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1

Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved optoelectronic instruments (specially configured digital cameras) for reading direct-marked data-matrix symbols on the surfaces of optically reflective objects (including specularly reflective ones) are undergoing development. Data-matrix symbols are two-dimensional binary patterns that are used, like common bar codes, for automated identification of objects. The first data-matrix symbols were checkerboard-like patterns of black-and-white rectangles, typically existing in the forms of paint, ink, or detachable labels. The major advantage of direct marking (the marks are more durable than are painted or printed symbols or detachable labels) is offset by a major disadvantage (the marks generated by some marking methods do not provide sufficient contrast to be readable by optoelectronic instruments designed to read black-and-white data-matrix symbols). Heretofore, elaborate lighting, lensing, and software schemes have been tried in efforts to solve the contrast problem in direct-mark matrix- symbol readers. In comparison with prior readers based on those schemes, the readers now undergoing development are expected to be more effective while costing less. All of the prior direct-mark matrix-symbol readers are designed to be aimed perpendicularly to marked target surfaces, and they tolerate very little angular offset. However, the reader now undergoing development not only tolerates angular offset but depends on angular offset as a means of obtaining the needed contrast, as described below. The prototype reader (see Figure 1) includes an electronic camera in the form of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector equipped with a telecentric lens. It also includes a source of collimated visible light and a source of collimated infrared light for illuminating a target. The visible and infrared illumination complement each other: the visible illumination is more useful for aiming the reader toward a target, while the infrared illumination is more useful for reading symbols on highly reflective surfaces. By use of beam splitters, the visible and infrared collimated lights are introduced along the optical path of the telecentric lens, so that the target is illuminated and viewed from the same direction.

Schramm, Harry F.; Corder, Eric L.

2006-01-01

2

A portable direct-reading instrument for the measurement of concentrations of sulphur dioxide in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight portable instrument is described that provides rapid readings of the concentration of sulphur dioxide in polluted atmospheres. The instrument is battery powered, weighs 3 kg and measures 25 cm wide, 25 cm high and 10 cm deep. Air enters via a jet impinger and the SO 2 is absorbed in an aqueous solution containing hydrogen peroxide in a conductivity cell. Each observation takes 2 min to complete and at least 100 readings can be taken before the solution needs to be changed. The change in conductivity of the cell is displayed and stored on a liquid crystal panel meter, providing a direct reading in terms of the concentration of SO 2 in air, with two ranges, 100-1999?g m -3 and 100-6000?g m -3.

3

TANK VAPOR CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN & EXISTING DIRECT READING INSTRUMENTION & PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This document takes the newly released Industrial Hygiene Chemical Vapor Technical Basis (RPP-22491) and evaluates the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) identified for selected implementation actions by the industrial hygiene organization. This document is not intended as a hazard analysis with recommended controls for all tank farm activities. Not all of the chemicals listed are present in all tanks; therefore, hazard analyses can and should be tailored as appropriate. Detection of each chemical by current industrial hygiene non-specific instrumentation in use at the tank farms is evaluated. Information gaps are identified and recommendations are made to resolve these needs. Of the 52 COPC, 34 can be detected with existing instrumentation. Three additional chemicals could be detected with a photoionization detector (PID) equipped with a different lamp. Discussion with specific instrument manufacturers is warranted. Consideration should be given to having the SapphIRe XL customized for tank farm applications. Other instruments, sampling or modeling techniques should be evaluated to estimate concentrations of chemicals not detected by direct reading instruments. In addition, relative instrument response needs to be factored in to action levels used for direct reading instruments. These action levels should be correlated to exposures to the COPC and corresponding occupational exposure limits (OELs). The minimum respiratory protection for each of the COPC is evaluated against current options. Recommendations are made for respiratory protection based on each chemical. Until exposures are sufficiently quantified and analyzed, the current use of supplied air respiratory protection is appropriate and protective for the COPC. Use of supplied air respiratory protection should be evaluated once a detailed exposure assessment for the COPC is completed. The established tank farm OELs should be documented in the TFC-PLN-34. For chemicals without an established tank farm OEL, consideration should be given to adopting protective limits from NIOSH, AIHA, or developing OELs. Protective gloves and suits are evaluated for each chemical for which information is available. Information gaps are identified for some of the compounds and materials. Recommendations are made for resolving these needs. Based on available information, Silver Shield{reg_sign} gloves are promising for tank farm applications. However, permeation testing documentation is needed for the COPC and mixtures for Silver Shield{reg_sign} gloves to evaluate their protectiveness. North Safety Products is expected to provide the requested documentation. Multiple Tychem{reg_sign} products are available. There is overlap between chemicals and effective materials. Further hazard evaluation to determine actual hazards and permeation testing documentation is required to assess the efficacy of a single Tychem{reg_sign} product for tank farm applications. All of this chemical specific data is combined into a spreadsheet that will assist the industrial hygienist in the selection of monitoring instruments, respiratory protection selection and protective clothing for performing work at a specific tank(s).

BUTLER, N.K.

2004-11-01

4

Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak™ 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

Bau, Sébastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, François; Thomas, Dominique

2009-05-01

5

Evaluation of Performance Criteria and Test Methods by Investigating the Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Response of Portable Direct Reading Radiological Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.17A-1989 "Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation-Portable Instrumentation for Use in Normal Environmental Conditions" standard has been evaluated by investigating the effects of temperature and humidity on the response of 105 portable direct reading radiological instruments (45 beta-gamma survey meters, 10 alpha contamination monitors, 32 neutron survey meters and 18 tritium-in-air monitors). The shift or change in response from a randomly selected cross section of instruments was determined experimentally in an environmental chamber at temperatures ranging from -10 to 50^circC and at humidity levels of 40 and 95% RH. Commercially available radiological instruments tested include the Eberline RO-2 and RO-3C ionization chambers; the Eberline E-530 survey meter with the Model HP-177C stainless steel Geiger Mueller (GM) wall probe; the Eberline PIC-6A and PIC-6B ion chambers; the Eberline ESP-1 survey meter with the Model HP-260 pancake GM detector; the Ludlum 3 survey meter with the Model 44-6 stainless steel GM wall probe; the Eberline ESP-1, ESP-2, and PNR-4 survey meters with the neutron rem detector (NRD); the Health Physics Instruments (HPI) 2080 survey meter with the moderator (Mod); the Ludlum 139 survey meter with the Model 43-32 air-proportional (AP) alpha detector; and the Overhoff 394-C, Johnston J -111 and J-110 tritium monitors. Results of 1128 temperature tests (1269 hours of exposure in the chamber) and 735 humidity tests (1890 hours of exposure in the chamber) are presented. The study shows that the standard's test requirement for temperature at or near the extreme conditions, and the test requirement for humidity at 95% RH may be too restrictive for instruments used in the work environment. Also discussed is the impact and practicality of the ANSI standard's performance criteria and test methods.

Clement, Richard S.

6

Quantification of Contributions Made by Various Reading Instrument Combinations to the Reading Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study involved a direct comparison of existing instrument techniques to determine how each technique adds to a total reading program. Also studied was the order in which various techniques are best used in a program. The subjects were 60 students who were enrolled in a two-year academic center preparing students for employment in both…

Mathis, William; Senter, Donald R.

7

A Direct Reading Thermometer Based on a Silicon Diode.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple circuit based on an inexpensive quad operational amplifier that permits a direct-reading temperature instrument to be constructed using silicon diodes. Encourages the use of this equipment in introductory thermal experiments. (DDR)

Kirkup, L.; Tonthat, C.

1998-01-01

8

Diagnosis in Reading, What Direction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses and recommends diagnosis and remediation procedures in teaching pupils in the area of reading. The first section of the paper addresses diagnostic emphasis in reading and discusses individualized reading, experience charts, and 5 recommendations for teaching phonics. The next section discusses basal readers, argues that good…

Ediger, Marlow

9

Minimizing Reading Regression through a Direct Instruction Summer Reading Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Direct Instruction summer reading intervention program designed to minimize summer reading regression. The summer intervention program targeted the lowest quartile of readers in grades kindergarten through third grade from a suburban school district over a three-week period before…

Pechous, Donald J.

2012-01-01

10

SDR (Systems Directed Reading): An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this project for kindergarten through fifth grade is to interest public and private educational institutions in the systematization of elementary school reading programs. Facets of Systems Directed Reading (SDR) include the use of a differentiated staffing pattern; experienced language arts unit leaders guiding and directing all…

Baugo Community Schools, Elkhart, IN.

11

Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

2008-01-01

12

Evaluation of a Single-Reading Heat Stress Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation is made of a heat stress instrument which integrates radiation, wet bulb and dry bulb temperature, air velocity and a simulation of metabolic rate into a single output reading. Test results are discussed and recommendations made regarding heat ...

R. T. Hughes

1975-01-01

13

Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and…

Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

2013-01-01

14

Weston Direct-Reading Ammeter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Model #6367, believed to be manufactured December 15, 1898 by the Weston Electrical Instrument Company, Newark, New Jersey. Edward Weston introduced this type of meter in 1889 and was a serious competitor of Thomas Edison in the development of electricity. This ammeter was the first pivoted moving c...

2009-07-22

15

A Direct-Reading Inertial Balance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction of a direct-reading inertial balance that works on the same principle as that used by astronauts in space when weightless. It is used to help demonstrate and measure inertial mass. (GA)

Bruzzi, Luciana

1978-01-01

16

Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and teachers new to material culture can readily use artefacts to reveal rich and complex networks of narratives. We illustrate this point by describing our own lay encounter with an artefact turned over for our analysis during a week-long workshop at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. The text explains how elements as disparate as the military appearance of the instrument, the crest stamped on its body, the manipulation of its telescopes, or a luggage tag revealed the object's scientific and political significance in different national contexts. In this way, the presence of the instrument in the classroom vividly conveyed the nature of geophysics as a field practice and an international science, and illuminated relationships between pure and applied science for early twentieth century geologists. We conclude that artefact study can be an unexpectedly powerful and accessible tool in the study of science, making visible the connections between past and present, laboratory and field, texts and instruments.

Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Mélanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

2013-05-01

17

Developing Sight-Reading Skills on Mallet Percussion Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sight-reading while playing a mallet instrument can present serious obstacles for the developing percussionist. Many young players who have solid snare drum technique usually cite fear of playing the wrong note as the number-one hurdle to overcome in order to begin making real progress. Greg Byrne, associate director of bands at the University of…

Fidyk, Steve

2009-01-01

18

How Do Young Adults Read Directions with and without Pictures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research is designed to explore the manner in which people read and use procedural information (directions) presented to them in text and illustrations. University undergraduates read directions for the assembly of a model loading cart, assembling th...

D. E. Stone M. D. Glock

1980-01-01

19

Laboratory and field evaluation of instantaneous-reading dust instruments  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate two instantaneous-reading dust monitors that utilize the attenuation of beta rays to determine respirable mass-dust concentrations. The one monitor utilizes impaction to deposit the sample on a mylar substrate while the other monitor collects the sample on a glass fiber filter. Measurements obtained using test aerosols of coal, limestone, and silica dusts were compared to measurements obtained with the approved personal coal mine dust sampler. Instrument linearity was synthetically checked using mylar and formvar films of varying thickness. The monitor employing the glass fiber filters was also tested in underground coal mines.

Thompson, E.M.; Treaftis, H.N.; Tomb, T.F.

1984-01-01

20

How do young adults read directions with and without pictures?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explored the manner in which people read and use procedural information (directions) presented to them in text and illustrations. 90 undergraduates read directions for the assembly of a model of a loading cart, assembling the model as they read. The use of illustrations with text was found to produce significantly more accurate performance of the task. Results also suggest that

David E. Stone; Marvin D. Glock

1981-01-01

21

Laboratory and field evaluation of instantaneous reading dust instruments  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate two instantaneous reading dust monitors that utilize the attenuation of beta rays to determine respirable mass dust concentrations. The one monitor utilizes impaction to deposit the sample on a mylar substrate while the other monitor collects the sample on a glass fiber filter. Measurements obtained using test aerosols of coal, limestone, and silica dusts were compared to measurements obtained with the approved personal coal mine dust sampler. Instrument linearity was synthetically checked using mylar and formvar films of varying thickness. The monitor employing the glass fiber filters was also tested in underground coal mines. The results showed that the monitor employing the glass fiber filter overestimated the concentration of all the aerosols tested, while the one using impaction to collect the sample underestimated them in the region 0 to 5 mg/m/sup 3/. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Thompson, E.M.; Treaftis, H.N.; Tomb, T.F.

1984-01-01

22

Development of perceived instrumentality for mathematics, reading and science curricula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort in pursuit of other, more meaningful goals. In view of the alarming dropout rates in this country, it appears that PI research has much to offer in understanding students' motivations to stay in school and hence to become employed in their field of choice. Because academic achievement motivation can be affected by gender and ethnicity, particularly for specific components of the curriculum, and because curricular content varies across grade levels and school settings, this line of research offers significant potential for understanding and improving student outcomes. This research examined the development of PI among suburban 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th graders from a school district in the southwestern United States. Twelve hundred students completed a one-time paper and pencil survey measuring the perceived instrumentality of mathematics, literacy and science courses in terms of the students' occupational choices. MANOVA was used to determine factors that may affect students' overall PI and individual subject PI. Grade, gender, ethnicity, occupational choice, expectancy and value were the independent variables. A school setting variable was examined for effects on 12th graders. For the 8th through 12th grade sample, significant main effects were observed for grade, gender, minority status, occupational choice and expectancy on PI. Results show that PI is highest in the 6 th grade. Males reported higher Math PI than females. Females reported higher Reading PI and Science PI than males. Minority students reported lower overall PI and Science PI than non-minority students. Students who aspire to professional careers report the highest PI; and students who expect to achieve their occupational choice score higher than those who do not. Among 12th graders, significant two-way interaction effects on PI were observed between school type and gender; school type and occupational value; and, occupational expectancy and value.

Garcia, Steve L.

23

Bureau of Mines Direct-Reading Azimuth Protractor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the construction and use of a direct reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) for measuring fracture orientations in mines, tunnels, or other excavations having a magnetic environment. DRAP allows a rapid and simultaneous measurement of dip ...

D. D. Bolstad M. A. Mahtab

1974-01-01

24

Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

2012-01-01

25

Progress Monitoring Instrument Development: Silent Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension. Technical Report #1110  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is designed to measure students' academic status and growth so the effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated. In the most popular forms of reading CBM, the student's oral reading fluency is assessed. This behavior is difficult to sample in a computer-based format, a limitation that may be a function of the…

Nese, Joseph F. T.; Anderson, Daniel; Hoelscher, Kyle; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

2011-01-01

26

Maximum uncertainty estimation for the HB-Line ventilation instrumentation readings  

SciTech Connect

The HB-Line building vacuum instrumentation and glovebox vacuum instrumentation at the Savannah River Plant are described. The configuration and operation of the Foxboro 834 series transmitters and Moore 350 series controllers is detailed. In particular, the uncertainties in the differential pressure readings are explained.

Melton, D.R.

1992-12-04

27

Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension…

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.

2010-01-01

28

Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) with 737 students in an introductory biology course required

Jennifer G. Cromley; Lindsey E. Snyder-Hogan; Ulana A. Luciw-Dubas

2010-01-01

29

Data-Collecting on Reading-Writing Strategies: A Comparison of Instruments: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on an attempt to compare two data-collecting instruments, Think-aloud Protocols and strategies questionnaires, applied to capture reading/writing strategies. Subjects were immigrant speakers of linguistically different heritage languages, Russian and Amharic first languages, and thus represented two ethnic groups, who went through the…

Levine, Adina; Reves, Thea

1997-01-01

30

Spatial bias: effects of early reading direction on Korean subjects.  

PubMed

Spatial bias may occur in subjects performing a number of cognitive and visual-motor tasks. These include coordinate visuospatial computations (e.g. bisecting a line) and categorical representations of syntactic information (e.g. drawing a picture depicting the action of a sentence). Readers of European languages scan from left-to-right and this learned visual scanning may contribute to leftward spatial bias. In 30 subjects who first learned to read in a top-to-bottom, right-to-left direction (right-left vertical readers, RL), we tested spatial-syntactic bias by reading sentences to subjects, who drew pictures depicting the actions. We noted whether the subject of the sentence was located leftward or rightward of the object. We assessed visual-spatial bias by measuring subjects' accuracy at bisecting lines, and by measuring how closely their drawings on the house-tree-person test were centered on the page. On the spatial-syntactic task, the RL were not right- or left-biased (P=0.581). Korean controls (left-right horizontal readers, LR) also showed no significant spatial-syntactic bias. RL only tended to bisect lines leftward, but displaced house-tree-person drawings left of page center (P<0.001). LR erred leftward on line bisection, and had a smaller magnitude leftward bias on drawing tasks. We conclude that a leftward spatial-syntactic bias may not be innate and does not appear to be influenced by learned reading direction. In contrast, the leftward visual-spatial bias may occur in subjects whose cultural and reading background is neither western nor left-to-right. PMID:11900752

Barrett, Anna M; Kim, Manho; Crucian, Gregory P; Heilman, Kenneth M

2002-01-01

31

Developing an Observation Instrument to Support Authentic Independent Reading Time during School in a Data-Driven World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to develop an instrument to measure reading during in-school independent reading (ISIR). Procedures to establish validity and reliability of the instrument included videotaping and observing students during ISIR, gathering feedback from literacy experts, establishing interrater reliability, crosschecking…

Williams, Lunetta M.; Hall, Katrina W.; Hedrick, Wanda B.; Lamkin, Marcia; Abendroth, Jennifer

2013-01-01

32

Comparison of neutron dose quantities and instrument and dosemeter readings at representative locations in an MOX fuel fabrication plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between operational and protection quantities, and values of personal dosemeter and instrument readings have been determined for a recently designed MOX fuel fabrication plant. The relationships between the quantities, and the readings of personal dosemeters are sensitive to both the energy and direction distribution of neutron fluence. The energy distributions were calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCBEND. The direction distribution was addressed by calculating independently, spectral components for which the direction distribution could be reasonably assumed. At representative locations, and for assumed worker orientations, the radiation field is analysed as having, in general, three components—a direct, unidirectional component from the nearest identified discrete source, which is considered incident A-P, several unidirectional components from other such sources which are treated as a rotational component and a scattered isotropic component. The calculated spectra were folded with conversion coefficients for personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) slab (A-P, ROT and ISO), effective dose, E, (A-P, ROT and ISO), ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), personal dosemeter (AP, ROT and ISO) and survey instrument response characteristics.

Bartlett, D. T.; Hager, L. G.; Tanner, R. J.; Haley, R. M.; Cooper, A. J.

2002-01-01

33

Research on an advanced Direct Reading Current Meter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of the recent rapid development of coastal engineering in our country and to fill the urgent demand for a suitable current meter to measure near surface currents, the Ocean University of Qingdao designed a propeller type SLC9-2 Direct Reading Current Meter of excellent dynamic characteristics and not much affected by waves. The model is rationally designed, small and light, stable and reliable in operation, and economical in power consumption. It can be used to measure current speed and direction in near surface layers, especially in ultra-shallow water in oceans, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and ports. This paper focuses on the major properties, technical cruxes, experimental results, and applications of the model and touches briefly on its dynamic effectiveness with horizontal formations.

Song, Wenyang

1990-09-01

34

The Nexus between Direct Reading Instruction, Reading Theoretical Perspectives, and Pedagogical Practices of University of Swaziland Bachelor of Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence direct reading instruction had on university student teachers' reading cognition and the influence their theoretical perspectives had on their pedagogical practices. The study was conducted on all the seven year 2 (2008) Bachelor of Education (primary) students at the University of Swaziland.…

Sibanda, Jabulani

2010-01-01

35

New read-out electronics concept for visual and infrared detector arrays in astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the building of scientific camera systems for astronomical purposes in mind, the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPIA) has recently started developing new visual and infrared detector Read-out systems. Due to the modular design, the electronics components can be configured for a wide range of currently available IR-detectors and CCDs. The new Read-out Electronics are able to handle single or multiple detector systems with up to 144 input channels, feature high-speed data transfer and low power dissipation and additionally the system size is small and lightweight. The design is divided in four functional groups: controller board with variable Pattern Generator and fast fiber link, clock/bias board, analog to digital converter board and the PCI data receiver board which writes the incoming data into the computer memory. This design is highly versatile and allows for a wide variety of applications. The high data transfer rate, small size and low heat dissipation makes these Read-out Electronics ideal for relatively large focal plane arrays. The first instrument running with the new Read-out Electronics will be PANIC (Panoramic Near Infrared Camera) at the 2.20 m telescope on Calar Alto.

Wagner, Karl; Mall, Ulrich; Ramos, José; Klein, Ralf

2008-08-01

36

New read-out electronics concept for visual and infrared detector arrays in astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the building of scientific camera systems for astronomical purposes in mind, the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPIA) has recently started developing new visual and infrared detector Read-out systems. Due to the modular design, the electronics components can be configured for a wide range of currently available IR-detectors and CCDs. The new Read-out Electronics are able to handle single or multiple detector systems with up to 144 input channels, feature high-speed data transfer and low power dissipation and additionally the system size is small and lightweight. The design is divided in four functional groups: controller board with variable Pattern Generator and fast fiber link, clock/bias board, analog to digital converter board and the PCI data receiver board which writes the incoming data into the computer memory. This design is highly versatile and allows for a wide variety of applications. The high data transfer rate, small size and low heat dissipation makes these Read-out Electronics ideal for relatively large focal plane arrays. The first instrument running with the new Read-out Electronics will be PANIC (Panoramic Near Infrared Camera) at the 2.20 m telescope on Calar Alto.

Wagner, Karl; Mall, Ulrich; Ramos, José; Klein, Ralf

2008-07-01

37

The Neural Substrates for Letter String Readings in The Normal and Reverse Directions: An fMRI Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the difference in cortical activations between reading letter strings in the normal direction and the reverse direction, an fMRI study was conducted. In this study, the cortical activations elicited by Japanese letter string reading and Chinese letter string reading were investigated. The subjects performed the normal direction reading task (read letter strings from left to right), and the reverse direction reading task (read letter strings from right to left). According to the experimental results, the activated brain regions during the normal and the reverse direction reading tasks were compared. It was found that visuospatial transformation was involved in the reverse direction reading task, while this function was not significant during the normal direction reading task. Furthermore, we found that there was no significant difference in cortical activation between Japanese and Chinese letter string readings.

Ge, Sheng; Saito, Takashi; Wu, Jing-Long; Ogasawara, Jun-Ichi; Yamauchi, Shuichi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Iramina, Keiji

38

How Do Young Adults Read Directions with or without Pictures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is designed to explore the manner in which people read and use procedural information presented in text and illustrations. Recent theories are considered for their implications in this issue. (Author/GK)

Stone, David E.; Glock, Marvin D.

1981-01-01

39

Patient Monitoring in the Operating Room: Validation of Instrument Readings by Artificial Intelligence Methods  

PubMed Central

Physiological monitoring in the operating room is needed to follow the patient's state of ventilation, circulation, etc. Parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas content are observed with devices of uncertain reliability. These provide speedy information in the form of cautions and alarms, which may indicate that corrective action is needed. In practice the large number of alarms when there is no hazard to the patient (false alarms) is a considerable problem. We describe a method of comparing and validating instrument readings in this situation involving a knowledge base whose core is a set of 36 rules. This was applied to 7803 warnings (6287 cautions and 1516 alarms) from 68 day surgery patients undergoing 115 hours of surgery. Most of the cautions were validated by our analysis, but 734 of the 1516 alarms were invalidated while 419 were validated and 363 left indeterminate. This translates to a potential reduction from one alarm every 4 minutes to one every 16 minutes.

Garfinkel, D.; Matsiras, P.V.; Mavrides, T.; McAdams, J.; Aukburg, S.J.

1989-01-01

40

Effect of calibration environment on the performance of direct-reading organic vapor monitors.  

