reading. We conclude that both alphabetic and nonalphabetic scripts activate a common brain network for reading. Overall, there are no differences in terms of hemispheric specialization between alphabetic and nonalphabetic scripts. However, differences in language surface form appear to determine relative activation in other regions. Some of these regions (e.g., the inferior parietal cortex for pinyin and fusiform gyrus for Chinese characters) are candidate regions for specialized processes associated with reading via predominantly assembled (pinyin) or addressed (Chinese character) procedures. PMID:12419131
Chen, Yiping; Fu, Shimin; Iversen, Susan D; Smith, Steve M; Matthews, Paul M
Paper Title: Balance Calibration – A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customer’s location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom spreadsheet. The spreadsheet uses measurement results, along with the manufacturer’s specifications, to assign a direct-read measurement uncertainty to the balance. The fact that the assigned uncertainty is a best-case uncertainty is discussed with the customer; the assigned uncertainty contains no allowance for contributions associated with the unknown weighing sample, such as density, static charges, magnetism, etc. The attendee will learn uncertainty considerations associated with balance calibrations along with one method for assigning an uncertainty to a balance used for non-comparison measurements.
We compared the effects of two approaches to decoding on the word reading skills of struggling first-grade students: decontextualized, teacher directed decoding practice with manipulative letters and embedded, incidental decoding practice. Participants were 98 students at risk for reading disability. We randomly assigned participants to three…
Pullen, Paige C.; Lane, Holly B.
We examine the effect of direct and indirect teaching of vocabulary and word reading on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children following use of an electronic storybook (e-book). The children in each age group were randomly assigned to an intervention group which read the e-book or to a control group which was afforded the regular school…
Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina
The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has advanced our understanding of cancer. However, characterizing somatic structural variants in tumor genomes is still challenging because current strategies depend on the initial alignment of reads to a reference genome. Here, we describe SMUFIN (somatic mutation finder), a single program that directly compares sequence reads from normal and tumor genomes to accurately identify and characterize a range of somatic sequence variation, from single-nucleotide variants (SNV) to large structural variants at base pair resolution. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes showed average sensitivity of 92% and 74% for SNVs and structural variants, with specificities of 95% and 91%, respectively. Analyses of aggressive forms of solid and hematological tumors revealed that SMUFIN identifies breakpoints associated with chromothripsis and chromoplexy with high specificity. SMUFIN provides an integrated solution for the accurate, fast and comprehensive characterization of somatic sequence variation in cancer. PMID:25344728
Moncunill, Valentí; Gonzalez, Santi; Beŕ, Sílvia; Andrieux, Lise O; Salaverria, Itziar; Royo, Cristina; Martinez, Laura; Puiggrňs, Montserrat; Segura-Wang, Maia; Stütz, Adrian M; Navarro, Alba; Royo, Romina; Gelpí, Josep L; Gut, Ivo G; López-Otín, Carlos; Orozco, Modesto; Korbel, Jan O; Campo, Elias; Puente, Xose S; Torrents, David
Focusing upon the intersections between community college faculty and assessment professionals (e.g., institutional researchers) in improving student learning outcomes, the purpose of this study was to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of these professionals as they planned for and conducted student learning outcomes assessment in developmental reading, writing, and study skills courses. This instrumental case study at one particular
Patricia C Gordin
Discusses the importance of reading as a learning method for physicians. Examines the amount of print material the physician receives, reading patterns, personal libraries, the effect of aging on physician reading, specialty differences related to reading, and differences in reading related to practice setting. (CT)
Richards, Robert K.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel titanium instruments manufactured with improved heating processes in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. The instruments compared were produced either using the R-phase heat treatment (K3XF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or the M-wire alloy (ProFile Vortex; DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments in curved artificial canals. Results indicated no significant difference in resistance to cyclic fatigue when rotary nickel titanium instruments are used in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. In both directions of rotation, size 04-25 K3XF showed a significant increase (P?0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 04-25 ProFile Vortex. PMID:24279663
Gambarini, Gianlucca; Gergi, Richard; Grande, Nicola Maria; Osta, Nada; Plotino, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca
Prior studies on reasoning tasks have shown lateral spatial biases on mental model construction, which converge with known spatial biases in the mental representation of number, time, and events. The latter have been shown to be related to habitual reading and writing direction. The present study bridges and extends both research strands by looking at the processes of mental model construction in language comprehension and examining how they are influenced by reading and writing direction. Sentences like "the table is between the lamp and the TV" were auditorily presented to groups of mono- and bidirectional readers in languages with left-to-right or right-to-left scripts, and participants were asked to draw the described scene. There was a clear preference for deploying the lateral objects in the direction marked by the script of the input language and some hints of a much smaller effect of the degree of practice with the script. These lateral biases occurred in the context of universal strategies for working memory management. PMID:23307481
Román, Antonio; El Fathi, Abderrahman; Santiago, Julio
The purposes of this study were to develop the instructional model for enhancing self-directed learning skills of Bangkok University students, study the impacts of the model on their English reading comprehension and self-directed learning ability as well as explore their opinion towards self-directed learning. The model development process…
The French-Danish cosmic ray instrument on HEAO-3 has the ability to measure charge and arrival directions of cosmic rays and their energy above 500 MeV\\/nucleon. Arrival directions for silicon to nickel nuclei are displayed in a polar dot diagram, which shows particles arriving beyond the earth horizon viewed by the satellite (zenith greater than 112 deg, earth shadow). Results show
N. Petrou; N. Westergaard
Although neurologically normal individuals often exhibit leftward biases of perception and attention, known as pseudoneglect, factors such as lighting, spatial location and native reading direction have been found to modulate these biases. To investigate lighting and spatial biases in left-to-right and right-to-left readers search times were measured in a target finding task where lighting and target locations were manipulated. Target search times under upper-left lighting were significantly shorter than lower-left, upper-right and lower-right lighting among left-to-right readers. Right-to-left readers did not display the same leftward bias, even displaying significantly shorter search times under upper-right lighting than those of left-to-right readers. Significantly shorter search times for targets located in the upper-left quadrant (compared to other quadrants) were observed for left-to-right readers, while search times for upper-right located targets were significantly shorter for right-to-left readers compared to those of left-to-right readers. Participant scan times of stimuli divided into equal quadrants were monitored by an eye-tracking camera. Both groups displayed greater scan times in upper quadrants. These findings suggest that native reading direction modulates spatial and light perception biases resulting in weaker leftward, or a lack of lateral biases among right-to-left readers. PMID:25537526
Smith, Austen K; Szelest, Izabela; Friedrich, Trista E; Elias, Lorin J
Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…
Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk
Amplifier. V. Design of the Cold-function Compensation and Range Expansion Bridge. VI. Tests VII. Conclusion. ~ - 5 22 3g 41 VIII. Acknowledgement l3 IX. Bibliography. X. Appendix I. XI. Appendix II 45 ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ - ~ ~ 52 LIST OF FIGURES 1... to Storage Time for N aiory Typ RN-A Nercury Cell. . . . . . . . 26 g Schematic Diagram of Cold-junction Compensation Bridge . ~ 10. Schematic Diagram of Cold-+motion Compensation Bridge as Altered for Range Expansion. v 3l ll. Schematic Diagram...
Hartung, Robert Leonard
This study was conducted to determine if engineered nanoparticles are released into the air when nanocomposite parts are shredded for recycling. Test plaques made from polypropylene resin reinforced with either montmorillonite nanoclay or talc and from the same resin with no reinforcing material were shredded by a granulator inside a test apparatus. As the plaques were shredded, an ultrafine condensation particle counter; a diffusion charger; a photometer; an electrical mobility analyzer; and an optical particle counter measured number, lung-deposited surface area, and mass concentrations and size distributions by number in real-time. Overall, the particle levels produced were both stable and lower than found in some occupational environments. Although the lowest particle concentrations were observed when the talc-filled plaques were shredded, fewer nanoparticles were generated from the nanocomposite plaques than when the plain resin plaques were shredded. For example, the average particle number concentrations measured using the ultrafine condensation particle counter were 1300 particles/cm(3) for the talc-reinforced resin, 4280 particles/cm(3) for the nanoclay-reinforced resin, and 12,600 particles/cm(3) for the plain resin. Similarly, the average alveolar-deposited particle surface area concentrations measured using the diffusion charger were 4.0 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the talc-reinforced resin, 8.5 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the nanoclay-reinforced resin, and 26 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the plain resin. For all three materials, count median diameters were near 10 nm during tests, which is smaller than should be found from the reinforcing materials. These findings suggest that recycling of nanoclay-reinforced plastics does not have a strong potential to generate more airborne nanoparticles than recycling of conventional plastics. PMID:22168254
Raynor, Peter C; Cebula, Jessica Ingraham; Spangenberger, Jeffrey S; Olson, Bernard A; Dasch, Jean M; D'Arcy, James B
Participants’ eye movements were monitored in an experiment that manipulated the frequency of target words (high vs. low) as well as their availability for parafoveal processing during fixations on the pre-target word (valid vs. invalid preview). The influence of the word-frequency by preview validity manipulation on the distributions of first fixation duration was examined by using ex-Gaussian fitting as well as a novel survival analysis technique which provided precise estimates of the timing of the first discernible influence of word frequency on first fixation duration. Using this technique, we found a significant influence of word frequency on fixation duration in normal reading (valid preview) as early as 145 ms from the start of fixation. We also demonstrated an equally rapid non-lexical influence on first fixation duration as a function of initial landing position (location) on target words. The time-course of frequency effects, but not location effects was strongly influenced by preview validity, demonstrating the crucial role of parafoveal processing in enabling direct lexical control of reading fixation times. Implications for models of eye-movement control are discussed. PMID:22542804
Reingold, Eyal M.; Reichle, Erik D.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; Sheridan, Heather
During the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), directional and spectral reflectance measurements were acquired from May to July 1994 with the polarization and directionality of Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument on board a NASA C-130 aircraft. The instrument has a wide field-of-view optics, a two-dimensional CCD array, and a rotating wheel carrying filters in the visible and near infrared. Measurements were obtained (1) over coniferous forests at the young and old jack pine and old black spruce sites, (2) over a deciduous forest at the old aspen site, and (3) over a fen at the fen site. A prominent hot spot feature was apparent at each site, with an additional strong peak in the specular direction for the fen site. Strong variations of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) with sun zenith angle were observed. For a constant sun zenith angle, the variation of the BRDF of conifer stands between May and July was relatively weak. A key objective of this paper is to quantify the improvement of discrimination of various forest covers when remotely sensed directional signatures are added to the more conventional spectral signatures. The experimental protocol consisted of the following steps. First, 150 pixels pertaining to five different classes of forest covers were selected on land cover maps available in the BOREAS Information System (BORIS) data base. Second, the BRDF measurements acquired by POLDER at each pixel were adjusted against a three-parameter semiempirical BRDF model and processed to retrieve the reflectance seen in three different viewing directions. Third, the results of supervised classifications were compared on all selected pixels, using as input, either the reflectances in only one direction (this simulates the case of conventional spectral signatures), or reflectances acquired in three directions (this simulates the case of spectral + directional signatures). The results showed that when only one spectral band was used, the proportion of correctly classified pixels increased from 36-59% with one viewing direction to 64-84% with three viewing directions. When three spectral bands were considered, this proportion improved from 72-87% to 83-97%. These results demonstrate that the account of directional information enhances the ability to discriminate forest covers by remotesensing.
Bicheron, P.; Leroy, M.; Hautecoeur, O.; BréOn, F. M.
This study compared the Biomic automated well reader results to the MicroScan WalkAway results for reading MicroScan antimicrobial susceptibility and identification panels at four different sites. Routine fresh clinical isolates and quality control (QC) organisms were tested at each study site. A total of 46,176 MicroScan panel drug-organism combinations were read. The Biomic category agreement for 3,117 Gram-negative bacteria was 98.4%, with 1.4% minor and 0.2% major discrepancies. The Biomic category agreement for 5,233 Gram-positive bacteria was 98.7%, with 0.9% minor, 0.3% major, and 0.1% very major errors. Essential agreement, defined as Biomic results that were within ±1 2-fold dilution of the MicroScan results, was 99.3% for Gram-negative bacteria and 98.3% for Gram-positive bacteria. Biomic reading of MicroScan identification panels provided an overall agreement (first- and second-choice organism match) of 99.5% with 846 Gram-negative isolates and 99.5% with 430 Gram-positive isolates. These results suggest that the Biomic automated reader can provide accurate reading of MicroScan panels and has the capability of a visual panel read for manual adjustment of results. PMID:23486713
Weaver, Emily; Fossett, Rhonda; Toyras, Michele; Vanderlaan, John; Gibbs, David; Wang, Andrew; Thierjung, Nikolaus
In this study, we used a randomized design to investigate the effects of an enriched reading program on 226 urban elementary students' (third through sixth grade) reading comprehension, oral reading fluency, and attitude toward reading in 2 elementary schools. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Reading Framework (SEM-R) provides enriched reading…
Reis, Sally M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Coyne, Michael; Schreiber, Frederic J.; Eckert, Rebecca D.; Gubbins, E. Jean
Math 138 Â Exam 2A Directions: Read each problem carefully. Remember to show all work in a logical. The Royal Gorge Bridge near Canon City, Colorado is the highest suspension bridge in the world. The bridge is 1053 feet above the Arkansas river. A rock is dropped from the bridge. How long does it take the rock
Text comprehension plays a fundamental role in the processes of acquisition, sharing, and construction of knowledge. Most definitions share the focus on the interaction between text and reader's prior knowledge. In this paper both direct and indirect effects of prior knowledge on reading comprehension have been analyzed, along with other…
The rotations around the vertical axis associated with the normal mode oscillations of the Earth and those induced by the seismic and other disturbances have been very difficult to observe directly. Such observations will provide additional information for 3D modeling of the Earth and for understanding earthquakes and other underground explosions. In this paper, we describe the design of an instrument capable of measuring the rotational motions associated with the seismic oscillations of the Earth, including the lowest frequency normal mode at nu approximately 3.7 x 10(-4) Hz. The instrument consists of a torsion balance with a natural frequency of nu(0) approximately 1.6 x 10(-4) Hz, which is observed by an autocollimating optical lever of high angular resolution and dynamic range. Thermal noise limits the sensitivity of the apparatus to amplitudes of approximately 1.5 x 10(-9) rad at the lowest frequency normal mode and the sensitivity improves as nu(-3/2) with increasing frequency. Further improvements in sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude may be achieved by operating the balance at cryogenic temperatures. Alternatively, the instrument can be made more robust with a reduced sensitivity by increasing nu(0) to approximately 10(-2) Hz. This instrument thus complements the ongoing effort by Igel and others to study rotational motions using ring laser gyroscopes and constitutes a positive response to the clarion call for developments in rotation seismology by Igel, Lee, and Todorovska [H. Igel, W.H.K. Lee and M.I. Todorovska, AGU Fall Meeting 2006, Rotational Seismology Sessions: S22A,S23B, Inauguration of the International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS)]. PMID:17438268
The rotations around the vertical axis associated with the normal mode oscillations of the Earth and those induced by the seismic and other disturbances have been very difficult to observe directly. Such observations will provide additional information for 3D modeling of the Earth and for understanding earthquakes and other underground explosions. In this paper, we describe the design of an instrument capable of measuring the rotational motions associated with the seismic oscillations of the Earth, including the lowest frequency normal mode at ? ? 3.7 × 10?4 Hz. The instrument consists of a torsion balance with a natural frequency of ?0 ? 1.6 × 10?4 Hz, which is observed by an autocollimating optical lever of high angular resolution and dynamic range. Thermal noise limits the sensitivity of the apparatus to amplitudes of ? 1.5 × 10?9 rad at the lowest frequency normal mode and the sensitivity improves as ??3/2 with increasing frequency. Further improvements in sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude may be achieved by operating the balance at cryogenic temperatures. Alternatively, the instrument can be made more robust with a reduced sensitivity by increasing ?0 to ?10?2 Hz. This instrument thus complements the ongoing effort by Igel and others to study rotational motions using ring laser gyroscopes and constitutes a positive response to the clarion call for developments in rotation seismology by Igel, Lee, and Todorovska [H. Igel, W.H.K. Lee and M.I. Todorovska, AGU Fall Meeting 2006, Rotational Seismology Sessions: S22A,S23B, Inauguration of the International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS)]. PMID:17438268
Research into reading development and reading disabilities has been dominated by phonologically guided theories for several decades. In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections. The…
Brady, Susan A., Ed.; Braze, David, Ed.; Fowler, Carol A., Ed.
A self-balancing instrument transformer testing device is described by which the voltage and current errors and phase displacements of instrument transformers can be read off or recorded directly with a printer or digital instrument. The circuitry correr sponds to the usual difference circuit in which the test transforme- is compared with a standard transformer. The voltage difference between the secondary
Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.
Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.
The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.
Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C
The SPICA coronagraph instrument (SCI) provides high-contrast imaging and moderate resolution (R giant planets down to one Jupiter mass around nearby young (1 Gyr) stars and two Jupiter masses around nearby old (5 Gyr) stars. SCI also allows to characterizing those planets of less than 1 Gyr by spectroscopic observations to reveal the nature of planetary formation and evolution. Focusing on the high sensitivity and high contrast at wavelengths longer than 10 \\mu m, we show that SCI also allows us to directly image icy giant planets like Uranus and Neptune as well as gas giant planets around nearby early-type stars. In this paper, we compare the capabilities of SCI and the JWST coronagraphs and also discuss a new approach to answering questions concerning the formation and evolution of planetary systems through planet detection with SCI.
Matsuo, Taro; Kotani, Takayuki; Itoh, Yoichi; Tamura, Motohide; Nakagawa, Takao; Enya, Keigo
The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.
Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))
Introduction. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has become accepted as an alternative to conventional multiport cholecystectomy. However, SILC is still limited in applicability in low resource centres due to the expense associated with specialized access platforms, curved instruments, and flexible scopes. Presentation of Case. We present three cases where a modified SILC technique was used with conventional instruments and no working ports. The evolution of this technique is described. Discussion. In order to contain cost, we used conventional instruments and three transfascial ports placed in an umbilical incision, but we noted significant instrument clashes that originated at the port platforms. Therefore, we modified our technique by omitting ports for the working instruments. The technique allowed us to exchange instruments as necessary, maximized ergonomics, and prevented collisions from the bulky port platforms. Finally, the puncture left by the instrument alone did not require fascial closure at the termination of the procedure. Conclusion. The direct transfascial puncture using conventional laparoscopic instruments without working ports is a feasible option that minimizes cost and increases ergonomics. PMID:25349766
Cawich, Shamir O.; Thomas, Dexter; Hassranah, Dale; Naraynsingh, Vijay
Intended to help teachers integrate writing instruction with the study of literature, this teaching guide offers a philosophy of writing instruction, describes a procedure for teaching reading and writing lessons, and provides a sequence of writing skills. For various literature selections, the guide defines vocabulary, provides topic discussion…
Gelsinger, Barry D.
This sourcebook presents reading guides for 27 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…
Ley, Terry C., Ed.
The purpose of this article is to document the legacy and continuing influence of Michael Pressley's work in the field of reading research and instruction. Descriptions are provided to demonstrate how he translated his data from the cognitive sciences into highly effective pedagogy. A second component of this article discusses how Michael…
Block, Cathy Collins
Perceptual asymmetries for tasks involving aesthetic preference or line bisection can be affected by asymmetrical neurological mechanisms or left/right reading habits. This study investigated the relative contribution of these mechanisms in 100 readers of Japanese and English. Participants made aesthetic judgments between pairs of mirror-reversed…
Ishii, Yukiko; Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Imai, Hisato
theology? Draft Reading List: Week 1. Â· Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Â· Lewis Gordon, "Douglass as an Existentialist" Â· J. Kameron Carter, "Race, Religion, and the Contradictions of Identity: A Theological Engagement with Douglass's 1845 Narrative" Week 2. Â· Al Raboteau, Slave
This sourcebook presents reading guides for 39 literary works frequently used by scondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…
Ley, Terry C., Ed.
This sourcebook presents reading guides for 22 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…
Ley, Terry C., Ed.
The performance of three MIRAN SapphIRe Portable Infrared Ambient Air Analyzers and three Century Portable Toxic Vapor Analyzers equipped with photoionization (PID) and flame ionization (FID) detectors was compared with charcoal tube sampling. Relationships were investigated using two different calibration methods at four cyclohexane concentrations, three temperatures, and four relative humidities. For the first method, the TVA monitors were calibrated with a single concentration of methane for the FID, and isobutylene for the PID. The SapphIRe monitors were zeroed and the monitor's manufacturer-supplied library was used. For the second method, a five-point cyclohexane calibration curve was created for each monitor. Comparison of the monitor results of each calibration method (pooled data) indicated a significant difference between methods (t-test, p < 0.001), The SapphIRe group had results closer to the charcoal tubes with the second calibration method, while the PID and FID monitor groups performed better using the first calibration method. The PID monitor group's performance was affected only at the 90% relative humidity (RH) condition. Using the first method, the monitor readings were compared with the charcoal tube average using mixed linear model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and regression. The ANOVA results showed there was a statistically significant difference among readings from all monitor types (p <0.0001). The regression results demonstrated that the SapphIRe (r˛ = 0.97) and FID (r˛ = 0.92) monitor groups correlated well with the charcoal tubes. The PID monitor group had a similar correlation when 90% RH was excluded (r˛ = 0.94) but had a weaker correlation when it was included (r˛ = 0.58). The operator should take care when using these monitors at high concentrations and the PID monitors at high humidities, consider the variability between units of the same monitor, and conduct performance verification of the monitor being used. PMID:23016630
Coffey, Christopher; LeBouf, Ryan; Lee, Larry; Slaven, James; Martin, Stephen
This is an exercise in reading comprehension and following directions. Please make sure you read and re-read before asking for help. See how much work you can do all on your own and do your very best. Good luck, have fun and learn something new! 1. Click Here Be a Critical Reader : answer all 10 questions.Do not go on until you have answered all 10 correctly. At this time please stand and silently wave both your arms around as if you are trying to swat a fly for 5 seconds. Thank you :) 2. Click "CONTINUE" to go ...
Since the independent invention of DNA sequencing by Sanger and by Gilbert 30 years ago, it has grown from a small scale technique capable of reading several kilobase-pair of sequence per day into today's multibillion dollar industry. This growth has spurred the development of new sequencing technologies that do not involve either electrophoresis or Sanger sequencing chemistries. Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) involves multiple parallel micro-sequencing addition events occurring on a surface, where data from each round is detected by imaging. New High Throughput Technologies for DNA Sequencing and Genomics is the second volume in the Perspectives in Bioanalysis series, which looks at the electroanalytical chemistry of nucleic acids and proteins, development of electrochemical sensors and their application in biomedicine and in the new fields of genomics and proteomics. The authors have expertly formatted the information for a wide variety of readers, including new developments that will inspire students and young scientists to create new tools for science and medicine in the 21st century. Reviews of complementary developments in Sanger and SBS sequencing chemistries, capillary electrophoresis and microdevice integration, MS sequencing and applications set the framework for the book.
Lee, James Weifu [ORNL; Meller, Amit [Harvard University
Addressing the needs of Hispanic bilingual children with learning problems, the manual is arranged to help teach beginning students vowels and the concepts of shapes in a step-by-step manner based on Englemann's principles of direct instruction. Equivalent Spanish/English chapters are designed to teach pronunciation and identification of vowels…
In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Matthew Sigelman, CEO of Burning Glass Technologies, a Boston-based labor market…
The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 lambda/D and an ideal testbed for exploring coronagraphic techniques for ELTs. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss several exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks. In addition we will elucidate the unique role extreme AO systems will play in enabling high precision radial velocity spectroscopy for the detection of small companions.
Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; Singh, Garima; Vievard, Sebastien; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Garrel, Vincent; Norris, Barnaby; Tuthill, Peter; Stewart, Paul; Huby, Elsa; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre
The SPICA coronagraph instrument (SCI) provides high-contrast imaging and moderate resolution (R<200) spectroscopy at the wavelength range from 3.5 to 27?m. Based on the planet evolutional model calculated by Burrows et al. (2003), SCI will search for gas giant planets down to one Jupiter mass around nearby young (1Gyr) stars and two Jupiter masses around nearby old (5Gyr) stars. SCI
Taro Matsuo; Misato Fukagawa; Takayuki Kotani; Yoichi Itoh; Motohide Tamura; Takao Nakagawa; Keigo Enya
We report on strain analysis by nano-beam electron diffraction with a spatial resolution of 0.5nm and a strain precision in the 4-7·10-4 range. Series of up to 160000 CBED patterns have been acquired in STEM mode with a semi-convergence angle of the incident probe of 2.6mrad, which enhances the spatial resolution by a factor of 5 compared to nearly parallel illumination. Firstly, we summarise 3 different algorithms to detect CBED disc positions accurately: selective edge detection and circle fitting, radial gradient maximisation and cross-correlation with masks. They yield equivalent strain profiles in growth direction for a stack of 5 InxGa1-xNyAs1-y/GaAs layers with tensile and compressive strain. Secondly, we use a direct electron read-out pnCCD detector with ultrafast readout hardware and a quantum efficiency close to 1 both to show that the same strain profiles are obtained at 200 times higher readout rates of 1kHz and to enhance strain precision to 3.5·10-4 by recording the weak 008 disc.
Müller, K.; Ryll, H.; Ordavo, I.; Schowalter, M.; Zweck, J.; Soltau, H.; Ihle, S.; Strüder, L.; Volz, K.; Potapov, P.; Rosenauer, A.
The principle and structure of an intelligent large direct current measurement is presented in this paper. It is of reflective type and detects signal by employing the high direct current sensor. The single-chip microcomputer of this system provides a powerful function of control and processing and greatly improves the extent of intelligence. The value can be displayed and printed automatically or manually.
Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Zhipeng
Background Self-directed learning is crucial to the professional development of nursing students, and which enables them to expand the knowledge and enhance the quality of their practice. A validated self-directed learning instrument is important not only in assessing the individual’s self-directed learning level, but also in evaluating the effectiveness of teaching or learning methods. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the SDLI in mainland Chinese nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional design with convenience sampling was used to recruit participants from three nursing schools. The mainland Chinese version of SDLI was tested with respect to validity and reliability in 1,499 nursing students, and another 30 nursing students were invited to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the scale in 7?days interval. Results Explorary factor analysis identified a four-factor structure, accounting for 56.101% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a good overall fit of this four-factor model. Convergent validity was supported by the highly positive Pearson’s correlation between SDLI score and SRSSDL score (r?=?.876, p?=?.000). Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency of overall scale was .916, and 4 dimensions were between .755-.825.The test-retest reliability of overall scale was .850, and 4 dimensions were between .708-.821. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of overall scale was .916, and 4 dimensions were .822-.889. Conclusions This study indicates that the SDLI is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing self-directed learning in mainland Chinese nursing students. Nurse educators could use such knowledge to develop their roles and plan to support nursing students in becoming self-directed learners and lifelong learner. PMID:24885557
2003 Holiday Anacrostic Directions: Read the clues and fill in the blanks at right. After you have words) G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. Blue, harvest, full and half Separate the wheat from opera title Worth a king's GG.The wild, blue HH. II. JJ. Rams' fans? Rhinologist's area This puzzle
Wright, Charles R.B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of student-directed transition planning instruction ("Whose Future Is It Anyway?" curriculum) with a computer-based reading support program ("Rocket Reader") on the self-determination, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy, and transition planning knowledge of students with disabilities. This…
Lee, Youngsun; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Palmer, Susan B.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra; Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.
Introduction: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reading racetracks and direct instruction flashcards with two students with behavior disorders. A token economy with a response cost component was also implemented to increase on-task behavior during data collection. Method: The participants were two eight-year-old males.…
Hopewell, Kim; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark
An innovative instrument dedicated to the multispectral measurements of the directional and polarized scattering properties of the hydrosols, so-called POLVSM, is described. The instrument could be used onboard a ship, as a benchtop instrument, or at laboratory. The originality of the POLVSM concept relies on the use of a double periscopic optical system whose role is (i) to separate the plane containing the light source from the scattering plane containing the sample and the receiver and (ii) to prevent from any specularly reflected light within the sample chamber. As a result, a wide range of scattering angle, namely from 1° to 179°, is covered by the detector. Another originality of the instrument is to measure the Mueller scattering matrix elements, including the degree of polarization. A relevant calibration procedure, which could be of great interest as well for other instruments, is proposed to convert the raw data into physical units. The relative uncertainty in POLVSM data was determined at ± 4.3%. The analysis of measurements of the volume scattering function and degree of polarization performed under controlled conditions for samples dominated either by inorganic hydrosols or phytoplankton monospecific species showed a good consistency with literature, thus confirming the good performance of the POLVSM device. Comparisons of POLVSM data with theoretical calculations showed that Mie theory could reproduce efficiently the measurements of the VSF and degree of polarization for the case of inorganic hydrosols sample, despite the likely non sphericity of these particles as revealed by one of the element of the Mueller matrix. Our results suggested as well that a sophisticated modeling of the heterogeneous internal structure of living cells, or at least, the use of layered sphere models, is needed to correctly predict the directional and polarized effects of phytoplankton on the oceanic radiation. The relevance of performing angularly resolved measurements of the Mueller scattering elements to gain understanding on the mechanisms processes involved in the scattering of light by marine particles, which has important implications for ocean color remote sensing studies, is demonstrated. PMID:25401673
Chami, Malik; Thirouard, Alexandre; Harmel, Tristan
Direct-reading design charts are presented for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners. These charts, which cover a wide range of proportions, make possible the direct determination of the stress and all panel dimensions required to carry a given intensity of loading with a given skin thickness and effective length of panel.
Hickman, William A; Dow, Norris F
Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and less than 2 meters per second velocity accuracy. The instrument design, technologies and predicted performance will be presented.
Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott
This study examined the effectiveness of two tiers of intervention for preventing early reading difficulties among kindergarten children who qualified as at risk of experiencing difficulty in the early stages of learning to read. Participating schools were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: Professional Development for…
Scanlon, Donna M.; Gelzheiser, Lynn M.; Vellutino, Frank R.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Sweeney, Joan M.
Direct force measuring transducer acts as an arterial tonometer, gives a direct readout to instrumentation, and is unaffected by ambient noise. It uses a semiconductor strain gage which is deflected by pressure pulses in the artery. The deflection changes the resistance of the gage and alters the voltage reading on the associated instrumentation.
Eige, J. J.; Newgard, P. M.; Pressman, G. L.
A study was conducted to determine whether informal group assessment instruments could be used effectively to provide the same type of reading achievement information as that secured from informal individual instruments. The researchers developed group instruments comparable to individual instruments, including a group reading inventory for grades…
Shipman, Dorothy A.; Warncke, Edna W.
Reading comprehension skills promote achievement in science, so how can teachers help students to develop these skills? Research indicates that students who read well are more likely to be successful in school and in life (Belk 1999). Furthermore, there is a direct link between science skills and reading skills (Carter and Simpson 1978). There are…
Belk, Elizabeth Joann; Seed, Allen H.; Abdi, Wali
On April 13, 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released the results of "the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading." Established in response to a 1997 congressional directive, the NRP is composed of "leading scientists in reading research, representatives of colleges of education, reading teachers, educational administrators, and parents." The NRP Homepage offers background information, additional documents, and related links.
Many instruments designed to assess reading comprehension reflect instructional tasks that have not clearly been shown to be a part of the process of comprehension. If the measurement instruments are to have construct validity, however, they must be created to reflect what we know about cognitive processing. Recent work in cognitive psychology has…
INTRODUCTION The subject of determining the inherent system noise levels present in modem broadband closed loop seismic sensors has been an evolving topic ever since closed loop systems became available. Closed loop systems are unique in that the system noise can not be determined via a blocked mass test as in older conventional open loop seismic sensors. Instead, most investigators have resorted to performing measurements on two or more systems operating in close proximity to one another and to analyzing the outputs of these systems with respect to one another to ascertain their relative noise levels. The analysis of side-by-side relative performance is inherently dependent on the accuracy of the mathematical modeling of the test configuration. This report presents a direct approach to extracting the system noise levels of two linear systems with a common coherent input signal. The mathematical solution to the problem is incredibly simple; however the practical application of the method encounters some difficulties. Examples of expected accuracies are presented as derived by simulating real systems performance using computer generated random noise. In addition, examples of the performance of the method when applied to real experimental test data are shown.
Holcomb, L. Gary
Many next generation radio telescopes, some now in operation, offer significant improvement in the sensitivity and angular resolution compared to the telescopes operated in the past decades. This improvement in sensitivity is achieved with the use of wide-band receivers and larger collecting area. The effects of wide instantaneous fractional bandwidths that classical calibration and imaging algorithms ignore, lead to errors higher than the sensitivity that these new telescopes offer. Examples, relevant for some of the telescopes already in operation include the effects of time and frequency variant primary beams, frequency dependence of the emission from the sky and antenna pointing errors. The effects of wide fractional bandwidth and ionospheric phase screen limit the imaging performance below ~1 GHz. Additionally, significant variations in the shape of the wide-band primary beams (PB) for aperture array telescopes leads to errors of similar magnitude. Corrections for these effects increases the required computing power by many orders of magnitude. Furthermore, both wide fractional bandwidths and larger collecting area lead to many orders of magnitude increase in the data volume also, putting severe constraints on the run-time performance of the algorithms for calibration and imaging. In this talk, I will review the state-of-the-art algorithms for wide-field wide-band imaging and the run-time costs of the different approaches for correction of various direction-dependent effects and discuss the computational challenges in thermal noise-limited wide-field imaging with current and future radio telescopes.
Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Rau, U.; Golap, K.
Sequence-specific DNA binding by transcription factors is central to gene expression regulation. While a number of methods for characterizing DNA-protein interactions are currently available1-6, none have demonstrated both quantitative measurement of affinity and high throughput. To address this challenge, we developed HiTS-FLIP, a technique that couples high-throughput sequencing with direct visualization of in vitro binding to provide quantitative protein-DNA binding affinity measurements at unprecedented depth. HiTS-FLIP analysis of GCN4, the master regulator of the yeast amino acid starvation response7, yielded 440 million binding measurements, enabling determination of context-averaged dissociation constants for all 12mer sequences having submicromolar affinity. These data revealed complex interdependency between motif positions, yielded improved discrimination of in vivo GCN4 binding sites and regulatory targets relative to previous models, and identified sets of genes with distinct GCN4 affinity levels which had distinct functions and expression kinetics. This approach promises to deepen understanding of the interactions that drive transcription. PMID:21706015
Nutiu, Razvan; Friedman, Robin C.; Luo, Shujun; Khrebtukova, Irina; Silva, David; Li, Robin; Zhang, Lu; Schroth, Gary P.; Burge, Christopher B.
This paper summarises the results of an evaluation that was conducted in order to investigate the role and potentials of the participatory process according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Lower Saxony, Northwest Germany. The most important participatory instruments within the implementation process of the WFD in Lower Saxony are the 30 'area co-operations'. As a local and direct
Ilke Borowski; Britta Kastens; Dagmar Ridder
Two types of direct-reading aerosol monitoring devices, the TSI, Inc. Model 3320 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and the TSI, Inc. Model 8520 DustTrak Aerosol Monitor (DustTrak), were collocated indoors with a US EPA designated Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM2.5 sampler, the BGI, Inc. PQ200, to assess the comparability of the sampling methods. Simultaneous 24-h samples were collected from two APS
Jeff D. Yanosky; Phillip L. Williams; David L. MacIntosh
Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…
Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith
We present advances in instrumentation for fast, direct, high-sensitivity in situ measurement of formaldehyde and alpha-dicarbonyls. Glyoxal, the smallest dicarbonyl, is a molecule of emerging importance. It is a tracer of the oxidative chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and has been implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We have developed a laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) instrument for measurement of
F. Keutsch; J. Paul; A. Huisman; J. Hottle; J. Digangi; M. Galloway; K. Coens; A. Kammrath
Conducted a pilot questionnaire study on Singaporean family reading practices. Found that in the majority of homes, the mother initiated reading of mostly fictional material borrowed from public libraries. Reading aloud to children occurred in about one-third of homes, with direct reading instruction occurring in over two-thirds of families. Found…
Mee, Cheah Yin; Gan, Linda
The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss…
This article examines the Consortium on Reading Excellence-Phonics Survey (CORE-PS), an informal, inexpensive, and widely disseminated assessment tool that is used to determine primary-grade students' knowledge of and abilities to apply key alphabetic and phonics understandings to decode a mix of real and pseudo-words. Evidence is reported of…
Reutzel, D. Ray; Brandt, Lorilynn; Fawson, Parker C.; Jones, Cindy D.
