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1

Portable direct reading instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct reading instruments are those instruments in which the analysis of the contaminant is carried out within the instrument itself. When selecting equipment, the industrial hygienist must consider the physical characteristics of the instruments as well as their performance characteristics and price. Some of the methods of detection that are used in instruments with multi-gas detection capabilities are: photoionization, Flame ionization, infrared, gas chromatography, infrared photoacoustic, and electrochemical.

Hermon-Cruz, Ivette Z.

1991-09-01

2

Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak™ 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

Bau, Sébastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, François; Thomas, Dominique

2009-05-01

3

Optimizing the performance of direct-reading dosimeters  

SciTech Connect

The direct-reading dosimeter has often been criticized for its lack of precision and accuracy and its tendency to produce false readings. This study investigates that contention and discusses the limitations of these instruments and the consequent effects on personnel monitoring. The precautions which must be observed to eliminate or minimize these limitations in the data are explained. Data are presented to support the statement that direct-reading dosimeters, when properly used, are accurate and precise instruments whose small size, ruggedness, resistance to severe environments, hermeticity and self-reading capabilities can be a decided advantage over transfer standards for some applications.

Jackson, T.P.

1985-07-01

4

Optimizing the performance of direct-reading dosimeters.  

PubMed

The direct-reading dosimeter has often been criticized for its lack of precision and accuracy and its tendency to produce false readings. This study investigates that contention and discusses the limitations of these instruments and the consequent effects on personnel monitoring. The precautions which must be observed to eliminate or minimize these limitations in the data are explained. Data are presented to support the statement that direct-reading dosimeters, when properly used, are accurate and precise instruments whose small size, ruggedness, resistance to severe environments, hermeticity and self-reading capabilities can be a decided advantage over transfer standards for some applications. PMID:4008263

Jackson, T P

1985-07-01

5

A Direct Reading Thermometer Based on a Silicon Diode.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a simple circuit based on an inexpensive quad operational amplifier that permits a direct-reading temperature instrument to be constructed using silicon diodes. Encourages the use of this equipment in introductory thermal experiments. (DDR)|

Kirkup, L.; Tonthat, C.

1998-01-01

6

Diagnosis in Reading, What Direction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses and recommends diagnosis and remediation procedures in teaching pupils in the area of reading. The first section of the paper addresses diagnostic emphasis in reading and discusses individualized reading, experience charts, and 5 recommendations for teaching phonics. The next section discusses basal readers, argues that good…

Ediger, Marlow

7

Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and…

Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

2013-01-01

8

A Modified Direct-Reading Azimuth Protractor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction of a direct-reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) used for mapping fracture and joint-surface orientations in underground mines where magnetic disturbances affect typical geologic pocket transit. (SL)

Larson, William C.; Pugliese, Joseph M.

1977-01-01

9

Developing Sight-Reading Skills on Mallet Percussion Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sight-reading while playing a mallet instrument can present serious obstacles for the developing percussionist. Many young players who have solid snare drum technique usually cite fear of playing the wrong note as the number-one hurdle to overcome in order to begin making real progress. Greg Byrne, associate director of bands at the University of…

Fidyk, Steve

2009-01-01

10

Commissioning the UVAQ Direct Reading Optical Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The UVAQ Direct Reading Optical Spectrometer installed in the Research Centre has been set up and calibration graphs prepared for the determination of C, Si, Mn, P, S, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al, B, Cu, Nb, Sn, Ti, V, Zr in mild and low alloy steels. The repeatabilit...

J. Reid

1972-01-01

11

75 FR 64309 - Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors and Addendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...bodies, and manufacturers of direct-reading instrumentation and are compatible with the Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society guidelines. The addendum to the document expands the applicability of the Components by presenting methods to...

2010-10-19

12

Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

2012-01-01

13

Maximum uncertainty estimation for the HB-Line ventilation instrumentation readings  

SciTech Connect

The HB-Line building vacuum instrumentation and glovebox vacuum instrumentation at the Savannah River Plant are described. The configuration and operation of the Foxboro 834 series transmitters and Moore 350 series controllers is detailed. In particular, the uncertainties in the differential pressure readings are explained.

Melton, D.R.