PubMed

The performance of two direct-reading organic vapor monitors (monitors) when calibrated at different environmental conditions was compared with charcoal tube results. Three MIRAN SapphIRe portable ambient air analyzers (SAP) and three Century portable toxic vapor analyzers (TVAs) were evaluated. Prior to sampling, the monitors were calibrated per the manufacturer's instructions using methane for the TVA flame ionization detector (FID) and isobutylene for the photoionization detector (PID), whereas the SapphIRe instruments were zeroed and the instrument's manufacturer-supplied library was used. For the first series of tests ("Part 1--Same condition"), the monitors were calibrated under the same environmental conditions as those present during sampling. They were then challenged with four cyclohexane concentrations (30, 150, 300, and 475 ppm) under two extreme environmental conditions: 5 degrees C and 30% relative humidity (RH) (same/cold) and 38 degrees C and 90% RH (same/hot). For the second series of tests ("Part 2--Different condition"), the monitors were calibrated at approximately normal indoor environmental conditions (21 degrees C and 50% RH) and sampled at extreme environmental conditions (different/cold and different/hot). The monitor readings from the two methods were compared with the actual cyclohexane concentration determined from charcoal tubes using ratios and root mean square errors. A number of monitor failures, both below detection limit values in the presence of a known challenge concentration and erroneously high measurements, occurred in each part: same condition 20.7% (149/720) and different condition 42.4% (305/ 720), with a majority of the failures (> 78%) during the hot and humid conditions. All monitors performed best at the same/cold, followed by the same/hot, in terms of closeness to the reference standard method and low within-monitor variability. The ranked choice of monitors for same/cold is PID > SAP > FID; for different/cold FID > PID > SAP; for same/hot SAP > PID > FID; and for different/hot PID > SAP (FID not included due to 100% failure rate). Implications: Direct-reading organic vapor monitors are used for assessing the concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the air at varying environmental conditions. Typical calibration is performed at laboratory temperature and pressure. The monitors may be used in atmospheres that differ from that during calibration. An understanding of the effect of calibration environment on monitor performance may provide valuable information on the reliability and appropriateness of certain monitor types for industrial hygienists, emergency responders, and exposure assessment practitioners. Results of the study indicate monitor calibration should be performed at the same environmental conditions as sampling. PMID:23786144

LeBouf, Ryan F; Slaven, James E; Coffey, Christopher C

2013-05-01

41

The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension: Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in four areas has the potential to dramatically improve how practitioners address the challenges of integrating digital texts and tasks into their literacy curriculum. Advances in defining and measuring key components of online reading comprehension are rapidly emerging. In addition, instructional models, such as Internet reciprocal…

Coiro, Julie

2012-01-01

42

The Effects of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity on EFL Students' Referential and Inferential Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity on Egyptian first-year secondary stage EFL students' referential and inferential reading comprehension. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. The subjects consisted of 72 first-year secondary students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

2006-01-01

43

Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

Wanzek, Jeanne

2014-01-01

44

The Development of Early Academic Success: The Impact of Direct Instruction's "Reading Mastery"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two different sites were used to examine how exposure to a highly academic curriculum is related to growth in beginning literacy and early reading skills from kindergarten through the end of third grade. In one site students in one school used the Direct Instruction (DI) program, "Reading Mastery (RM)", from kindergarten through grade 3,…

Stockard, Jean; Engelmann, Kurt

2010-01-01

45

Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling.  

PubMed

Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO(2) were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 x 10(6) cm(-3), were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m(-3), were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control recommendations were described for processes as required. PMID:20447936

Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H

2010-07-01

46

Aerosol Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling  

PubMed Central

Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO2 were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 × 106 cm?3, were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m?3, were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control recommendations were described for processes as required.

Evans, Douglas E.; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M. Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H.

2010-01-01

47

Curriculum-Based Measurement: Developing a Computer-Based Assessment Instrument for Monitoring Student Reading Progress on Multiple Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the technical adequacy of a computer-based assessment instrument which is based on hierarchical models of text comprehension for monitoring student reading progress following the Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) approach. At intervals of two weeks, 120 third-grade students finished eight CBM tests. To…

Forster, Natalie; Souvignier, Elmar

2011-01-01

48

Assessment of personal direct-reading dust monitors for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust.  

PubMed

The performances of five portable direct-reading dust monitors were investigated in a wind tunnel for a range of industrial dusts and three sizes of aluminium oxide test dust to mainly determine their suitability for measuring the inhalable fraction of airborne dust in workplaces. The instruments tested were Split 2 (SKC Ltd), Sidepak (TSI Inc.), Dataram (Thermo Electron Ltd), PDS-2 (Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd) and the Respicon TM (Hund Ltd). The instruments' responses were compared with reference dust samplers. These were the IOM sampler for the inhalable fraction and the Casella cyclone sampler for the respirable fraction. All instruments are predominantly responsive to and are designed to measure particles in the respirable size range, although two of the instruments, the Split 2 and Respicon TM, are claimed to be capable of measuring inhalable-sized particles. For the purpose of the tests, major modifications to an existing wind tunnel dust injection system were made to facilitate the generation of uniform concentrations of large inhalable-sized dust particles at low air velocities. Each monitor greatly underestimated the measurement of inhalable concentration for all the dusts tested, although the linearity was good over a wide range of concentrations for any particular size distribution of dust. However, their calibration factors, defined as the ratio of reference inhalable concentration to monitor concentration, were especially sensitive to changes in particle size as the response of the instruments decreased rapidly with increasing particle size. The monitors generally overestimated the measurement of respirable dust concentration by up to a factor of about 2, apart from the PDS-2, which underestimated it by a factor of up to 3. There was, however, a great deal more scatter in the reference respirable concentration measurements owing to the collection of small dust samples. Therefore, monitor linearity and effects of monitor response to changes in particle size could not be accurately investigated for the respirable fraction. The sampling head of the Split 2 monitor incorporates an IOM inlet and filter to gravimetrically collect the inhalable fraction of airborne dust. This can give a concurrent reference measure of inhalable airborne dust concentration. However, poor sealing within the sampling head resulted in some of the sampled dust not reaching the backup filter. This resulted in the Split 2 underestimating the reference inhalable dust concentration, which meant that it could not be accurately used as a calibration standard. Communications with the manufacturers have since revealed that the sampling head has recently been redesigned in order to improve the seal and eliminate leakage. The Respicon sampler gravimetrically underestimated the inhalable dust concentration, and did so increasingly as the particle size increased. PMID:16799158

Thorpe, Andrew

2007-01-01

49

Dealing with the size-of-source effect in the calibration of direct-reading radiation thermometer  

SciTech Connect

The majority of general-purpose low-temperature handheld radiation thermometers are severely affected by the size-of-source effect (SSE). Calibration of these instruments is pointless unless the SSE is accounted for in the calibration process. Traditional SSE measurement techniques, however, are costly and time consuming, and because the instruments are direct-reading in temperature, traditional SSE results are not easily interpretable, particularly by the general user. This paper describes a simplified method for measuring the SSE, suitable for second-tier calibration laboratories and requiring no additional equipment, and proposes a means of reporting SSE results on a calibration certificate that should be easily understood by the non-specialist user.

Saunders, P. [Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)] [Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

2013-09-11

50

The Single Item Literacy Screener: Evaluation of a brief instrument to identify limited reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reading skills are important for accessing health information, using health care services, managing one's health and achieving desirable health outcomes. Our objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS) to identify limited reading ability, one component of health literacy, as measured by the S-TOFHLA. METHODS: Cross-sectional interview with 999 adults with diabetes residing

Nancy S Morris; Charles D MacLean; Lisa D Chew; Benjamin Littenberg

2006-01-01

51

New Directions in Reading: Research and Practice. 1985 Yearbook of the State of Maryland International Reading Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this yearbook focus on reading and technology, teaching techniques, children's literature, and the reading/writing relationship. The 11 articles discuss the following: (1) computers and reading instruction, (2) using closed-captioned television in the classroom, (3) imagery training and the reading comprehension of below average…

Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; McLaughlin, Elaine M., Ed.

52

Matching is not naming: a direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks.  

PubMed

The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of "automatic activation" of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a nonreading task for studying "reading effects" by directly comparing blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in "reading-related" regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs. naming) by string type (word vs. pseudoword vs. nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type × timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions and is thus nonautomatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. PMID:22711620

Vogel, Alecia C; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2013-10-01

53

Chapter 8 Rapid DNA Sequencing by Direct Nanoscale Reading of Nucleotide Bases on Individual DNA chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and discuss two concepts for rapid DNA sequencing by direct nanoscale reading of nucleotide bases on individual DNA molecules. Although these two concepts are based on substantially different principles, they both rely on the fabrication of nanoscale devices using state of the art technologies. The first method, which has been recently invented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL),

James Weifu Lee; Amit Meller

2007-01-01

54

The Fabric of Thought: Priming Tactile Properties during Reading Influences Direct Tactile Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present studies examined whether implied tactile properties during language comprehension influence subsequent direct tactile perception, and the specificity of any such effects. Participants read sentences that implicitly conveyed information regarding tactile properties (e.g., "Grace tried on a pair of thick corduroy pants while shopping")…

Brunye, Tad T.; Walters, Eliza K.; Ditman, Tali; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

2012-01-01

55

A Study Comparing Two Methods (Teacher Directed Skills and Collaborative) of Teaching Reading Comprehension to College Reading Improvement Students in a CUNY Four Year College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the effectiveness of collaborative teaching and the more traditional skills based approach to remedial reading instruction. The Descriptive Test of Language Skills (DTLS) was used as a placement/exit test and a pre/posttest instrument. Two instructors taught a total of 50 subjects (who were good decoders but poor comprehenders) in…

Mason, Ronald B.

56

Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms: Validating a Direct Observation Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their study's…

Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

2010-01-01

57

Degrees of Reading Power. Form A. Directions for Administering and Scoring. New York State Preliminary Competency Test in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New York State Preliminary Competency Test in Reading is designed to measure a student's ability to understand written material of varying levels of difficulty. Results are used to evaluate a student's current level of achievement in reading and to indicate the extent of compensatory or remedial help which may be necessary to pass the final…

New York State Education Dept., Albany.

58

Balance Calibration – A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.  

SciTech Connect

Paper Title: Balance Calibration – A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customer’s location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom spreadsheet. The spreadsheet uses measurement results, along with the manufacturer’s specifications, to assign a direct-read measurement uncertainty to the balance. The fact that the assigned uncertainty is a best-case uncertainty is discussed with the customer; the assigned uncertainty contains no allowance for contributions associated with the unknown weighing sample, such as density, static charges, magnetism, etc. The attendee will learn uncertainty considerations associated with balance calibrations along with one method for assigning an uncertainty to a balance used for non-comparison measurements.

Mike Stears

2010-07-01

59

Development of a New Instrument for Direct Skin Friction Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficul...

A. D. Vakili J. M. Wu

1986-01-01

60

Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes.

A. D. Vakili; J. M. Wu

1986-01-01

61

Direct and Indirect Teaching: Using E-Books for Supporting Vocabulary, Word Reading, and Story Comprehension for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the effect of direct and indirect teaching of vocabulary and word reading on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children following use of an electronic storybook (e-book). The children in each age group were randomly assigned to an intervention group which read the e-book or to a control group which was afforded the regular school…

Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

2012-01-01

62

Direct measurement of skin friction with a new instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a small belt-type skin-friction gage to measure wall shear-stress coefficients in wind-tunnel testing are described, summarizing the report of Vakili and Wu (1982). The sensor employs a flexible belt of variable surface characteristics; this belt, wrapped tightly around two cylinders mounted on frictionless flexures, is equipped with strain gages to estimate the deflection of the belt by the flow. An alternative approach uses IR illumination, optical fibers, and a photosensitive transistor, permitting direct measurement of the belt deflection. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of sample data are provided.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

63

Calibration of Instruments for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was calibrated for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented calibration at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this calibration two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was calibrated for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was calibrated up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,

Vogler, Raymond D.; Pilny, Miroslav J.

1950-01-01

64

Present performance and future directions in two-photon addressed write once read many (WORM) volumetric optical disk storage systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current performance in two-photon WORM volumetric write once read many data storage systems is presented and future directions discussed. Influence of numerical aperture in a 3-D multi-layer optical data storage system is analyzed.

Esener, Sadik C.; Walker, Edwin P.; Zhang, Yi; Dvornikov, Alexander S.; Rentzepis, Peter M.

2003-12-01

65

Spatial biases in understanding descriptions of static scenes: the role of reading and writing direction.  

PubMed

Prior studies on reasoning tasks have shown lateral spatial biases on mental model construction, which converge with known spatial biases in the mental representation of number, time, and events. The latter have been shown to be related to habitual reading and writing direction. The present study bridges and extends both research strands by looking at the processes of mental model construction in language comprehension and examining how they are influenced by reading and writing direction. Sentences like "the table is between the lamp and the TV" were auditorily presented to groups of mono- and bidirectional readers in languages with left-to-right or right-to-left scripts, and participants were asked to draw the described scene. There was a clear preference for deploying the lateral objects in the direction marked by the script of the input language and some hints of a much smaller effect of the degree of practice with the script. These lateral biases occurred in the context of universal strategies for working memory management. PMID:23307481

Román, Antonio; El Fathi, Abderrahman; Santiago, Julio

2013-05-01

66

Promoting Independent Reading and Writing through Self-Directed Literacy Activities in a Collaborative Setting. Reading Research Report No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature-based reading program was introduced to 98 students in 5 second-grade classrooms in an urban school district with a socioeconomic status ranging from middle class to disadvantaged. Students were primarily African American or Hispanic. Of the total, 22% had previously been classified as "at risk" as determined by state regulations. The…

Morrow, Lesley M.; And Others

67

Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…

Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

2011-01-01

68

Student Aptitudes and Methods of Teaching Beginning Reading: A Predictive Instrument for Determining Interaction Patterns. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of whether reading methods interact differentially with student sequencing abilities was investigated. One hundred and thirty-one children from three schools in Palo Alto, California, were given reading instruction using a linguistic approach (Palo Alto Reading Program), and 115 children from three Palo Alto schools used a whole-word…

Stallings, Jane A.; Keepes, Bruce D.

69

Rapid analysis of fertilizers by the direct-reading thermometric method.  

PubMed

The authors have developed rapid methods for the determination of the main components of fertilizers, namely phosphate, potassium and nitrogen fixed in various forms. In the absence of magnesium ions phosphate is precipitated with magnesia mixture; in the presence of magnesium ions ammonium phosphomolybdate is precipitated and the excess of molybdate is reacted with hydrogen peroxide. Potassium is determined by precipitation with silico-fluoride. For nitrogen fixed as ammonium salts the ammonium ions are condensed in a basic solution with formalin to hexamethylenetetramine; for nitrogen fixed as carbamide the latter is decomposed with sodium nitrite; for nitrogen fixed as nitrate the latter is reduced with titanium(III). In each case the temperature change of the test solution is measured. Practically all essential components of fertilizers may be determined by direct-reading thermometry; with this method and special apparatus the time of analysis is reduced to at most about 15 min for any determination. PMID:18961097

Sajó, I; Sipos, B

1972-05-01

70

Assessing potential nanoparticle release during nanocomposite shredding using direct-reading instruments.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine if engineered nanoparticles are released into the air when nanocomposite parts are shredded for recycling. Test plaques made from polypropylene resin reinforced with either montmorillonite nanoclay or talc and from the same resin with no reinforcing material were shredded by a granulator inside a test apparatus. As the plaques were shredded, an ultrafine condensation particle counter; a diffusion charger; a photometer; an electrical mobility analyzer; and an optical particle counter measured number, lung-deposited surface area, and mass concentrations and size distributions by number in real-time. Overall, the particle levels produced were both stable and lower than found in some occupational environments. Although the lowest particle concentrations were observed when the talc-filled plaques were shredded, fewer nanoparticles were generated from the nanocomposite plaques than when the plain resin plaques were shredded. For example, the average particle number concentrations measured using the ultrafine condensation particle counter were 1300 particles/cm(3) for the talc-reinforced resin, 4280 particles/cm(3) for the nanoclay-reinforced resin, and 12,600 particles/cm(3) for the plain resin. Similarly, the average alveolar-deposited particle surface area concentrations measured using the diffusion charger were 4.0 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the talc-reinforced resin, 8.5 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the nanoclay-reinforced resin, and 26 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the plain resin. For all three materials, count median diameters were near 10 nm during tests, which is smaller than should be found from the reinforcing materials. These findings suggest that recycling of nanoclay-reinforced plastics does not have a strong potential to generate more airborne nanoparticles than recycling of conventional plastics. PMID:22168254

Raynor, Peter C; Cebula, Jessica Ingraham; Spangenberger, Jeffrey S; Olson, Bernard A; Dasch, Jean M; D'Arcy, James B

2012-01-01

71

Assessing Potential Nanoparticle Release During Nanocomposite Shredding Using Direct-Reading Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine if engineered nanoparticles are released into the air when nanocomposite parts are shredded for recycling. Test plaques made from polypropylene resin reinforced with either montmorillonite nanoclay or talc and from the same resin with no reinforcing material were shredded by a granulator inside a test apparatus. As the plaques were shredded, an ultrafine condensation

Peter C. Raynor; Jessica Ingraham Cebula; Jeffrey S. Spangenberger; Bernard A. Olson; Jean M. Dasch; James B. D’Arcy

2012-01-01

72

A Theoretical and Laboratory Evaluation of a Portable Direct-Reading Particulate Mass Concentration Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the design, construction, performance, and theory of operation of the RDM 101, a prototype instantaneous dust mass concentration monitor. Laboratory performance was judged from the results of coal dust measurements and comparisons in the NIOSH ...

B. Almich M. Solomon G. A. Carson

1975-01-01

73

Rethinking Strategy Instruction: Direct Reading Strategy Instruction versus Computer-Based Guided Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many established reading strategy training programmes, which explicitly teach strategic and meta-cognitive knowledge to improve reading comprehension. Although instruction in strategy knowledge leads to improvements in meta-cognitive skills, the effects do not always transfer to reading comprehension. Therefore, to investigate…

Lenhard, Wolfgang; Baier, Herbert; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Joachim

2013-01-01

74

Test of a Prototype Instrument for the Direct Measurement of the Neutral Interstellar Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed and tested a prototype instrument for the direct measurement of neutral interstellar gas (ISG). The particle detection of this instrument bases on the conversion of energetic neutral atoms to negative ions using surface ionization. Special emphasis was put on the actual conversion surfaces and the relevant energy range for the ISG as seen from a spacecraft (10eV to 1keV). The created negative ions are subsequently coarsely energy analyzed via electrostatic deflection and mass analyzed using the time of flight technique. We present data recorded with this instrument from two calibration facilities providing neutral particle beams. From these data we calculate the detection efficiencies and deduce the expected performance for the direct measurement of the interstellar gas flow on future missions, such as Interstellar Pathfinder, Outer heliospheric Imager, or Interstellar Probe.

Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.; Bochsler, P.; Mobius, E.; Quinn, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; DeFazio, J.; Stephen, T. M.

2002-05-01

75

Three-axis attitude and direction reference instrument has only one moving part  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar vehicle instrument combines the functions of attitude reference, direction reference, and display in a unit having only one moving part. The device, using bubble levels and a calibrated dial, is used as a sextant prior to takeoff, and as a backup navigation system during flight.

Bossler, F. B.

1966-01-01

76

Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides

D. W. Geiling; P. M. Goldberg

1990-01-01

77

Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors review meeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1989 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held October 3--5, 1989, at the Lakeview Resort and Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the

D. W. Geiling; P. M. Goldberg

1989-01-01

78

Direct solution of the backscatter equation for ABS instruments through a Riccati reformulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of suspended sediment concentration profiles in aquatic environments may be made by remote sensing acoustic backscatter (ABS) instruments. These typically operate at MHz frequencies and narrow beamwidths (1-2°). The backscatter equation for these instruments is not in a closed form. It may be solved by iteration. A direct general solution has previously been presented by recasting into the form of a Bernoulli equation [Thosteson, E.D., Hanes, D.M., 1998. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 104 (2), 820-830 (Pt. 1)]. It is shown that the direct solution is also enabled by recasting as a Riccati equation. The direct solution obtained by the Riccati formulation has the same form as given previously, but its derivation clarifies inconsistencies in previous work which have disguised its potential usefulness.

Hamilton, L. J.; Hall, M. V.

2012-09-01

79

Experiences with a new direct-reading oxygen saturation photometer using ultrasound for hemolyzing the blood.  

PubMed

The new oxygen saturation meter (OSM2, Radiometer A/S, Copenhagen) is fully automatic and measures the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood or packed red cells. Volume requirement 20 mul, time 40 s. The blood is hemolyzed directly in the capillary cuvette by means of ultrasound generated piezo-electrically. The instrument measures the absorbance at wave lengths of 505 nm and 600 nm. Absorbance range 0-3. The results are calculated electronically and appear in digital display. Other applications are (1) determination of the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin (P50) after equilibrating the blood with a known pO2 or after measuring the pO2 in the blood sample, (2) determination of carboxyhemoglobin after complete reduction of the hemoglobin by means of dithionite, (3) determination of methemoglobin after complete oxygenation of the blood. PMID:834960

Siggaard-Andersen, O

1977-01-01

80

Direct and Indirect Roles of Morphological Awareness in the English Reading Comprehension of Native English, Spanish, Filipino, and Vietnamese Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested three hypotheses about the direct and indirect contributions of derivational morphological awareness to English reading comprehension in sixth-grade students from differing language backgrounds (n= 952). Students included Spanish-speaking, Filipino-speaking, and Vietnamese-speaking language minority learners as well as native…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

81

The Effect of Direct Instruction in Sight Word Vocabulary on Reading Achievement of At-Risk Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-seven third-grade children in a northern Louisiana public school participated in a study which examined whether a minimum amount of direct instruction in sight word recognition, combined with drill of sight words, could result in significantly better performance for the targeted at-risk children on the story and unit reading tests. The…

Mayfield, Laureen Goers; Holmes, Julie A.

82

Reading comprehension of informative texts in secondary school: A focus on direct and indirect effects of reader's prior knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text comprehension plays a fundamental role in the processes of acquisition, sharing, and construction of knowledge. Most definitions share the focus on the interaction between text and reader's prior knowledge. In this paper both direct and indirect effects of prior knowledge on reading comprehension have been analyzed, along with other components. Participants were 149 7-graders. Data showed that comprehension of

Christian Tarchi

2010-01-01

83

Increasing Beginning Readers' Reading Success without Increasing Direct Instruction Time by Using Books on Tape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books on audiotape or videotape can be used in schools to provide independent reading experiences to beginning readers with limited preschool exposure to print. In addition, enabling children to hear stories while they look at the book may provide another support for literacy development in children at risk for reading difficulty. The efficacy of…

Reissner, Laura A.

84

Instrument for layer-by-layer deposition of catalyst layers directly on proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalyst layer (CL) layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition instrument, consisting of an electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) device and a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fixing device, has been developed. It has been used to deposit anode CL on Nafion membrane under different working distances of 4, 5, and 6 mm. The incorporation of EHDA LbL deposition allowed the generation of the CLs with different structures, where the higher working distance produced more porous CL structure. A catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) was also produced using this EHDA LbL deposition and PEM fixing device. It was observed that the catalyst has been uniformly coated on the Nafion membrane and the CCM presents an uniform surface feature. The performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) assembled with the deposited CCM at different working temperatures was analysed. The cell performance increased when the temperature rose. This instrument has the potential of being developed into a powerful device for controlling the deposition of CL of desired structures directly on PEM for DMFCs.

Wang, D.; Wang, L.; Liang, J.; Liu, C.

2012-09-01

85

Instrument for layer-by-layer deposition of catalyst layers directly on proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell.  