For delicate operations conducted using surgical robot systems, surgeons need to receive information regarding the contact forces on the tips of surgical instruments. For the detection of this contact force, one of the authors previously proposed a new method, called the overcoat method, in which the instrument is supported by sensors positioned on the overcoat pipe. This method requires cancellation of the acceleration forces of the instrument/holder attached to the overcoat sensor. In the present report, the authors attempt to use acceleration sensors to obtain the acceleration forces of the instrument/holder. The new cancellation method provides a force-detection accuracy of approximately 0.05-0.1 N for a dynamic response range of up to approximately 20 Hz, compared to approximately 1 Hz, which was achieved by using acceleration forces based on the theoretical robot motion. PMID:16685948
Shimachi, Shigeyuki; Kameyama, Fumie; Hakozaki, Yoshihide; Fujiwara, Yasunori
For more than 30 years, researchers have focused on the important transition that children undergo between the ages of 3 and 5, when they start to solve mind-reading problems that require reasoning about complex mental states, such as beliefs. The main question for debate has been whether, during that transition, children acquire new concepts…
Samson, Dana; Apperly, Ian A.
We present advances in instrumentation for fast, direct, high-sensitivity in situ measurement of formaldehyde and alpha-dicarbonyls. Glyoxal, the smallest dicarbonyl, is a molecule of emerging importance. It is a tracer of the oxidative chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and has been implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We have developed a laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) instrument for measurement of ambient glyoxal, taking advantage of the unusually high intersystem crossing yield of alpha-dicarbonyls. This is the first instrument for atmospheric field measurements based on LIP. Measurement of the slow (30 microsecond) phosphorescence offers the advantage of temporal separation from laser scatter and fluorescence, obviating the need for filters to eliminate particulate matter. The instrument has been characterized in two field campaigns and the precision during the PROPHET 2008 field campaign was 2 pptv/min. We present an extension of instrumental capabilities to measuring glyoxal fluxes via eddy-correlation, and of the LIP method to measuring methylglyoxal. The Madison LIP instrument can thus provide alpha-dicarbonyl datasets essential to insight into the oxidative chemistry of VOCs and SOA formation. We have also developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) based instrument for fast, high-sensitivity measurements of formaldehyde with a precision as high as 20 pptv/min. We present characterization of the instrument during the PROPHET 2008 field campaign. Since then, we have replaced the Ti:Sapphire laser with a novel pulsed fiber laser, which has considerable advantages in many important aspects, such as size and power requirements, and it offers an opportunity to significantly advance laser based instrumentation in the UV- Vis range. Fiber-coupling also eliminates problems with optics contamination. Finally, the laser can be tuned rapidly, as required for formaldehyde flux measurements via eddy correlation. The entire instrument (excluding the pump) requires roughly 3'x3'x2' and is ideally suited for ground-based and aircraft measurements.
Keutsch, F.; Paul, J.; Huisman, A.; Hottle, J.; Digangi, J.; Galloway, M.; Coens, K.; Kammrath, A.
This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…
Jones, Joanna R., Ed.
This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…
On April 13, 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released the results of "the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading." Established in response to a 1997 congressional directive, the NRP is composed of "leading scientists in reading research, representatives of colleges of education, reading teachers, educational administrators, and parents." The report, which is available in .pdf format along with the reports of the subgroups, concludes that the best way to teach children to read is through a combination of methods, including phonemic awareness, phonics, guided oral reading, and the application of reading comprehension strategies.
This study examines the relationships among a variety of secondary/postsecondary experiences and activities and postsecondary students' musical independence (MI). The paper reports on the impact Instrumental Performance Skills (IPSs) have on the students" MI development during private lessons, band rehearsal, and individual practicing. The study…
Bobbett, Gordon C.; And Others
This is a report of a 21-year-old woman with reading epilepsy. Clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) observations are presented while the patient read a news magazine in Spanish, read a magazine in English, read an announcement repetitively, viewed comic strips without legends, made a mathematical calculation. Only reading in Spanish produced clinical and EEG paroxysms. This case report supports the "communication" hypothesis as opposed to hypotheses that emphasize proprioceptive and other "lower order" stimuli in evoking seizures while reading. PMID:3582294
Mesri, J C; Pagano, M A
This grant was intended to be used for the purchase of high quality laboratory and data analysis instrumentation for the pursuit of space plasma physics research. Two of the first purchases were a 6250 BPI magnetic tape drive and a large, fast disk drive. These improved the satellite data analysis capability greatly and reduced the system backup time. With the big disk drive it became possible to dump entire magnetic tapes to disk for faster, more efficient processing. Several microcomputers improve both personnel computing as well as general connectivity within the group and on campus in general. Other microcomputers function in the laboratory setting by acting as hosts for several instrument interfaces for communication with satellite and balloon payloads as well as laboratory VLF signal processing equipment. Perhaps the single most expensive item purchased was an analog tape drive for reading and writing 16 in. analog magnetic tapes. This analog tape drive is used for the direct processing of FM and directly recorded telemetry data from the balloon and rocket payloads.
Holzworth, R. H.
The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched by Space Shuttle STS-48 on 12 September 1991 and included a direct Doppler experiment, the High Resolution Doppler Imager, HRDI. Ten years later, the TIMED Doppler Interferometer, TIDI, joined HRDI in direct neutral wind observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The removal of instrumental artifacts from the raw spectra, complicated by the loss of good attitude knowledge for HRDI and unexpected signal contamination for TIDI has matured to a level where excellent agreement exists for common volume measurements between them. The two experiments were able to perform overlapping measurements of tidal and planetary wave fields for three years permitting unprecedented clarity in the description of the cyclical behaviour of the MLT. The exhaust plume left in the wake of the launch of STS-107 (16 January 2003) provided a stringent test between TIDI, HRDI, and independent imagery, the latter of which showed rapid transport across the equator to the Antarctic. Though TIDI and HRDI observed the atmosphere at the plume’s location at different local solar times, all correlative observations supported the hypothesis indicated by once-a-day images of the plume - rapid southern transport over thousands of kilometers. A simple spectral analysis of simultaneous observations of the neutral winds by HRDI and TIDI indicates that a classical two-day wave (longitudinal wavenumber = 3) exists in the southern hemisphere during the ~80-hour transit time coinciding with the transport of the plume exhaust from launch to the Antarctic. A least-squares fit of the wave in the meridional wind indicates maximum amplitude in the MLT of ~80 m/s southwards. Other shuttle launches have also been accompanied by evidence that implies rapid transport of exhaust plumes to Arctic latitudes. This paper will summarize correlative HRDI and/or TIDI wind observations of these events and associated spectral analysis of the meridional wind in the MLT. There is no question that TIDI and HRDI confirm the rapid implied motion suggested by space-borne imagery of shuttle exhaust plumes. Empirical and first-principle physical models of MLT dynamics fall short in describing the amplitude and long life of strong meridional flow. The consistency between TIDI, HRDI, and independent observations of rapid plume transport indicate that our understanding of MLT dynamics is far from complete.
Niciejewski, R.; Meier, R. R.; Stevens, M. H.; Skinner, W. R.; Cooper, M.; Marshall, A.; Ortland, D. A.; Wu, Q.
"READ 180" is a reading program designed for students in elementary through high school whose reading achievement is below the proficient level. The goal of "READ 180" is to address gaps in students' skills through the use of a computer program, literature, and direct instruction in reading skills. The software component of the program aims to…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2009
This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…
Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.
This chapter addresses some of the research supporting the importance of reading aloud, tips to make your read-aloud time more valuable, descriptions of Harvey and Goudvis's six key reading strategies (2000), and tools you can use to enhance students' comprehension during read-aloud time.
Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…
Tilley, Carol L.
We feel that this study suggests a relationship among geology, soil gas Rn and the potential for indoor Rn accumulation in this portion of the Reading Prong. There are deviations from a perfect correlation but these are related to inhomogeneities in the geologic environment and perhaps variations in construction techniques of homes in the area. This study also demonstrates that several analyses in a small area may be necessary to adequately determine the Rn distribution for a particular geologic unit. That scale would be determined by the complexity of the local geology. Where no discrete source of elevated Rn supply is found for dwellings having a significant Rn accumulation, the implication is that overall gross permeability may be sufficient to supply Rn from a larger volume of soil and rock.
Reimer, G.M.; Gundersen, L.C.S.
Delves into the birth, childhood, and adolescence of the National Reading Conference, with direct attention given to the germination of the "Journal of Reading Behavior," the former title of this journal. Notes the National Reading Conference has a long and honored history spanning a period of nearly 50 years. (RS)
Stahl, Norman A.; Smith-Burke, M. Trika
Aluminium smelter potrooms are unique in that workplace exposures to hydrogen fluoride (HF), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter occur simultaneously for some tasks. The peak exposures to these contaminants are of increasing interest in discovering the etiology of respiratory health effects. While a variety of direct-reading instruments are available for sulfur dioxide and particulate matter, only a few exist for hydrogen fluoride. The sensors in these HF instruments have a cross-sensitivity to sulfur dioxide making it difficult to monitor HF in an environment that also contains SO2. To overcome this problem, we assessed the simultaneous use of two electrochemical instruments: one with a SO2 sensor that does not respond to HF and the second with a hydrogen fluoride sensor that responds to both HF and SO2 in a 1 : 1 ratio, termed 'total acid gas'. The difference in the response between the two instruments should indicate the HF concentration: [HF + SO2] minus SO2 equals HF. The performance characteristics of this sampling train were evaluated in the laboratory through the generation of both HF and SO2 with permeation tubes. The response and recovery times for the SO2 only instrument were acceptable (6 and 15 s, respectively), but the "total acid gas" instrument exhibited both slow response and slow recovery approaching three and six min. The association between the traditional integrated filter sampling method and the direct-reading instrument for SO2 is 0.80 (Spearman's rho). The use of the digital filter strengthens the association between the HF direct-reading instrument and the integrated samples from 0.41 to 0.68. PMID:15536509
Carter, Stephanie R; Seixas, Noah S; Thompson, Mary Lou; Yost, Michael G
NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.
Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott
Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits ...
Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful because most students have higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension (Trelease 2006)--low-reading level students, English language learners, and auditory learners in particular, tend to understand what they hear better than what they read. This article provides suggestions for including the practice of reading aloud in the high school science classroom.
A unique field instrument, called the PARABOLA, a collapsable support boom, which is self contained and easily transportable to remote sites to enable the acquisition of radiance data for almost the complete (4 pi) sky and ground-looking hemispheres in only 11 seconds was designed. The PARABOLA samples in 15 deg instantaneous field of view sectors in three narrow bandpass spectral channels simultaneously. Field measurement on a variety of earth surface cover types using a truck boom, a specially designed pickup truck mounting system, and a hot air balloon were studied. The PARABOLA instrument has potential for climatological and other studies which require characterization of the distribution of diffuse solar radiation within the sky hemisphere.
Deering, D. W.; Leone, P.
In "Operation Just Read," a teacher leadership team used action-research procedures to identify a problem (low independent reading levels), obtain baseline data, analyze results, formulate a rationale, implement a program, collect data, analyze results, and arrive at conclusions. Schools can increase at-home independent reading for the average…
Wolf, James W.
An instrumental cigarette smoke monitor (CSM) system designed for human smoking studies has been developed and validated using\\u000a a smoking machine as a human surrogate. The cigarette holder contains both smoke-mixing and flow-measurement orifices and\\u000a a smoke-concentration sensor. Smoke flow through the holder and smoke concentration in the holder are determined simultaneously.\\u000a The two signals are multiplied electronically and the
Roger A. Jenkins; Thomas M. Gayle
Interrupted reading is a close reading technique that consists of dividing a passage of text into short chunks and pausing the reading after each section in order for the student to consider possible responses. This type of reading helps students connect with the text by requiring that they summarize, look for devices, make predictions, etc., as they are reading. This technique helps students to build confidence as they are forced to slow down and notice detail, and it is a tool to help build analysis and commentary skills. Passages from Annie Dillard, The Things They Carried and Cold Mountain are utilized in this lesson.
Part one points out the adequacy of a consideration of the steady state gyroscopic motion as a basis for the discussion of displacements of the gyroscope mounted on an airplane, and develops a simple theory on this basis. Principal types of gyroscopic inclinometers are described and requirements stated. Part two describes a new type of stabilizing gyro mounted on top of a spindle by means of a universal joint, the spindle being kept in a vertical position by supporting it as a pendulum of which the bob is the driving motor. Methods of tests and the difficulties in designing a satisfactory and reliable compass for aircraft use in considered in part three. Part four contains a brief general treatment of the important features of construction of aircraft compasses and description of the principal types used.
Franklin, W S; Stillman, M H; Sanford, R L; Warner, John A C; Sylvander, R C; Rounds, E W
Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 ? 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137
Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan
Presenting techniques for using the whole mind, this book describes PhotoReading, a reading program that teaches not just how to read faster, but how to learn at speeds many times faster than before. The book notes that PhotoReading teaches readers how to "mentally photograph" the written page directly into their "other-than-conscious" mind,…
Scheele, Paul R.
The stable isotope composition of atmosphere trace gases provides information of their origin and fate that cannot be determined from their mole fraction measurements alone. Biological source and loss processes, like bacterial production of N2O, are typically accompanied by isotopic selectivity associated with the kinetics of bond formation and destruction. Due to the relatively low N2O concentration in ambient air, of the three major biologically mediated greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), the understanding of N2O isotopic budget lags behind the other gases. We report on the development of novel instrumentation for real-time measurements of site-specific isotopic nitrogen and of isotopic oxygen (?15Na, ?15Nb, ?15N, ?18O) and mole fraction [N2O] of nitrous oxide over a wide range of mixing ratios. This novel technology, which employs cavity enhanced absorption and a mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser and does not require any cryogenic components, has been developed for in situ simultaneous measurements of the mole fractions of main isotopomers - 14N14N16O, 15N14N16O, 14N15N16O and 14N14N18O, which leads to the nitrogen-isotope ratio (?15N) and the 15N site-specific enrichment. A precision of better than 1 per mil may be achieved in ambient air (with 320 ppb N2O) in less than 100 seconds measurement time. For higher mole fractions, which may be obtained using preconcentration, better precision (approaching 0.1 per mil) may be achieved. Further details on the operation and performance of the instrument will be presented.
Dong, F.; Baer, D.; Owano, T.; Gupta, M.; Provencal, R.
Recommends the use of the Group Reading Inventory (GRI), an informal survey instrument, to identify general reading abilities of individuals in correctional facilities. Discusses why the GRI is appropriate for use, guidelines for constructing a GRI, and procedures for administering, scoring, and interpreting the instrument. (NRJ)
Helfeldt, John P.; Henk, William A.
Reading reflections are designed to encourage students to complete readings before coming to class, to reflect more deeply on the content of the reading, to make personal meaning from the meaning, and to develop their metacognitive skills for lifelong learning. The reflections consist of three questions: (1) What is the main point of the reading?, (2) What information did you find surprising? Why?, and (3) What did you find confusing? Why? Students submit short responses to two of three questions prior to coming to class. Metacognitive components of the activity Reading reflections address many elements of metacognition, including knowledge, control, and reflection. Reading reflections are designed to help students develop knowledge about themselves as learners, learning tasks (reading), prior knowledge, content, self-monitoring, self-assessment, and reflection. Metacognitive goals The primary goals of this activity are to help students develop their skills of self-assessment, and to reflect more deeply on the content of their reading assignments. Reflective thinking is an essential element of expert learners, so this activity helps students develop skills as intentional learners for lifelong learning. Assessing students' metacognition Reading reflections (n = 35 in a typical semester) count for approximately 10% of the course grade. I do not grade these reflections, but give students credit if they are turned in on time (before class) and if they clearly demonstrate significant reflection.
Here are some ideas for promoting reading at home. These ideas are geared mostly for teachers of K-2 students. Engage the family during a family trip. Have them keep a journal using the following lesson plan: family journal Remember to match the book to the journal prompt. Each family will have the opportunity to read the same book. Be ...
This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…
Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.
Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…
Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…
Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy
Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful…
The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…
Fagan, W. T.
A method and apparatus for collecting and interpreting eye movement data is described that is both relatively inexpensive and portable. The study lists and describes hardware and software components of a data collection and data analysis system which provides precise information regarding the location, duration, and sequence of eye fixations while…
Bieger, George R.; Hirschfeld, Rafael
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandesburgi 1598, Nuremberg 1602). One of Tycho's instruments in original size was reconstructed in Oldenburg University and in the Steno Museum in Aarhus, Denmark. In Munich, in the Deutsches Museum's permanent astronomy exhibition (opened in 1992), the Uraniborg observatory and its instruments are shown at a scale of 1:10. A similar but larger model (scale 1:5) from the workshop of the Deutsches Museum was given to the Technical Museum in Malmř, Sweden. Tycho's later observatory Stjerneborg can be seen as a reconstruction on the island Hven (Ven/Sweden) with the original foundations for the instruments.
A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to “enjoy” from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed. PMID:24287540
Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul
A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to "enjoy" from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed. PMID:24287540
Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul
This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.
Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit
The general objectives of this project were to improve understanding of the directional emittance properties of land surfaces in the thermal infrared (TIR) region of the electro-magnetic spectrum. To accomplish these objectives our research emphasized a combination of theoretical model development and empirical studies designed to improve land surface temperature (LST) retrievals from space-borne remote sensing instruments. Following the proposal, the main tasks for this project were to: (1) Participate in field campaigns; (2) Acquire and process field, aircraft, and ancillary data; (3) Develop and refine models of LST emission; (4) Develop algorithms for LST retrieval; and (5) Explore LST retrieval methods for use in energy balance models. In general all of these objectives were addressed, and for the most part achieved. The main results from this project are described in the publications arising from this effort. We summarize our efforts related to each of the objectives.
Li, Xiaowen; Friedl, Mark; Strahler, Alan
A simple sample pretreatment device was developed employing extractions across supported liquid membranes (SLMs) and in-line coupling to a commercial CE instrument. The device consisted of two polypropylene conical units interspaced with a polypropylene planar SLM, which were impregnated with 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene. The two units and the SLM were pressed against each other, donor unit was filled with 40 ?L of an untreated body fluid and acceptor unit with 40 ?L of DI water. The device was then placed into conventional CE vial fitted with a soft spring, which was depressed during injection into CE capillary and ensured that the SLM was not ruptured. Position of separation capillary injection end and high-voltage electrode in the CE instrument was optimized in order to ensure efficient injection of pretreated body fluids. The device can be easily assembled/disassembled and SLMs can be replaced after each extraction thus minimizing sample carry-over, avoiding tedious SLM regeneration, and reducing total pretreatment time and costs. The pretreatment device was examined by direct injection of human urine and serum spiked with nortriptyline, haloperidol, and loperamide. The basic drugs were diffusionaly transported across the SLM within 10 min and were injected into the separation capillary directly from the SLM surface in the acceptor unit, whereas matrix components were retained by the SLM. The in-line SLM-CE method showed good repeatability of peak areas (3.8-11.0%) and migration times (below 1.4%), linear relationship (r(2) = 0.990-0.999), and low LODs (12-100 ?g/L). PMID:23161384
Pant??ková, Pavla; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr
This article describes the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests Revised/Normative Update, an instrument designed to assess reading ability in students in grades K-12, undergraduate college students, and adults. The tests evaluate basic reading skills, reading comprehension, and reading readiness. Its administration, standardization, reliability, and…
Sutton, Joe P.
This tutorial introduces novice users to reading the lines on a seismograph. Topics include how to distinguish a real earthquake from background vibrations (microseisms) recorded by the instrument, how to read the minute marks that record the passage of time, and how to distinguish the types of earthquake waves that appear on the chart.
This work explores the potential of solid sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GFAAS) for the fast and direct determination of Hg in polymers. Eight certified reference materials with different composition (polyethylene-PE-, polystyrene-PS-, poly vinyl chloride-PVC- and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-ABS-) were selected for the study, covering a wide Hg content range (from 20 to 1100 ?g g - 1 ). The difficulties found in achieving a selective atomization of the analyte from these samples were partially mitigated by the maintenance of the Ar flow during the atomization step, leading to an improved signal-to-background ratio. Even then, when a line source (LS) GFAAS instrument was employed for analysis, it was only possible to develop truly accurate procedures relying on the use of aqueous standards for calibration for PE and PVC samples, and different atomization conditions (1200 °C and 1300 °C, respectively) were needed for the two types of samples. The use of high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) GFAAS instrumentation permitted to improve this situation significantly thanks to its higher potential for the correction of high and fast changing background. With such an instrument, satisfactory results could be obtained for all the samples under study using the same atomization conditions (1200 °C) and aqueous standard solutions for calibration. Additionally, the HR-CS GFAAS technique presented a lower limit of detection (0.6 ?g g - 1 for CS and 2.2 ?g g - 1 for LS), a broader linear range (10 to 320 Hg ng for CS, and 20 to 200 ng for LS), and a somewhat improved sensitivity (approximately 0.0030 s ng - 1 for CS using the three central pixels for quantification, and approximately 0.0025 s ng - 1 for LS). Overall, the use of HR-CS GFAAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in plastics, such as straightforward calibration with aqueous standards, a high sample throughput (15 min per sample), sufficient precision (4-9% RSD), a suitable limit of detection, and reduced risk of analyte loss and contamination.
Resano, M.; Briceńo, J.; Belarra, M. A.
The seventh edition of this book, like previous editions, is designed to give busy reading specialists, teachers, and students in reading education specific, concrete methods for locating and correcting reading difficulties. The book stresses the importance of direct instruction, motivational learning activities, and abundant practice in the act…
Shanker, James L.; Ekwall, Eldon E.
Studies the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in fourth-grade children and the nature of the working memory resources involved in reading comprehension. Shows that working memory capacity was a direct predictor of reading comprehension when contrasted with vocabulary and decoding skills. Discusses the reasons…
Seigneuric, Alix; Ehrlich, Marie-France; Oakhill, Jane V.; Yuill, Nicola M.
This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.
Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G
First and 2nd graders (N = 285) receiving Title 1 services received 1 of 3 kinds of classroom reading programs: direct instruction in letter–sound correspondences practiced in decodable text (direct code); less direct instruction in systematic sound–spelling patterns embedded in connected text (embedded code); and implicit instruction in the alphabetic code while reading connected text (implicit code). Children receiving direct
Barbara R. Foorman; David J. Francis; Jack M. Fletcher; Christopher Schatschneider; Paras Mehta
Success in the study of literature depends on the student's ability to establish connections between word and object, between words and phrases, and between memorable experiences in all fields of learning and the reading of literature, which is interdisciplinary by nature. In understanding a literary work, a reader must make affective memory…
DeGuise, Richard A.
This manual is designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs. The theme of the 1991 program is Arizona and its characteristics. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Topics covered include: goals, objectives, and evaluation; procedures for getting started; common…
Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.
Television's potential effect on children's reading performance has become an issue of concern among educators. The estimate that by the end of the high school years, children will have spent more time watching television than attending school is frequently quoted and has both alarmed and intrigued researchers. Such a ubiquitous phenomenon as television is presumed to have effects on the
Susan B. Neuman
Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…
This report describes a program to improve reading and language arts skills. The targeted population consisted of students in 2 first grade classrooms (average class size 25) from a midwestern elementary school in a predominantly white, middle to upper-middle class neighborhood. Data documenting the problem was obtained from the previous year's…
Bump, Sandra K.; Swedberg, Trina L.; Yates, Carol R.
Using K-8 national longitudinal data, the authors investigate males' and females' achievement in math and reading, including when gender gaps first appear, whether the appearance of gaps depends on the metric used, and where on the achievement distribution gaps are most prevalent. Additionally, teachers' assessments of males and females are…
Robinson, Joseph Paul; Lubienski, Sarah Theule
A multiple probe design was employed for this study to assess the effectiveness of the "Corrective Reading" program (Engelmann et al., 1999) on students' reading fluency and behavior during reading-related instruction. Direct observations assessed the effect on students' behavior in both general and special education classrooms. Reading fluency…
Lingo, Amy S.; Slaton, Deborah Bott; Jolivette, Kristine
Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…
On this website, you will practice reading with some super fun games! Fly a dragon to pick the right words in Blending dragon Make words with shadow faces in Say What?! Can you follow a recipe? Find out by Cooking with Abuela Fly through the air to save the day in Sentence Flying! Help Binky get his story straight in Story Scramble Go fishing for sightwords on Fishing with Kirima Try matching prefixes and suffixes in Balloon popping fun! Write a new ...
By applying semantic analysis to images of extended passages of text, several volumes of a chess encyclopedia have been read with high accuracy. Although carefully proofread, the books were poorly printed and posed a severe challenge to conventional page-layout analysis and character-recognition methods. An experimental page-reader system performed strictly top-down layout analysis for identification of columns, lines, words, and characters.
Henry S. Baird; Ken Thompson
This study proposed and tested a structural model of the effects of family cultural capital and reading motivation on reading behaviour in elementary school students. Participants were 467 fifth and sixth graders from elementary schools in Changhua County, Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study included the Family Cultural Capital Scale,…
Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Hsiu-yuan
This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9–12. Students were paired within classes and pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: repeated reading (N = 33), wide reading (N = 34), or typical instruction (N = 29). Intervention was provided daily for approximately 15–20 minutes for 10 weeks. Results indicated no overall statistically significant differences for any condition, with effect sizes ranging from ?.31 to .27. Findings do not support either approach for severely impaired readers at the high school level. We hypothesize that these students require more intensive interventions that include direct and explicit instruction in word- and text-level skills as well as engaged reading practice with effective feedback. PMID:21076693
Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A.
This handbook discusses various topics of interest to reading consultants for the elementary level: beginning reading, word recognition, phonics, vocabulary development, comprehension, reading skills in the content area, individualized approaches to instruction, creative reading, the disadvantaged child, audiovisual aids, reading speed, reading…
Miller, Harry B., Comp.
Recent research on reading comes from a variety of different kinds of studies all of which report the same bleak picture of college students' and adults' reading abilities. Researchers, theorists and faculty members can benefit from this detailed review of the various types of studies. These include large scale direct tests of reading ability in…
Context. Amongst the new techniques currently developed for high-resolution and high-dynamics imaging, the hypertelescope architecture is very promising for direct imaging of objects such as exoplanets. The performance of this instrument strongly depends on the co-phasing process accuracy. In a previous high-flux experimental study with an eight-telescope array, we successfully implemented a co-phasing system based on the joint use of a genetic algorithm and a sub-aperture piston phase diversity using the object itself as a source for metrology. Aims: To fit the astronomical context, we investigate the impact of photon noise on the co-phasing performance operating our laboratory prototype at low flux. This study provides experimental results on the sensitivity and the dynamics that could be reached for real astrophysical observations. Methods: Simulations were carried out to optimize the critical parameters to be applied in the co-phasing system running in the photon-counting regime. We used these parameters experimentally to acquire images with our temporal hypertelescope test bench for different photon flux levels. A data reduction method allows highly contrasted images to be extracted. Results: The optical path differences have been servo-controlled over one hour with an accuracy of 22.0 nm and 15.7 nm for 200 and 500 photons/frame, respectively. The data reduction greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and allows us to experimentally obtain highly contrasted images. The related normalized point spread function is characterized by a 1.1 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-5 intensity standard deviation over the dark field (for 15 000 snapshots with 200 and 500 photons/frame, respectively). Conclusions: This laboratory experiment demonstrates the potential of our hypertelescope concept, which could be directly transposed to a space-based telescope array. Assuming eight telescopes with a 30 cm diameter, the I-band limiting magnitude of the main star would be 7.3, allowing imaging of a companion with a 17.3 mag.
Bouyeron, L.; Delage, L.; Baudoin, R.; Gomes, J. T.; Grossard, L.; Reynaud, F.
The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.
Reading is essentially an active as well as a communicative process. It is an important language skill required for academic and professional purposes. Quick, efficient and imaginative reading techniques are essential to achieve academic success. One's professional performance also definitely depends on the quantity and quality of reading. In the learning process, reading comprehension follows the listening comprehension. It is
M. Hemamalini; D. K. Devadoss; M. Phil
The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…
Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy
To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…
Chang, Anna C-S
Those Martian weather reports, received here daily from more than 200 million miles away, start right here at Viking l's meteorology instrument. Mounted atop the extended boom, the meteorology sensors face away from the spacecraft. They stand about four feet above the surface and measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind velocity and wind direction. The cable parallel to the boom is connected inside the spacecraft body with the electronics for operating the sensors, reading the data and preparing it for transmission to Earth. A second Mars weather station will begin operation next month when Viking 2 lands somewhere in the planet's northern latitude Viking 2 arrives at Mars and goes into orbit tomorrow (August 7).
An unresolved question in early screening is whether test-based or teacher-based assessments should form the basis of the classification of children at risk of educational failure. Available structured teacher rating scales are lacking in predictive validity, and teacher predictions of students likely to experience reading difficulties have yielded disappointing true positive rates, with teachers failing to identify the majority of severely disabled readers. For this study, three educational screening instruments were developed: (a) a single teacher rating, categorizing children into three levels of reading ability (advanced, average, poor); (b) a 15-item teacher questionnaire designed to measure students' cognitive and language ability, attentional and behavioral characteristics, and academic performance; and (c) a battery of language and reading tests that are predictive of, or correlate with, reading failure. The concurrent validity of each instrument was assessed in a sample of 312 Australian schoolchildren from kindergarten, Year 1, and Year 2. Students were assessed at the end of the 1989 school year after having completed 1, 2, or 3 years of schooling. The results suggest that the nature of the skills required for success in reading changes in the first 3 years of schooling. Both teachers and tests concur more closely as children progress through the elementary years and as the risk behavior (reading) becomes more accessible to direct measurement. Carefully focused teacher rating scales may be a cost-effective means of identifying children at risk of reading failure. Improved teacher rating scales should be developed and used to assist in the early screening process. PMID:8515187
Kenny, D T; Chekaluk, E
Perspektiv pa Las och Skrivinlarning: En Litteraturstudie som Belyser Las och Skrivinlarning utifran Fyra Teoretiska Perspektiv Samt en Instrument-Provande Barnstudie (Perspectives on Learning To Read and Write: Literature Review on Reading and Writing Acquisition through Examination of Four Theroretical Perspectives and Attitude Measures of Preschool Children).
This report focuses on the processes of learning to read and write in the initial phases. Two studies are presented. The first is a review of four theoretical approaches, including Jerome Bruner's representation theory, and theories of concept learning, metacognition, and metalinguistic awareness. The purpose of the literature study was to examine…
Two-dimensional data matrix symbols, which contain encoded letters and numbers, are permanently etched on items for identification. They can store up to 100 times more information than traditional bar codes. While the symbols provide several advantages over bar codes, once they are covered by paint they can no longer be read by optical scanners. Since most products are painted eventually, this presents a problem for industries relying on the symbols for identification and tracking. In 1987, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center began studying direct parts marking with matrix symbols in order to track millions of Space Shuttle parts. Advances in the technology proved that by incorporating magnetic properties into the paints, inks, and pastes used to apply the matrix symbols, the codes could be read by a magnetic scanner even after being covered with paint or other coatings. NASA received a patent for such a scanner in 1998, but the system it used for development was not portable and was too costly. A prototype was needed as a lead-in to a production model. In the summer of 2000, NASA began seeking companies to build a hand-held scanner that would detect the Read Through Paint data matrix identification marks containing magnetic materials through coatings.
Reports on a study that investigated the relationship between intonation in oral reading and reading comprehension of Black West Indies college students. Concludes that there were no significant relationships and outlines procedures for future research. (FL)
An innovative integrated remedial reading program has been developed based on recent research findings. My longitudinal studies\\u000a have revealed that poor reading compounds itself over the years. The majority of children with reading disabilities currently\\u000a remain in regular classrooms with varying techniques being used depending upon individual school directives and current educational\\u000a theory.\\u000a \\u000a Despite current remedial techniques, the poorer reader
Susan R. Butler
Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.
Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C
In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…
Many adult students have basic reading skills, but they are inexperienced readers who need to learn skills beyond the basics to equip them for success in college and career. How do educators face such adults with optimism and an eagerness to help improve specific reading skills so that these students can read and understand a variety of materials?…
Lesmeister, Michele Benjamin
This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.
How do I collect my key on arrival at Lister House? Keys are collected directly from Lister House time and do need to know your date and time of arrival in advance. How close is the Lister House to the University? Lister House is approx 20/25 mins walk to the main campus, a 40 mins walk to St Andrew's Building
Glasgow, University of
This paper proposes a reading support technique for Arabic students of English. These students must overcome the L1 interference "reversal of reading direction." PowerPoint presentations, utilizing a simple fade effect with adjustable delay between words such that the text appears nicely in a left-to-right manner, line by line with voice roughly…
Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…
Child, Angela R.
Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.
Wolff, E. A. (editor); Mercanti, E. P.
The feasibility of determining chlorinated, purgeable organic compounds (POCs) in aqueous samples by flame infrared-emission (FIRE) spectrometry was evaluated with a specially designed, multichannel, dispersive spectrometer having sufficient resolving power to prevent interference from large amounts of non-halogenated POCs that could also be present in the sample. The polychromator was based on a Czerny-Turner optical mounting with a 0.15-m focal length, a nominal focal ratio of f/3, and a reciprocal linear dispersion of 0.15 mum/mm in the first order. The HCl and CO(2) infrared emission bands (3.77 and 4.42 mum, respectively) were monitored in two analytical channels, while a third reference channel, used for background subtraction, monitored the H(2)O background emission at 2.8 mum. Instrumental performance was evaluated with dichloromethane, trichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and monochlorobenzene as test compounds, and parameters such as the linear dynamic range, reproducibility, detection limit and signal-to-noise ratio, and extent of spectral crosstalk between channels were determined. The feasibility of performing a quantitative analysis of a two-component mixture of dichloromethane and trichloromethane at trace levels was demonstrated. PMID:18965190
Kubala, S W; Tilotta, D C; Busch, M A; Busch, K W
The numerous approaches in the teaching of reading can be summarized by discussing logical versus psychological approaches in teaching reading. The teacher is the dominant person in stressing a logical reading curriculum for pupils. The sequence comes from outside of the pupil but is arranged by the professional reading teacher to provide optimal…
In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…
Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…
Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter
A variety of factor analysis techniques were employed to explore the structure of five reading readiness instruments (Gates Reading Readiness Test, Developmental Tests of Visual Perception, Metropolitan Readiness Tests, Specially Constructed Readiness Test by Olson, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) as predictor variables of performance on…
Olson, Arthur V.; Rosen Carl L.
Furniture Conservation Training Program Master Reading List Revised March, 1996 Introduction to Furniture Conservation Â· Course Text Â· Conservation Ethics and Principles Â· Wood Technology Â· Insect Analytical Texts (Instrumental) Survey of Non-Wood Materials for Furniture Conservation Â· Bone and Ivory
Mathis, Wayne N.