1992-12-04

14

FREEPORT PUBLIC SCHOOLS EXPERIMENT ON EARLY READING USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENT INSTRUMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|OBJECTIVES WERE TO DETERMINE WHETHER A TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICE COULD TEACH 5-YEAR-OLDS TO READ, OVER WHAT INTELLIGENCE RANGES THE INSTRUMENT WOULD BE EFFECTIVE, WHETHER NEGRO CHILDREN FROM A RECENTLY CLOSED SEGREGATED SCHOOL WOULD RESPOND, AND WHETHER THE DEVICE COULD TEACH MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN. SUBJECTS WERE 22 KINDERGARTEN PUPILS FROM ONE…

MARTIN, JOHN H.

15

The Nexus between Direct Reading Instruction, Reading Theoretical Perspectives, and Pedagogical Practices of University of Swaziland Bachelor of Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the influence direct reading instruction had on university student teachers' reading cognition and the influence their theoretical perspectives had on their pedagogical practices. The study was conducted on all the seven year 2 (2008) Bachelor of Education (primary) students at the University of Swaziland.…

Sibanda, Jabulani

2010-01-01

16

Effect of geotropism on instrument readings. Calibrating survey meters to account for geotropism is discussed.  

PubMed

Geotropism is an analog meter's response due to orientation in a gravitational field whether radiation is present or not. For a conventional analog meter, the geotropic response is reflected in the movement of the meter needle. Geotropism is not relevant for digital portable survey (e.g., liquid crystal displays) or stationary bench top meters. The degree of geotropism must be evaluated during type testing and routine calibration when dealing with portable survey instruments. Geotropism is defined in , , and as a change in instrument reading with a change in instrument orientation as a result of gravitational effects. Ideally, the manufacturer when selecting a meter movement for a particular portable survey instrument application considers geotropism in their selection. However, simply employing high quality meters in the manufacture of instruments is not sufficient, since survey meters may be damaged to the point that geotropism may be exhibited. Awareness of geotropism and the ability to recognize its occurrence are invaluable to radiation protection technologists, especially those who calibrate or evaluate survey instruments in the course of doing their job. PMID:17023799

Rolph, Jim

2006-11-01

17

New read-out electronics concept for visual and infrared detector arrays in astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the building of scientific camera systems for astronomical purposes in mind, the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPIA) has recently started developing new visual and infrared detector Read-out systems. Due to the modular design, the electronics components can be configured for a wide range of currently available IR-detectors and CCDs. The new Read-out Electronics are able to handle single or multiple detector systems with up to 144 input channels, feature high-speed data transfer and low power dissipation and additionally the system size is small and lightweight. The design is divided in four functional groups: controller board with variable Pattern Generator and fast fiber link, clock/bias board, analog to digital converter board and the PCI data receiver board which writes the incoming data into the computer memory. This design is highly versatile and allows for a wide variety of applications. The high data transfer rate, small size and low heat dissipation makes these Read-out Electronics ideal for relatively large focal plane arrays. The first instrument running with the new Read-out Electronics will be PANIC (Panoramic Near Infrared Camera) at the 2.20 m telescope on Calar Alto.

Wagner, Karl; Mall, Ulrich; Ramos, José; Klein, Ralf

2008-08-01

18

Testing and Refining the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of American high school students struggle with reading comprehension. Theoretical models of reading comprehension might help researchers understand these difficulties, because they can point to variables that make the largest contributions to comprehension. On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we created a new model of reading comprehension, the direct and inferential mediation (DIME)

Jennifer G. Cromley; Roger Azevedo

2007-01-01

19

Single-Word Reading: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the first title in the new series, "New Directions in Communication Disorders Research: Integrative Approaches", this volume discusses a unique phenomenon in cognitive science, single-word reading, which is an essential element in successful reading competence. Single-word reading is an interdisciplinary area of research that incorporates…

Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Naples, Adam J., Ed.

2007-01-01

20

Direct Instruction of Comprehension: Instructional Examples From Intervention Research on Listening and Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of direct instruction in promoting listening and reading comprehension. Instructional examples from 2 programs of intervention research focused on improving comprehension; the Story Read Aloud Program and the Embedded Story Structure Routine are used to illustrate principles of direct instruction. An analysis of these 2 approaches suggests that direct instruction principles are effective in supporting

Michael D. Coyne; Richard P. Zipoli Jr; David J. Chard; Michael Faggella-Luby; Maureen Ruby; Lana E. Santoro; Scott Baker

2009-01-01

21

Developing Comprehension: The Impact of the Directed Reading Lesson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following assumptions motivated this monograph's analysis of commercial based reading programs: (1) basals represent the state of the art in reading instruction; (2) to offer suggestions for improvement of instruction, existing practices must be understood in detail; and (3) information about instruction contained in the literature at large…

Beck, Isabel L.