PubMed

A catalyst layer (CL) layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition instrument, consisting of an electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) device and a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fixing device, has been developed. It has been used to deposit anode CL on Nafion membrane under different working distances of 4, 5, and 6 mm. The incorporation of EHDA LbL deposition allowed the generation of the CLs with different structures, where the higher working distance produced more porous CL structure. A catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) was also produced using this EHDA LbL deposition and PEM fixing device. It was observed that the catalyst has been uniformly coated on the Nafion membrane and the CCM presents an uniform surface feature. The performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) assembled with the deposited CCM at different working temperatures was analysed. The cell performance increased when the temperature rose. This instrument has the potential of being developed into a powerful device for controlling the deposition of CL of desired structures directly on PEM for DMFCs. PMID:23020410

Wang, D; Wang, L; Liang, J; Liu, C

2012-09-01

86

Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

2012-05-01

87

A comparative analysis of malodor samples between direct (olfactometry) and indirect (instrumental) methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between direct (olfactometry) and indirect (instrumental) methods for odor detection was assessed using a total of 70 odor samples collected from several industrial sectors. To this end, a number of instrumental techniques have been employed to measure the concentrations of major odorant groups, including reduced sulfur compounds (RSC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, and nitrogenous compounds. The odorant data obtained by the indirect methods were then converted into the following three modified odor indices: (1) the (algebraic) sum of odor concentration (SOC), (2) the sum of odor quotient (SOQ) by considering the relation between odorant concentration and threshold value, and (3) the sum of odor intensity (SOI) based on suprathreshold olfactometry. These derivatized indices were then compared against the results of the direct method, i.e., dilution to the threshold ( D/T) ratio via olfactometry such as air dilution sensory (ADS) test. When the relationship was investigated between D/T ratios and those three derivatized indices, the results of 70 samples were strongly correlated with the Pearson coefficients ( r) of 0.671 for SOC ( P=1.92E-10), 0.866 for SOQ ( P=2.74E-22), and 0.852 for SOI ( P=6.53E-21). It thus confirms that the odorant concentration data measured by instrumental method can be used effectively to account for the odor intensity estimated by the sensory method for samples collected under strong source activities.

Kim, Ki-Hyun; Park, Shin-Young

88

A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental Versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss implications for environmental education and ecology education including a contradistinction between the instrumental and the emancipatory approach and the study of socio-scientific issues. An outline of protected areas as a socio-scientific issue, which is informed by the emancipatory approach, will be presented in the final part of the paper.

Hovardas, Tasos

2013-06-01

89

Lab-on-a-bubble: direct and indirect assays with portable Raman instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-Bubble (LoB) is a new method for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) assays that combines separationand concentration of the assay results. A direct LoB assay is comprised of gold nanoparticles coupled directly to the ~30 ?m diameter buoyant silica bubble. The direct LoB method was evaluated with cyanide and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). An indirect assay uses the same ~ 30 ?m diameter buoyant silica bubble and a silica coated SERS reporter. Both the bubble and SERS reporter are coated with a coupling agent for the analyte. The assay measures the amount of SERS reporter coupled to the bubble through a sandwich created by the analyte. The couling agent could consist of an immunological coupling agent (antibody) or a nucleic acid coupling agent (single strand DNA). The indirect LoB method was examined with Cholera toxin (CT) and antibodies against the ? subunit. An LOD of ~ 170 pptrillion was measured for cyanide and a limit of detection of 1100 ng was found for CT. Instrumentation for the assay and a novel technique of dynamic SERS (DSERS) will also be discussed. The instrument is a small hand-held Raman device called the CBEx (Chemical Biological Explosive) with a novel raster system to detect heterogeneous or light sensitive materials. DSERS is a mathematical algorithm which eliminates background interference in SERS measurements with colloidal nanoparticles.

Carron, Keith; Schmit, Virginia; Scott, Brandon; Martoglio, Richard

2012-10-01

90

Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.  

PubMed

Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the photometer-type dust monitors on the other hand showed little correlation. The Respicon also accurately measured the inhalable concentration, whereas the modified PDM underestimated it by ~27%. Photometer responses varied considerably with changing particle size, which resulted in appreciable errors in airborne inhalable dust concentration measurements. Similar trends were also observed during field trials. Despite having limitations, both the modified PDM and Respicon showed promise as real-time inhalable dust monitors. PMID:23704135

Thorpe, Andrew; Walsh, Peter T

2013-08-01

91

Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literacy Works. Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook presents reading guides for 39 literary works frequently used by scondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

Ley, Terry C., Ed.

92

Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literacy Works. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook presents reading guides for 27 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

Ley, Terry C., Ed.

93

Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literary Works. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook presents reading guides for 22 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

Ley, Terry C., Ed.

94

Using Literature-Based Prompts To Teach Writing Competencies: Directed Reading and Writing Lessons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help teachers integrate writing instruction with the study of literature, this teaching guide offers a philosophy of writing instruction, describes a procedure for teaching reading and writing lessons, and provides a sequence of writing skills. For various literature selections, the guide defines vocabulary, provides topic discussion…

Gelsinger, Barry D.

95

Teaching/Directing Children How To Read a Script and Deliver Dialogue with Meaning and Expression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children can become script masters if they have a teacher/director who follows certain procedures, such as: (1) select a script that has relevancy to the cast; (2) audition the children via an interview process prior to reading the script for the first time; (3) cast the children based on appearance, sound of the voice, and personality more than…

Molinari, Camille A.

96

An instrument for direct observations of seismic and normal-mode rotational oscillations of the Earth.  

PubMed

The rotations around the vertical axis associated with the normal mode oscillations of the Earth and those induced by the seismic and other disturbances have been very difficult to observe directly. Such observations will provide additional information for 3D modeling of the Earth and for understanding earthquakes and other underground explosions. In this paper, we describe the design of an instrument capable of measuring the rotational motions associated with the seismic oscillations of the Earth, including the lowest frequency normal mode at nu approximately 3.7 x 10(-4) Hz. The instrument consists of a torsion balance with a natural frequency of nu(0) approximately 1.6 x 10(-4) Hz, which is observed by an autocollimating optical lever of high angular resolution and dynamic range. Thermal noise limits the sensitivity of the apparatus to amplitudes of approximately 1.5 x 10(-9) rad at the lowest frequency normal mode and the sensitivity improves as nu(-3/2) with increasing frequency. Further improvements in sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude may be achieved by operating the balance at cryogenic temperatures. Alternatively, the instrument can be made more robust with a reduced sensitivity by increasing nu(0) to approximately 10(-2) Hz. This instrument thus complements the ongoing effort by Igel and others to study rotational motions using ring laser gyroscopes and constitutes a positive response to the clarion call for developments in rotation seismology by Igel, Lee, and Todorovska [H. Igel, W.H.K. Lee and M.I. Todorovska, AGU Fall Meeting 2006, Rotational Seismology Sessions: S22A,S23B, Inauguration of the International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS)]. PMID:17438268

Cowsik, R

2007-04-24

97

An instrument for direct observations of seismic and normal-mode rotational oscillations of the Earth  

PubMed Central

The rotations around the vertical axis associated with the normal mode oscillations of the Earth and those induced by the seismic and other disturbances have been very difficult to observe directly. Such observations will provide additional information for 3D modeling of the Earth and for understanding earthquakes and other underground explosions. In this paper, we describe the design of an instrument capable of measuring the rotational motions associated with the seismic oscillations of the Earth, including the lowest frequency normal mode at ? ? 3.7 × 10?4 Hz. The instrument consists of a torsion balance with a natural frequency of ?0 ? 1.6 × 10?4 Hz, which is observed by an autocollimating optical lever of high angular resolution and dynamic range. Thermal noise limits the sensitivity of the apparatus to amplitudes of ? 1.5 × 10?9 rad at the lowest frequency normal mode and the sensitivity improves as ??3/2 with increasing frequency. Further improvements in sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude may be achieved by operating the balance at cryogenic temperatures. Alternatively, the instrument can be made more robust with a reduced sensitivity by increasing ?0 to ?10?2 Hz. This instrument thus complements the ongoing effort by Igel and others to study rotational motions using ring laser gyroscopes and constitutes a positive response to the clarion call for developments in rotation seismology by Igel, Lee, and Todorovska [H. Igel, W.H.K. Lee and M.I. Todorovska, AGU Fall Meeting 2006, Rotational Seismology Sessions: S22A,S23B, Inauguration of the International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS)].

Cowsik, R.

2007-01-01

98

On Assessing Language and Reading Comprehension: The Development of a Diagnostic Instrument. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work reported here is part of an ongoing project to develop a language comprehension assessment instrument that: (1) is sensitive enough to pinpoint the particular language phenomena that are causing difficulty or have not been mastered, and (2) is also broad enough in scope to provide a credible and useful description of language proficiency.…

Rosenbaum, Harvey; And Others

99

Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

1990-01-01

100

A Self-Consistent and Direct Reading Laser Homodyne Measurement Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The memorandum describes a new experimental procedure for measuring sinusoidal vibration displacement amplitudes by means of a laser homodyne system. Advantages that include a self-checking feature to validate the measurement and a direct readout capabili...

B. J. Pernick

1972-01-01

101

Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

1938-01-01

102

Rapid DNA Sequencing by Direct Nanoscale Reading of Nucleotide Bases on Individual DNA Chains  

SciTech Connect

Since the independent invention of DNA sequencing by Sanger and by Gilbert 30 years ago, it has grown from a small scale technique capable of reading several kilobase-pair of sequence per day into today's multibillion dollar industry. This growth has spurred the development of new sequencing technologies that do not involve either electrophoresis or Sanger sequencing chemistries. Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) involves multiple parallel micro-sequencing addition events occurring on a surface, where data from each round is detected by imaging. New High Throughput Technologies for DNA Sequencing and Genomics is the second volume in the Perspectives in Bioanalysis series, which looks at the electroanalytical chemistry of nucleic acids and proteins, development of electrochemical sensors and their application in biomedicine and in the new fields of genomics and proteomics. The authors have expertly formatted the information for a wide variety of readers, including new developments that will inspire students and young scientists to create new tools for science and medicine in the 21st century. Reviews of complementary developments in Sanger and SBS sequencing chemistries, capillary electrophoresis and microdevice integration, MS sequencing and applications set the framework for the book.

Lee, James Weifu [ORNL; Meller, Amit [Harvard University

2007-01-01

103

Contextual Modulation of Reading Rate for Direct versus Indirect Speech Quotations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In human communication, direct speech (e.g., "Mary said: "I'm hungry"") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., "Mary said [that] she was hungry"). However, the processing consequences of this distinction are largely unclear. In two experiments, participants were asked to either orally (Experiment 1) or silently (Experiment 2,…

Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

2011-01-01

104

Development and preliminary testing of a self-rating instrument to measure self-directed learning ability of nursing students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWith the growing trend of preparing students for lifelong learning, the theory of self-directed learning (SDL) has been increasingly applied in the context of higher education. In order to foster lifelong learning, abilities among nursing students, faculties need to have an appropriate instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students.

Su-Fen Cheng; Chien-Lin Kuo; Kuan-Chia Lin; Jane Lee-Hsieh

2010-01-01

105

ADULT READING HABITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four aspects of adult reading habits are reviewed and identified: 1. the nature and extent of adult reading habits as a field of inquiry from 1900?1975;2. key findings on adult reading habits are related to amount and motivation in purposes for reading;3. correlation between adult reading habits, education, employment, and socioeconomic status;4. problem and direction theory and research should take

Martin Kling

1982-01-01

106

Direct Instruction and the Teaching of Early Reading: Wisconsin's Teacher-Led Insurgency. Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, Volume 14, Number 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses the teaching of early reading in Wisconsin, focusing on the Direct Instruction approach and the methods or lack thereof for informing teachers of the approach and of the possibilities and applications for their classrooms. A sample of new Wisconsin teachers were surveyed and six Wisconsin schools were visited to observe…

Schug, Mark C.; Tarver, Sara G.; Western, Richard D.

107

Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Their Effects on Reading Decoding Skills: g Has Indirect Effects, More Specific Abilities Have Direct Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed structural equation modeling to examine the effects of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities on reading decoding skills using five age-differentiated subsamples from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Using the Spearman Model including only g, strong direct effects of g on…

Floyd, Randy G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

2007-01-01

108

Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

2012-01-01

109

Electron beam recording in SiO2with direct read-out using the electron beam induced current at a p-n junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is briefly described for direct read-out of information written in SiO2films by a finely focused scanning electron beam. The technique utilizes the electron beam induced current collected at a p-n junction. Preliminary results are presented and discussed.

C. J. Varker; E. M. Juleff

1967-01-01

110

Goal-Directed Reading of Complex, Embedded Hypertexts: Effects of Goal and Interest on Search Strategies and Selective Attention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined what happened when a group of adult students read a hypertext for the goal of answering specific questions. Subjects, 30 students enrolled in an upper-division psychology course at a state university in the northwestern United States, read a binary tree-structured hypertext to answer three two-part questions on the topic of…

Gillingham, Mark G.

111

Direct Reading Capacitance Meter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to an apparatus for measuring capacitance, especially large capacitance. The resulting measurement is displayed on a meter calibrated in capacitance. One method of determining the capacitance of a large, unknown capacitor is to char...

C. O. Shaw

1980-01-01

112

Contribution of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability to L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced EFL learners: testing direct and indirect effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness\\u000a and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in\\u000a a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling) methods, the study found that morphological awareness contributed to L2\\u000a vocabulary knowledge directly

Dongbo Zhang; Keiko Koda

113

An instrument for direct measurements of sputtering related momentum transfer to targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents an instrument that measures sputtering related momentum transfer to a target. The instrument is operated in the beam of a broad-beam ion source and its main part is similar to a rotor of a wind mill. One component of the transferred momentum perpendicular to the beam is converted into a rotational movement of its rotor. This geometry makes the device sensitive to the momentum of sputtered target atoms and reflected beam particles, but insensitive for the momentum of the impinging particles itself. Exemplary measurements with argon ions in the energy range from 0.5 keV to 1.5 keV impinging onto copper targets at an incidence angle of 56° are presented. The results are compared with simulations based on the popular Monte-Carlo program TRIM and show a good agreement.

Rutscher, J.; Trottenberg, Th.; Kersten, H.

2013-04-01

114

Multicolor instrumentation for direct fluorescent detection of nucleic acids in a microchip format  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of nucleic acids on solid support in the form of high density arrays (a DNA microarray) creates a powerful nonelectrophoretic technology for highly parallel genetic analysis. Microarrays have applications in the areas of DNA sequencing, genetic mutation detection and gene expression monitoring. We report here the design and utility of an experimental instrument for microchip parallel hyperspectral fluorescent imaging. The instrument integrates in-line laser excitation of microarray, parallel fluorescent spectrometry with cooled CCD and dye-base spectral classification software. Instrument has been applied for imaging detection, spectral analysis and base classification of Genetic Bit Analysis (GBA) reactions in a microchip format on a glass support. GBA is a solid phase DNA sequence analysis method that provides single nucleotide resolution by specific extension of dye-labeled dideoxynucleotidetriphosphates (ddNTPs). GBA testing yields one or two different ddNTPs on any given microarray spot, so analysis must resolve any pair wise combination of all possible ddNTPs labeled with distinct fluorescent dyes.

Bogdanov, Valery L.; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Lan, Guang; Boyce-Jacino, Michael

1998-04-01

115

Orientation to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is concerned with tracing the history and logic of the psycholinguistic orientation toward reading, and is directed at reading teachers and teachers of language skills and communication processes in general. Its underlying theme is that reading is essentially a communicative process that can be fairly autonomously acquired when text…

Carton, Aaron S.

116

What Do Diagnostic Reading Tests Really Diagnose?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of nine reading tests, including both group and individually-administered measures, which are claimed to be chiefly diagnostic. Instruments analyzed were the following: Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests (Bond, Balow, and Hoyt), Botel Reading Inventory, Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, Gates-McKillop Reading Diagnostic Tests,…

Winkley, Carol K.

117

National Reading Panel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 13, 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released the results of "the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading." Established in response to a 1997 congressional directive, the NRP is composed of "leading scientists in reading research, representatives of colleges of education, reading teachers, educational administrators, and parents." The NRP Homepage offers background information, additional documents, and related links.

118

Developing a two-tiered instrument with confidence levels for assessing students' conceptions of Direct Current circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a two-tier revised instrument (DIRECT-TTC) for measuring students understanding of Direct Current (DC) circuits and identifying their alternative conceptions. Another main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between students' understanding of DC circuits and their confidence in their answers. The revised instrument consists of 15 two-tier items with a confidence scale. Both the Rasch analysis and students' interviews were used in validating the instrument and obtaining evidences for the validity of inferences. Through a two-stage quantitative and qualitative validation process using both conventional statistics and Rasch modeling, the results indicate that the instrument is both valid and reliable. The results show a statistically significant association between students' answers to the first- tier questions and explanations, r = .65 (p< .01, N = 214). The second-tier questions provided substantial information about students' conceptions of DC circuits beyond that provided by the first-tier questions. This research shows that the more able students with regard to the construct of understanding DC circuits are more likely to be confident in their answers, r = +.39 (p< .01). Several Rasch calibrations and correlation analyses indicate that the more difficult items are associated with less confidence in the correct answers. On the other hand, the results show no statistically significant relationship between item difficulty and students' confidence specifically in their incorrect answers. The difficult items with high confidence on incorrect answers exhibit the stronger alternative conceptions of DC circuits. The alternative conceptions of voltage and resistance are among the very strong alternative conceptions of DC circuits. Implications for researchers and teachers as well as recommendations for future research are presented.

Sabah, Saed Ahmad

119

The validity and reliability of the self-directed learning instrument (SDLI) in mainland Chinese nursing students  

PubMed Central

Background Self-directed learning is crucial to the professional development of nursing students, and which enables them to expand the knowledge and enhance the quality of their practice. A validated self-directed learning instrument is important not only in assessing the individual’s self-directed learning level, but also in evaluating the effectiveness of teaching or learning methods. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the SDLI in mainland Chinese nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional design with convenience sampling was used to recruit participants from three nursing schools. The mainland Chinese version of SDLI was tested with respect to validity and reliability in 1,499 nursing students, and another 30 nursing students were invited to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the scale in 7?days interval. Results Explorary factor analysis identified a four-factor structure, accounting for 56.101% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a good overall fit of this four-factor model. Convergent validity was supported by the highly positive Pearson’s correlation between SDLI score and SRSSDL score (r?=?.876, p?=?.000). Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency of overall scale was .916, and 4 dimensions were between .755-.825.The test-retest reliability of overall scale was .850, and 4 dimensions were between .708-.821. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of overall scale was .916, and 4 dimensions were .822-.889. Conclusions This study indicates that the SDLI is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing self-directed learning in mainland Chinese nursing students. Nurse educators could use such knowledge to develop their roles and plan to support nursing students in becoming self-directed learners and lifelong learner.

2014-01-01

120

Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To clarify the role of decoding in reading and reading disability, a model of reading is proposed, which holds that reading equals the product of decoding and comprehension. Three types of reading disability are posited, resulting from an inability to decode (dyslexia), an inability to comprehend (hyperlexia), or both (reading disability).…

Gough, Philip B.; Tunmer, William E.

1986-01-01

121

The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and less than 2 meters per second velocity accuracy. The instrument design, technologies and predicted performance will be presented.

Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

2006-01-01

122

Top down viewing of the inductively coupled plasma using a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and an all mirror optical system  

SciTech Connect

Using an all-mirror optical system, an inductively coupled plasma is viewed top down and the light is directed to a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph. Top down viewing of the plasma, with masking of the image of the argon plasma torus at the spectrograph entrance slit, significantly reduces background signal from the source and permits the use of the depth of field of the optical system to achieve compromise conditions for viewing the plasma. Light from the plasma source is introduced to the optical system by means of a mirror situated directly over the plasma. The system is exhausted in such a way that cool air flowing past the mirror forms a thermal barrier between the mirror and the plasma. Elements such as copper and lead have atomic and ionic lines which tend to exhibit self absorption when viewed top down through the cooler ground state atoms in the plume of the plasma. One of the approaches to this problem is to shear off the plume of the plasma with a jet of air directed across the tip of the plasma. A second approach is to make use of the dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and real-time computer system which easily permits the setting of alternate lines for each element so that self absorption and matrix effects are minimized. The design of the dual-grating, direct-reading spectrograph allows for the mounting of more than 200 13-mm-dia photomultiplier tubes along the focal curves. In an effort to demonstrate the use of fiber optics as a viable technique for the closer placement of exit slits, a red sensitive photomultiplier tube was coupled with a 30-cm fiber-optic ribbon to detect light from the Li 670.784 nm line on the focal curve. It was successful and had the added advantages of absorbing second-order ultraviolet light.

Apel, C.T.; Duchane, D.V.; Palmer, B.A.

1980-01-01

123

There Is More to Mind Reading than Having Theory of Mind Concepts: New Directions in Theory of Mind Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than 30 years, researchers have focused on the important transition that children undergo between the ages of 3 and 5, when they start to solve mind-reading problems that require reasoning about complex mental states, such as beliefs. The main question for debate has been whether, during that transition, children acquire new concepts…

Samson, Dana; Apperly, Ian A.

2010-01-01

124

The Effect of Direct Instruction in Listening on the Listening and Reading Comprehension of First Grade Children. Dissertation Abstract.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the effects of listening instruction on first graders' achievement and, specifically, to assess improvement in listening comprehension and determine the effect of listening instruction on achievement in reading comprehension are the purposes of this study. Six first grade classes were randomly assigned to three groups. A program of…

Thorn, Elizabeth A.

125

An Instrument for the Direct , Simultaneous Measurement of Radionuclides in Various Matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the radionuclide content of samples acquired by customs officials, law enforcement officers, or treaty verification personnel almost always needs to be done in a timely and efficient manner. Traditionally, high sensitivities to radionuclides in a sample were achieved by first carrying-out complicated and lengthy chemical separation procedures. Recent advancements in solid-state radiation detectors and coincidence electronics now make efficient, high-resolution, large-area, multi-detector coincidence counting systems a practical reality for use in industrial and mobile laboratories. Such systems allow for a single, direct measurement of many radionuclides in various matrices: filtered air samples, thin soil samples, small liquid samples, and charcoal samples. This is accomplished by detecting alphas, betas, photons, and internal conversion electrons simultaneously in a multicoincidence detector system comprised of several layers of large-area silicon detectors placed in between two high-efficiency, high-purity germanium detectors. We will report on the achieved sensitivities to date.

Bowyer, Sonya M.

1998-10-01

126

Evaluation of the response of some portable, direct-reading 10. 2 eV and 11. 8 eV photoionization detectors, and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for organic vapors in high humidity atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Three portable, direct-reading instruments were tested to evaluate their ability to detect organic vapors in high humidity atmospheres. The instruments included two photoionization detectors (10.2 eV and 11.8 eV), and an organic vapor analyzer with a flame ionization detector. The organic vapors used were hexanes, 1,1-dichloroethane, chloroform, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene. Relatively impervious gas bags were used to contain atmospheres of low (zero) and high (90%) relative humidities for comparisons. The response of the organic vapor analyzer was practically independent of humidity. The responses of the photoionization detectors were influenced by high humidity even though the 10.2 eV lamp did not detect water vapor itself. The photoinization detectors were adjudged to be unsuitable for quantitative sampling of humid confined spaces since the 11.8 eV lamp was sensitive to water vapor and the 10.2 eV lamp showed unpredictable response factors in high humidity.

Barsky, J.B.; Que Hee, S.S.; Clark, C.S.

1985-01-01

127

Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading program (K-12) of the Bloomington Public Schools, Bloomington, Minnesota, is defined and described. The program revolves around four major divisions: developmental reading, supplementary reading, library reading, and remedial reading. These major divisions are discussed relative to specific purposes, organization, materials, and…

Bloomington Public Schools, MN.

128

A Direct Method for Calculating Instrument Noise Levels in Side-by-Side Seismometer Evaluations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The subject of determining the inherent system noise levels present in modem broadband closed loop seismic sensors has been an evolving topic ever since closed loop systems became available. Closed loop systems are unique in that the system noise can not be determined via a blocked mass test as in older conventional open loop seismic sensors. Instead, most investigators have resorted to performing measurements on two or more systems operating in close proximity to one another and to analyzing the outputs of these systems with respect to one another to ascertain their relative noise levels. The analysis of side-by-side relative performance is inherently dependent on the accuracy of the mathematical modeling of the test configuration. This report presents a direct approach to extracting the system noise levels of two linear systems with a common coherent input signal. The mathematical solution to the problem is incredibly simple; however the practical application of the method encounters some difficulties. Examples of expected accuracies are presented as derived by simulating real systems performance using computer generated random noise. In addition, examples of the performance of the method when applied to real experimental test data are shown.