The purposes of this handbook, designed as part of the Right to Read Program in Hampton, Virginia, were to provide the middle grade teacher with both a progressive reading skills objectives list with a suggested management system for using these skills in classroom reading instruction and a list of activities which can be used in teacher-directed…
Hampton City School Board, VA.
Four new approaches to remedial reading directed toward the stimulation of defective perceptual areas by procedures other than teaching reading skills are reviewed. The Delacato approach emphasizes the development of neurological organization and laterality. It may be useful for a small percentage of children with severe reading disabilities, but…
Harris, Albert J.
Reading is a complex cognitive skill that requires the coordination of multiple brain regions. Although functional neuroimaging studies highlight the cortical brain regions associated with a specific cognitive task like reading, they do not directly address the underlying neural connections necessary for efficient performance of this task. Adults with reading disability have demonstrated lower regional white matter connectivity, but it
Christian Beaulieu; Christopher Plewes; Lori Anne Paulson; Dawne Roy; Lindsay Snook; Luis Concha; Linda Phillips
Focusing on future directions for English and reading research, the papers presented in this book examine the complex interplay of skills, processes, and classroom conditions that influence the development of children's competence in reading, writing, and the language arts. The titles and authors of the essays are as follows: (1) "Reading and…
Squire, James R., Ed.
This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.
Hartley, D.S. III
This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…
Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.
Abstract This paper describes initial work on Deep Read , an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 to 6th grade material; each story is followed by short - answer questions (an answer key was also provided)
Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger
Despite significant changes in the treatment of common eye conditions like cataract and age-related macular degeneration, reading difficulty remains the most common complaint of patients referred for low vision services. Clinical reading tests have been widely used since Jaeger introduced his test types in 1854. A brief review of the major developments in clinical reading tests is provided, followed by a discussion of some of the main controversies in clinical reading assessment. Data for the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study demonstrate that standardised clinical reading tests are highly predictive of reading performance under natural, real world conditions, and that discrepancies between self-reported reading ability and measured reading performance may be indicative of people who are at a pre-clinical stage of disability, but are at risk for progression to clinical disability. If measured reading performance is to continue to increase in importance as a clinical outcome measure, there must be agreement on what should be measured (e.g. speed or comprehension) and how it should be measured (e.g. reading silently or aloud). Perhaps most important, the methods for assessing reading performance and the algorithms for scoring reading tests need to be optimised so that the reliability and responsiveness of reading tests can be improved. PMID:23506967
Rubin, Gary S
Thirty-one experienced teachers enrolled in graduate reading courses served as subjects in a study conducted to determine whether simple instruments could be developed to assess teacher need structure, frequency of teacher behaviors related to reading, and the relationship between the two. A 25-item instrument was developed based on Abraham…
Duncan, Patricia H.
These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…
The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first- through fifth-grade classrooms, a total of 751 minutes (or 25% of instructional time) was
The assignment of pre-class reading is a common practice in higher education. Typically, the purpose of this reading assignment is to expose students to background knowledge that will be useful in an upcoming class discussion or to introduce a topic that will be presented more directly by the instructor. However, numbers of undergraduates actually…
Research support for providing a read-aloud accommodation (i.e., having an individual read test items and directions aloud) to students with disabilities has been somewhat limited, particularly when merely examining effects of the accommodation on overall test scores for general groups of students with disabilities. We examined data on…
Bolt, Sara E.; Thurlow, Martha L.
The Predictive Reading Profile (PRP) is an individual or group-administered instrument designed to examine precursors to reading difficulties by identifying children at risk for reading failure in later grades and special instructional needs for children in late kindergarten and first grade. The purpose of the PRP "is to develop a profile of a…
Fudge, Daniel L.
Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.
Jill Caton Johnson
We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian language areas, prefrontal cortex, and premotor cortex. In a within-subject comparison between reading Morse code and reading print, the activation pattern in the left temporoparietal association cortex was similar for both forms of reading, suggesting that reading Morse code shares part of its cortical networks with reading print. PMID:15196672
Maier, J; Hartvig, N Vaever; Green, A C; Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H
A statewide assessment study of reading programs in Rhode Island is described. Data concerning the history of the primary reading program of the 1965-66 fourth-grade class were gathered; a status study of the reading programs throughout the elementary grades for that year was conducted. Principals' and teachers' opinions on the requirements for a…
McGuire, Marion L.
Drawing from both research and practice, the articles in this collection address a number of issues related to the reading and writing connection. The 24 articles are grouped into five sections: "Reading, Writing, and Thinking"; "The Parts and the Whole"; "Reading for Writing"; "Contexts for Literacy"; and "Some Pedagogical Concerns." Among the…
Fleming, Margaret, Ed.
Psycholinguistics has offered many new insights into the development of reading, e.g., only a small part of the information necessary for reading comprehension comes from the printed page, comprehension must precede the identification of individual words, and reading is not decoding to spoken language. These views are elaborated in this collection…
Smith, Frank, (Ed.)
In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…
Designed as a sourcebook, this volume considers reading instruction as a complex, intellectual task rather than as just a matter of pronunciation of words. It is designed for both teachers and parents interested in developing the language and concepts of children. Contents include "Reading in Today's World" by Ralph C. Staiger, "Learning to Read"…
Staiger, Ralph C., Ed.
These seven projects comprise the reading and language arts section of a report on Elementary Secondary Education Act Title IV programs for the state of Illinois. Complete descriptions are furnished for the following: a multi-text, individualized reading skills program for grades four through eight; a reading program which stresses phonetic and…
Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.
The lessons included in this collection were written by California Polytechnic State University Reading Specialist Credential candidates in the Salinas Cohort Project of 1992 as partial fulfillment for an education course titled "Bilingual Special Education Reading Problems." Each lesson is research-based. A rationale describes the reading…
Describes a program at an Illinois middle school that was designed to increase reading achievement, vocabulary, and the enjoyment of reading. Highlights include the library's role; use of the Standardized Test for Assessment of Reading; the Accelerated Reader program; teacher training; teacher comments; and grant funds. Four appendices include:…
This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…
Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce
Article explains series of programs by British Broadcasting Corporation, designed to help slow readers, by presenting exciting material, read aloud, while children read along in class, thereby enabling the children to make the connection between the characters on the page and the excitement of the story being read. (JB)
Doolan, Moira; And Others
We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian
J Maier; N. Vaever Hartvig; A. C Green; H Stodkilde-Jorgensen
Underlying virtually all of the basal reading series available in the United States today is the assumption that learning to read is a skill-by-skill and word-by-word process. This part-to-whole approach to teaching reading is based on principles of behavioral psychology and "scientific management" developed a half century ago and treats meaning…
Articles in this journal issue focus on reading acquisition and instruction. The titles and authors are as follows: (1) "10 Good Ways to Involve Parents in the Reading Program," by Nickolas Criscuolo; (2) "A Parent Guide for Helping the Child with A Reading Disability," by Frederick Duffelmeyer and Dale Baum; (3) "Promoting a Good Attitude toward…
French, Michael P., Ed.
Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…
The present study examined the predictors of fourth graders' reading skills (reading comprehension, text reading and word chain reading). Reading skill antecedents of 158 children of 5-6 years of age were measured at the beginning of kindergarten; students' reading skills were measured in kindergarten and in Grades 1 and 4. The results showed that…
Leppanen, Ulla; Aunola, Kaisa; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
To become good readers, students need experience in reading for information. Science class is an ideal place for students to develop motivation and strategies for informational reading. Yet with the promotion of hands-on science, many teachers get the message that reading may be inappropriate in science. Nothing could be farther from the truth. According to Norris and Phillips (2003), science could not exist without a written language to record and disseminate ideas in ways that allow them to be tested, elaborated, and sometimes refuted. This article explores the integration of science and reading, and offers research-based methods to make the most of reading in science.
Sandra K. Abell
Notation systems for the arts were developed to educate students in performing the art form. Soon notation systems were used in research and archiving performances and skills that could have been lost to the following generations. Virtual travel through the written notations brings experts to students rather than having students go to the…
The topsoil in the North Slope of Alaska contains millennia of labile carbon deposits. As the Arctic warms this labile carbon could be processed and released as CO2 and methane. As a remote area without infrastructure, a widespread carbon flux tower network to monitor the changing Arctic is not feasible. To address this, our collaborative team embarked on the summer 2013 Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL) from Prudhoe Bay, AK, in August of 2013 to acquire flux measurements of CO2. Using Harvard's direct absorption CO2 cell to measure CO2 and isotopologue concentrations in conjunction with NOAA ATDD's Best Air Turbulence (BAT) probe, we measured local CO2 fluxes over a wide area of the north slope. These measurements were obtained from a low-flying aircraft (<10m) and cross-compared with tower measurements.
Munster, J. B.
Purpose: To evaluate discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings in eyes with varying degrees of corneal hydration and stromal amount. Methods. 6 Eye Bank eyes, donated by Florida Lion's Eye Bank, were evaluated. Each eye was affixed to a customized artificial orbit system with intraocular pressure (IOP) measured directly by a pressure transducer inserted into the vitreous and with a Goldmann tonometric readings. The eyes were dehydrated for 5-minute intervals in a 30% Dextran-BSS solution, with readings taken between each submersion. Once corneal thickness stabilized, a corneal trephination of 6mm was made. The corneal buttons were frozen and dehydrated by lyophilization and weighed. Results. Preliminary results show a possible overestimation in thicker corneas and an underestimation in thinner corneas, as previously published. Corresponding data on the weight of corneal material is provided. Further studies need to be conducted to determine statistical significance of the data. Conclusion. This study uses Eye Bank eyes with a protocol that produces results similar to previously published results. Further studies in correlating the amount of corneal stroma and discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings of intraocular pressure are important especially with the increasing acceptance of corneal refractive surgeries.
Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Nose, Izuru; Fantes, Francisco; Parel, Jean-Marie A.
As the teacher, you need to respond to students with very low-reading abilities, help all students learn how to learn from text, structure class to encourage student reading, and hold students accountable for assignments. Some effective, research-based strategies that are beneficial to all students are featured in this month's column. The payback comes later when you spend a little less time lecturing and a little more time directly helping students learn.
Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.
Recent research has emphasized the poor finite-sample performance of the instrumental variables estimator when the instruments are weakly correlated with the regressors. The authors show how the canonical correlations between regressors and instruments can provide a measure of instrument relevance in the general multiple-instrument-multiple-regressor case. However, their simulation results indicate that any such relevance measure probably has little practical merit,
Alastair R Hall; Glenn D Rudebusch; David W Wilcox
...presentation. (3) A direction indicator (nonstabilized magnetic compass). (b) The following flight and navigation instruments...A direction indicator (gyroscopically stabilized, magnetic or nonmagnetic). (c) The following flight...
This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.
This narrative synthesis reviews the psychometric properties of commercially and publicly available retell instruments used to assess the reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Eleven instruments met selection criteria and were systematically coded for data related to the administration procedures, scoring procedures, and technical…
Reed, Deborah K.
The Aircraft Instrument Comprehension (AIC) Program is a self-instructional program designed to teach undergraduate student pilots to read instruments that indicate the position of the aircraft in flight, based on sequential instructional stages of information, prompted practice, and unprompted practice. The program includes a 36-item multiple…
Higgins, Norman C.
The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K–12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument. PMID:23125521
Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon
Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking…
There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding by themselves and in conjunction with companion IR sounders. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and are undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power requirements from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and Aqua spacecraft, with the IR sounders HIRS3 and AIRS respectively. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS IR sounder. A number of enabling technologies acquired from the ATMS instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to performing similar microwave sounding on a geostationary platform. Because these technologies are already in place, they are readily available for the development of a geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, thereby avoiding costly technology development and minimizing the risk of not achieving the scientific requirements. In fact, the MMIC microwave components that were developed by ATMS for size and volume reduction are directly applicable to a GEO microwave sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known. They penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for accurate soundings obtained with a collocated high spectral resolution IR sounder in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be its ability to provide high temporal resolution and uniform spatial resolution, and it will expand the utility of a collocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint in the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 57 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.
Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Lambeck, Robert; Davis, Martin A.
There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.
Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin
Using poetry to teach fluency through repeated reading is an effective way to improve students' reading fluency. Repeated reading of poetry is effective with students whose instructional reading level is between the first and third grades. Ten to 15 minutes of repeated reading per day over an extended length of time has proven successful for both…
In order that the LST meet its scientific objectives and also be a National Astronomical Space Facility during the 1980's and 1990's, broad requirements have been levied by the scientific community. These scientific requirements can be directly translated into design requirements and specifications for the scientific instruments. The instrument ensemble design must be consistent with a 15-year operational lifetime. Downtime for major repair/refurbishment or instrument updating must be minimized. The overall efficiency and performance of the instruments should be maximized. Modularization of instruments and instrument subsystems, some degree of on-orbit servicing (both repair and replacement), on-axis location, minimizing the number of reflections within instruments, minimizing polarization effects, and simultaneous operation of the F/24 camera with other instruments, are just a few of the design guidelines and specifications which can and will be met in order that these broader scientific requirements be satisfied.-
Levin, G. M.
Synthetic LISA is a computer program for simulating the responses of the instrumentation of the NASA/ESA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, the purpose of which is to detect and study gravitational waves. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the time-delay-interferometry (TDI) observables. (TDI is a method of canceling phase noise in temporally varying unequal-arm interferometers.) Synthetic LISA provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves, according to a full model of TDI (including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the arm lengths). Synthetic LISA is written in the C++ programming language as a modular package that accommodates the addition of code for specific gravitational wave sources or for new noise models. In addition, time series for waves and noises can be easily loaded from disk storage or electronic memory. The package includes a Python-language interface for easy, interactive steering and scripting. Through Python, Synthetic LISA can read and write data files in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), which is a commonly used astronomical data format.
Armstrong, John; Edlund, Jeffrey; Vallisneri. Michele
Research literature on measurement and evaluation in reading is described under six chapter headings: Measurement in reading: general perspectives, Problems in measuring reading subskills, Methods for assessing reading achievement, Assessing growth, Measurement of reading-related variables, and Summary: test uses and research needs. Following each…
This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction books. Reading comic
Reading provides information across the curriculum. Thus, to the extent that fundamental (i.e., generalizable) reading comprehension strategies can be taught, the benefits should be found in multiple domains. To test this claim, children in the third and fourth grades read by simulating text content using the two-part, embodied Moved by Reading intervention. While reading six initial texts, children literally manipulated
Arthur Glenberg; Jonathan Willford; Bryan Gibson; Andrew Goldberg; Xiaojin Zhu
Reading provides information across the curriculum. Thus, to the extent that fundamental (i.e., generalizable) reading comprehension strategies can be taught, the benefits should be found in multiple domains. To test this claim, children in the third and fourth grades read by simulating text content using the two-part, embodied Moved by Reading intervention. While reading six initial texts, children literally manipulated
Arthur Glenberg; Jonathan Willford; Bryan Gibson; Andrew Goldberg; Xiaojin Zhu
TWO READING PROGRAMS IN WEST VIRGINIA REPRESENTED TWO DISTINCT SOCIOECONOMIC COUNTIES IN APPALACHIA. PROGRAM 1 REPRESENTED A COUNTY WITH ISOLATED SCHOOLS. PROGRAM 2 REPRESENTED A COUNTY WITH AN ACADEMICALLY STRONG COLLEGE AND CONSOLIDATED SCHOOLS. BOTH PROGRAMS ATTEMPTED TO TEACH STUDENTS TO READ BETTER AND TO DEVELOP BETTER ATTITUDES. PROGRAM 1…
ANDERSON, LORENA A.
A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…
Davis, Lennard J.
According to a 2010 report by ACT, "Only 31 percent of students are performing at a college-and-career reading level with respect to successfully understanding complex text" (p. 5). This statistic demonstrates what educators know: Middle and high school students face numerous challenges in reading, understanding, connecting to, and remembering…
Gutchewsky, Kim; Curran, Joanne
Weekends, summers, and holidays are better spent reading and participating in fun activities with one's child. Time at home can be spent doing something creative by creating thematic book bags that children and parents can check out of the class. In this way, children are able to see their parents making reading and school a priority, while…
This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…
Over the past four years, educators and researchers from the University of Connecticut have worked with urban high-poverty schools to implement an alternative reading instruction program called the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Reading (SEM-R). Based on Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model, the SEM-R works through planned enrichment experiences to…
Reis, Sally M.; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.
In years past, Maryland has provided little guidance toward adoption and implementation of Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR) programs. Only recently, with the implementation of the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program and the Reading Excellence Act (REA) program, have schools or local education agencies been required to…
Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.
Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…
SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…
MANGRUM, CHARLES T.
This educators guide blends space exploration with reading and writing. The materials are divided into two units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.
Summarizes arguments in favor of teaching people to read. Arguments include that television and radio cannot help individuals adapt and retrain quickly in their jobs; promotion in the armed services and elsewhere depends upon a certain degree of reading expertise; and people are unable to fill out income tax and other forms if they do not possess…
USA Today, 1980
NOTING THAT THE FIELD OF HUMAN RELATIONS HAS RECEIVED MORE ATTENTION IN THE LAST GENERATION THAN EVER BEFORE, THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CHRISTIANS AND JEWS HAS REVISED ITS 1956 EDITION OF SELECTED READING LITERATURE. READINGS ARE DIVIDED INTO SEVEN CATEGORIES--PREJUDICE - CAUSES, PREVENTION AND CURE, RELIGION - UNDERSTANDING RELIGIOUS GROUPS,…
STOREN, HELEN F.
This blog entry discusses the importance of strong reading comprehension in the mathematics classroom. It gives examples of problems that require careful attention when reading and cites paraphrasing problems as a crucial skill for students. It contains links to related articles.
To make literature meaningful to children and youth, the teacher needs to do more than make books available and blow the bellows of motivation. Teachers can gain more insight into reading by analyzing their own behaviors as they read adult literature, and they can use their insight in helping the student discover the way to extract meaning from…
McCullough, Constance M.