22

Increasing Reading Fluency through Student-Directed Repeated Reading and Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to increase reading fluency, a research-based tutoring method using repeated reading was implemented over a 10-week period with two second-grade students. Two high school students were trained to be the tutors. In addition, one parent and one older sibling were trained to repeat the tutoring process at night. Treatment integrity was…

Huang, Leesa V.; Nelson, R. Brett; Nelson, Diana

2008-01-01

23

Direct Teaching of Vocabulary after Reading: Is It Worth the Effort?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of direct teaching of new vocabulary items in reading passages. The study compared vocabulary learning under a reading only condition (incidental learning) to learning that is aided by direct communication of word meanings (explicit learning). Three levels of vocabulary knowledge (form recall,…

Sonbul, Suhad; Schmitt, Norbert

2010-01-01

24

A direct observation instrument for assessment of nurses’ patient transfer technique (DINO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to develop a direct observation instrument to assess the work technique of nursing personnel during patient transfers and to test the validity and reliability of the instrument. An expert group developed this instrument, called DINO (DIrect Nurse Observation instrument for assessment of work technique during patient transfers), which contains 16 items divided into three

Christina Johnsson; Katarina Kjellberg; Anders Kjellberg; Monica Lagerström

2004-01-01

25

Excusing Elementary School Students from Regular Classroom Activities for the Study of Instrumental Music: The Effect on Sixth-Grade Reading, Language, and Mathematics Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|No significant difference was found in sixth-grade reading, language, and mathematics achievement between students who were excused from regular classroom activities for the study of instrumental music and students not studying instrumental music. (Author/RM)|

Kvet, Edward J.

1985-01-01

26

Directing Thinking through Writing in Response to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A substantial amount of literature in education and psychology supports the notion that reading combined with writing enhances comprehension and recall. To investigate how various writing tasks affect thinking, a pilot study was conducted, which produced results consistent with the hypothesis that text engagement (student interaction with written…

Hayes, David A.

27

Put Reading First: Positive Effects of Direct Instruction and Scaffolding for ESL Learners Struggling with Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The inability of many English second-language (ESL) learners to read at desirable levels is universal, but reasons for this and solutions have not yet been addressed. Within the South African teaching context especially there is a paucity of evidence-based research findings available on the literacy challenges faced by ESL learners and the…

Van Staden, Annalene

2011-01-01

28

Real-Time Direct Read-Out Satellite Support to Meteorological Research Programs and Forecasting Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An existing automatic picture transmission ground station system is modified and expanded to provide experimental and operational meteorologists the means with which to collect, analyze, and display direct read-out satellite data on a real-time basis. The...

H. J. Miller T. H. V. Haar

1972-01-01

29

Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a\\u000a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes,\\u000a one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a\\u000a flat panel direct detector

Michael Gruber; Martin Uffmann; Michael Weber; Mathias Prokop; Csilla Balassy; Cornelia Schaefer-Prokop

2006-01-01

30

Construction of a Diagnostic Reading Instrument for Secondary Students. (Volumes I and II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental diagnostic assessment of selected reading skills was constructed for pupils in grades seven through nine. Parallel forms measured word pronunciation, phonic spelling, visual memory, listening comprehension, unaided recall after silent reading, and unaided oral recall after both oral and silent reading. After revisions based on a…

Forgione, Roberta Walsh

31

The Effectiveness of Reading Miscue Instruments. Program in Language and Literacy Occasional Paper No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated whether instructors need to undertake in-depth training in miscue analysis as reflected in the Reading Miscue Inventory (RMI) to carry out competent evaluations of children's reading ability, or whether training in the Reading Appraisal Guide (RAG) can be equally effective. The study was carried out at Melbourne College in…

Long, Patricia C.