Holcomb, L. Gary

1989-01-01

129

Prose reading in neglect.  

PubMed

Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers. PMID:24321197

Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

2014-02-01

130

A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss…

Hovardas, Tasos

2013-01-01

131

Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 13, 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released the results of "the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading." Established in response to a 1997 congressional directive, the NRP is composed of "leading scientists in reading research, representatives of colleges of education, reading teachers, educational administrators, and parents." The report, which is available in .pdf format along with the reports of the subgroups, concludes that the best way to teach children to read is through a combination of methods, including phonemic awareness, phonics, guided oral reading, and the application of reading comprehension strategies.

2000-01-01

132

LD-PCR coupled to long-read direct sequencing: an approach for mutation detection in genes with compact genomic structures.  

PubMed

A number of techniques have been developed as primary screens to scan for DNA sequence variants, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis. Variant alleles detected by these assays are subsequently characterised by DNA sequencing. Sequencing itself is rarely used as a primary screen because of labour intensity, cost, and, upon automation, occasional inaccuracy in identifying heterozygous sites. We have previously developed an approach based on coupling long-distance PCR (LD-PCR) to long-read direct sequencing to allow the detection of mutations in the approximately 1.1 kb exon 3 of MECP2. Our use of dye-labelled primers generated high-quality bi-directional sequence runs > 650 bp and allowed easy discrimination of heterozygous bases. We now describe the application of this approach to the detection of mutations in a considerably larger 6.35 kb LD-PCR fragment spanning 10 exons (exons 32-41) of the structurally complex, but genomically compact, TSC2 gene. In a blind analysis, 15/15 previously characterised mutations were successfully identified using seven overlapping bi-directional sequencing reactions. Our approach of long-read sequencing of long-distance PCR products may allow rapid sequencing of multiple exons of compact genes and may be appropriate as a highly sensitive primary screen for mutations. PMID:11179769

Fleming, N; Maynard, J; Tzitzis, L; Sampson, J R; Cheadle, J P

2001-01-30

133

Reading Rituals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2007-01-01

134

Reading Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes school-district efforts to improve their reading programs through commitment to staff development, ranging from keeping their basic approach to reading but investing in additional training to starting from scratch with new training session and new approaches to reading. Describes federal government interest in research-based reading

Harrington-Lueker, Donna

2002-01-01

135

Reading Aloud  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter addresses some of the research supporting the importance of reading aloud, tips to make your read-aloud time more valuable, descriptions of Harvey and Goudvis's six key reading strategies (2000), and tools you can use to enhance students' comprehension during read-aloud time.

Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

2007-01-01

136

Reading Comics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

Tilley, Carol L.

2008-01-01

137

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

138

Advances in Laser-Induced Emission Based Instrumentation for Fast, Direct, High- Sensitivity In-Situ Measurement of Formaldehyde and Alpha-Dicarbonyls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present advances in instrumentation for fast, direct, high-sensitivity in situ measurement of formaldehyde and alpha-dicarbonyls. Glyoxal, the smallest dicarbonyl, is a molecule of emerging importance. It is a tracer of the oxidative chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and has been implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We have developed a laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) instrument for measurement of ambient glyoxal, taking advantage of the unusually high intersystem crossing yield of alpha-dicarbonyls. This is the first instrument for atmospheric field measurements based on LIP. Measurement of the slow (30 microsecond) phosphorescence offers the advantage of temporal separation from laser scatter and fluorescence, obviating the need for filters to eliminate particulate matter. The instrument has been characterized in two field campaigns and the precision during the PROPHET 2008 field campaign was 2 pptv/min. We present an extension of instrumental capabilities to measuring glyoxal fluxes via eddy-correlation, and of the LIP method to measuring methylglyoxal. The Madison LIP instrument can thus provide alpha-dicarbonyl datasets essential to insight into the oxidative chemistry of VOCs and SOA formation. We have also developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) based instrument for fast, high-sensitivity measurements of formaldehyde with a precision as high as 20 pptv/min. We present characterization of the instrument during the PROPHET 2008 field campaign. Since then, we have replaced the Ti:Sapphire laser with a novel pulsed fiber laser, which has considerable advantages in many important aspects, such as size and power requirements, and it offers an opportunity to significantly advance laser based instrumentation in the UV- Vis range. Fiber-coupling also eliminates problems with optics contamination. Finally, the laser can be tuned rapidly, as required for formaldehyde flux measurements via eddy correlation. The entire instrument (excluding the pump) requires roughly 3'x3'x2' and is ideally suited for ground-based and aircraft measurements.

Keutsch, F.; Paul, J.; Huisman, A.; Hottle, J.; Digangi, J.; Galloway, M.; Coens, K.; Kammrath, A.

2009-05-01

139

Preliminary investigation of pilot scanning techniques of dial pointing instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two pilots' methods of looking at instruments with needle pointers in a fixed base helicopter simulation were observed. A total of 45 runs were analyzed for each pilot. The data indicated that two apparently different techniques were being used; one looking at the needle point, the other looking at a fixed spot on the instrument and reading the needle direction parafoveally. The latter technique is found to be somewhat faster with both pilots accomplishing the flying task.

Harris, R. L., Sr.

1979-01-01

140

Reading Aloud  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful because most students have higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension (Trelease 2006)--low-reading level students, English language learners, and auditory learners in particular, tend to understand what they hear better than what they read. This article provides suggestions for including the practice of reading aloud in the high school science classroom.

Delo, Lynda

2008-07-01

141

Assessing Adolescents' Motivation to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A team of researchers revised the Motivation to Read Profile for use with adolescents. Instruments to assess adolescents' in- and out-of-school reading motivations were administered. A survey adapted for adolescents was administered to 384 teens at eight sites throughout the United States and Trinidad, and 100 students were interviewed using a…

Pitcher, Sharon M.; Albright, Lettie K.; DeLaney, Carol J.; Walker, Nancy T.; Seunarinesingh, Krishna; Mogge, Stephen; Headley, Kathy N.; Ridgeway, Victoria Gentry; Peck, Sharon; Hunt, Rebecca; Dunston, Pamela J.

2007-01-01

142

Sustained Silent Reading: Making Adaptations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Packaged programs for direct instructional reading are becoming the norm, even as research supports SSR as a successful way to enhance student reading achievement "and student attitudes" toward reading. DeBenedictis shows us how she has achieved goals set by NCLB while using SSR in her classroom, adaptations of SSR and the research that supports…

DeBenedictis, Deb

2007-01-01

143

Music: Instrumental Techniques, Conducting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course in introduction to the conducting of music groups of voices or instruments is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skills in score reading, physical gestures, rehearsal techniques, transpositions, voice and instrument ranges. Course objectives include: (1) The pupil will identify all…

Grozan, Carl

144

Reading & Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several large-scale studies confirm that students nationwide are eschewing reading for other pursuits. Less than one third of 13-year-olds read daily; the percentage of 17-year-olds who read nothing for pleasure has ballooned. In a span of 20 years, American students have transformed from being among the most to the least avid readers of…

Baines, Lawrence

2009-01-01

145

Directed Research Program in Reading, Early Childhood, Vocational Education, School Organization and Administration, FY 72 - FY 76.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1970 the National Center for Educational Research and Development (CER) reviewed United States Office of Education (USOE) Bureau of Research policies over the previous 15 years, and as a result of this review, initiated the Directed Research Program. This program will concentrate funds in four areas of high educational significance and will be…

National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

146

Proceedings of the ARandTD (Advanced Research and Technology Development) direct utilization, and instrumentation and diagnostics contractors review meeting: Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Research and Technology Development (ARandTD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held on October 14-16, 1987, at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers, and this year was hosted

Holcombe

1987-01-01

147

Proceedings of the ARandTD (Advanced Research and Technology Development) direct utilization, and instrumentation and diagnostics contractors review meeting: Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Research and Technology Development (ARandTD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held on October 14-16, 1987, at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers, and this year was hosted

Holcombe

1987-01-01

148

Interrupted Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interrupted reading is a close reading technique that consists of dividing a passage of text into short chunks and pausing the reading after each section in order for the student to consider possible responses. This type of reading helps students connect with the text by requiring that they summarize, look for devices, make predictions, etc., as they are reading. This technique helps students to build confidence as they are forced to slow down and notice detail, and it is a tool to help build analysis and commentary skills. Passages from Annie Dillard, The Things They Carried and Cold Mountain are utilized in this lesson.

Edwins, Cathy

2012-09-01

149

Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Several exoplanet direct-imaging instruments (VLT-SPHERE, Gemini Planet Imager, etc.) will soon be in operation, providing original data for comparative exoplanetary science to the community. To this end, exoplanet imagers use an extreme adaptive optics (XAO) system to correct the atmospheric turbulence and provide a highly corrected beam to a near-infrared (NIR) coronagraph for suppressing diffracted stellar light. The performance of the coronagraph is, however, limited by the non-common path aberrations (NCPA) due to the differential wavefront errors existing between the visible XAO sensing path and the NIR science path and leading to residual speckles that hide the faintest exoplanets in the coronagraphic image. Aims: Accurate calibration of the NCPA in exoplanet imagers is mandatory to correct the residual, quasi-static speckles remaining in the coronagraphic images after XAO correction in order to allow the observation of exoplanets that are at least 106 fainter than their host star. Several approaches have been developed during these past few years to reach this goal. We propose an approach based on the Zernike phase-contrast method operating in the same wavelength as the coronagraph for the measurements of the NCPA between the optical path seen by the visible XAO wavefront sensor and that seen by the NIR coronagraph. Methods: This approach uses a focal plane phase mask of size ~?/D, where ? and D denote the wavelength and the telescope aperture diameter, respectively, to measure the quasi-static aberrations in the upstream pupil plane by encoding them into intensity variations in the downstream pupil image. The principle of this approach as described in several classical optical textbooks is simplified by the omission of the spatial variability of the amplitude diffracted by the phase mask. We develop a more rigorous formalism, leading to highly accurate measurement of the NCPA, in a quasi-linear way during the observation. Results: With prospects of achieving subnanometric measurement accuracy with this approach for a static phase map of standard deviation 44 nm rms at ? = 1.625 ?m (0.026 ?), we estimate a possible reduction of the NCPA due to chromatic differential optics by a factor ranging from 3 to 10 in the presence of adaptive optics (AO) residuals compared with the expected performance of a typical current-generation system. This would allow a reduction of the level of quasi-static speckles in the detected images by a factor 10 to 100, thus correspondingly improving the capacity to observe exoplanets.

N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.; Fusco, T.; Paul, B.

2013-07-01

150

Exploring Motivational Constructs in Foreign Language Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces an instrument that has been developed to explore motivation and attitudes of students towards reading in a foreign language (FL). To develop the instrument, initially 123 students were asked a set of qualitative questions to determine their affective reactions to reading in a FL. A content analysis of emergent data yielded…

Erten, Ismail Hakki; Zehir Topkaya, Ece; Karakas, Muge

2010-01-01

151

Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow.  

PubMed

Our understanding of submarine volcanic eruptions has improved substantially in the past decade owing to the recent ability to remotely detect such events and to then respond rapidly with synoptic surveys and sampling at the eruption site. But these data are necessarily limited to observations after the event. In contrast, the 1998 eruption of Axial volcano on the Juan de Fuca ridge was monitored by in situ sea-floor instruments. One of these instruments, which measured bottom pressure as a proxy for vertical deformation of the sea floor, was overrun and entrapped by the 1998 lava flow. The instrument survived-being insulated from the molten lava by the solidified crust-and was later recovered. The data serendipitously recorded by this instrument reveal the duration, character and effusion rate of a sheet flow eruption on a mid-ocean ridge, and document over three metres of lava-flow inflation and subsequent drain-back. After the brief two-hour eruption, the instrument also measured gradual subsidence of 1.4 metres over the next several days, reflecting deflation of the entire volcano summit as magma moved into the adjacent rift zone. These findings are consistent with our understanding of submarine lava effusion, as previously inferred from seafloor observations, terrestrial analogues, and laboratory simulations. PMID:11507638

Fox, C G; Chadwick, W W; Embley, R W

2001-08-16

152

Validation Study of the Hicks Cloze-Reading Test for Grades Two-Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was concerned with the validation of the "Hicks Cloze-Reading Test," an evaluative instrument to be used by the classroom teacher in assessing the reading ability levels of children. Three instruments, the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test," the "Standard Reading Inventory," and the "Hicks Cloze-Reading Test," forms one and two, were…

Hicks, Donna Wheeler

153

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

154

Reading Mastery. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Reading Mastery" is designed to provide explicit reading instruction to students in grades pre-K-5. One of several Direct Instruction curricula from McGraw-Hill, "Reading Mastery" is available in two versions: (1) "Reading Mastery Classic" (for grades pre-K-2) aims to help beginning readers identify letter sounds, segment words into sounds, blend…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

155

Reading Mastery. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Reading Mastery," one of several curriculum components that constitute the Scientific Research Associate's Direct Instruction curriculum, is designed to provide systematic instruction in English language reading. "Reading Mastery" is a full-year curriculum and is available in two versions, "Reading Mastery Classic" levels I and II (for use in…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

2008-01-01

156

Exemplary Practices in Junior College Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This topical paper is fourth in a series prepared for reading specialists. Others in the series include: Number 18, Directions for Research and Innovation in Junior College Reading Programs; Number 20, Skill Development in Junior College Reading Programs; Number 21, Community College Reading Center Facilities; and Number 24, Training Faculty for…

Darnes, G. Robert; And Others

157

Read Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

158

Reading Remixed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

2012-01-01

159

Reading Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful…

Delo, Lynda

2008-01-01

160

Against Readings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

Edmundson, Mark

2009-01-01

161

Repeated Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews research on the use of multiple oral rereading (MOR) with reading disabled students. MOR uses daily practice on a selection of little difficulty. Its effectiveness in increasing fluency (accuracy and speed) is examined, and the role of redundancy in three types of reading models is analyzed. (CL)

Moyer, Sandra B.

1982-01-01

162

Required Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

Janko, Edmund

2002-01-01

163

Bilingual Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

164

A Sphere-Scanning Radiometer for Rapid Directional Measurements of Sky and Ground Radiance: the PARABOLA Field Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique field instrument, called the PARABOLA, a collapsable support boom, which is self contained and easily transportable to remote sites to enable the acquisition of radiance data for almost the complete (4 pi) sky and ground-looking hemispheres in only 11 seconds was designed. The PARABOLA samples in 15 deg instantaneous field of view sectors in three narrow bandpass spectral channels simultaneously. Field measurement on a variety of earth surface cover types using a truck boom, a specially designed pickup truck mounting system, and a hot air balloon were studied. The PARABOLA instrument has potential for climatological and other studies which require characterization of the distribution of diffuse solar radiation within the sky hemisphere.

Deering, D. W.; Leone, P.

1984-01-01

165

Direct instruction in fourth and fifth-grade classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship was examined between teacher behaviors in fourth and fifth grade classrooms associated with the Direct Instruction Model and student achievement in mathematics, reading, science, and social studies; student self-concept; and climate. The first stage focused on teacher implementation of questioning and instructional behaviors following direct instruction training where the experimental unit was the teacher. Two observation instruments were

Herbert Alan Sloan

1993-01-01

166

Reading Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Department of Atmospheric Sciences comes the Reading Weather Maps Web site. Visitors learn how to convert their local time to the standard used by all meteorologists; to tell the difference between Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperatures; and how to read maps with weather data collected on and above the Earth's surface. For example, wind bards, which are flag-like symbols that indicate wind direction and wind speed, always point in the direction the wind is blowing "from." Other interesting facts, descriptions, and illustrations are available on the site.

1969-12-31

167

Aeronautic instruments. Section IV : direction instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part one points out the adequacy of a consideration of the steady state gyroscopic motion as a basis for the discussion of displacements of the gyroscope mounted on an airplane, and develops a simple theory on this basis. Principal types of gyroscopic inclinometers are described and requirements stated. Part two describes a new type of stabilizing gyro mounted on top of a spindle by means of a universal joint, the spindle being kept in a vertical position by supporting it as a pendulum of which the bob is the driving motor. Methods of tests and the difficulties in designing a satisfactory and reliable compass for aircraft use in considered in part three. Part four contains a brief general treatment of the important features of construction of aircraft compasses and description of the principal types used.

Franklin, W S; Stillman, M H; Sanford, R L; Warner, John A C; Sylvander, R C; Rounds, E W

1923-01-01

168

READING RETREATS: FACULTY EFFORTS TO REVIVE THEIR READING PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, education and particular Reading education has under- gone serious scrutiny over the past twenty years. From the Nation at Risk (1983) publication to the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), reading educators, who work directly with pre-service teachers, have had to confront several important challenges including establishing high academic standards for all students, developing and en-

Susanne I. Lapp; Valerie J. Bristor; Philomena S. Marinaccio; Jane B. Matanzo

2008-01-01

169

Eye Movement Instrumentation for Reading Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method and apparatus for collecting and interpreting eye movement data is described that is both relatively inexpensive and portable. The study lists and describes hardware and software components of a data collection and data analysis system which provides precise information regarding the location, duration, and sequence of eye fixations while…

Bieger, George R.; Hirschfeld, Rafael

170

Characterization of thermal desorption instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition calibration method for trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene quantitation.  

PubMed

The use of thermal desorption systems for the analysis of trace vapors typically requires establishing a calibration curve from vapors generated with a permeation tube. The slow equilibration time of permeation tubes causes such an approach to become laborious when covering a wide dynamic range. Furthermore, many analytes of interest, such as explosives, are not available as permeation tubes. A method for easily and effectively establishing calibration curves for explosive vapor samples via direct deposition of standard solutions on thermal desorption tubes was investigated. The various components of the thermal desorption system were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet. Calibration curves using the direct liquid deposition method with a thermal desorption unit coupled to a cryo-focusing inlet were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet, and a statistical difference was observed but does not eliminate or deter the use of the direct liquid deposition method for obtaining quantitative results for explosive vapors. PMID:22265176

Field, Christopher R; Giordano, Braden C; Rogers, Duane A; Lubrano, Adam L; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

2012-03-01

171

The Direct Assessment of Functional Abilities (DAFA): A Comparison to an Indirect Measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of administering the Direct Awareness of Functional Abilities (DAFA) and the Pfeefer Activities Questionnaire to 28 demented, and 15 control subjects. Results show that the DAFA may provide a more objective measure of functional status in demented subjects than is provided by indirect methods of assessment. (MKA)

Karagiozis, Helen; Gray, Sarah; Sacco, Jane; Shapiro, Martha; Kawas, Claudia

1998-01-01

172

Close Reading and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Close reading is the methodical investigation of a complex text through answering text dependent questions geared to unpack the text's meaning. Close reading directs students to examine and analyze the text through a series of activities that focus students on the meanings of individual words and sentences as well as the overall development of…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

173

Reading Research in Hungary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that most recent reading research conducted in Hungary has focused on the formation of readers' attitudes and value judgments. Discusses studies conducted in the areas of reading psychology, children's reading, reading habits, reading motivation, and readers' responses. (FL)

Kamaras, Istvan; Nagy, Attila

1981-01-01

174

Z-Spec: a broadband direct-detection millimeter-wave spectrometer -- instrument status and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the status of Z-Spec, including preliminary results of our first astronomical measurements. Z-Spec is a cryogenic, broadband, millimeter-wave grating spectrometer designed for molecular line surveys of galaxies, including carbon monoxide redshift measurements of high-redshift submillimeter sources. With an instantaneous bandwidth of 185-305 GHz, Z-Spec covers the entire 1 mm atmospheric transmission window with a resolving power of 200-400. The spectrometer employs the Waveguide Far-Infrared Spectrometer (WaFIRS) architecture, in which the light propagation is confined within a parallel-plate waveguide, resulting in a minimum mechanical envelope. Its array of 160 silicon-nitride micromesh bolometers is cooled to below 100 mK for background-limited performance. With its sensitivity, broad bandwidth, and compactness, Z-Spec serves as a prototype for a future far-IR spectrometer aboard a cold telescope in space. Z-Spec successfully demonstrated functionality with a partial array of detectors and warm electronics during a week-long engineering run at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory in June, 2005. We describe the instrument performance evaluated at the telescope and in subsequent laboratory tests and compare these results with design specifications. Following several modifications we returned to the telescope in April, 2006. We present a preliminary astronomical spectrum and discuss our plans to improve sensitivity and throughput to achieve our ultimate science goals.

Earle, L.; Ade, P.; Aguirre, J.; Aikin, R.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Duband, L.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, G.; Hristov, V.; Maloney, P.; Matsuhara, H.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H.; Yun, M.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2006-06-01

175

Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for NMR/MRI instruments at low-field.  

PubMed

A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to "enjoy" from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed. PMID:24287540

Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

176

Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for NMR/MRI Instruments at Low-Field  

PubMed Central

A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to “enjoy” from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed.

Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

177

Instrument Modeling and Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

178

How Do I Read a Seismogram?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces novice users to reading the lines on a seismograph. Topics include how to distinguish a real earthquake from background vibrations (microseisms) recorded by the instrument, how to read the minute marks that record the passage of time, and how to distinguish the types of earthquake waves that appear on the chart.

179

Assessing Information about Intelligence and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the assessment of intelligence as it relates to reading. Its primary focus is upon criteria that might be applied to the information about intelligence and how it relates to reading. The contents include: "General Considerations," which discusses the concept of intelligence, measuring instruments used to…

Pikulski, John J.

180

Reading Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on satellite images and how they are made by active, passive, and remote-sensing instruments. Students analyze satellite images and answer questions about them. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

181

Developmental College Reading: Secrets of Our Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Effective Reading," a newly revised community college developmental reading course, which focuses on reading comprehension skills of predicting, confirming, and integrating; uses the direct teaching model of demonstration, guided practice, and independent practice; and is corequisite with an introductory sociology course. Reports…

Stone, Nancy; Miller, Karen

1991-01-01

182

Motivational Aspects of Reading and Its Measurement in Community College Students. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to measure motivational aspects of reading and the use of reading strategies. The 28-item reading survey measured three factors: value, self-concept, and reading strategies. Factor analyses were run to confirm the existence of the three factors. The reading survey was administered to all…

Crane, Laura R.; Gustafson, Jean-Louise; Poziemski, Christine

183

A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System  

PubMed Central

This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

2013-01-01

184

Reading Chess  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying semantic analysis to images of extended passages of text, several volumes of a chess encyclopedia have been read with high accuracy. Although carefully proofread, the books were poorly printed and posed a severe challenge to conventional page-layout analysis and character-recognition methods. An experimental page-reader system performed strictly top-down layout analysis for identification of columns, lines, words, and characters.

Henry S. Baird; Ken Thompson

1990-01-01

185

Reading Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

Carlson, Kenneth

2005-01-01

186

Summer Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summer is a great time to kick back with a good book. Try The Bailey School Kids Series... it\\'s Great! Bailey School Kids Jan Brett is my favorite artist. It takes longer to look at the pictures than it does to read the book. But it\\'s worth it. Jan Brett I love Bunnicula, almost as much as I love Harold. Find out ...

Roner, Mrs.

2005-03-31

187

Geometric-Optical Modeling of Directional Thermal Radiance for Improvement of Land Surface Temperature Retrievals from MODIS, ASTER, and Landsat-7 Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objectives of this project were to improve understanding of the directional emittance properties of land surfaces in the thermal infrared (TIR) region of the electro-magnetic spectrum. To accomplish these objectives our research emphasized a combination of theoretical model development and empirical studies designed to improve land surface temperature (LST) retrievals from space-borne remote sensing instruments. Following the proposal, the main tasks for this project were to: (1) Participate in field campaigns; (2) Acquire and process field, aircraft, and ancillary data; (3) Develop and refine models of LST emission; (4) Develop algorithms for LST retrieval; and (5) Explore LST retrieval methods for use in energy balance models. In general all of these objectives were addressed, and for the most part achieved. The main results from this project are described in the publications arising from this effort. We summarize our efforts related to each of the objectives.