This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…
Montoya, Colleen, Ed.
This third volume in the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum materials includes readings and suggested additional resources which complement the instructional strategies contained in the first two volumes. Three sections are included in the guide: critical incidents, readings in entrepreneurial skills, and management skill area resources.…
Scanlan, Thomas J.; And Others
In this article, teachers are reminded that their content subject areas require acquainting children with special words or symbols related to that subject area (e.g. mathematics or social studies). Because children can read well does not mean they would be understanding of any special reading skill required in a content subject area; that the…
Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…
Phi Delta Kappan, 1996
Reading fluency is one of the most important signs of language proficiency both for native and foreign language speakers (Grabe, 2010; Macalister, 2010; Winston, 2010; Hasbrouck, 2008; Rasinski, 2004; Oakley, 2003; Waldman, 1985; Cited in: Sayenko, 2010, Introduction Para 1). This paper is in the area of reading fluency and tries to investigate…
This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 250 students a year at a small-town junior college. The first- and second-year college students, primarily white, are from families earning between $6,000 and $15,000 annually. The program began in 1964 and offers two elective college reading courses that are open to college…
Recent research has confirmed that hemispheric patterns of dominance are related to reading skills. Reading is more complex than speech because it includes a visuo-spatial element. In the great majority of people, the left hemisphere deals with speech and sequencing skills. Visual matching of printed words requires the spatial skills of the right…
Mackworth, Jane F.
This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…
Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata
Noting the National Reading Panel's suggestions on assessing and improving children's phonemic awareness, this paper discusses how reading can be improved through think-alouds and visualizations. Comprehension strategies that teachers can model during think-alouds are: activating prior knowledge; building vocabulary; determining importance;…
In this activity, learners work in partners to create and exchange messages written in Braille. Learners use a Braille key and thumbtacks to write their messages in Braille. This activity will demonstrate to learners how kids who are blind read. It also demonstrates that human brains are "plastic" and can be re-trained to read by touch.
American Museum of Natural History
Describes a cooperative project between several year-round elementary schools in Indianapolis (Indiana) to promote reading, based on the National Education Association's campaign using Dr. Seuss books. Discusses planning with library media specialists, activities that included writing about reading, volunteers and funding, and evaluation. (LRW)
Harvey, Carl A., II; Satterlee, Karen L.
When students enter middle school, they are confronted with the necessity of learning from complex content-area textbooks. Many students find these texts boring, and they may lack the higher-order reading comprehension skills they need to tackle complex text. Yet the ability to read informational text is essential to success in middle school and…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
Suggests books for summer reading for Department of Education officials involved in closing all 16 ERIC Clearinghouses or touting the superiority of a Christian education, standardized test-makers, planners of the Gates Foundation, and the creator of the Algebra Project. For example, suggests that standardized test-makers read William Bennett's…
Lewis, Anne C.
Describes and compares four computerized reading incentive programs that quiz students on their reading comprehension of self-selected books and award points for their efforts. Topics include price, hardware requirements, reading level, training, and recommendations. (LRW)
Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…
Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between white matter and reading abilities in reading impaired and non-reading impaired children. Seventeen children (7 non-reading impaired, 10 reading impaired) participated in this study. DTI was performed with 2mm isotropic resolution to cover the entire brain along 30 noncollinear directions. Voxelwise analyses were conducted on data processed through Tract
Timothy N. Odegard; Emily A. Farris; Jeremiah Ring; Roderick McColl; Jeffrey Black
Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.
This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…
Gray, Holly Lynn
This study is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation into the role that extensive reading and reading strategies play in the cultivation of reading self-efficacy. Conducted over the course of one academic year, how changes in reading self-efficacy translate into changes in reading comprehension was examined. In addition, the…
Since effective reading and comprehension skills impact achievement in science, this collection of reading content strategies will be useful in helping students improve reading skills before, during, and after an exercise.
Allen H. Seed
The importance of critical reading skills is discussed. Motivation techniques and methods for adult instruction in analytical reading and thinking are suggested, together with ways for adult educators to evaluate their own teaching of critical reading skills. (SK)
Harvey, Rhonda L.
The premise that course material must engage the students' interests if the instruction is to be successful guided this pilot study, which was conducted (1) to test the effectiveness of two instruments designed to determine the reading and media preferences of college freshmen, and (2) to determine the reading and media preferences of freshman…
Boniol, John Dawson, Jr.
The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment employs a unique state-of-the-art science instrument to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity for gyroscopes orbiting a massive spinning body, in this case the Earth. The GP-B instrument comprises four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, each of which is independently subject to both the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions, and a telescope that tracks the guide star, IM Pegasi. Each gyroscope is read out with a dc SQUID system utilizing the London magnetic moment of the spinning gyroscope. The two axes of the telescope are read out with an image divider assembly, solid-state photo detectors and JFET preamplifiers. The telescope and gyroscopes are mechanically and thermally linked by a fused quartz block, which forms the metrology bench for the experiment. The instrument is located in a probe/helium dewar system, which provides a low-temperature environment of about 2.7 K for the instrument, as well as the ultra-low magnetic field, the ultrahigh magnetic shielding of the on-orbit ambient magnetic field, and the ultrahigh vacuum environments. The instrument was designed to allow a measurement of the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions to an accuracy of better than 0.5 mill-arc second/year for one year of science data collection. The instrument also provides the signals needed for drag-free and attitude control of the space vehicle. This presentation will include a description of the instrument and its principal on-orbit performance characteristics. Many persons at various institutions contributed to the development of the instrument. Numerous contributed presentations in a poster session will provide more detail.
What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident Zimmerman Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids and the Arts Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids
SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS Margaret J. Early Graduate Scholarship This scholarship. Peter B. Mosenthal Graduate Scholarship This scholarship provides support for graduate students area, or a student dedicated to working with such populations. Blumin Family Scholarship
Mather, Patrick T.
Illustrates a compromise between vertical and horizontal typographies which should make speed reading faster and more reliable, and suggests that computers could prepare text according to this arrangement. (MB)
Brown, W. S.
In the fall of 2000, a group of concerned educators came together to form The Reading Matrix, which was designed to create a place where both teachers and other interested persons could come together to find resources about reading and writing. Most of the resources are geared towards the language needs of ESL and international students, but given the cornucopia of materials here, there is really something for everyone. Scrolling down from the site’s homepage, visitors will come across areas that include a job database, the Reading Matrix Archives, interactive reading exercises, and a list of germane online journals. The Archives are a good place to start, as users will have the opportunity to look through subject-oriented resources for English-language learners that range from dictionaries, grammar quizzes, and speaking and listening practice.
This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.
Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata
Presents brief summaries of 26 children's books (published between 1996 and 2001) about physiology, health and sexuality, and sports and recreation. Also presents new books of professional interest that might provoke some visceral reaction from their reading. (SG)
Dressman, Mark; Abbott, Judy
In order to make reading assignments a more meaningful instructional strategy, the author created MP3 audio recordings of the textbook, which included commentary that was interspersed in the recording. At the start of every recording, he also modeled text
Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Nov 17,2014 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ratio like ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined by ...
The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)
Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin
Relative to print reading, braille-reading finger movements are held to be of more constant speed, with continuous and exhaustive contact with all words. However, the continuity of movements is intermittent in two distinct ways: (a) readers reverse direction and reread material already encountered and (b) the continual fluctuations of velocity…
Hughes, Barry; McClelland, Amber; Henare, Dion
The purpose of this research was to ascertain if there were any significant differences in the ability to read logos and to make the transition to reading logos in manuscript forms of kindergarten children who received direct instruction with environmental print, those who received indirect instruction, and those who received no instruction with…
Kuby, Patricia; Aldridge, Jerry
The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…
Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram
Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, "You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it" (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading knee-deep as we…
School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of NSTA Recommends --ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach chairs, flags, and fireworks schedules; collect some reading material for a summer of personal enrichment.
This study examined the impact of Oregon Reading First on student reading outcomes. Outcomes in schools that began Reading First implementation in 2003-2004 (Cohort A) were compared to outcomes in schools that began Reading First implementation in 2005-2006 (Cohort B). The primary hypothesis, that experienced Cohort A schools would outperform…
Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jeanie Mercier; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Beck, Carrie Thomas
Describes a home reading intervention program for students with real reading difficulties, which has turned many students on to reading, by giving students book bags with three books (at different levels) in each bag for home reading. Discusses developing parent support, outlines contents of 30 book bags, and notes challenges and successes of the…
Davis, Mary; Lyons, Shirley
Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…
Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.
This guide for the 1999 Virginia teen summer reading program for public libraries, "Read around the World," includes the following chapters: (1) "Reading and Teens," including serving the underserved, tips for teens, and a recipe for choosing a book to read for fun; (2) "Programming and Teens," including "The Why of YA [Youth Adult] Programming"…
Virginia State Library, Richmond.
This issue focuses on the developmental path that children typically take when learning to read. The purpose is to help parents take steps to ensure that their children will make the transition from learning to read to reading to learn by the end of third grade. An introductory section includes two articles: "Parents, Children, and Reading" (Carol…
Mitchell, Kevin, Ed.
Today there is an increasing amount of research promoting the effectiveness of extensive reading (ER) towards increasing learners' vocabulary, comprehension, reading speed, and motivation towards reading. However, little has been done to measure the effects of ER on learners' reading levels. This quantitative study examined the effects…
Mermelstein, Aaron David
The constructs of motivation for reading and reading engagement have frequently become blurred and ambiguous in both research and discussions of practice. To address this commingling of constructs, the authors provide a concise review of the literature on motivation for reading and reading engagement and illustrate the blurring of those concepts…
Unrau, Norman J.; Quirk, Matthew
Examines the common and distinct contributions of context-free and context reading skill to reading comprehension and the contributions of context-free reading skill and reading comprehension to context fluency. Results support the conclusion that word level processes contribute relatively more to fluency at lower levels while comprehension…
Jenkins, Joseph R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Christine; Deno, Stanley L.
Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…
Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.
We tested the idea that the directionality of a person's primary writing system has influences outside the domain of reading and writing, specifically influences on aesthetic preferences. The results of several previous studies suggest that people whose primary writing system goes from left to right prefer pictures of moving and static…
Treiman, Rebecca; Allaith, Zainab
Remedial reading instruction in five classrooms in four different school districts was observed over a six?month period of time. From these observations a description of remedial instruction evolved. Remediation consisted primarily of students completing skill lessons in workbook or worksheet activities with the teacher serving as a manager. In this role the remedial teacher offered little direct instruction but distributed
Richard Allington; Helen Stuetzel; Mary Shake; Sharron Lamarche
Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…
Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.
Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062
Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P
The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.
Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara
There is a lack of direct evidence on the effectiveness of double reading of breast screening mammograms within the context of national screening programmes even though about half of the countries that use mammography screening have implemented double reading.A systematic review was conducted to compare double reading with single reading of mammograms for screening accuracy, patient outcomes and costs. We
J. Dinnes; S. Moss; J. Melia; R. Blanks; F. Song; J. Kleijnen
TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD data into a common database. Real time data as well as historical data can be viewed from up to eight locations on the rig or from numerous locations in communication with the rig. The TRU VU well monitoring package can be configured to operate manned or unmanned depending on the specific requirements of the operator or drilling contractor. TRU VU does not require a drilling recorder and is totally independent of all rig systems. For example, depth is monitored directly from the draw works and can monitor pipe movement while drilling or tripping. Weight on bit is zeroed automatically on each connection and does not require manual input.
All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â?ť Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Electrical Instrumentation Signals, is the ninth chapter in Volume I â??Direct Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Analog and Digital signals, Current signal systems, Tachogenerators, and Strain Gauges. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).
Kuphaldt, Tony R.
This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction…
van Ours, Jan C.
Students should have ample time to read for enjoyment and pleasure. As a major goal of their instruction, teachers should seek to cultivate a liking for reading in their students. Reading materials available for students--library books and children's magazines--need to cover a wide variety of genres and be on different reading levels. This is…
Advocates of high standards and expectations usually believe that gaps in reading achievement can be eliminated with good teaching, but slow readers need a specially designed reading curriculum. The teacher first needs to use an informal reading inventory to determine the student's reading level. Functioning generally on a higher level than…
The chapters in "Explorations in Second Language Reading" reveal the importance of reading in the classroom and how instructors can use reading as a bridge to improve learners' other linguistic and interpersonal skills. Most significantly, each author prompts us to rediscover how enjoyable ESOL reading can be and how it can increase learner…
Cohen, Roger, Ed.
A study was conducted to describe conceptions of the usefulness of reading (the function or "why" of reading) and conceptions of the reading process (the form or "how" of reading) among preschool and first grade children in Sweden. The research paradigm used--based on the work of Vygotsky and Piaget--was called the "second order perspective" and…
Dahlgren, Gosta; Olsson, Lars-Erik
Reading provides information across the curriculum. Thus, to the extent that fundamental (i.e., generalizable) reading comprehension strategies can be taught, the benefits should be found in multiple domains. To test this claim, children in the third and fourth grades read by simulating text content using the two-part, embodied "Moved by Reading"…
Glenberg, Arthur; Willford, Jonathan; Gibson, Bryan; Goldberg, Andrew; Zhu, Xiaojin
How can library media specialists encourage kids to read outside the curriculum and maintain this reading beyond elementary school? What does it take to get children involved in recreational reading and turn their focus to books? At Sycamore Elementary School in Avon, Indiana, library media specialists have organized reading programs which have…
For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).
Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen
Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect (“What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?”) or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a “proof of concept” and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332
Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin
Do individuals engage in beneficial activities, like recreational reading, if the necessary materials are easily accessible and relatively inexpensive? I investigate this issue by estimating how much reading time increases as a result of public library use. To address the endogeneity of library use I use an IV approach where the instrument is a household’s distance to their closest public
This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between EFL and ESL readers in metacognitive reading strategies when they are reading academic texts in English. One hundred and ninety undergraduate students (96 Iranians and 93 Indians) completed an instrument designed to measure the students' metacognitive awareness of…
This study analyzed the effects of the implementation of the readers' workshop on students' reading levels and comprehension skills in a first-grade, mixed-ability classroom in Lebanon. The instruments used at the beginning were running records and reading continuums, and at the end of the academic year, teachers' professional notebooks and notes…
Mounla, Ghina; Bahous, Rima; Nabhani, Mona
The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.
Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.
The purpose of this case study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of one class of sixth grade middle students enrolled in a Title I reading class. The class consisted of 15 students. Through instrumental case study, qualitative data were collected over 24 weeks through (a) interviews, (b) observations, and (c) documents: student…
Over time, criticisms related to the technical rigor of informal reading inventories (IRIs) have led many to question using these assessment instruments for high- or low-stakes purposes. In this article, I examine reliability evidence reported in 11 new and updated IRIs and make comparisons with Spector's earlier analysis that revealed fewer…
Nilsson, Nina L.
The challenges of understanding how reading abilities vary within the classroom can be daunting. This article offers techniques to organize a variety of assessment data to give teachers a clear picture of individual achievement, how students compare with one another, and how reliably various assessment instruments yield an accurate picture of…
A study of 103 second, third, and fourth grade students investigated relationships among cognitive styles and reading comprehension. Each subject was individually tested using four different instruments to assess four cognitive styles: (1) field-independence/dependence (ability to locate a simple figure--concept--hidden in a complex field), (2)…
Pitts, Murray C.; Thompson, Bruce
Dayle Ann Dodds and Rosanne Litzinger's children's book, "Sing, Sophie!" provides the elementary general music teacher with an opportunity to read a captivating children's story, sing the main character's song and play her guitar, and create a song as well as instrumental music. Lessons outlined in this article may culminate in a veritable musical…
Cardany, Audrey Berger
This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.
Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.
This study investigates the effect of timed reading (TR) and repeated oral reading (RR) on 35 adult students of English as a foreign language. Students in the TR (n =18) and RR (n =17) groups read 52 and 26 passages respectively over a 13-week period. Reading rates and comprehension levels were measured at three occasions: pre-intervention,…
Chang, Anna C. -S.
Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…
Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.
Eight papers read at a joint International Reading Association (IRA) and Association of American Publishers conference in March, 1969, are included in this volume of the IRA Perspectives in Reading series. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the place of reading as a basic communication skill in an increasingly technological society. The…
Dietrich, Dorothy M.; Mathews, Virginia H.
Early identification of dyslexia would be fundamental to prevent the negative consequences of delayed treatment in the social, psychological and occupational domains. Movement-related potentials of dyslexic children are characterized by inadequate ability to program movements and reduced capacity to evaluate their performance and to correct their errors. Reading-related potentials recorded during different reading conditions elicit a series of positive and negative components with specific functional meaning and with a characteristic spatial-temporal pattern. These reading-related potentials, when analyzed with sLORETA, show significantly different patterns of activation when comparing self-paced reading aloud to passive viewing of single letters. Comparison of fMRI and sLORETA during both tasks showed that the cortical region with the widest inter-modality similarities is the middle-superior temporal lobe during self-paced reading aloud. Neuropsychological studies have shown the existence of clinical subtypes of dyslexia; these studies have been confirmed by the results of ICA applied to the EEG. Dyslexia can be defined as a disorder of programming and integrating ideokinetic elements, associated with a deficiency in the fast processing and integration of sensory information, with reduced efficiency of error systems analysis. Each of these phenomena occurs at different levels of the central nervous system and at different times. PMID:25193560
Chiarenza, Giuseppe A; Di Pietro, Sara F; Casarotto, Silvia
The OMI instrument is an ultraviolet-visible imagin g spectrograph that uses two-dimensional CCD detectors to register both the spectrum and the swath perpendicular to the flight direction with a 115 ° wide swath, which enables global daily ground coverage with high spatial resolution. This paper presents a selection of in-flight radiometric and CCD detector calibration and performance monitoring results sinc
M. Dobber; Q. Kleipool; P. Veefkind; P. Levelt; N. Rozemeijer; R. Hoogeveen
In a combined voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging study on the practice of mirror reading, we recently found a shift of activation from right superior parietal to right dorsal occipital cortex and a corresponding increase of gray matter. We interpreted this shift of activation and the corresponding structural changes as a shift from effortful visuospatial transformation to a more direct processing of mirrored words (Ilg et al., 2008). To test this hypothesis, we now analyzed brain activation patterns associated with different aspects of mirror reading. Activation at the dorsal occipital cortex and bilateral parietal cortex (dorsal visual stream) was related to inverse text processing, whereas activation of areas at the inferior and ventral occipitotemporal cortex (ventral visual stream) was associated with decoding of mirrored words. This indicates that the dichotomy of content-related ("what") and process-related ("where") higher visual functions also applies to mirror reading. PMID:20345597
Ilg, Rüdiger; Dauner, Ruth; Wohlschläger, Afra Maria; Liebau, Yasmin; Zihl, Josef; Mühlau, Mark
The occasion for this paper was my reading of a paper in the February 2005 issue of TPT. As one gets older the near point of the eye begins to recede.2 This is called presbyopia.3 An alternative to purchasing glasses from an optometrist is to purchase an inexpensive pair of reading glasses in a pharmacy. The pharmacy has these glasses ordered by diopters corresponding to the strength of the lens needed for a particular presbyopic eye. The glasses are, of course, not available for myopic eyes.