Li, Xiaowen; Friedl, Mark; Strahler, Alan

2002-01-01

188

Effects of Fluency Training on Second Graders' Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years researchers have posited a strong relationship between developing students' reading fluency and concurrent improvements in reading comprehension. Although moderate-to-strong correlations between developing reading fluency and improved reading comprehension have recently been reported, no study has shown that direct training of students' reading fluency would result in improved reading comprehension ability. This study assessed the effects of developing second-grade

D. Ray Reutzel; Paul M. Hollingsworth

1993-01-01

189

47 CFR 73.1215 - Specifications for indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...divisions. (5) Full scale reading shall not be greater than five times the minimum normal indication...instruments. (2) Full scale reading shall not be greater than three times the minimum normal indication. (3) No scale division above...

2012-10-01

190

47 CFR 73.1215 - Specifications for indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...divisions. (5) Full scale reading shall not be greater than five times the minimum normal indication...instruments. (2) Full scale reading shall not be greater than three times the minimum normal indication. (3) No scale division above...

2010-10-01

191

47 CFR 73.1215 - Specifications for indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...divisions. (5) Full scale reading shall not be greater than five times the minimum normal indication...instruments. (2) Full scale reading shall not be greater than three times the minimum normal indication. (3) No scale division above...

2011-10-01

192

47 CFR 73.1215 - Specifications for indicating instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...divisions. (5) Full scale reading shall not be greater than five times the minimum normal indication...instruments. (2) Full scale reading shall not be greater than three times the minimum normal indication. (3) No scale division above...

2013-10-01

193

Reading Refreshment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching allows us to be lifelong learners and the summer months provide the window of opportunity to catch up, reflect, and refresh. Did you realize that one of your best professional development options may just be a beach chair and a good book? This article provides a few books suggested by the NSTA Recommends reviewers and journal editors. Dust off your favorite lounger, grab a hat (and perhaps your reading glasses!), and dive into the best professional development program science can provide. And don't forget your sunscreen!

Texley, Juliana

2005-07-01

194

The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities  

PubMed Central

This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9–12. Students were paired within classes and pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: repeated reading (N = 33), wide reading (N = 34), or typical instruction (N = 29). Intervention was provided daily for approximately 15–20 minutes for 10 weeks. Results indicated no overall statistically significant differences for any condition, with effect sizes ranging from ?.31 to .27. Findings do not support either approach for severely impaired readers at the high school level. We hypothesize that these students require more intensive interventions that include direct and explicit instruction in word- and text-level skills as well as engaged reading practice with effective feedback.

Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A.

2010-01-01

195

Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

Matz, Karl A.

196

Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading

Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

2012-01-01

197

Academic English Reading for International College Students: The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language…

Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen

2011-01-01

198

Reading trees.  

PubMed

Are birds dinosaurs? Answers to this question yield various responses, depending on a particular viewpoint. From the perspective of a common understanding of recent theories of the origin of birds and their potential precursor (ancestral) animals, then, yes, birds are a kind of dinosaur, having evolved from one or another non-avian dinosaur (Bostwick 2003). From the perspective of public understanding of science (how to inform the general public of biology's latest findings), then, yes, birds are dinosaurs, at least they are a kind of dinosaur, one that young children can actually hold in their hands (e.g., Maugh 2012). These two perspectives, largely derived from phylogenetic reasoning, contrast with the perspective from classification, which asks different questions: What are birds; what are dinosaurs; and how are they related to one another? Addressing these questions raises the issue of trees in classification (phylogenetic or otherwise) and how to read them. This is not as easy a task as is often suggested in the recent literature on tree-reading and tree-thinking (first noted long ago by O'Hara 1988, see Baum and Smith 2012 for a first book-length treatment).                      The role of tree-thinking in classification is applied after a tree has been constructed and natural groups established. For instance, it would seem premature to infer phylogenies on poorly classified taxa, such as invertebrates, reptiles and so on, as these groupings are artificial. Doing so would only result in erroneous hypotheses that cannot be substantiated. The role of classification, however, is to make sure that the natural groups are justified, and in order to do this it is vital that those groups are understood. Birds represent a monophyletic group, which has series of unique characteristics that it shares with other theropods (i.e., bipedal saurischian dinosaurs). Dinosaurs, as usually conceived, are a group of non-monophyletic organisms that variously share closer characteristics (i.e., relationships) with other taxa rather than uniquely among themselves. In the case of dinosaurs (as Dinosauria) and classification, what is at stake is a taxonomic name, rather than a unique group of character traits. Below we outline and compare two contrasting ways of reading trees, one way, concerned with classification, yielding the view that, no, birds are not dinosaurs. PMID:24943430

Ebach, Malte C; Williams, David M

2014-01-01

199

Item-Level Effects of the Read-Aloud Accommodation for Students With Reading Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research support for providing a read-aloud accommodation (i.e., having an individual read test items and directions aloud) to students with disabilities has been somewhat limited, particularly when merely examining effects of the accommodation on overall test scores for general groups of students with disabilities. We examined data on accommodated and nonaccommodated performances of students with specific reading disabilities on math

Sara E. Bolt; Martha L. Thurlow

2007-01-01

200

Intensive Word Study and Repeated Reading Improves Reading Skills for Two Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two struggling fourth-grade readers with learning disabilities who have severe deficits in word recognition, comprehension, and reading fluency improve their reading skills using a method that combines intensive word study with the timed repeated reading of poetry. The direct instruction included semantics, morphology, orthography, and…

Staudt, Deborah Hill

2009-01-01

201

SAW Temperature Sensor and Remote Reading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for remotely reading a SAW temperature sensor has been adapted from an existing, commercially available personnelherchandise detector system. The SAW sensor is a Lithium Niobate wafer with an inter-digital transducer (IDT) which is directly connected to a small transducer which is directly connected to a small microwave antenna and two reflectors. The reading system is a special Fhl

X. Q. Bao; W. Burkhard; V. V. Varadan; V. K. Varadan

1987-01-01

202

BASIC LITERACY READING, UNIT 1, LESSON 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL DIRECTIONS ARE INTRODUCED. THE LESSON BEGINS WITH ORAL REVIEW QUESTIONS. THE PRONOUN "IT" IS USED IN THE ANSWER. THE WORDS "LINE" AND "DRAW" ARE INTRODUCED. THE NEXT SEQUENCE INCLUDES THE INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE STUDENT TO READ SILENTLY. THE STUDENT IS NOT ASKED TO GIVE ANY ORAL RESPONSE. THE HELPER READS ANOTHER SET OF DIRECTIONS

BLYTH, JOHN W.; AND OTHERS

203

Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

1923-01-01

204

Parents Teach Reading, Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and teachers need to be involved in teaching children to read and to enjoy reading. There are three planks in a platform that will help all parents become involved in their children's learning to read. First, parents must set the example. If they want their children to read, parents must read around them and to them. Secondly, they must…

Clary, Linda Mixon

205

On Balanced Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that discussions in the United States of "balanced reading" ignore decades of successful reading instruction in New Zealand based on "Balanced Reading Programmes," that embrace more complex constructions on instructional practice than do current discussions surrounding balanced reading instruction in the United States. Argues that reading

Reutzel, D. Ray

1999-01-01

206

Reading: The Human Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading programs must be reassessed, and fragmented, isolated, and repetitive exercises must be eliminated. The goal of any reading program is to get the child to experience the joys of reading and learning. (Author/WI)

Roswell, Florence G.

1978-01-01

207

Children Can Love Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)

Zibart, Rosemary

1980-01-01

208

Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

2003-01-01

209

Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

Monteiro, Vera

2013-01-01

210

Geodetic instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in geodetic instrumentation during 1975 through 1978 are reviewed. Distance measurement including electronic distance measuring (EDM) application and instrumentation; the improvement of astronomic latitude and longitude determinations by the development of Automated Astronomic Positioning System and an instrument capable of measuring atmospheric refraction and evaluation of the magnitude of anomalous refraction at an observing site; new techniques for astronomic

B. L. Decker

1979-01-01

211

Modeling the Effects of Reading Lessons on Text Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated the effectiveness of various models constructed to account for how children read and comprehended a story presented in a directed reading lesson. A commercial directed reading lesson was revised to introduce information related to the story and to help the children form a "map" of the central story content. Data were collected…

Omanson, Richard C.; And Others

212

Co-phasing of a diluted aperture synthesis instrument for direct imaging. II. Experimental demonstration in the photon-counting regime with a temporal hypertelescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Amongst the new techniques currently developed for high-resolution and high-dynamics imaging, the hypertelescope architecture is very promising for direct imaging of objects such as exoplanets. The performance of this instrument strongly depends on the co-phasing process accuracy. In a previous high-flux experimental study with an eight-telescope array, we successfully implemented a co-phasing system based on the joint use of a genetic algorithm and a sub-aperture piston phase diversity using the object itself as a source for metrology. Aims: To fit the astronomical context, we investigate the impact of photon noise on the co-phasing performance operating our laboratory prototype at low flux. This study provides experimental results on the sensitivity and the dynamics that could be reached for real astrophysical observations. Methods: Simulations were carried out to optimize the critical parameters to be applied in the co-phasing system running in the photon-counting regime. We used these parameters experimentally to acquire images with our temporal hypertelescope test bench for different photon flux levels. A data reduction method allows highly contrasted images to be extracted. Results: The optical path differences have been servo-controlled over one hour with an accuracy of 22.0 nm and 15.7 nm for 200 and 500 photons/frame, respectively. The data reduction greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and allows us to experimentally obtain highly contrasted images. The related normalized point spread function is characterized by a 1.1 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-5 intensity standard deviation over the dark field (for 15 000 snapshots with 200 and 500 photons/frame, respectively). Conclusions: This laboratory experiment demonstrates the potential of our hypertelescope concept, which could be directly transposed to a space-based telescope array. Assuming eight telescopes with a 30 cm diameter, the I-band limiting magnitude of the main star would be 7.3, allowing imaging of a companion with a 17.3 mag.

Bouyeron, L.; Delage, L.; Baudoin, R.; Gomes, J. T.; Grossard, L.; Reynaud, F.

2014-07-01

213

Perspektiv pa Las och Skrivinlarning: En Litteraturstudie som Belyser Las och Skrivinlarning utifran Fyra Teoretiska Perspektiv Samt en Instrument-Provande Barnstudie (Perspectives on Learning To Read and Write: Literature Review on Reading and Writing Acquisition through Examination of Four Theroretical Perspectives and Attitude Measures of Preschool Children).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the processes of learning to read and write in the initial phases. Two studies are presented. The first is a review of four theoretical approaches, including Jerome Bruner's representation theory, and theories of concept learning, metacognition, and metalinguistic awareness. The purpose of the literature study was to examine…

Fahlen, Rose-Marie

214

Using School Reform Models to Improve Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction and Success for All in an Urban District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the effectiveness in an urban school district of 2 of the most widely used Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs-Direct Instruction (DI), implemented in 9 district elementary schools, and Success for All (SFA), implemented in 2 elementary schools. In examining impacts on student achievement and school change outcomes…

Ross, Steven M.; Nunnery, John A.; Goldfeder, Elizabeth; McDonald, Aaron; Rachor, Robert; Hornbeck, Matthew; Fleischman, Steve

2004-01-01

215

What Should Students Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading students are required to do for school bears little semblance to the reading they do outside of school. Students today are reading the same texts in school that students read a generation ago, but the varieties of text used outside of school are much different. One result is that many students are unmotivated to become readers.…

Wolk, Steven

2010-01-01

216

Big Read, Big ROI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

Dempsey, Beth

2008-01-01

217

Research in Secondary Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summers' annotated bibliographies of secondary reading (1963, 1964), "Review of Educational Research,""Journal of Reading," ERIC/CRIER, and "Research in Education" are listed as resources for all phases of reading. A shifting of trends in the nature and scope of research topics in secondary reading is noted, with diagnosis and treatment,…

Kling, Martin

218

Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A. Crowe); (3) "Reading

Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

219

Designing the Reading Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of the reading curriculum presents a vision of what will be stressed in reading instruction. A first ingredient to discuss in developing the reading curriculum emphasizes the degree to which different curriculum areas should be related in teaching and learning. Reading then could be taught as a separate subject matter area from the…

Ediger, Marlow

220

Reading Instruction for Struggling Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey conducted among approximately 1,400 students at 63 primary schools showed that learning gains for initial reading varied significantly for students in the last 6 months of Year 3. Learning gains turned out to be much higher in classes where students had received explicit or direct instruction, where instruction had been organized…

Houtveen, Thoni; van de Grift, Wim

2007-01-01

221

Means of Improving Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is an important skill that every student needs in order to be successful. It is directly influenced by how readers construct a representation of the information that they are taking in. Overwhelmingly, the processing strategies found in research can appropriately fit into the Into, Through, Beyond strategies used in the…

Bondanza, Amy; Kelly, Katie; Treewater, Adam

222

Modelling word recognition and reading aloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational modelling has tremendously advanced our understanding of the processes involved in normal and impaired reading. The present Special Issue highlights some new directions in the field of word recognition and reading aloud. These new lines of research include the learning of orthographic and phonological representations in both supervised and unsupervised networks, the extension of existing models to multisyllabic word

Johannes C. Ziegler; Jonathan Grainger; Marc Brysbaert

2010-01-01

223

Reading Progress and the School Administrator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal of the school needs to be highly knowledgeable of how reading should be taught. He/she must know the different psychologies and philosophies of reading instruction. Word recognition techniques and diverse comprehension skills should also be in the repertoire of the school principal. The principal must work in the direction of helping…

Ediger, Marlow

224

Teachers' Opinions of the DISTAR Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Direct Instructional System for Teaching Arithmetic and Reading (DISTAR) was developed to provide beginning and remedial instruction to disadvantaged children. This paper describes the DISTAR reading program, noting its heavy emphasis on programmed learning and repetitive drill exercises; it then cites the opinions of proponents and opponents…

Ogletree, Earl J.; Ogletree, Gerda S.

225

Factoring AAVE into Reading Assessment and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our increasingly diverse schools, students bring diverse ways of speaking to the classroom. In turn, as features from students' home language varieties transfer into their readings of texts, teachers' assessment and intervention plans may be directly affected. If teachers conflate dialect influence with reading error in Standard English, they…

Wheeler, Rebecca; Cartwright, Kelly B.; Swords, Rachel

2012-01-01

226

Learning to Read in Different Languages. Linguistics and Literacy Series: 1. Papers in Applied Linguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers on acquisition of reading skills are included: (1) "Miscue Analysis and Future Research Directions" (Goodman); (2) "Reading in Spanish: Insights from Children's Miscues" (Barrera); (3) "An Investigation of the Oral Reading Behaviors of Native Spanish Speakers Reading in Spanish" (Hudelson); (4) "A Study of Oral Reading in…

Hudelson, Sarah, Ed.

227

Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

Bisset, K.R.

1998-09-01

228

Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

229

Reading: Putting the Pieces Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this yearbook focus on the strategies, practices, and research related to elementary reading, secondary reading, adult reading, literature, philosophy of reading, psychology of reading, affective issues, administration, supervision, research, teacher training, assessment that affect reading and reading instruction. Papers in the book…

Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

1994-01-01

230

Exploration of the Structure of Selected Reading Readiness Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of factor analysis techniques were employed to explore the structure of five reading readiness instruments (Gates Reading Readiness Test, Developmental Tests of Visual Perception, Metropolitan Readiness Tests, Specially Constructed Readiness Test by Olson, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) as predictor variables of performance on…

Olson, Arthur V.; Rosen Carl L.

231

Analytic and Pragmatic Factors in College Students' Metacognitive Reading Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study describes the development and validation of a self-report instrument that is designed to measure college students' use of reading strategies for comprehension and for studying while reading school-related materials. Principal components analysis (PCA) of an initial sample (n = 575) of college students showed that the…

Taraban, Roman; Kerr, Marcel; Rynearson, Kimberly

2004-01-01

232

Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of functions. The sensor data is processed in a distributed fashion across the network, providing a large pool of resources in real time to meet stringent latency requirements.

Wang, Roy

2011-01-01

233

Reading Strategies and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word identification, multisensory, and comprehension instructional strategies are described for teaching students with reading difficulties. These include the analytic method, synthetic word families, syllabaries, Goodman's Reading Strategy Lessons, Fernald Technique, Cooper Method, Modality Blocking Procedure, Gillingham-Stillman Method,…

Tierney, Robert J.; And Others

1987-01-01

234

Improving Science Reading Comprehension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.

Johnson, Jill C.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2005-03-01

235

Toddler Reading Time  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ... possible, striving for at least one scheduled reading time each day. Choosing regular times to read (especially ...

236

Imaging brain connectivity in children with diverse reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading is a complex cognitive skill that requires the coordination of multiple brain regions. Although functional neuroimaging studies highlight the cortical brain regions associated with a specific cognitive task like reading, they do not directly address the underlying neural connections necessary for efficient performance of this task. Adults with reading disability have demonstrated lower regional white matter connectivity, but it

Christian Beaulieu; Christopher Plewes; Lori Anne Paulson; Dawne Roy; Lindsay Snook; Luis Concha; Linda Phillips

2005-01-01

237

Building a Comprehensive High School Reading Program that Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a nationwide trend, reading scores at Homewood-Flossmoor Community High School in suburban Chicago began dropping with the entrance of the new millennium. However, through its newly created Reading Department, Homewood-Flossmoor Community High School is providing comprehensive, direct reading instruction throughout grade and skill…

Spaniak, Nancy

2007-01-01

238

Reading to Preschoolers Exposed: Is the Emperor Really Naked?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues there is reason for more optimism concerning the effects of reading to preschoolers than suggested by the Scarborough and Dobrich review in this issue (PS522390). Discusses methodological problems in many studies; cites studies indicating direct and indirect links between reading to preschoolers and reading achievement, suggesting that…

Lonigan, Christopher J.

1994-01-01

239

The Dynamics of Language Learning: Research in Reading and English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on future directions for English and reading research, the papers presented in this book examine the complex interplay of skills, processes, and classroom conditions that influence the development of children's competence in reading, writing, and the language arts. The titles and authors of the essays are as follows: (1) "Reading and…

Squire, James R., Ed.

240

Wilson Reading System[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Wilson Reading System"[R] is a reading and writing program developed by Barbara Wilson and distributed by Wilson Language Training. It provides a curriculum for teaching reading and spelling to individuals of any age who have difficulty with written language. The program directly teaches the structure of words in the English language, aiming…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

241

University Students' Reading of Their First-Year Mathematics Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the observed behaviors and difficulties that 11 precalculus and calculus students exhibited in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. To gauge the "effectiveness" of these students' reading, we asked them to attempt straightforward mathematical tasks, based directly on what they had just read. The students had…

Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

2012-01-01

242

Simple Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work with partners to create four different instruments to investigate the frequency of the sounds they make. Teams may choose to make a shoebox guitar, water-glass xylophone, straw panpipe or a soda bottle organ (or all four!).

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

243

Oceanographic Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer s...

1994-01-01

244

Read and Indirect Revenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stephen Read provides a solution to the liar and a theory of truth, by putting forward a novel definition of truth. Read’s\\u000a theory attempts to capture certain facts about truth and is, in turn, supported by its attempt to resolve paradoxes that challenge\\u000a it. Why adopt Read’s favoured theory of truth (which theory I will discuss below)? Are the extant

Bradley Armour-Garb

245

Laparoscopic Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Laparoscopic instrumentation continues to evolve towards smaller, more reliable, and better ergonomic devices, with a larger\\u000a variety of choices. Since the first edition of this textbook, subtle improvements are readily apparent in existing devices\\u000a as first-generation instruments progress towards later-generation models. New technology exists to allow procedures to be\\u000a performed with fewer complications. Combined with refinements in techniques, new and

Patrick S. Lowry

246

Oceanographic Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

1994-01-01

247

Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

1923-01-01

248

Reading for Profit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading First is a $900-million-a-year project that offers states grants to improve reading instruction for children in kindergarten through third grade. However, Reading First is now awash in allegations of mismanagement and conflicts of interest. The Education Department's inspector general issued a report that declared that the program's…

Glenn, David

2007-01-01

249

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

250

Summer Library Reading Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore…

Fiore, Carole D.

2007-01-01

251

ELLs' Perceptions of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

Howard, Rachael M.

2012-01-01

252

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

1985-01-01

253

Reading Without a Fovea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visual mask moving in synchrony with the eye obliterated foveal vision during reading under certain conditions. When foveal vision was masked, reading became difficult. In another condition, a window of readable text moved in synchrony with the eye, and parafoveal vision was masked on each fixation. The results point out the importance of foveal and parafoveal vision in reading.

Keith Rayner; James H. Bertera

1979-01-01

254

Piaget's Legacy to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that Jean Piaget's theories may be helpful in three areas of reading instruction: (1) when reading instruction should begin and how it should proceed, (2) the effect of the mature reader's cognitive development on comprehension, and (3) how the theories can help to refine reading theory. (FL)

Cleland, Craig J.

1981-01-01

255

Current Issues in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this journal issue focus on reading acquisition and instruction. The titles and authors are as follows: (1) "10 Good Ways to Involve Parents in the Reading Program," by Nickolas Criscuolo; (2) "A Parent Guide for Helping the Child with A Reading Disability," by Frederick Duffelmeyer and Dale Baum; (3) "Promoting a Good Attitude toward…

French, Michael P., Ed.

1985-01-01

256

Reading and Writing Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

Mason, Jana M., Ed.

257

The Future of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

Peters, Tom

2009-01-01

258

Free Reading Is UTOPIA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

LeCrone, Nancy

2010-01-01

259

Bedtime Reading = Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project called "Show-Me Bedtime Reading" explored the effects of regular one-to-one evening reading and signing sessions on the development of expressive and receptive language skills of students with deafness. Test scores indicated the positive influence of individualized reading on the development of English competence. Learning strategies…

Rogers, Deborah

1993-01-01

260

Levels of Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As students progress through the different grade levels, reading across the curriculum needs to be emphasized because it provides opportunities for students to practice reading in each academic discipline. Becoming a good reader is a curriculum "must." On the kindergarten level, experience charts may be used as an early means of teaching reading.…

Ediger, Marlow

261

Philosophies of Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are selected philosophies of reading instruction which are relevant in providing for individual differences among learners. These need to be studied in-depth by reading teachers in order to best provide for each pupil in the classroom. Pupils differ from each other in reading achievement, interests, and purposes, and it is a challenge to…

Ediger, Marlow

2013-01-01

262

Impact of an integrated science and reading intervention (INSCIREAD) on bilingual students' misconceptions, reading comprehension, and transferability of strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes a research study that resulted in an instructional model directed at helping fourth grade diverse students improve their science knowledge, their reading comprehension, their awareness of the relationship between science and reading, and their ability to transfer strategies. The focus of the instructional model emerged from the intersection of constructs in science and reading literacy; the model

Patricia Martinez

2008-01-01

263

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

264

Item-Level Effects of the Read-Aloud Accommodation for Students with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research support for providing a read-aloud accommodation (i.e., having an individual read test items and directions aloud) to students with disabilities has been somewhat limited, particularly when merely examining effects of the accommodation on overall test scores for general groups of students with disabilities. We examined data on…

Bolt, Sara E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

2007-01-01

265

Assessing Reading. Using Cloze Procedure To Assess Reading Skills. [Packet] and Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…

Vaughan, Judy

266

The Impact of a Reading Initiative on Students' Early Reading Development K-3: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored the relationship of the Reading First Initiative (RFI) in terms of its impact on students' early reading development K-3 and teachers' delivery of instruction. Extant test data were used to establish quantitative data. Direct observation utilizing a checklist consisting of five categories--management, environment, setting…

Tracey, Iline P.

2009-01-01

267

Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

Lyutaya, Tatiana

2011-01-01

268

Reading Style: Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prescription.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for the evaluation of the reading ability of handicapped students, the reading style checklist (RSC) is presented along with lists of abilities a student would need in order to learn to read using different reading methods. (PHR)

Carbo, Marie L.

1980-01-01

269

I Can't Read (Directions)!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notation systems for the arts were developed to educate students in performing the art form. Soon notation systems were used in research and archiving performances and skills that could have been lost to the following generations. Virtual travel through the written notations brings experts to students rather than having students go to the…

Miller, Penelope

2012-01-01

270

Methodological Variables in Choral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary study explored changes in prosodic variability during choral reading and investigated whether these changes are affected by the method of eliciting choral reading. Ten typical adult talkers recorded three reading materials (poetry, fiction and textbook) in three reading conditions: solo (reading aloud alone), track (reading aloud…

Poore, Meredith A.; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

2008-01-01

271

Preservice Childhood Education Teachers' Perceptions of Instructional Practices for Developing Young Children's Interest in Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of the increasing attention to reading in educational contexts around the globe, this study uses a semistructured interview to explore 93 Jordanian preservice teachers' perceptions of instructional practices for developing young children's interest in reading. The participants reported on 7 major teacher practices they perceive as instrumental in developing young children's interest in reading. These relate to

Ali Ahmad Al-Barakat; Ruba Fahmi Bataineh

2011-01-01

272

Test Reviews: Flynn, J. (2001). "The Predictive Reading Profile." East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Predictive Reading Profile (PRP) is an individual or group-administered instrument designed to examine precursors to reading difficulties by identifying children at risk for reading failure in later grades and special instructional needs for children in late kindergarten and first grade. The purpose of the PRP "is to develop a profile of a…

Fudge, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

273

Surgical instruments  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A surgical instrument includes an elongated transmission waveguide defining a longitudinal axis. The transmission waveguide has a distal end and a proximal end. The at least one strike surface is formed on the proximal end and is configured to receive vibratory energy.

2012-07-24

274

Discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: To evaluate discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings in eyes with varying degrees of corneal hydration and stromal amount. Methods. 6 Eye Bank eyes, donated by Florida Lion's Eye Bank, were evaluated. Each eye was affixed to a customized artificial orbit system with intraocular pressure (IOP) measured directly by a pressure transducer inserted into the vitreous and with a Goldmann tonometric readings. The eyes were dehydrated for 5-minute intervals in a 30% Dextran-BSS solution, with readings taken between each submersion. Once corneal thickness stabilized, a corneal trephination of 6mm was made. The corneal buttons were frozen and dehydrated by lyophilization and weighed. Results. Preliminary results show a possible overestimation in thicker corneas and an underestimation in thinner corneas, as previously published. Corresponding data on the weight of corneal material is provided. Further studies need to be conducted to determine statistical significance of the data. Conclusion. This study uses Eye Bank eyes with a protocol that produces results similar to previously published results. Further studies in correlating the amount of corneal stroma and discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings of intraocular pressure are important especially with the increasing acceptance of corneal refractive surgeries.

Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Nose, Izuru; Fantes, Francisco; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

1999-06-01

275

Interhemispheric communication influences reading behavior.  

PubMed

We can read words at an amazing speed, with the left hemisphere taking the burden of the processing in most readers (i.e., over 95% of right-handers and about 75% of left-handers). Yet, it is a long-standing question whether word reading in central vision is possible without information transfer between the left and right hemispheres (LH/RH). Here we show that such communication is required by comparing word naming latencies and eye movement data of people with LH language dominance and a unique sample of healthy RH dominant people. The results reveal that individuals with LH speech dominance name words faster when they are allowed to fixate at the word beginning, whereas RH dominants are faster for fixations toward the end. In text reading, the eyes of LH dominants land more to the left than the eyes of RH dominants, making more information directly available to the dominant hemisphere. We conclude that the traditional view of bilateral projections in central vision is incorrect. In contrast, interhemispheric communication is needed in central vision, and eye movements are adjusted to optimize information uptake. Our findings therefore call into question the explanation of macular sparing in hemianopia based on a bilaterally projecting fovea. In addition, these results are in line with the increase of white matter in the splenium of the corpus callosum when people learn to read. PMID:23647517

Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Stevens, Michaël A; Brysbaert, Marc

2013-09-01

276

Reading about Reading: Using Children's Literature To Reflect on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing teacher educators, this paper describes the importance of story as a reflective teaching tool, and provides brief annotations of 11 children's picture books (published between 1989 and 1998) which have reading as a critical story element. The children's picture books listed in this paper can be used to assist teachers in analyzing their…

Holm, Daniel T.

277

Assessing Reading Performance with Curriculum-Based Reading Inventories: The Case of Korea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of a study that explored the validity of curriculum-based measures of reading in order to develop a valid and practical instrument for regular education teachers as well as special education teachers in Korea. Participants in the study were 213 students from 7 elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. Of the total, 183…

Kim, Dong-il; Hwang, Mae-hyang; Lim, Ji-hyun; Lim, Hyo-jin; Kim, Kwang-seon

278

Balancing Instrumental and Identity Goals in Relationships: The Role of Request Directness and Request Persistence in the Selection of Sexual Resistance Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies the general frameworks of Politeness Theory and Planning Theory to explain the selection of sexual resistance strategies among undergraduates following both initial and persisting requests. Investigates contingent effects of request directness on characteristics of the resistance message. Tests influence of resister sex on strategy choice.…

Afifi, Walid A.; Lee, Josephine W.

2000-01-01

279

Laboratory Investigation of Direct Measurement of Ice Water Content, Ice Surface Area, and Effective Radius of Ice Crystals Using a Laser-Diffraction Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft microphysics probe, PVM-100A, was tested in the Colorado State University dynamic cloud chamber to establish its ability to measure ice water content (IWC), PSA, and Re in ice clouds. Its response was compared to other means of measuring those ice-cloud parameters that included using FSSP-100 and 230-X 1-D optical probes for ice-crystal concentrations, a film-loop microscope for ice-crystal habits and dimensions, and an in-situ microscope for determining ice-crystal orientation. Intercomparisons were made in ice clouds containing ice crystals ranging in size from about 10 microns to 150 microns diameter, and ice crystals with plate, columnar, dendritic, and spherical shapes. It was not possible to determine conclusively that the PVM accurately measures IWC, PSA, and Re of ice crystals, because heat from the PVM evaporated in part the crystals in its vicinity in the chamber thus affecting its measurements. Similarities in the operating principle of the FSSP and PVM, and a comparison between Re measured by both instruments, suggest, however, that the PVM can make those measurements. The resolution limit of the PVM for IWC measurements was found to be on the order of 0.001 g/cubic m. Algorithms for correcting IWC measured by FSSP and PVM were developed.

Gerber, H.; DeMott, P. J.; Rogers, D. C.

1995-01-01

280

Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a…

Guthrie, John T., Ed.; Wigfield, Allan, Ed.; Perencevich, Kathleen C., Ed.

2004-01-01

281

Early childhood reading educators' perceptions of reading readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Delphi technique was used to determine whether Early Childhood Reading Educators could move toward consensus on three basic questions related to reading readiness: (1) What is reading readiness? (2) How do we know when a child is ready to read? (3) What should be included in an appropriate reading readiness curriculum for kindergarteners? Jurors’ responses to the first interrogation

La Visa Cam Wilson; Jan Thrower

1986-01-01

282

Must Johnny Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this address given at the second annual Reading Conference (Montclair, December 1971) offers alternative answers to the question, "In this age of multi-sensory media from which we can learn of the past, the present, and the future in other ways than the written word, must everyone learn to read?" Data from recent research reports…

LaRocque, Geraldine E.

283

INTERMEDIATE READINGS IN TAGALOG.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF TEXTS DESIGNED TO HELP THE STUDENT ACHIEVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF FILIPINO CULTURE AND ACQUIRE ENOUGH PROFICIENCY IN TAGALOG TO COMMUNICATE EASILY AND MEANINGFULLY, THESE INTERMEDIATE READINGS ARE COORDINATED WITH THE EDITOR'S "BEGINNING TAGALOG" (ED 014 696). INCLUDED IN PART I ARE READINGS WRITTEN ESPECIALLY FOR THIS TEXT…

BOWEN, J. DONALD, ED.

284

Read With Your Fingers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in partners to create and exchange messages written in Braille. Learners use a Braille key and thumbtacks to write their messages in Braille. This activity will demonstrate to learners how kids who are blind read. It also demonstrates that human brains are "plastic" and can be re-trained to read by touch.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

285

Books for Summer Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author, Roger Soder, discusses past books he has read throughout the year on his own and with his book club. He also makes suggestions for summer reading selections. He thanks valued and nearby colleagues and friends for blessing him with books of great wisdom throughout the year.

Soder, Roger

2004-01-01

286

Summer Reading Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer reading loss is a documented reality for many students. It is often of greatest concern for those who are already at risk, who typically have limited access to reading materials at home and whose parents or caregivers may be reluctant or unsure of how to help. By raising parents' awareness of the importance of supporting their children's…

Mraz, Maryann; Rasinski, Timothy V.

2007-01-01

287

CRITICAL READING DEVELOPS EARLY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS ISSUE OF THE READING AIDS SERIES PRESENTS A DISCUSSION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CRITICAL READING AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN AND HOW IT CAN BE DEVELOPED. IT OFFERS SUGGESTIONS FOR THE MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF INQUIRY AND EVALUATION. SOME OF THE TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE -- (1) THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTS, CONCEPTS, AND COMMON…

LEE, DORRIS; AND OTHERS

288

Reading and Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To make literature meaningful to children and youth, the teacher needs to do more than make books available and blow the bellows of motivation. Teachers can gain more insight into reading by analyzing their own behaviors as they read adult literature, and they can use their insight in helping the student discover the way to extract meaning from…

McCullough, Constance M.

289

Against Reading Lists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

Davis, Lennard J.

2012-01-01

290

Reading Methods Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This working paper explores contemporary research related to methods for teaching reading in Spanish and English in bilingual, foreign language, and English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Changes stemming from innovations in research and learning are identified and a table is provided to compare methods of teaching reading in Spanish and…

Montgomery, Joel R.

2008-01-01

291

Motivating Students To Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project implemented a program for motivating students to read so that they would become enthusiastic, lifelong readers. The targeted population consisted of first- and second-grade students in a middle class community located in a western suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem of lack of motivation in reading was documented…

Kane, Roberta S.; Warner, Dori

292

Reading Rate and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading fluency is one of the most important signs of language proficiency both for native and foreign language speakers (Grabe, 2010; Macalister, 2010; Winston, 2010; Hasbrouck, 2008; Rasinski, 2004; Oakley, 2003; Waldman, 1985; Cited in: Sayenko, 2010, Introduction Para 1). This paper is in the area of reading fluency and tries to investigate…

Jodai, Hojat

2011-01-01

293

Motivating Interest in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This yearbook is a collection of articles on the topic of motivating interest in reading. The articles are: "An Introduction to Recreational Reading in the Classroom" by Floyd Sucher, which discusses objectives, materials, setting, scheduling, and sharing activities; "New Words and New Meaning for Old Words" by Vermont Harward, Dan Bird, and Edith…

International Reading Association. Utah Council.

294

What Are Reading Disorders?  

MedlinePLUS

... any part of the reading process. Reading and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age and usually result from specific differences in the way the brain processes language. There are many different symptoms and types of ...

295

[Developmental Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 2,400 junior high school students from middle- and low-income families. The program provides, for remedial purposes, one hour per day for instruction in reading, in addition to a period for language arts. Students' skill deficiencies are diagnosed at the beginning of the year with…

Waukegan Community Unit School District 60, IL.

296

Concurrent Reading While Writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of asynchronous processes reading shared data while the data are being modified by another process is considered. This problem differs from the standard readers\\/writers problem in that concurrent reading while writing is allowed. The model used here strongly limits the use and size of the shared variables. If multiple copies of the shared data are allowed, then simple,

Gary L. Peterson

1983-01-01

297

Making Textbook Reading Meaningful  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students enter middle school, they are confronted with the necessity of learning from complex content-area textbooks. Many students find these texts boring, and they may lack the higher-order reading comprehension skills they need to tackle complex text. Yet the ability to read informational text is essential to success in middle school and…

Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

2012-01-01

298

Science Sampler : Reading science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nonfiction books have the power to excite students about learning and fuel their desire to know more about a topic or person. Using a variety of books can differentiate instruction and provide suitable reading to students at all levels and for almost any interest. This article provides a list of recommended reading and some lesson ideas that correspond with the material.

Carlson, Kenneth

2005-01-01

299

Reading to Learn Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog entry discusses the importance of strong reading comprehension in the mathematics classroom. It gives examples of problems that require careful attention when reading and cites paraphrasing problems as a crucial skill for students. It contains links to related articles.

Denise

2007-09-07

300

Reading in Kazakhstan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes sociological research conducted by Kazakhstan libraries between 1991 and 1994. Highlights include discussions on the sociology of reading, research results, and library facilities. It was found that reading is characterized by frequent changes in demands of readers caused by dramatic shifts in ideology, politics, and economics in the…

Beisembaeva, Zhanat Abaevna

1995-01-01

301

On Hermetic Reading Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a review of the literature on hyperlexia (better described as hermetic reading), and often associated with autism, a theory is proposed suggesting that such reading arises from a dysfunctional procedural memory system and a disconnected though functional declarative memory system. (Author/DB)

Goldberg, Terry E.

1987-01-01

302

Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

303

Anything but Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

Krashen, Stephen

2009-01-01

304

Why I Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that the author was struck by the "self-centered" readers she encountered in her classroom and at professional conferences--readers who respond to reading by thinking of their own life and experiences. Argues that reading is so much more than a trip into the self. Presents two brief responses, by Lauren L. Wohl and Daniel Hade. (RS)

Mori, Kyoko

2002-01-01

305

[Reading Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Epistle," the publication forum of Professors of Reading Teacher Educators, contains three papers as well as the regular features on job openings and on miscellaneous facts. Titles and authors of the articles are: "Doctoral Education in Reading: The State of the Art," by Richard Allington; "The Virtues of Being a Toad and What That…

Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

1976-01-01

306

ESL Reading Comprehension Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several techniques and strategies for teaching reading comprehension, which have already proved effective in first language reading instruction, may also be used when teaching English as second language. The techniques presented here address the following issues: (1) background knowledge; (2) textual analysis; (3) metacognition and strategy…

Miller, Leah D.; Perkins, Kyle

307

Children's Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "Journal of Children and Youth" focuses on children's strategies for decoding and comprehending written language and teacher's strategies for facilitating this process. The issue includes eleven papers by members of the Indiana Reading Professors division of the Indiana State Reading Council and several invited guests. Peggy…

Brown, Rexel E., Ed.

1980-01-01

308

The Virtues of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Danny DeVito's film "Matilda," Harry Wormwood berates his young daughter, the title character, when she insists on reading. He tells her, "There's nothing you can get from a book that you can't get faster from television." Matilda's would-be visionary father, however, is blind to crucial habits of mind fostered by reading books that are not…

Kupfer, Joseph

2002-01-01

309

Reading, Mathematics, and Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics has its own unique vocabulary as well as words which cut across all academic disciplines. It also has abstract symbols which belong to mathematics solely. Words and symbols need to be read meaningfully by students. Along with reading, mathematics teaching stresses the use of a variety of learning opportunities to guide students to…

Ediger, Marlow

310

Pedagogical Considerations in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines various approaches to teaching reading. The first approach considered focuses on a teacher strictly following a textbook. The paper notes that textbooks which employ programmed reading help students progress at a slow but steady rate. It then discusses the hierarchical method of state mandated objectives and testing. Features…

Ediger, Marlow

311

Reading Specialists in Leadership Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the importance of reading specialists who work in schools identified as having exemplary reading programs and the roles and functions of these reading specialists. In stage 1 of this study, a 19-item survey questionnaire was sent to 111 school principals with exemplary reading programs, asking them about the reading

Bean, Rita M.; Knaub, Rebecca; Swan, Allison

312

Encouraging the Lifetime Reading Habit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that teachers must encourage the lifetime reading habit at school in independent reading. Discusses several ways to do so, including cluttering up the classroom with reading materials, providing time for reading, and encouraging the reading habit throughout the year. (SR)

Sanacore, Joseph

1992-01-01

313

Analytical Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BEEM (Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy) was invented at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Center for Microelectronics Technology. It is a significant research instrument for microelectronics research because it is able to image underlying layers or interfaces of surface structures. A tiny current is injected into a metal layer and the electrons travel ballistically through the metal allowing the researcher to study the operation and performance of a structure. Other advantages include nondestructive imaging of barrier heights and electronic characterization of devices, as well as the potential to observe processes like molecular beam epitaxy (crystal growth) in situ.

1994-01-01

314

PREX Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lead Radius Experiment (PREx) took place in the Spring of 2010 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Its goal was to obtain a clean measurement of the root mean square neutron radius of ^208Pb to 1% accuracy. This was done by measuring the parity violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from a Lead target. In order to obtain such a precise measurement, numerous improvements and upgrades were made to the instrumentation and electronics of Hall A. This talk will discuss developments related to the PREx main detectors, Data Acquisition system and Luminosity Monitor.

Mercado, Luis

2011-04-01

315

QuaMeter: Multivendor Performance Metrics for LC-MS/MS Proteomics Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

LC-MS/MS-based proteomics studies rely on stable analytical system performance that can be evaluated by objective criteria. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) introduced the MSQC software to compute diverse metrics from experimental LC-MS/MS data, enabling quality analysis and quality control (QA/QC) of proteomics instrumentation. In practice, however, several attributes of the MSQC software prevent its use for routine instrument monitoring. Here, we present QuaMeter, an open-source tool that improves MSQC in several aspects. QuaMeter can directly read raw data from instruments manufactured by different vendors. The software can work with a wide variety of peptide identification software for improved reliability and flexibility. Finally, QC metrics implemented in QuaMeter are rigorously defined and tested. The source code and binary versions of QuaMeter are available under Apache 2.0 License at http://fenchurch.mc.vanderbilt.edu.

Ma, Ze-Qiang; Polzin, Kenneth O.; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W.; Tran, Bao Q.; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo; Liebler, Daniel C.; Tabb, David L.

2013-01-01

316

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

Hartley, D.S. III

1998-01-01

317

The Effects of a Voluntary Summer Reading Intervention on Reading Activities and Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The causal effects of a voluntary summer reading intervention on children's reading activities and reading achievement were assessed in a randomized experiment involving 331 children in Grades 1-5. Children were pretested in the spring on a standardized test of reading achievement (Stanford Achievement Test, 10th ed.), on the Elementary Reading

Kim, James S.

2007-01-01

318

Developing reading fluency in EFL: How assisted repeated reading and extensive reading affect fluency development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however, indicates that good reading ability is virtually impossible in the absence of

Etsuo Taguchi; Miyoko Takayasu-Maass; Greta J. Gorsuch

319

Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

2008-01-01

320

Reading between Eye Saccades  

PubMed Central

Background Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

Blais, Caroline; Fiset, Daniel; Arguin, Martin; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bub, Daniel; Gosselin, Frederic

2009-01-01

321

Experimental Comparison of Icing Cloud Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Icing cloud instruments were tested in the spray cloud Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in order to determine their relative accuracy and their limitations over a broad range of conditions. It was found that the average of the readings from each of the liquid ...

W. Olsen D. Takeuchi K. Adams

1983-01-01

322

Why Johnny Can Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An American teacher visited England and learned why children learned to read and write with such facility while American students struggled to develop those skills. Points out seven significant factors responsible for the development of young English students. (RK)

Spitzer, Rosina

1978-01-01

323

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:May 15,2014 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ... blood). What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined ...

324

Reading Comprehension Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. Do your middle school students not complete reading assignments or not comprehend them when they do? Is student motivation an issue you struggle with? Do you feel that your students need assistance comprehending the textbook? Students are faced with increasingly difficult text and many situations in which they must learn content by reading. This cross-curricular emphasis on reading comprehension is not just an effort to teach to the high-stakes tests that are so ubiquitous in our education system today. Instead, it is a way to teach students how to interact with text. This Wiki page can be used to help teachers prepare students for a lifetime of reading, comprehension, and reflection.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-07-01

325

Early Reading Skills  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Skills HealthDay March 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Infant and Newborn Development Transcript Armed with an arsenal ... Educational Psychology tracked reading skills among 117 healthy infants between 10 and 18 months old. For 7 ...

326

Philosophy of Teaching Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists advantages and disadvantages of statewide testing. Presents examples of highly specific objectives, as emphasized by realism as a philosophy of education. Considers the advantages idealism/perennialism, as a philosophy of instruction, has in a quality reading curriculum. (SG)

Ediger, Marlow

2003-01-01

327

Read Without Seeing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners write a message in Braille using beans to form the patterns of dots. Learners glue beans in place, and then challenge another learner to read the message. This resource includes a Braille chart.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

328

Science Sampler: Annotated reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to make reading assignments a more meaningful instructional strategy, the author created MP3 audio recordings of the textbook, which included commentary that was interspersed in the recording. At the start of every recording, he also modeled text

Dohrenwend, Peter

2010-07-01

329

Frustration and reading problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of frustration-produced anxiety in varying degrees as a concomitant effect of reading disability has been amply documented. Bryant (1962) has noted anxiety as one of the underlying causes of the \\

Raymond E. Laurita

1972-01-01

330

Celebrate Summer with Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of NSTA Recommends --ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach chairs, flags, and fireworks schedules; collect some reading material for a summer of personal enrichment.

Texley, Juliana

2007-07-01

331

Binocular advantages in reading.  

PubMed

Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

2014-03-01

332

When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

2013-01-01

333

The assessment of reading comprehension difficulties for reading intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a multifaceted approach to reading diagnosis and flexible interventions in order to cater for individual learning

Gary Woolley

2008-01-01

334

Summer Reading Summer Not: How Project READS Can Advance Equity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has three goals. First, it describes the broader research on summer reading loss. Second, it discusses how research and development efforts informed the key components of Project READS (Reading Enhances Achievement During Summer), a scaffolded voluntary summer reading intervention for children in grades 3 to 5. The second part of the…

Kim, James S.

2010-01-01

335

Parents' Reading-Related Knowledge and Children's Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related…

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-01-01

336

The Impact of Oregon Reading First on Student Reading Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of Oregon Reading First on student reading outcomes. Outcomes in schools that began Reading First implementation in 2003-2004 (Cohort A) were compared to outcomes in schools that began Reading First implementation in 2005-2006 (Cohort B). The primary hypothesis, that experienced Cohort A schools would outperform…

Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jeanie Mercier; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Beck, Carrie Thomas

2011-01-01

337

Family Reading Habits and Children's Progress in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influences of the home on children's attitudes toward reading, perceptions of reading, reading habits, and reading achievement. Participating in the study were 38 low-income white children (and their parents) from nine first-grade classrooms involved in the Florida Parent Education Follow Through project. Data were obtained…

Lamme, Linda; Olmsted, Pat

338

Rain radar instrument definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

1996-12-01

339

Optical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

1990-01-01

340

pH Optrode Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

1995-01-01

341

Peer Tutors Improve Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…

LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

2011-01-01

342

DEVELOPING HIGH SCHOOL READING PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FORTY-FOUR REPRINTS CONCERNING HIGH SCHOOL READING PROGRAMS SELECTED FROM "THE READING TEACHER" AND THE "JOURNAL OF READING" AND THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL READING ASSOCIATION ARE PRESENTED. THE CRITERIA FOR SELECTION WERE CONSISTENCY WITH ACCEPTED CURRICULAR AND INSTRUCTIONAL PRINCIPLES, CURRENT APPROPRIATENESS, DUPLICATION, AND…

DAWSON, MILDRED A.

343

Effective interventions for reading disability.  

PubMed

A simple, readily accessible, and inexpensive intervention which produces immediate improvements in the reading comprehension abilities of reading-disabled children has been found. The intervention consists of colored overlays, or overlays which reduce the contrast of printed materials. This intervention produces reading comprehension gains in approximately 80 percent of the reading-disabled children tested. PMID:1378860

Williams, M C; Lecluyse, K; Rock-Faucheux, A

1992-06-01

344

Improving Reading to Improve Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading provides information across the curriculum. Thus, to the extent that fundamental (i.e., generalizable) reading comprehension strategies can be taught, the benefits should be found in multiple domains. To test this claim, children in the third and fourth grades read by simulating text content using the two-part, embodied "Moved by Reading"…

Glenberg, Arthur; Willford, Jonathan; Gibson, Bryan; Goldberg, Andrew; Zhu, Xiaojin

2012-01-01

345

Explorations in Second Language Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in "Explorations in Second Language Reading" reveal the importance of reading in the classroom and how instructors can use reading as a bridge to improve learners' other linguistic and interpersonal skills. Most significantly, each author prompts us to rediscover how enjoyable ESOL reading can be and how it can increase learner…

Cohen, Roger, Ed.