The ability to recognize strings of letters as words, also known as orthographic processing, is a key component of reading. The ability to develop this skill has commonly been attributed to prior acquisition of a spoken language, but Grainger et al. argue that linguistic ability may instead be related to simple object recognition. To test this, Grainger and colleagues studied orthographic processing in a group of captive but freely ranging baboons, who learned to read and distinguish real English words from non-words with remarkable accuracy. These results suggest that a basic ability to recognize words does not require complex linguistic understanding.
Jonathan Grainger (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive; Brain and Language Research Institute; )
The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…
Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio
The term "literacy" is often used synonymously with reading and writing. However, literacy entails more than reading and writing. Literacy involves communicating with others and includes listening, viewing, following, and reading directions and interacting with friends and colleagues. The literacy skills and abilities are essential for all…
Carnahan, Christina R.; Williamson, Pamela; Haydon, Todd
Background The emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) is bringing, besides the natural huge amounts of data, an avalanche of new specialized tools (for analysis, compression, alignment, among others) and large public and private network infrastructures. Therefore, a direct necessity of specific simulation tools for testing and benchmarking is rising, such as a flexible and portable FASTQ read simulator, without the need of a reference sequence, yet correctly prepared for producing approximately the same characteristics as real data. Findings We present XS, a skilled FASTQ read simulation tool, flexible, portable (does not need a reference sequence) and tunable in terms of sequence complexity. It has several running modes, depending on the time and memory available, and is aimed at testing computing infrastructures, namely cloud computing of large-scale projects, and testing FASTQ compression algorithms. Moreover, XS offers the possibility of simulating the three main FASTQ components individually (headers, DNA sequences and quality-scores). Conclusions XS provides an efficient and convenient method for fast simulation of FASTQ files, such as those from Ion Torrent (currently uncovered by other simulators), Roche-454, Illumina and ABI-SOLiD sequencing machines. This tool is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/software/xs/. PMID:24433564
The schematic diagram of a noise measuring device is presented that uses pulse expansion modeling according to the peak or any other measured values, to obtain instrument readings at a very low noise error.
Vasilyev, Y. M.; Lagunov, L. F.
The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.
Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)
This website, created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Objectives, an overview, materials needed, time, teacher preparation, directions, and procedures for the lesson can all be found here.
Reports results of comparing two screening instruments designed to identify youth with substance use problems. For one out of five youths, the two instruments gave different diagnoses. The instruments do not predict adolescent problems or substance use over time substantially better than a simpler measure of the frequency of substance use. (LKS)
Orenstein, Alan; And Others
Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)
Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret
A whole-school read solved a potentially disruptive problem by providing a common reading experience that addressed student diversity through a school-wide, interdisciplinary, year-long event at Hand Middle School.
The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…
Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…
Ruefle, Anne E.
The present review summarizes research investigating how words are identified parafoveally (and foveally) in reading. Parafoveal and foveal processing are compared when no other concurrent task is required (e.g., in single-word recognition tasks) and when both are required simultaneously (e.g., during reading). We first review methodologies used to study parafoveal processing (e.g., corpus analyses and experimental manipulations, including gaze-contingent display change experiments such as the boundary, moving window, moving mask, and fast priming paradigms). We then turn to a discussion of the levels of representation at which words are processed (e.g., orthographic, phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, and semantic). Next, we review relevant research regarding parafoveal processing, summarizing the extent to which words are processed at each of those levels of representation. We then review some of the most controversial aspects of parafoveal processing, as they relate to reading: (1) word skipping, (2) parafoveal-on-foveal effects, and (3) n + 1 and n + 2 preview benefit effects. Finally, we summarize two of the most advanced models of eye movements during reading and how they address foveal and parafoveal processing. PMID:22042596
Schotter, Elizabeth R; Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith
READING & LANGUAGE ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS Learn more at http://soe.syr.edu Margaret J. Early Graduate Scholarship This scholarship provides financial assistance to a deserving graduate student or students honor to have the support of SU and the Education department. Receiving scholarship money allowed my
Mather, Patrick T.
Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading…
Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert
This article discusses a teaching method called reading through writing (RtW), based on the use of computers rather than handwriting. The pupils use the computers in pairs and decide themselves what they will write about. The use of this method is studied via a questionnaire to 22 teachers and via seven Master's and two Bachelor's theses,…
This publication will discuss why reading mathematics is challenging for many students and what teachers can do. We will examine how mathematics symbols, vocabulary, and content presentation can create roadblocks to students’ mathematics understanding. Learn how to address students’ difficulties by approaching mathematics as a language and to use specific strategies to improve mathematics learning.
Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…
Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue
The ease with which we process the written word belies its complexities and makes it easy to forget that it is a highly skilled behaviour and one that takes time to master. In this paper, I argue that our ability to read words has its roots in our capacity for language. Good progress has been made towards understanding how children
Background: Traditionally, the cerebellum has been considered to control coordinated movement. However, in recent years it has been argued that it contributes to higher cognitive functions. Objectives: This review aims to present recent evidence concerning the role of the cerebellum and discusses how it can contribute to reading. Method: The procedure used involves findings coming from three quite different areas,
Filippos Vlachos; Ilias Papathanasiou; Georgia Andreou
Although reading paraprofessionals are not to be considered as teacher substitutes, (they are frequently used in routine and mechanical matters, freeing the regular teacher for more individualized instruction and lesson planning), they can make significant contributions in classroom instruction, student motivation, and public relations. Research…
Mauser, August J.
The portrayal of reading, writing, and other selected behaviors on prime-time network television was examined in this two-part study. First, an interest inventory was administered to a sample of 301 elementary students (i.e., grades 1-5) in South Carolina, Virginia, and Pennsylvania to determine their favorite television shows, books, and school…
Dewalt, Mark W.; And Others
The clinical syndrome which relates most frequently to the reading-disabled child is the attention deficity disorder. The child psychiatrist will generally resort to medication only when behavioral management techniques have failed. The two most frequently used medications are Ritalin and Dexedrine, central nervous system stimulants. (JN)
Humphries, Laurie L.
Written in the tradition of Studs Terkel, this book presents oral histories of 77 diverse readers (from avid to infrequent readers) about how reading affects their lives. Sprinkled throughout the book are narratives of nationally recognized personalities, such as Maxine Hong-Kingston, Robert MacNeil, Gloria Steinem, Linus Pauling, Julie Harris,…
The works of women African writers such as Bessie Head, Mariama Ba, Buchi Emecheta, and Flora Nwapa have become increasingly familiar to North American college students during the past decade, largely through their inclusion on feminist reading lists. Because the pedagogical value of these texts lies in their presumed ability to speak for African…
In this online interactive, learners investigate how Earth’s three-dimensional, physical environment is represented on a two-dimensional topographic map. Learners explore the essential parts of a map including legend, scale, and slope indicators. Map reading skills are then tested by learners choosing the best trail to take in different scenarios.
National Park Service
For educators' summer reading enjoyment, "Kappan" editors recommend three books on nature (Robert Richardson's biography "Emerson: The Mind on Fire, William Cronin's edited book "Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature," and Gary Snyder's poetry volume "Mountain and Rivers Without End"). Also recommended are three culturally diverse…
Phi Delta Kappan, 1997
This document offers materials for a year-long course on general basic reading skills that was part of a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey), and its partners. The document contains the following: (1) outlines (each of which contains objectives, a topical outline, and list of textbooks) for two…
Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.
"Reading, Writing, and Rings!" was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have…
Aschbacher, Pamela; Li, Erika; Hammon, Art
Reading is fundamental to learning from textbooks and other written materials in all content areas. Unfortunately, most children are brought up on a diet of narrative literature, but by the time they get to third grade, their textbooks are mainly informational (expository) instead of narrative, and sentence structures evolve from simple to…
Spor, Mary W.
A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…
Waters, Theresa Z.
Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…
Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
Describes a program developed for public libraries that uses registered therapy dogs and their handlers to improve the literacy skills of elementary school children by having the dogs listen while the children read aloud. Relates experiences at various libraries that have tried the program and discusses positive results that increase children's…
John Lye, a professor in the Departments of English and Communication Studies at Brock University (Canada), offers this resource designed for beginning literature students. Critical Guide contains sections on poetry, fiction, prose in fiction, and writing analytical essays. Though not exhaustive, this guide forms a useful framework to help beginning students think critically about the literature they are reading.
This reflective article explores a tension between private and public expression of deep aesthetic response to reading, with specific reference to the play of this tension in the public space of the classroom. Implications for teaching are included, most specifically the need to understand the sensitivities and emotional vulnerability of students,…
Calderwood, Patricia E.
HELPS TO GET THOSE BOY BOOKS OFF THE SHELVES Teachers for many years have known that boys reading interest and doing has lagged way behind girls. Luckily for the boys, much interest and research has been going on to understand this phenomenon. There are many web sites of research findings that are available for the teacher and ...
School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of "NSTA Recommends"--ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach…
Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…
MR. RICHARDSON'S explanation in NATURE of April 28 of the anomalous readings referred to does not seem very satisfactory, because, owing to the presence of dust in the atmosphere, the air is never supersaturated; indeed, it is seldom even saturated, owing to the presence of some particles having an affinity for water vapour. But even supposing there had been supersaturated
ON June II I observed a case of the wet-bulb thermometer reading higher than the dry bulb, which cannot be attributed to a falling temperature, as this anomalous condition continued for more than two hours, during the greater part of which the temperature was slowly rising. A gradually dispersing fog prevailed at the time, and the dry bulb was at
To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…
Phi Delta Kappan, 1991
Changes wrought in reading instruction and education in the last decade have not really been changes but merely old ideas in new packages. Many think that the key to a true revolution in education lies in technology, but technology itself does not change the quality of instruction and may in fact diminish it. The more basic and useful issue…
Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)
Hall, Lucien T., Jr.
People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…
This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers nanotechnology in literature and culture. The purpose of the lesson is for students to "read and analyze science outside of their textbooks." At the end of the lesson, students discuss nanotechnology's implications and significance for the future. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, and Next Generation Science Standards are included.
The 10 major articles in this special journal issue deal with literary works designated by individual educators as "still worth reading." The works discussed are (1) "Madeline" by L. Bemelmans; (2) "The Assistant" by B. Malamud; (3) "The Pitfalls for Readers of Fiction" by H. Sample, the first of the pamphlet publications by the National Council…
McLeod, Alan M., Ed.
Presents selected readings published in the English language on the subject of terrorism dating from 1985 to the present. Materials covered include books, periodicals, encyclopedias and dictionaries, directories, bibliographies, and online databases that cover definitions of terrorism, psychological and religious aspects of terrorism, and how to…
Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)
Phi Delta Kappan, 2000
Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…
Recommends fine fiction for summer reading, including Nadine Gordimer's "My Son's Story" (1991), Lillian Smith's "Strange Fruit" (1944), Josephine Hart's "Damage" (1991), Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres" (1991), and George Eliot's "Middlemarch" (1874). Nonfiction suggestions include Harlan Lane's "Mask of Benevolence" (1992), Diane Ackerman's "A…
Phi Delta Kappan, 1993
The author's quirky reading of Winnie the Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner is investigated in terms of reader response and gender schema theory. The connections between these two theories are exemplified. Researchers attest to the pervasiveness of the gender schema, and the effects of gender schema on memory are presented in summaries of empirical studies with subjects from
Susan X Day
Despite progress in decipherment of Maya hieroglyphic script in recent years, there are still a great many glyphs that epigraphers are unable to read completely. This can be for a number of reasons. In many cases, the remains of the glyphs are too badly eroded to be properly understood. In other cases, it is due to a lack of consideration
A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training. Results of pre- and post-testing of reading abilities point to a significant main effect of the test, demonstrating improvements in silent contextual reading speed, reading comprehension, and speed of processing in both Hebrew and English training groups as compared to their performance before the intervention. This study indicates that the Reading Acceleration Program might be an effective program for improving reading abilities in children, independent of language. PMID:24919641
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K; Breznitz, Zvia
The dynamic range of photon counting micro-channel-plate (MCP) intensified charged-coupled device (CCD) instruments such as the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) is limited at the bright end by coincidence loss, the superposition of multiple photons in the individual frames recorded by the CCD. Photons which arrive during the brief period in which the image frame is transferred for read out of the CCD are displaced in the transfer direction in the recorded images. For sufficiently bright sources, these displaced counts form read-out streaks. Using UVOT observations of Tycho-2 stars, we investigate the use of these read-out streaks to obtain photometry for sources which are too bright (and hence have too much coincidence loss) for normal aperture photometry to be reliable. For read-out-streak photometry, the bright-source limiting factor is coincidence loss within the MCPs rather than the CCD. We find that photometric measurements can be obtained for stars up to 2.4 mag brighter than the usual full-frame coincidence-loss limit by using the read-out streaks. The resulting bright-limit Vega magnitudes in the UVOT passbands are UVW2 = 8.80, UVM2 = 8.27, UVW1 = 8.86, u = 9.76, b = 10.53, v = 9.31 and White = 11.71; these limits are independent of the windowing mode of the camera. We find that a photometric precision of 0.1 mag can be achieved through read-out streak measurements. A suitable method for the measurement of read-out streaks is described and all necessary calibration factors are given.
Page, M. J.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Breeveld, A. A.; Hancock, B.; Holland, S. T.; Marshall, F. E.; Oates, S.; Roming, P. W. A.; Siegel, M. H.; Smith, P. J.; Carter, M.; De Pasquale, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Yershov, V.; Beardmore, A. P.
This virtual gallery features a collection of scientific instruments used in the early days of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The gallery's inroduction briefly describes the history of the department and its early instrument purchases, and the recovery and restoration of these items for use in a physical display. The virtual gallery is organized by the functions of the instruments (wave motion, optics, magnetism, and others). Each instrument is represented by a photograph and a brief description with the item's manufacturer, how it was used, and some references. There is also a gallery of "mystery objects," instruments whose function is no longer known.
Some problems inherent in popular magazine articles concerning reading are discussed, and some suggestions for careful reading of them are given. It is suggested that the reader consider the following questions concerning popular magazine articles on reading: (1) What background does the author have? (2) What number of people have been involved in…
Anderson, Lorena A.
This paper provides information about the beginnings of literacy in young children and the skills they need for reading readiness. The paper also describes what is meant by a "quality early literacy instruction" and reading skill development in early childhood settings. It outlines early reading behaviors, including phonemic awareness, concept of…
Routier, Wanda J.
Out-of-school programs provide a context for enriching academic experiences. This study describes a 12-week after-school reading program, Project Expanding Horizons, which is based on the Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading (SEM-R) framework. SEM-R has three phases: exposure, supported independent reading, and choice. The exposure phase is…
Little, Catherine A.; Hines, Ashley H.
The teacher wondered how her group of middle school tutors would react to reading predictable children's books to their elementary "tutees." Would they enjoy the books or would they think they were too mature to do the activities in the lesson? She wondered if the tutors would enjoy being read to as she modeled the dramatic reading of a children's…
Garcia, Juanita C.
The digital reading practices of two middle school students in US and Canadian contexts are examined. Using a multimodal discourse framework, the authors contemplate what digital reading practice is and distinctive practices of reading texts online compared with printed, school-based literacy practices. By focusing on two different genres of…
Rowsell, Jennifer; Burke, Anne
This report describes a program for increasing primary students' reading achievement as indicated by scores on reading series theme tests, state standards achievement test scores, achievement test scores, report card grades, and students' involvement in reading. The targeted population consisted of primary elementary school students in a…
Barsema, Michelle; Harms, Louann; Pogue, Carol
The Reading First initiative is a central part of the federal "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. Reading First's primary goal is to improve reading instruction and student performance in kindergarten through grade 3. By March 2003 only half of the 50 state plans had been approved for funding. Approved states included seven Southern Regional…
Denton, David R.
This study reports on several specific neurocognitive process predictors of reading outcomes for a sample of 278 children with reading disabilities. Three categories of response (i.e., poor, average, and good) were formed via growth curve models of six reading outcomes. Two nested discriminant function analyses were conducted to evaluate the…
Frijters, Jan C.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Steinbach, Karen A.; Wolf, Maryanne; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.
Despite recent findings that show fluency deficits in developmental readers, the field of developmental reading remains remiss in fluency instruction. This article provides a summary intended to increase college reading teachers' understanding of reading fluency and fluency instruction. In addition, included are the step-by-step procedures of…
Encouraging pleasure reading is not traditionally seen as the role of academic libraries. Those students who take time for reading, however, are better poised to succeed in college. Declining rates in reading among young people are cause for alarm, and many libraries at academic institutions are developing programs to promote this pastime. This…
The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…
Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.
Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)
Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo
There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…
The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of two strategies for using undergraduate paraprofessionals as tutors for first-grade children with reading difficulties. The two groups of undergraduates taught first graders the same 150 words, and both reinforced (socially and materially) correct performances. However, one group employed a programmed method of word presentation (i.e., the Edmark Reading Program), while the other group of tutors was allowed flexibility in the pacing and methods for presenting words. The performance of each reading group was compared to that of a control group who engaged in educational activities not directly related to reading. Thirty-six poor readers were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Subjects were tutored after school by university undergraduates for an average of twenty-three 40-minute sessions. Children in both reading groups showed significantly more improvement than controls on an oral reading posttest of the 150 criterion words. Treatment effects did not emerge on a test composed mainly of noncriterion words. PMID:19668353
Andersen, Barbara L.; Licht, Barbara G.; Ullmann, Rina K.; Buck, Sylvia T.; Redd, William H.
This experiment examined the item-level relationship between 7-year-olds' ability to read words aloud and their knowledge of the same words in the oral domain. Two types of knowledge were contrasted: familiarity with the phonological form of the word (lexical phonology), measured by auditory lexical decision, and semantic knowledge, measured by a definitions task. Overall, there was a robust relationship between word knowledge and reading aloud success. The association was stronger when words contained irregular spelling-sound correspondences. There was no evidence that a deeper or more semantic knowledge of words was more closely related to reading aloud success beyond the association between reading success and familiarity with the phonological form of the same words. This finding is not compatible with models that see semantics as contributing directly to the reading aloud process, at least during the relatively early stages of reading development. More critical was whether or not a word was considered a lexical item, as indexed by auditory lexical decision performance. PMID:19410262
Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne
An instrument is described in which a rangefinder is mounted on an alt-azimuth mount, and readings of azimuth, elevation and range are obtained by means of digital photoelectric angular encoders. The readings are passed as eight-bit numbers to a microcomputer, which logs them together with the time. A series of timed position observations (or `run'), is acquired and then recorded
C. J. Pennycuick
This book is intended primarily for classroom teachers and other personnel who work directly with teachers in selecting reading readiness tests or achievement tests. The first chapter lists and briefly explains the criteria used by the authors in reviewing the tests included. These criteria are concerned with norms, standardization, objectivity,…
Farr, Roger; Anastasiow, Nicholas
The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.
The author discusses the correctability of reading failure and suggests that teachers and parents discard fantasies about remediation and emphasize alternative skills through which the reading disabled child can develop his intelligence. (GW)
Brown, George W.
Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)
Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.
Recommends methods which social studies teachers can use to help students improve their reading skills while studying social studies materials. Specific methods are suggested as aids to paraphrasing, summarizing, predicting, diagramming, identifying unknown words, and varying reading rates. (DB)
Bullock, Terry; Hesse, Karl
Demonstrates the benefits of intergenerational reading to children, seniors, parents, and libraries, and surveys library programs in Arizona, California, and New Mexico that mix generations with books and reading. The programs described vary from scheduled to spontaneous. (EAM)
Brain imaging offers a new technology for understanding the acquisition of reading by children. It can contribute novel evidence concerning the key mechanisms supporting reading, and the brain systems that are involved. The extensive neural architecture that develops to support efficient reading testifies to the complex developmental processes…
Discusses the status of reading instruction in Nigerian primary schools, focusing on methods of instruction, class organization, books used, the role of the Ministry of Education, reading in Nigerian languages, as well as some problems in the teaching of reading. (RAE)
Etim, James S.; Willems, Arnold L.
Discusses the need to place a greater emphasis on the subject of reading in library and information science (LIS) education and research. Topics include literacy studies, print culture history, reader-response theory, ethnography of reading, genre fiction and cultural studies, information versus reading, and access to information versus content of…
Integrating reading and language arts at all levels is the focus of this journal issue. The articles and their authors are as follows: "Reading and Writing: Close Relatives or Distant Cousins" (Kathryn A. Koch); "The Reading-Writing Relationship: Myths and Realities" (Timothy Shanahan); "The Classroom Teacher as an Action Researcher: Beginning…
French, Michael P., Ed.; Elford, Shirley J., Ed.
In pre-service and in-service language teacher education, and in curriculum-related projects in second and foreign language settings, a recurrent issue is the failure to relate the teaching of reading to reading as a meaning-making activity. In this paper, I will consider what current research on second language (L2) reading has actually succeeded…
Measured both reading speeds and comprehension in two groups of learners exposed to intensive and extensive reading programs. The extensive group was exposed to a regime of graded readers, while the intensive group studied short texts followed by comprehension questions. Results indicate that subjects exposed to extensive reading achieved both…
Bell, Timothy I.
This collection of the 1991 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 18 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "Features of Large-Print Picture Books for…
Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others
Reading research in which different methods or materials have been compared has proven inconclusive. This paper is restricted to beginning reading, defined as the acquisition of letter-sound decoding ability, and raises the question: what skills are required by current tests? Available reading readiness and achievement tests consist of batteries…
Calfee, Robert C.; Venezky, Richard L.
The reading improvement program at Texas Southern University employed newspapers, magazines, books, seminars, exhibits, plays, and interdisciplinary reading material to service freshman students and upperclassmen with reading deficiencies. Newspapers were used to inform, to appeal to immediate interests, to develop skimming ability, to increase…
Stewart, Elneita Wallace
The Computer Animated Reading Instruction System (CARIS) was developed to introduce reading to children with varied sensory, cognitive, and physical handicaps. CARIS employs an exploratory learning approach which encourages children to experiment with the reading and writing of words and sentences. Brief computer-animated cartoons provide the…
Geoffrion, Leo D.; Bergeron, R. Daniel
In a world in which online reading is becoming increasingly common and, as a consequence, online literacy more and more necessary, this paper focuses on possibility of training L2 (second language) readers to bridge the gap between paper reading and online reading. Many researchers believe metacognitive awareness to be the most important ability…
This collection of the 1990 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 23 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "The Effects of Oral Story-Telling and…
Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others
This author describes a reading project using Kindles that was designed to increase the reading habits of 9th graders. With a selection of 500 titles for classroom usage, students were encouraged to read any book they chose--in addition to those required for their school term. Isero states that, in the past, many of his students would not risk…
The central theme in this journal issue is the use of the computer in teaching reading. The following articles are included: "The Use of Computers in the Reading Program: A District Approach" by Nora Forester; "Reading and Computers: A Partnership" by Dr. Martha Irwin; "Rom, Ram and Reason" by Candice Carlile; "Word Processing: Practical Ideas and…
Karbal, Harold, Ed.
Oral reading fluency is defined as the combination of accuracy (i.e., words read correctly) and rate (i.e., number of words read in a specified time). One strategy that addresses oral reading fluency is repeated reading of passages. Repeated reading can improve students' reading skills by building reading fluency linked to specific performance…
Walker, Laura L.; Jolivette, Kristine; Lingo, Amy S.
STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING INSTRUMENTATION, SIGNAL PROCESSING AND INTERPRETATION and understanding. #12;iii ABSTRACT Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a major concern in engineering community. SHM sets out to determine the health of a structure by reading an array of sensors that are embedded
As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.
Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10?×?6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10?×?6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2–4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients. PMID:23189036
Lauritzen, Thomas Z.; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A.; Dorn, Jessy D.; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J.
Based in Chicago, Brown Baby Reads is a not-for-profit organization with a mission "to celebrate, encourage, and promote literacy in African-American children." On the website, visitors can learn about their initiatives and find out about age-appropriate books for children. In the "Database" area, visitors can peruse information on over 1,500 books that feature African American children as main characters and books written by African American authors. Visitors can also search the books by author, title, illustrator, age group, category, or themes. The site is rounded out by a number of links to free online resources from around the web related to reading, literacy, and cultural diversity.
Through a four month Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program, professionals at North Shore Medical Center in Massachusetts developed a process improvement to gain efficiency in communicating urgently requested x-ray results, or "wet reads." The initial steps included summoning a diverse team, mapping the process in detail, and clearly defining the problem. Once the problem was defined, the team brainstormed potential solutions and constructed a priority/pay-off matrix. By using the Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) system, a repeating cycle of activity that tests the new experimental work flow by tracking, adjusting, tweaking, and tracking again, efforts were built upon until the goal was met.The average wet read turnaround time went from 44 minutes to 15 minutes, a reduction of 66%. PMID:24605443
Tobey, Mary Ellen; Yamamoto, Alvin; Robertson, Dawn
The Great White Whale truly comes alive in this creative and thoughtful website created by artist Angela Cockayne and writer Philip Hoare. While collaborating in Spring 2011 for Peninsula Arts at Plymouth University to curate the Ă˘â?¬Ĺ?DominionĂ˘â?¬Âť whale symposium and exhibition, they came to believe that there was something more to their Ă˘â?¬Ĺ?Moby DickĂ˘â?¬Âť obsession. Thus, in September 2012, they launched an online version of Herman Melville's classic work featuring all 135 chapters read on audio by a mixture of "the celebrated and the unknown" for free download to the public. The project is chronicled via a podcast on the main site, Facebook, SoundCloud, and iTunes. Chapters to watch for include readings by Neil Tennant, Nigel Williams, and noted actress Tilda Swinton.
Melville, Herman, 1819-1891
NASA Stennis' adaptive predictive algorithm for electronic thermometers uses sample readings during the initial rise in temperature and applies an algorithm that accurately and rapidly predicts the steady state temperature. The final steady state temperature of an object can be calculated based on the second-order logarithm of the temperature signals acquired by the sensor and predetermined variables from the sensor characteristics. These variables are calculated during tests of the sensor. Once the variables are determined, relatively little data acquisition and data processing time by the algorithm is required to provide a near-accurate approximation of the final temperature. This reduces the delay in the steady state response time of a temperature sensor. This advanced algorithm can be implemented in existing software or hardware with an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The capability for easy integration eliminates the expense of developing a whole new system that offers the benefits provided by NASA Stennis' technology.
Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934
Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin
Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone) followed by an area with low demands. A message was made available shortly before the vehicle entered the demand zone. We manipulated the type of driving demands (baseline, narrow lane, pace clock, combined), message format (no message, paragraph, parsed), and the distance from the demand zone when the message was available (near, far). Results In all conditions, drivers started reading messages (drivers’ first glance to the display) before entering or before leaving the demand zone but tended to wait longer when faced with increased driving demands. While reading messages, drivers looked more or less off road, depending on types of driving demands. Conclusions For task initiation, drivers avoid transitions from low to high demands; however, they are not discouraged when driving demands are already elevated. Drivers adjust time-sharing behavior according to driving demands while performing secondary tasks. Nonetheless, such adjustment may be less effective when total demands are high. Application This study helps us to understand a driver’s role as an active controller in the context of distracted driving and provides insights for developing distraction interventions. PMID:25850162
Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.
For a head start on getting great reading and writing materials this summer--just look in your mailbox. As the school year winds down and the end-of-year testing and report card frenzy nears, summer looms large. If you have the good fortune to be in a school that isn't year-round, and you aren't working on college credit or at a second job, just…
Bafumo, Mary Ellen
How are "math" definitions different or the same from "everyday" definitions of words? PRE-READING QUESTIONS (Remember Bloom's Taxonomy?) KNOWLEDGE Name all the attributes of a polygon that make it a triangle. COMPREHENSION Describe what the word ?similar? means. APPLICATION Demonstrate how you determine if two triangles are similar. ANALYSIS Examine why we would want to know if two triangles are similar. SYNTHESIS Construct a triangle similar to this triangle ...
An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.
Abshire, J. B. (inventor)
Force and pressure sensing technology applied to smart surgical instruments as well as implants allow to give a direct feedback of loads to the surgeon lead to better reliability and success of surgical operations. A common technology used for sensors is low-cost piezoresistive thick-film technology. However, the standard thick-film firing conditions degrade the properties of medical alloys. In order to avoid this problem, the solution is to decrease the firing temperature of thick films. This work presents the development and characterisation of low-firing thick-film systems (dielectrics, resistors and conductors), formulated to achieve chemical and thermal expansion compatibility with an austenitic stainless steel medical alloy. Adherence tests and results on electrical properties of these systems: resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are presented. It was found that the main issue in these systems lies in mastering the materials interactions during firing, especially at the silver-based resistor terminations. The interaction of silver, resistor and dielectric tends to give rise to highly resistive zones at the terminations, affecting reliability. This can be circumvented by post-firing the resistor terminations at a moderate temperature. PMID:18679770
Jacq, C; Maeder, T; Ryser, P
Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.
The goals of micro-arcsecond space mission rely on the limiting performance associated to the selected instrumental configuration and observing conditions. In particular, variation of the instrumental response over the field, with wavelength and in time, are potentially critical. We discuss the impact on the data quality and how the science data can be used to trace directly and in real time the astrometric instrument response of Gaia. This is one of the driver philosophies behind the Astrometric Instrument Model (AIM) concept. We show results from the test campaigns carried on throughout the 2013.
Busonero, D.; Licata, E.; Gai, M.
For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.
The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.
Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.
The ALADDIN project aims at detecting warm dust populations around nearby main sequence stars. In order to achieve the significantly improved sensitivity with respect to existing instruments, the architecture of the system is focused and optimised for the mission: ALADDIN implements the nulling interferometry technique at the focal plane of a 2-telescope interferometer mounted on a rotating structural beam. Concerning the beam combining nulling instrument, the ALADDIN design is inherited from a Definition Study of the VLTI/GENIE instrument. In this paper, we demonstrate how the ALADDIN instrument preliminary definition can be made simpler and more representative of a space instrument than GENIE thanks to both the outstanding atmospheric properties of Dome C and the dedicated architecture of the system. Finally, we discuss the compatibility of the instrument with the Antarctic environment and constraints, and underline the experimental and industrial know-how learnt from the MAII and PERSEE nulling breadboards in which our Team is also involved.
Barillot, M.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Surdej, J.; Absil, O.; Jamar, C.; di Folco, E.
An overview of the current status of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) instrumentation program is presented. Conceptual designs for the three first light instruments (IRIS, WFOS and IRMS) are in progress, as well as feasibility studies of MIRES. Considerable effort is underway to understand the end-to-end performance of the complete telescopeadaptive optics-instrument system under realistic conditions on Mauna Kea. Highly efficient operation is being designed into the TMT system, based on a detailed investigation of the observation workflow to ensure very fast target acquisition and set up of all subsystems. Future TMT instruments will almost certainly involve contributions from institutions in many different locations in North America and partner nations. Coordinating and optimizing the design and construction of the instruments to ensure delivery of the best possible scientific capabilities is an interesting challenge. TMT welcomes involvement from all interested instrument teams.
Simard, Luc; Crampton, David; Ellerbroek, Brent; Boyer, Corinne
This dissertation is comprised of two manuscripts that resulted from a single study using verbal protocols to examine the reading processes prompted by the graphics as second graders read informational text. Verbal protocols have provided researchers with an understanding of the processes readers use as they read. Little is known, however, about…
Norman, Rebecca R.
This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…
Dalton, Russell W.
The research compiled ten-year, foundational information about students enrolled in a developmental reading course. The institutional data collected included student enrollment, demographics, and academic markers of success. A pre/post survey examined students' reading attitudes to determine if reading attitudes changed through the course…
McDowell, Forrest D., Jr.
Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…
Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo
This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…
Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John
A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.
A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.
Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.
It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.
Stewart, R. H.
Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.
Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.
The eye can rotate to accommodate the angular position of an object and the distance of the object from it. The rotation of the eye inside its socket to align its visual axis in the direction of an off-axis image may introduce full or partial vignetting when one is looking through a visual instrument with a real exit pupil. We analyze the effects of vignetting owing to rotation of the eye in visual instruments with real exit pupils. PMID:12412650
Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Rayces, Juan L
Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021
de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.
The SOAR Telescope, near completion on Cerro Pachon - Chile, will carry Instrument Support Modules (ISMs) mounted at the two Nasmyth foci. Each ISM has three focal stations and is capable of making rapid instrument changes between them. Both ISMs also carry a Comparison Lamp System (CLS), guider and an acquisition camera, which are shared between the three instruments. One ISM supports IR instruments. The other is used for "Optical" instruments operating at wavelengths below 900nm. Beam steering mechanisms direct light from the SOAR science field or the CLS to the instrument in use. In the IR-ISM, light is sent to the lateral ports by dichroic mirrors which reflect IR and transmit wavelengths from 400-900nm to the guider. In the Optical-ISM, light is directed to the lateral ports by the use of first surface pick-off mirrors. Guiding is done off-axis. During operation, both ISMs can be rotated by 360° and must carefully control differential flexure between the guider and focal planes. A method of accurate relative flexure measurement has been developed where the ISM is rotated on its handling cart while carrying instrument mass simulators which reproduce its nominal payloads. In this paper, the ISM and its support sub-modules are described. Results of flexure measurements and tests of the CLS are provided.
Santoro, Fernando G.; Ingerson, Thomas E.; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Tighe, Roberto; Martinez, Manuel; Gallardo, Juan; Ochoa, Hugo
The 1998 NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) state level reading assessment measured fourth- and eighth-grade students' reading proficiency in situations that involved reading for three purposes: reading for literary experience, reading to gain information, and reading to perform a task (grade 8 only). This report describes the…
Ballator, Nada; Jerry, Laura
The 1998 NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) state level reading assessment measured fourth- and eighth-grade students' reading proficiency in situations that involved reading for three purposes: reading for literary experience, reading to gain information, and reading to perform a task (grade 8 only). This report describes the…
Ballator, Nada; Jerry, Laura
The 1998 NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) state level reading assessment measured public and nonpublic fourth- and eighth-grade students' reading proficiency in situations that involved reading for three purposes: reading for literary experience, reading to gain information, and reading to perform a task (grade 8 only). This…
Ballator, Nada; Jerry, Laura
The 1998 NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) state level reading assessment measured fourth- and eighth-grade students' reading proficiency in situations that involved reading for three purposes: reading for literary experience, reading to gain information, and reading to perform a task (grade 8 only). This report describes the…
Ballator, Nada; Jerry, Laura
Ballator, Nada; Jerry, Laura
Ballator, Nada; Jerry, Laura
Ballator, Nada; Jerry, Laura
Ballator, Nada; Jerry, Laura