2009-01-01

346

Timely Topic: Balanced Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report entitled "Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children" (Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998) concludes that both phonics and whole language are important in teaching young children how to read. These two strategies--along with plenty of time for children to read, to be read to, and to write--are important components of balanced…

Johnson, Debra

347

Ten Myths of Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the most damaging myths and misconceptions about reading instruction. The paper begins with what it considers the "most pernicious myth currently influencing reading instruction"--Learning to read is a natural process. Following this "Myth #1" are these myths: (2) Children will eventually learn to read if given enough time; (3)…

Wren, Sebastian

348

The Child's Conception of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to describe conceptions of the usefulness of reading (the function or "why" of reading) and conceptions of the reading process (the form or "how" of reading) among preschool and first grade children in Sweden. The research paradigm used--based on the work of Vygotsky and Piaget--was called the "second order perspective" and…

Dahlgren, Gosta; Olsson, Lars-Erik

349

Reading for Kicks, Not Kickbacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second-graders and a new teacher came up with an approach that showed him how much fun reading can be. The students voted on reading privileges; peer pressure maintained discipline; students shared books that their parents had read to them and invited "guest readers" to read with their class. (MLF)

Brassell, Danny

2003-01-01

350

When Do Children Read Books?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction…

van Ours, Jan C.

2008-01-01

351

Patterns of Thinking in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading teacher needs to be well versed in the teaching of reading, which includes different patterns of thinking in each student. A skilled reader develops patterns of thinking pertaining to content read. Identified patterns of thinking need to be analyzed and incorporated as objectives for student attainment in reading. This paper discusses…

Ediger, Marlow

352

Reading for Enjoyment and Pleasure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students should have ample time to read for enjoyment and pleasure. As a major goal of their instruction, teachers should seek to cultivate a liking for reading in their students. Reading materials available for students--library books and children's magazines--need to cover a wide variety of genres and be on different reading levels. This is…

Ediger, Marlow

353

Automobile Maintenance. Reading and Language Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed primarily for special needs students in a vocational program in automobile maintenance, this book was written to refine the basic skills of following directions, reading comprehension, vocabulary building, spelling, word usage, and word recognition, while relating these skills to some of the tasks a beginning student in the program must…

Kessman, William A.

354

Preventing Summer Reading Declines in Children Who Are Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of a summer reading instruction program as part of an 8-week summer day camp experience for 61 disadvantaged first grade children. Two hours of direct explicit reading instruction daily were supplemented with a literacy-rich camping experience. Post-tests indicated the experimental group not only obviated usual summer…

Schacter, John

2003-01-01

355

On the Nonsmooth, Nonconstant Velocity of Braille Reading and Reversals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative to print reading, braille-reading finger movements are held to be of more constant speed, with continuous and exhaustive contact with all words. However, the continuity of movements is intermittent in two distinct ways: (a) readers reverse direction and reread material already encountered and (b) the continual fluctuations of velocity…

Hughes, Barry; McClelland, Amber; Henare, Dion

2014-01-01

356

The Teacher and the Reading Skills Report for Migrant Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a process of refinement and field testing, a working committee of seven states, under the direction of the National Committee of State Directors of Migrant Education Programs, developed a list of reading skills/concepts that are both generic and universal. Each skill is a base, essential concept. Most skills or subskills in any reading

Bove, Richard

357

The Impact of Environmental Print Instruction on Early Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to ascertain if there were any significant differences in the ability to read logos and to make the transition to reading logos in manuscript forms of kindergarten children who received direct instruction with environmental print, those who received indirect instruction, and those who received no instruction with…

Kuby, Patricia; Aldridge, Jerry

2004-01-01

358

Reading and Learning-Disabled Children: Understanding the Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors assess the evidence related to various instructional styles for teaching reading to children with learning disabilities. Results of the literature review indicate that whole language and direct instruction are the two major approaches to teaching reading. Whole language has proven successful for many students with…

Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Carvalho, Kathleen

2008-01-01

359

Isolating the impact of visual perception on dyslexics’ reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of data suggests that phonological deficits play an important causal role in dyslexics’ reading difficulties. The functional role of visual impairments is still highly debated. Many recent studies have shown clear visual deficits in large subgroups of dyslexics. However, the relationship between these deficits and visual routines required for reading is not clear. To assess the direct

Mark M. Shovman; Merav Ahissar

2006-01-01

360

High Read Stability and Low Leakage Cache Memory Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data in conventional six transistor (6T) static random access memory (SRAM) cells are vulnerable to noise due to the direct access to the data storage nodes through the bit lines during a read operation. A new nine transistor (9T) SRAM cell is proposed in this paper for simultaneously enhancing read stability and reducing leakage power consumption. The proposed 9T SRAM

Zhiyu Liu; Volkan Kursun

2007-01-01

361

Affective Variables and Japanese L2 Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how 17 affective factors are related to Japanese second language (L2) reading comprehension and "kanji" knowledge test scores of 43 university students in advanced Japanese courses. Major findings are that: a) reading comprehension ability and "kanji" knowledge have direct associations with self-perception of Japanese…

Kondo-Brown, Kimi

2006-01-01

362

Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

2004-01-01

363

Office of Probation - Richmond College: Reading Center Assessment. Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program serves a population of disaffected, underachieving inner-city youth of junior high and high school age who are known to the Family and/or Criminal courts and are at least two years retarded in reading. In most cases, the first efforts of the center are said to be directed to the provision of remedial reading services, and toward…

Brown, James M.

364

The Effects of the "Language Arts" Strand of the "Reading Mastery Signature Series" on the Reading and Language Skills of English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on research showing the interdependence of language skills and reading proficiency, this study examined the effects of using the "Language Arts" strand of the "Reading Mastery Signature" 2008 series program as a supplement to non-Direct Instruction reading programs with English Language Learner (ELL) students. Seventy-six kindergarten…

Ralston, Nicole C.; Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Caniglia, Cyndi

2009-01-01

365

Improving Reading Rate Activities for EFL Students: Timed Reading and Repeated Oral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of timed reading (TR) and repeated oral reading (RR) on 35 adult students of English as a foreign language. Students in the TR (n =18) and RR (n =17) groups read 52 and 26 passages respectively over a 13-week period. Reading rates and comprehension levels were measured at three occasions: pre-intervention,…

Chang, Anna C. -S.

2012-01-01

366

Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

2004-01-01

367

Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments that may ...

368

Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

2014-01-01

369

Improving PacBio Long Read Accuracy by Short Read Alignment  

PubMed Central

The recent development of third generation sequencing (TGS) generates much longer reads than second generation sequencing (SGS) and thus provides a chance to solve problems that are difficult to study through SGS alone. However, higher raw read error rates are an intrinsic drawback in most TGS technologies. Here we present a computational method, LSC, to perform error correction of TGS long reads (LR) by SGS short reads (SR). Aiming to reduce the error rate in homopolymer runs in the main TGS platform, the PacBio® RS, LSC applies a homopolymer compression (HC) transformation strategy to increase the sensitivity of SR-LR alignment without scarifying alignment accuracy. We applied LSC to 100,000 PacBio long reads from human brain cerebellum RNA-seq data and 64 million single-end 75 bp reads from human brain RNA-seq data. The results show LSC can correct PacBio long reads to reduce the error rate by more than 3 folds. The improved accuracy greatly benefits many downstream analyses, such as directional gene isoform detection in RNA-seq study. Compared with another hybrid correction tool, LSC can achieve over double the sensitivity and similar specificity.

Au, Kin Fai; Underwood, Jason G.; Lee, Lawrence; Wong, Wing Hung

2012-01-01

370

Item-Level Effects of the Read-Aloud Accommodation for Students with Reading Disabilities. Synthesis Report 65  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research support for providing a read-aloud accommodation (i.e., having an individual read test items and directions aloud) to students with disabilities has been somewhat limited, particularly when merely examining effects of the accommodation on overall test scores for general groups of students with disabilities. The authors examined data on…

Bolt, Sara E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

2006-01-01

371

Promoting the Necessity to Read: A Guide for Instructors of the Disabled Reader in the Teaching of Survival Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the needs of older nonreaders, this booklet provides teaching suggestions and classroom activities for functional or survival reading skills. The topics covered include using the telephone; figuring the cost of a purchase; following directions; survival vocabulary for public signs; vocabulary for the medicine chest; reading the…

Welch, Jennifer S.

372

Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT)  

PubMed Central

Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect (“What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?”) or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a “proof of concept” and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies.

Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin

2011-01-01

373

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

374

Simulating Responses of Gravitational-Wave Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic LISA is a computer program for simulating the responses of the instrumentation of the NASA/ESA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, the purpose of which is to detect and study gravitational waves. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the time-delay-interferometry (TDI) observables. (TDI is a method of canceling phase noise in temporally varying unequal-arm interferometers.) Synthetic LISA provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves, according to a full model of TDI (including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the arm lengths). Synthetic LISA is written in the C++ programming language as a modular package that accommodates the addition of code for specific gravitational wave sources or for new noise models. In addition, time series for waves and noises can be easily loaded from disk storage or electronic memory. The package includes a Python-language interface for easy, interactive steering and scripting. Through Python, Synthetic LISA can read and write data files in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), which is a commonly used astronomical data format.

Armstrong, John; Edlund, Jeffrey; Vallisneri. Michele

2006-01-01

375

GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

2004-01-01

376

Third Grade Reading Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

Rose, Stephanie

2012-01-01

377

Reading Crash Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of children need have no real difficulty with reading. A short, structured course, together with a large amount of effort and goodwill from the teachers, appears to have success at coping with many of those children entering a secondary school as poor or hesitant readers. (Author)

Corrall, Inga

1977-01-01

378

Reading in Place  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…

Price, Leah

2012-01-01

379

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and education professors suggest various nonfiction and fiction books for summer reading enjoyment, from Robert Putnam's "Bowling Alone," C.A. Bowers's "Let Them Eat Data," and Larry McMurtry's "Roads: Driving America's Great Highways" to Kent Hauf's "Plainsong, J.M. Coetzee's "Disgrace," and Michael Cunningham's "The Hours." (MLH)

[Editors

2001-01-01

380

CALIPSO Data Read Software  

  CALIPSO Data Read Software Callable routines in Interactive Data Language ... Solutions .   CALIPSO_READERS_3.3v2 Software (IDL) tar  (574.4 KB) zip  (250 KB) ...   CALIPSO_READERS_3.3v1 Software (IDL) tar  (434 KB) zip  (188 KB) ...

2014-01-29

381

Reading Angles in Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2014-01-01

382

Reading Correction Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This kit for teachers is designed to help students at the elementary and secondary levels improve their reading skills. The kit is divided into twelve sections. The first section describes in detail how to best put the materials found in this aid to use. Sections two through six are devoted to the word-recognition techniques of sight word…

Miller, Wilma H.

383

Metrics for Blueprint Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of blueprint reading students, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

384

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

1991-01-01

385

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)

Phi Delta Kappan, 2000

2000-01-01

386

Risking Aesthetic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reflective article explores a tension between private and public expression of deep aesthetic response to reading, with specific reference to the play of this tension in the public space of the classroom. Implications for teaching are included, most specifically the need to understand the sensitivities and emotional vulnerability of students,…

Calderwood, Patricia E.

2005-01-01

387

Reading and Talking Bilingually.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bilingual Ss were tested in several linguistic tasks with different kinds of material. Passages were prepared in unilingual, alternating, and mixed-language forms. The Ss were tested for comprehension for ability to read aloud, to make precis, and to spea...

P. A. Kolers

1965-01-01

388

Teachers Reading Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating research-based expectations and education strategies for all teachers to implement consistently are the beginning steps in giving all students access to standards-based curriculum and in creating readers, writers, and content learners. Reading aloud is one research-based practice that enhances achievement for all students, whether they…

McQuillan, Kristin

2009-01-01

389

Extensive Reading in Japanese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

2004-01-01

390

How Reading Engages Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the NCREL's (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory's) "Learning Point" focuses on how reading engages children. The cover story article is an interview (Marianne Kroeger and Stephanie Blaser) with Mary Foertsch, from NCREL, on what types of innovative strategies teachers employ to help students become engaged readers. A…

NCREL's Learning Point, 1999

1999-01-01

391

Books Still Worth Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 10 major articles in this special journal issue deal with literary works designated by individual educators as "still worth reading." The works discussed are (1) "Madeline" by L. Bemelmans; (2) "The Assistant" by B. Malamud; (3) "The Pitfalls for Readers of Fiction" by H. Sample, the first of the pamphlet publications by the National Council…

McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

1983-01-01

392

Andre Can Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allowing a fifth grader who caused problems in regular classrooms to exert control over some learning activities led to the student's involvement in the activities, his commitment to their completion, and the development of a situation that made learning to read desirable and acceptable to him. (PGD)

Malmgren, Rene L.

1985-01-01

393

Conversations on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three highly acclaimed teachers from Virginia elementary schools reflect on how they have put research into practice to the benefit of their students, discussing their experiences in teaching reading and presenting information on how their school encourages the type of professional-development activities that provide for the careful examination of…

Fowler, Dottie; Parker, Emelie; Cuda, Suzanne

1999-01-01

394

Writing, Reading and Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance-related writing and reading competencies required in most occupations are seldom emphasized in elementary and secondary school education. Performance-related writing may be simplistic, but its composition is more complex--in occupational writing, context, audience assessment, attention to detail, concise clarity, message…

Rush, R. Timothy

395

Reading Tailored to Fit?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the experiences of a remedial teacher in Great Britain with an intermediate grade boy suffering from high frequency hearing loss, perceptual weakness, emotional maladjustment, poor speech, and reading difficulty in attempting to provide a program suited to his particular needs. (MB)

Trimble, Nan

1971-01-01

396

Medication and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The clinical syndrome which relates most frequently to the reading-disabled child is the attention deficity disorder. The child psychiatrist will generally resort to medication only when behavioral management techniques have failed. The two most frequently used medications are Ritalin and Dexedrine, central nervous system stimulants. (JN)

Humphries, Laurie L.

1981-01-01

397

Speaking of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in the tradition of Studs Terkel, this book presents oral histories of 77 diverse readers (from avid to infrequent readers) about how reading affects their lives. Sprinkled throughout the book are narratives of nationally recognized personalities, such as Maxine Hong-Kingston, Robert MacNeil, Gloria Steinem, Linus Pauling, Julie Harris,…

Rosenthal, Nadine

398

Distance Reading Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about a framework that would promote distance education in the Philippines. Its focus is on the development of reading comprehension among primary elementary school age Filipinos in the remote barrios where access to free education is not available. Modern technology such as mobile or satellite phones, solar power and internet will make this framework work in rural

Romeo G. Manalo; Marivic V. Manalo

2010-01-01

399

Use of Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction of historical and philosophical readings to outdoor education settings serves many purposes: inspiration to share personal stories, a sense of continued tradition, links across time to current practices, a way to frame complex notions of being, and opportunities for new understandings of outdoor experiences and clarification of…

Henderson, Bob; Leckie, Linda

1998-01-01

400

Celebrate Summer with Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of "NSTA Recommends"--ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach…

Texley, Juliana

2007-01-01

401

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends many books for summer reading enjoyment, concentrating on historical and contemporary fiction. Different cultures clash in William T. Vollman's "Fathers and Crows" and John Demos's adventuresome "Unredeemed Captive." Other suggestions: "Snow Falling on Cedar Mountain" (David Gutterman) and "Foxfire" (Joyce Carol Oates). For professional…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1995

1995-01-01

402

Reading a Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners investigate how Earthâs three-dimensional, physical environment is represented on a two-dimensional topographic map. Learners explore the essential parts of a map including legend, scale, and slope indicators. Map reading skills are then tested by learners choosing the best trail to take in different scenarios.

Service, National P.

2011-08-21

403

Evaluation in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation in reading must be a continuous process. The assessment of readiness, progress, and mastery in the development of skills, concepts, and behaviors must be an ongoing process if the best decisions are to be made for each learner. The articles included in this yearbook offer a variety of assessment techniques, using both objective and…

Randolph, Huberta V., Ed.

404

Ways Students Read Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the results of a preferred method of study questionnaire in which college students explained how they approached reading a new textbook. Reports that women showed a significant preference for adopting a single method of study. Indicates that there was no discernable relationship between study strategies and college level. (CW)

Wandersee, James H.

1988-01-01

405

Ways students read texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students responding to the Preferred Method of Study (PMOS) questionnaire explained how they approach reading a new textbook chapter for comprehension. Results indicated that a significant positive correlation exists between the number of passes a student makes at new textbook material and his\\/her college grade-point average. Women showed a significant preference for adopting a single method of study. Less

James H. Wandersee

1988-01-01

406

Literature and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this themed issue focus on the use of real literature in reading instruction. Following a comment from the editor, the titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Understanding Poetry: Questions to Consider" (Nancy Wiseman Seminoff); (2) "Experiencing a Novel: The Short and Long of It" (David M. Bishop and…

French, Michael P., Ed.; Elford, Shirley J., Ed.

1986-01-01

407

Reading and Generalist Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading

Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

2007-01-01

408

Predictive Assessment of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study 1 retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological and psychoeducational tests given to N = 220 first graders, with follow-up assessments in third and eighth grade. Four predictor constructs were derived: (1) Phonemic Awareness, (2) Picture Vocabulary, (3) Rapid Naming, and (4) Single Word Reading. Together, these accounted for 88%, 76%, 69%, and…

Wood, Frank B.; Hill, Deborah F.; Meyer, Marianne S.; Flowers, D. Lynn

2005-01-01

409

Time for Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

Waters, Lindsay

2007-01-01

410

Reading and Deaf Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and field-testing of Cornerstones, an approach to classroom literacy instruction for young deaf children that utilizes an educational television program and other engaging media components. Focuses on word-knowledge aspect, because of its influence on the development of background knowledge and reading comprehension.…

Loeterman, Mardi; Paul, Peter V.; Donahue, Sheila

2002-01-01

411

BOYS, FUN, AND READING  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HELPS TO GET THOSE BOY BOOKS OFF THE SHELVES Teachers for many years have known that boys reading interest and doing has lagged way behind girls. Luckily for the boys, much interest and research has been going on to understand this phenomenon. There are many web sites of research findings that are available for the teacher and ...

Carol, Miss

2006-11-14

412

Rules or Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…

Ruefle, Anne E.

2011-01-01

413

[Reading and speaking].  

PubMed

Reading is an activity that refers to the universe of language and speech and because of this, it cannot be grasped without the existence of a speaking subject. Children must get their share of fairy tales and stories in order to live in the warmth of words and light of literature. PMID:2281208

Bouvet, D

1990-01-01

414

ECRI--Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mastery learning methods developed by Ethna Reid at the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI) in Utah have been adopted by a fifth grade class in Allentown, New Jersey. This article briefly explains some of the techniques used in ECRI instruction. (SJL)

Girandola, Valeria B.

1980-01-01

415

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For educators' summer reading enjoyment, "Kappan" editors recommend three books on nature (Robert Richardson's biography "Emerson: The Mind on Fire, William Cronin's edited book "Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature," and Gary Snyder's poetry volume "Mountain and Rivers Without End"). Also recommended are three culturally diverse…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1997

1997-01-01

416

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

417

Environmental Awareness Reading List.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Awareness Reading list (E.A.R.L.), a semi-monthly listing of current publications dealing with environmental matters, is compiled by the Office of Library Services of the U. S. Department of the Interior to meet the needs of the National...

1971-01-01

418

Reading, Writing, and Rings!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Reading, Writing, and Rings!" was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have…

Aschbacher, Pamela; Li, Erika; Hammon, Art

2008-01-01

419

Reading the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the strong sense of passing time which seems to be wired into human beings, it is only natural that the Year 2000, or Y2K in contemporary jargon, should lead to serious speculation about the future. Reading and literacy, old skills relatively speaking, continue rightly to figure in those predictions (along with the technologically advanced…

Nettle, Keith

420

Reading as Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

Shanahan, Marie-Claire

2010-01-01

421

Meaning in Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are challenged to pass mandated tests in grades three through eight and the exit test on the secondary school level in order to be promoted to the next higher grade level or to receive a high school diploma. Failure is certainly a negative experience. It behooves reading teachers to assist learners to attach meaning to what is being…

Ediger, Marlow

2007-01-01

422

Reading's Next Chapter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

Kellman, Steven G.

2008-01-01

423

On Teaching Reading: A Conversation with Ethna Reid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethna Reid, founder and director of the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction, discusses ECRI program developments since the 1960s, explains several of its distinctive teaching techniques, and discusses its effectiveness relative to whole language and direct instruction approaches. (MLH)

Brandt, Ron

1990-01-01

424

A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

1996-01-01

425

Opportunities Gained & Lost: Placement in an Alternative Reading Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of one class of sixth grade middle students enrolled in a Title I reading class. The class consisted of 15 students. Through instrumental case study, qualitative data were collected over 24 weeks through (a) interviews, (b) observations, and (c) documents: student…

Donalson, Kathleen

2009-01-01

426

Read, Sing, Play, and Create a Musical Storm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dayle Ann Dodds and Rosanne Litzinger's children's book, "Sing, Sophie!" provides the elementary general music teacher with an opportunity to read a captivating children's story, sing the main character's song and play her guitar, and create a song as well as instrumental music. Lessons outlined in this article may culminate in a veritable musical…

Cardany, Audrey Berger

2012-01-01

427

A Comparison of Syntactic Writing Maturity with Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between reading comprehension and eleven measures of syntactic writing maturity. The subjects were 144 third, fourth, and fifth grade students of the Travis Elementary School in Sulphur Springs, Texas. The two instruments used to collect data were an in-class composition, which provided a writing sample,…

Johnson, Norma

428

Computerized Adaptive Testing for Reading Placement and Diagnostic Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study to pilot-test a new reading assessment instrument designed to function in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Indicates that the measure showed fair internal consistency and correlated well with other tests. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of CAT systems and describes the HyperCAT testing program. (23…

Shermis, Mark D.; And Others

1996-01-01

429

An Evaluation of a Summer Reading Institute, 1968.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes part of the evaluation of a six-week reading institute for 69 K-3 teachers from the Raymond School, Model School Division (MSD), Washington, D.C. and thereby provides an evaluation model for schools to use in their own inservice training programs. Two evaluation instruments developed by an MSD innovation team in cooperation…

Rosenfeld, Michael

430

The Influence of Children's Cognitive Styles on Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 103 second, third, and fourth grade students investigated relationships among cognitive styles and reading comprehension. Each subject was individually tested using four different instruments to assess four cognitive styles: (1) field-independence/dependence (ability to locate a simple figure--concept--hidden in a complex field), (2)…

Pitts, Murray C.; Thompson, Bruce

431

AAMD-Becker Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory Manual [and Male and Female Inventories].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AAMD-Becker Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory is a non-reading vocational preference test for use with mentally retarded persons, particularly the educable mentally retarded at the high school level. Illustrations having occupational significance are presented in forced-choice format for selections. The instrument helps to identify…

Becker, Ralph L.

432

"I Am in Grade One and I Can Read!" The Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the effects of the implementation of the readers' workshop on students' reading levels and comprehension skills in a first-grade, mixed-ability classroom in Lebanon. The instruments used at the beginning were running records and reading continuums, and at the end of the academic year, teachers' professional notebooks and notes…

Mounla, Ghina; Bahous, Rima; Nabhani, Mona

2011-01-01

433

Curriculum Bias in Published, Norm-Referenced Reading Tests: Demonstrable Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The content validity of four reading achievement tests was evaluated with respect to third and fourth grade levels of the Pathfinder Allyn and Bacon Reading Program, using 29 third and 34 fourth graders. Instruments evaluated included subtests of the California Achievement Tests, Metropolitan Achievement Tests, Peabody Individual Achievement Test,…

Good, Roland H., III; Salvia, John

1988-01-01

434

A Comparison of the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Used by EFL and ESL Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between EFL and ESL readers in metacognitive reading strategies when they are reading academic texts in English. One hundred and ninety undergraduate students (96 Iranians and 93 Indians) completed an instrument designed to measure the students' metacognitive awareness of…

Karbalaei, Alireza

2010-01-01

435

VISION AND COLLEGE READING - A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND REPORT OF A SURVEY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE AMERICAN OPTICAL (AO) COMPANY'S SIGHT SCREENER, A PORTABLE BINOCULAR INSTRUMENT DESIGNED FOR MASS VISION TESTING, WAS EVALUATED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND READING AND STUDY SKILLS LABORATORY TO DETERMINE ITS CAPACITY TO IDENTIFY STUDENTS NEEDING PROFESSIONAL EYE EXAMINATIONS PRIOR TO READING INSTRUCTION. DATA FROM 106 PROBATIONARY FRESHMEN,…

MAXWELL, MARTHA J.

436

Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

1997-01-01

437

Reading First: Lessons from Successful State Reading Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Reading First initiative is a central part of the federal "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. Reading First's primary goal is to improve reading instruction and student performance in kindergarten through grade 3. By March 2003 only half of the 50 state plans had been approved for funding. Approved states included seven Southern Regional…

Denton, David R.

438

Neurocognitive Predictors of Reading Outcomes for Children with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on several specific neurocognitive process predictors of reading outcomes for a sample of 278 children with reading disabilities. Three categories of response (i.e., poor, average, and good) were formed via growth curve models of six reading outcomes. Two nested discriminant function analyses were conducted to evaluate the…

Frijters, Jan C.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Steinbach, Karen A.; Wolf, Maryanne; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.

2011-01-01

439

Oral Reading Instruction: The Impact on Student Reading Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures the effects of two oral reading instructional routines (the Oral Recitation Lesson and Shared Book Experience) on second-grade students' reading development (including word analysis skills, oral reading errors, self-correction rates, oral retellings, vocabulary gains, and fluency). Finds that the Shared Book Experience was superior or…

Reutzel, D. Ray; And Others

1994-01-01

440

Reading Research Anthology: The Why? of Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles provides background information about reading and includes the research base that has defined best practices in teaching reading. Section 1 of the collection, "The Big Picture," contains the following articles: "Reading the Right Way" (Bill Honig); "Statement of Dr. G. Reid Lyon, April 28, 1998"; "Romance and Reality"…

Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc., Emeryville, CA.

441

The Effects of the Allain Reading System on Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five hundred second-grade pupils participated in a study of the effect of the Allain Color Pack reading system on reading achievement. Subjects were divided into equal treatment and control groups; each group was stratified according to low, average, and high reading ability determined on the basis of pretests of vocabulary and comprehension. The…

Allain, Althea Saizan

442

Television-Based Reading Instruction, Reading Achievement, and Task Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on whether reading instruction based on popular youth-oriented television programs increases task involvement or reading achievement scores. After one year, reading scores of classes using television scripts, in addition to regular materials, were significantly higher than those of nontreatment classes. (JN)

Szabo, Michael; Lamiell-Landy, Ann

1981-01-01

443

In Support of Reading: Reading Outreach Programs at Academic Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encouraging pleasure reading is not traditionally seen as the role of academic libraries. Those students who take time for reading, however, are better poised to succeed in college. Declining rates in reading among young people are cause for alarm, and many libraries at academic institutions are developing programs to promote this pastime. This…

Mahaffy, Mardi

2009-01-01

444

Reading Development and the Teaching of Reading: A Psychological Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis on the idea of reading as a "socio-cultural" phenomenon, derived from the idea that reading is not an isolated skill but is necessarily related to the purposes reading will be put to in particular social and cultural contexts. This collection of essays acknowledges the undoubted contribution of…

Oakhill, Jane, Ed.; Beard, Roger, Ed.

445

Improving Student Reading Skills through the Use of Guided Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes a program for improving student's reading skills. The targeted population consisted of students in a self-contained inclusion fourth grade classroom in a rural community, located in the Midwest. The lack of reading skills had been demonstrated through standardized achievement tests and the Developmental Reading Assessment.…

Conklin, Suzanne; Wilkins, Katherine

446

Read Across Texas! 2002 Texas Reading Club Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the Texas Reading Club is to encourage the children of Texas to become library users and lifelong readers. This manual was created for the 2002 Texas Reading Club, a program of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. The theme, "Read Across Texas!" invites children to explore the history, geography, and culture of Texas…

Edgmon, Missy; Ferate-Soto, Paolo; Foley, Lelana; Hager, Tina; Heard, Adriana; Ingham, Donna; Lopez, Nohemi; McMahon, Dorothy; Meyer, Sally; Parrish, Leila; Rodriguez-Gibbs, Josefina; Moreyra-Torres, Maricela; Travis, Gayle; Welch, Willy

447

Developing Reading Fluency: A Study of Extensive Reading in EFL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the great interest of practitioners on reading fluency in first language (L1) and second language (L2) English classroom settings, fluency has become a hot topic. A number of studies have suggested that an extensive reading (ER) program can lead to improvement of L2 learners' reading rate; however, studies about high school students are…

Iwahori, Yurika

2008-01-01

448

Reading Fluency Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

449

Reading Readiness Activities for FLES  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several reading readiness activities developed in a class on teaching reading are explained in detail. The article shows how these activities can be adapted by the foreign language teacher for use in FLES classes. (CHK)

Larew, Leonor A.

1976-01-01

450

Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine  

... Profile products. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and uses HDF routine calls to read the altitude data which are ... Data Read routine  (1.5 KB) Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...

2013-03-19

451

Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

1973-01-01

452

Treatment of Acquired Reading Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treatment of acquired reading disorders are discussed in terms of reading processes, assessment, and external/internal factors affecting comprehension. Treatment methods are distinguished for severely impaired, moderately impaired, and mildly impaired patients. (DB)

Webb, Wanda G.

1987-01-01

453

Intergenerational Reading: Encouraging the Grandlap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the benefits of intergenerational reading to children, seniors, parents, and libraries, and surveys library programs in Arizona, California, and New Mexico that mix generations with books and reading. The programs described vary from scheduled to spontaneous. (EAM)

Strickland, Charlene

1990-01-01

454

Predictors of Word Decoding and Reading Fluency across Languages Varying in Orthographic Consistency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very few studies have directly compared reading acquisition across different orthographies. The authors examined the concurrent and longitudinal predictors of word decoding and reading fluency in children learning to read in an orthographically inconsistent language (English) and in an orthographically consistent language (Greek). One hundred ten…

Georgiou, George K.; Parilla, Rauno; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

2008-01-01

455

Matching Literacy Profiles with Instruction for Students on the Spectrum: Making Reading Instruction Meaningful  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "literacy" is often used synonymously with reading and writing. However, literacy entails more than reading and writing. Literacy involves communicating with others and includes listening, viewing, following, and reading directions and interacting with friends and colleagues. The literacy skills and abilities are essential for all…

Carnahan, Christina R.; Williamson, Pamela; Haydon, Todd

2009-01-01

456

Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition"[R] ("CIRC"[R]) is a reading and writing program for students in grades 2-6. It has three principal elements: story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated language arts/writing. Daily lessons provide students with an opportunity to practice comprehension and…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

457

Unique Instruments' Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to help you find unique instruments from a specific country. For whatever country you have chosen, the following resources should help you locate some unique instruments from that country. For starters, check out this link: Instruments By Country You will find a list of musical instruments for many countries in the world. Once you find an instrument from your country you want to explore, look here: Unique World Instruments Here ...

Smith, Mr.

2012-09-11

458

Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: a five-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences. PMID:11949902

Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

2002-01-01

459

Stop the Summer Reading Slide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When teachers wave goodbye to their students as they head off for summer vacation, they might just be bidding farewell to some of their hard-won gains in reading skills. The "summer slide" is well-documented by research: Unless students read regularly during the break, they fall behind about three months in their reading achievement. This article…

Lundstrom, Meg

2005-01-01

460

Adult Reading Habits and Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the reading habits and patterns of White and Asian American adults. Hypothesizes that when grouped by demographic variables, participants' responses about their reading habits and patterns would not differ. Concludes that gender, race, and education were predictors for participants' reading habits; education and race were predictors for…

Scales, Alice M.; Rhee, Ock

2001-01-01

461

The Developmental Pathway to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive-developmental approach to reading instruction for preschool children is presented in this document. Common misunderstandings about reading instruction are discussed, and examples of young children's reading readiness are used to illustrate how developmental readiness, self-motivation, and the influence of an appropriate learning…

Stam, Bruce R.

462

Neurological Aspects of Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, a neurologist, looks at the nature of reading disabilities. He suggests that many reading disabilities are the result of normal constitutional differences and that the term "minimal brain dysfunction" is rarely appropriate and does not help the remediation process. Noted are various theories which relate neurology and reading ability.…

Nelson, Louis R.

463

Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition" is a comprehensive reference about reading instruction. Organized according to the elements of explicit instruction (what? why? when? and how?), the "Sourcebook" includes both a research-informed knowledge base and practical sample lesson models. It teaches the key elements of an effective reading

Honig, Bill; Diamond, Linda; Gutlohn, Linda

2008-01-01

464

The Science of Reading. 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of the 1990 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 23 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "The Effects of Oral Story-Telling and…

Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others

1990-01-01

465

Diagnosis in Severe Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between neurological impairment or brain damage and severe reading disability is investigated. Symptoms and causes of neurological impairment are listed, and reading disability theories are discussed. Smith and Carrigan offer a neurochemical explanation of reading disability based on synaptic transmission problems. Orton,…

Schubert, Delwyn G.

466

I Learned to Read, Again.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constance McCullogh, a former president of the International Reading Association who was rendered illiterate by a brain hemorrhage, describes difficulties she faced in learning to read again, and compares her problems to those faced by beginning readers. Advice to reading teachers is included. (PP)

Bradley, Buff

1983-01-01

467

Close Reading in Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Close reading is a recommended instructional approach to meet the challenges of teaching complex texts. But close readings are more common in high school and college than in elementary schools. In this article, we identify the components of close reading that were developed after a group of elementary school teachers observed their colleges in…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2012-01-01

468

Lists in Reading Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses six dimensions for analyzing lists used in reading education reform documents (type of list, nominalization, exclusivity and inclusivity, transivity, reading content, and intertextuality), explaining that lists frame who a good reader/good reading teacher is, what they do, and how they behave in particular institutional contexts. This…

Bloome, David; Carter, Stephanie Power

2001-01-01

469

The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

2010-01-01

470

Awareness Development for Online Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world in which online reading is becoming increasingly common and, as a consequence, online literacy more and more necessary, this paper focuses on possibility of training L2 (second language) readers to bridge the gap between paper reading and online reading. Many researchers believe metacognitive awareness to be the most important ability…

Zenotz, Victoria

2012-01-01

471

Factors Related to Reading Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summary of research on reading rate is presented. Cited studies dating from 1884 to 1965 suggest a relationship among reading rate and visual perception, practice in reading, power of concentration, mental alertness, complex reaction times, intelligence, amount of vocalization, content, rate of thinking, intensity of illumination, typographical…

Hanson, Earl

1968-01-01

472

Integrating Reading and Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating reading and language arts at all levels is the focus of this journal issue. The articles and their authors are as follows: "Reading and Writing: Close Relatives or Distant Cousins" (Kathryn A. Koch); "The Reading-Writing Relationship: Myths and Realities" (Timothy Shanahan); "The Classroom Teacher as an Action Researcher: Beginning…

French, Michael P., Ed.; Elford, Shirley J., Ed.

1986-01-01

473

Closing in on Close Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text--whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced--to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness" (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7). When the author…

Boyles, Nancy

2013-01-01

474

Reading in the Content Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading in the content areas is a basic in the curriculum. The ability to read well involves a plethora of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Measurement of instruction involves the use of highly specific objectives in reading instruction. With a measurement philosophy of instruction, the following are important to consider: whatever exists, exists…

Ediger, Marlow

475

Scaffolding Experiences in Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the importance of scaffolding and other techniques in teaching reading. It details numerous ways to employ scaffolding, such as the following: a teacher may read aloud new passages while students follow along; a teacher may print new words on the chalkboard before students read a passage which uses the words; and teachers may…

Ediger, Marlow

476

Electronic Thermometer Readings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Stennis' adaptive predictive algorithm for electronic thermometers uses sample readings during the initial rise in temperature and applies an algorithm that accurately and rapidly predicts the steady state temperature. The final steady state temperature of an object can be calculated based on the second-order logarithm of the temperature signals acquired by the sensor and predetermined variables from the sensor characteristics. These variables are calculated during tests of the sensor. Once the variables are determined, relatively little data acquisition and data processing time by the algorithm is required to provide a near-accurate approximation of the final temperature. This reduces the delay in the steady state response time of a temperature sensor. This advanced algorithm can be implemented in existing software or hardware with an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The capability for easy integration eliminates the expense of developing a whole new system that offers the benefits provided by NASA Stennis' technology.

2001-01-01

477

Action video games make dyslexic children read better.  

PubMed

Learning to read is extremely difficult for about 10% of children; they are affected by a neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia [1, 2]. The neurocognitive causes of dyslexia are still hotly debated [3-12]. Dyslexia remediation is far from being fully achieved [13], and the current treatments demand high levels of resources [1]. Here, we demonstrate that only 12 hr of playing action video games-not involving any direct phonological or orthographic training-drastically improve the reading abilities of children with dyslexia. We tested reading, phonological, and attentional skills in two matched groups of children with dyslexia before and after they played action or nonaction video games for nine sessions of 80 min per day. We found that only playing action video games improved children's reading speed, without any cost in accuracy, more so than 1 year of spontaneous reading development and more than or equal to highly demanding traditional reading treatments. Attentional skills also improved during action video game training. It has been demonstrated that action video games efficiently improve attention abilities [14, 15]; our results showed that this attention improvement can directly translate into better reading abilities, providing a new, fast, fun remediation of dyslexia that has theoretical relevance in unveiling the causal role of attention in reading acquisition. PMID:23453956

Franceschini, Sandro; Gori, Simone; Ruffino, Milena; Viola, Simona; Molteni, Massimo; Facoetti, Andrea

2013-03-18

478

Predictive assessment of reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study 1 retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological and psychoeducational tests given to N=220 first graders, with follow-up assessments in third and eighth grade. Four predictor constructs were derived: (1) Phonemic\\u000a Awareness, (2) Picture Vocabulary, (3) Rapid Naming, and (4) Single Word Reading. Together, these accounted for 88%, 76%,\\u000a 69%, and 69% of the variance, respectively, in first, third, and eighth grade Woodcock

Frank B. Wood; Deborah F. Hill; Marianne S. Meyer; D. Lynn Flowers

2005-01-01

479

Reading, Writing, and Rings!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reading, Writing, and Rings! was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have been studying how these materials are being used by teachers, science specialists, and after-school teachers, and share their findings with you in this article.

Hammon, Art; Li, Erika; Aschbacher, Pamela

2008-09-01

480

Large-scale read\\/write margin measurement in 45nm CMOS SRAM arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributions of read and write noise margins in large CMOS SRAM arrays are investigated by directly measuring the bit-line current during bitline \\/ wordline (write) or cell supply (read) voltage sweep in a 768 Kb 45 nm CMOS SRAM test-chip. Good correlation between write\\/read margin estimates through the bit-line measurements and the DC read SNM (RSNM) and IW measurements in

Zheng Guo; A. Carlson; Liang-Teck Pang; K. Duong; Tsu-Jae King Liu; B. Nikolic

2008-01-01

481

Differential cognitive and perceptual correlates of print reading versus braille reading.  

PubMed

The relations between reading, auditory, speech, phonological and tactile spatial processing are investigated in a Dutch speaking sample of blind braille readers as compared to sighted print readers. Performance is assessed in blind and sighted children and adults. Regarding phonological ability, braille readers perform equally well compared to print readers on phonological awareness, better on verbal short-term memory and significantly worse on lexical retrieval. The groups do not differ on speech perception or auditory processing. Braille readers, however, have more sensitive fingers than print readers. Investigation of the relations between these cognitive and perceptual skills and reading performance indicates that in the group of braille readers auditory temporal processing has a longer lasting and stronger impact not only on phonological abilities, which have to satisfy the high processing demands of the strictly serial language input, but also directly on the reading ability itself. Print readers switch between grapho-phonological and lexical reading modes depending on the familiarity of the items. Furthermore, the auditory temporal processing and speech perception, which were substantially interrelated with phonological processing, had no direct associations with print reading measures. PMID:23000636

Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol

2013-01-01

482

A Comparison of Lower-and Higher-Resourced Tier 2 Reading Interventions for High School Sophomores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of peer-mediated versus teacher-directed reading intervention on the reading performance of high school sophomores. Participants (n = 57) from the lowest 25th percentile of their sophomore class in reading were assigned randomly to peer-mediated or teacher-directed intervention. Fifteen to…

Bemboom, Christina M.; McMaster, Kristen L.

2013-01-01

483

Reading the Graphics: Reading Processes Prompted by the Graphics as Second Graders Read Informational Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is comprised of two manuscripts that resulted from a single study using verbal protocols to examine the reading processes prompted by the graphics as second graders read informational text. Verbal protocols have provided researchers with an understanding of the processes readers use as they read. Little is known, however, about…

Norman, Rebecca R.

2010-01-01

484

Repeated Reading for Developing Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: The Case of EFL Learners in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…

Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

2008-01-01

485

Help Me Read: Student Characteristics, Reading Attitudes, and Perceptions within a Developmental Reading Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research compiled ten-year, foundational information about students enrolled in a developmental reading course. The institutional data collected included student enrollment, demographics, and academic markers of success. A pre/post survey examined students' reading attitudes to determine if reading attitudes changed through the course…

McDowell, Forrest D., Jr.

2011-01-01

486

Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis.  

PubMed

Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10?×?6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10?×?6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients. PMID:23189036

Lauritzen, Thomas Z; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A; Dorn, Jessy D; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J

2012-01-01

487

Direct Identification of Bacteria from Positive Blood Cultures by Amplification and Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene: Evaluation of BACTEC 9240 Instrument True- Positive and False-Positive Results  

PubMed Central

In a previous study which evaluated the BACTEC 9240 automated blood culture system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.), we noted a 1.3% “instrument false-positive” rate. That is, the BACTEC system signaled that a bottle (BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle or BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle) culture was positive but a Gram stain was negative and there was no growth of bacteria or yeasts on subculture to chocolate agar. Furthermore, from the same sample of blood, cultures for fungi using the Isolator blood culture system (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) were negative for growth. For the present study, we evaluated 76 instrument false-positive samples for the presence of 16S ribosomal DNA using the MicroSeq 500 kit (PE Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.). These samples also were negative for fungi by the Isolator method. This kit has a PCR module and sequencing module for the amplification and sequencing of the 16S RNA gene and provides a database for sequence alignment and identification of bacteria. To optimize the assay, we evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% bovine serum albumin to the sample from blood culture bottles and found that it decreased the effects of inhibitors on the PCR. Two control groups of blood culture specimens were also evaluated. One group (n = 45) were “instrument true positives”; the instrument signaled positive, and subsequent Gram stains were positive and subcultures on chocolate agar grew bacteria. The other group (n = 20) were “instrument true negatives”; the instrument signaled negative, the Gram stain was negative, and subcultures on chocolate agar and from the Isolator tube on fungal media showed no growth. None of the 76 instrument false-positive samples had evidence for 16S rRNA gene sequences. All of the instrument true-positive samples and all of the instrument true-negative specimens were positive and negative, respectively, using the MicroSeq 500 kit. Total peripheral white blood cell counts were statistically significantly higher for patients who had instrument false-positive results than for patients who had instrument true-positive or true-negative results (P = 0.001). We conclude that instrument false positives signaled by the BACTEC 9240 system are not due to bacteria in the blood culture samples.

Qian, Qinfang; Tang, Yi-Wei; Kolbert, Christopher P.; Torgerson, Catherine A.; Hughes, John G.; Vetter, Emily A.; Harmsen, W. Scott; Montgomery, Stacy O.; Cockerill, Franklin R.; Persing, David H.

2001-01-01

488

Instrumentation for Materials Research - Major Instrumentation Projects  

NSF Publications Database

... Such instruments may include, for example, neutron beam lines, synchrotron beam lines, and high ... They include, for example, facilities for neutron scattering, synchrotron radiation, and high ...

489

INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.  

SciTech Connect

Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

2001-05-04

490

Instrument Control Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Instruments Instrument Control Fundamentals Series, your FREE resource for instrument control knowledge on the Web, presents technical content through theory, real-world examples, and interactive audiovisual tutorials. This series, organized into four general categories, is designed for a broad range of audiences, from experts who want to review a specific topic to new users who need easy-to-understand documentation for their projects. Subtopics include "What is instrument control?" "Instrument Control Hardware and Bus Technologies" "Instrument Control Software" and "Instrument Control System Architectures."

2013-06-21

491

Portable instrument for inspecting irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies  

DOEpatents

A portable instrument for measuring induced Cerenkov radiation associated with irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in a water-filled storage pond is disclosed. The instrument includes a photomultiplier tube and an image intensifier which are operable in parallel and simultaneously by means of a field lens assembly and an associated beam splitter. The image intensifier permits an operator to aim and focus the apparatus on a submerged fuel assembly. Once the instrument is aimed and focused, an illumination reading can be obtained with the photomultiplier tube. The instrument includes a lens cap with a carbon-14/phosphor light source for calibrating the apparatus in the field.

Nicholson, Nicholas (Los Alamos, NM); Dowdy, Edward J. (Los Alamos, NM); Holt, David M. (Los Alamos, NM); Stump, Jr., Charles J. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01

492

Response to Intervention With Secondary School Students With Reading Difficulties  

PubMed Central

The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities with older students with intractable reading disabilities, (c) the reliability, validity, and use of screening and progress monitoring measures with middle school students, and (d) the implications of implementing response to intervention (RTI) practices at the middle school level. The authors provide guidance about prevailing questions about remediating reading difficulties with secondary students and discuss future directions for research using RTI frameworks for students at the secondary level.

Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

2012-01-01

493

Reading in Virginia: 1973-1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Reading in Virginia" is intended to provide educators with information on topics related to reading instruction. The contents include: "Look, Move, Read," which discusses a reading and perceptual motor efficiency program designed to correct reading difficulties; "Teaching Reading in Virginia: Some Observations," which reports on one…

Virginia State Reading Association.

494

Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

2014-01-01

495

What Reading Does for the Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on research studies into the role that reading volume plays in shaping the mind. It is possible to outline the reciprocal influence of early reading acquisition and reading volume as determinants of later reading comprehension and other cognitive abilities. Early success at reading unlocks a lifetime of reading habits, as research shows.…

Cunningham, Anne E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

1998-01-01

496

Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-06-01

497

Reading a story.  

PubMed

Case delineation in clinical medicine is the technique of creating a narrative that allows the appropriate scientific knowledge to be brought to bear. Neurologists get to be good at this type of story reading and telling from dealing with clinical stories which are relatively long and complicated. These skills are evident whenever working neurologists gather to discuss case material, or when studying their written clinical communications. The purpose of the article is to analyze this aspect of everyday neurological practice by looking at some of the general principles of story telling and appreciation. PMID:16410193

Kempster, P A

2006-01-01

498

Recommended Reading Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes information about the author, language, grade level equivalency, interest level, type of book, word count, ISBN number, book company, or publisher, and whether the book is available with a recorded voice on CD or cassette. 1.) This is a resource for children needing additional material to enhance their reading abilities. You will be able to find many resources outside of what may be available at the school or library. 2.) Parents, make sure that you are involved in the selection of each book chosen, and ...

Tutor, Barry T.

2007-10-18

499

Critical Reading: Visual Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computer controlled visual media, particularly television, are becoming an increasingly powerful instrument for the manipulation of thought. Powerful visual images increasingly reflect and shape personal and external reality--politics being one such example--and it is crucial that the viewing public understand the nature of these media…

Adams, Dennis M.

500

47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...coupling to radio frequency current sensing device for providing direct current to indicating instrument. (4) Current transformer connected to radio frequency current sensing device for providing direct current to indicating instrument....

2013-10-01