32

Dealing with the size-of-source effect in the calibration of direct-reading radiation thermometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of general-purpose low-temperature handheld radiation thermometers are severely affected by the size-of-source effect (SSE). Calibration of these instruments is pointless unless the SSE is accounted for in the calibration process. Traditional SSE measurement techniques, however, are costly and time consuming, and because the instruments are direct-reading in temperature, traditional SSE results are not easily interpretable, particularly by the general user. This paper describes a simplified method for measuring the SSE, suitable for second-tier calibration laboratories and requiring no additional equipment, and proposes a means of reporting SSE results on a calibration certificate that should be easily understood by the non-specialist user.

Saunders, P.

2013-09-01

33

Learning Indirect Acquisition of Instrumental Gestures using Direct Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensing instrumental gestures is a common task in interactive electroacoustic music performances. The sensed gestures can then be mapped to sounds, synthesis algorithms, visuals etc. Two of the most common approaches for acquiring these gestures are: 1) Hybrid instruments which are \\

G. Tzanetakis; Ajay Kapur; A. R. Tindale

2006-01-01

34

The role of motion direction selective extrastriate regions in reading: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why reading ability is correlated with motion processing ability is perplexing. Activity in motion direction processing regions (Area V5\\/MT+) was perturbed by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine its effect on reading. A functional probe (significant shortening of the motion aftereffect) was used to identify Area V5\\/MT+. Right-handed participants (8 m, 8 f) received three 7.5min blocks

Jacqueline Liederman; Janet McGraw Fisher; Marcela Schulz; Carolyn Maxwell; Hugo Théoret; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2003-01-01

35

Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional or BiDirectional Relations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants\\u000a were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring\\u000a of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and\\u000a fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses

Amie E. Grills-TaquechelJack; Jack M. Fletcher; Sharon R. Vaughn; Karla K. Stuebing

36

Learning Disability vs. Reading Disability: A Survey of Practitioners' Diagnostic Populations and Test Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of questionnaires completed by 345 learning disability and reading resource teachers revealed that reading specialists diagnosed a broad population of students exhibiting many diverse characteristics. LD professionals used a broader diagnostic focus, touching upon intelligence, general achievement, perceptual and motor processes, as well…

German, Diane; And Others

1985-01-01

37

Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.  

PubMed

In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading. PMID:21452944

Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

2011-03-31

38

Maximum uncertainty estimation for the HB-Line ventilation instrumentation readings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The HB-Line building vacuum instrumentation and glovebox vacuum instrumentation at the Savannah River Plant are described. The configuration and operation of the Foxboro 834 series transmitters and Moore 350 series controllers is detailed. In particular, ...

D. R. Melton

1992-01-01

39

Compact sensitive instrument for direct ultrasonic visualization of defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple ultrasonic imaging cell based on the confocal combination of a plano-concave lens and a concave spherical mirror is described. When used in conjuction with a stroboscopic schlieren visualization system, it has the main attributes of a practical nondestructive testing instrument: it is compact, relatively inexpensive, and simple to operate; its sensitivity is fair, resolution and fidelity are good;

Y. Bar-Cohen; B. Ben-Joseph; E. Harnik

1978-01-01

40

Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms: Validating a Direct Observation Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their…

Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

2010-01-01

41

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Identify Self-Directed Continuing Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to describe the personality characteristics of self-directed continuing learners, develop an instrument to identify such learners, and conduct empirical investigations to validate the instrument. Dimensions of the self-directed continuing learner's personality were developed and then used in the construction of an item pool. Prepilot and pilot study results provided the basis for refining the items into a

Lorys F. Oddi

1986-01-01

42

A non-contacting instrument for direct stress mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument called SPATE (stress pattern analysis by measurement of thermal emission) developed for noncontact measurements of stress in structures and components under cyclic load or vibration is described. The method is based on the phenomenon called the thermoelastic or Kelvin effect, whereby cyclic changes in the volume or pressure in a material produce cyclic temperature changes that are proportional to stress. The temperature changes measured by SPATE are totally reversible and are independent of heating due to material hysteresis damping. Two instrument was used to test structural materials including steels, aluminum alloys, a magnesium alloy, titanium, Nimonic 90, copper, brass, silicon nitride, Hylox 961, plexiglass, epoxy, polyester, rubber, Kevlar, wood, brick, concrete, 'live' bone, glass, boron, and various composites. The results of SPATE test on a stage-one turbine blade (tested at 9224 Hz) and a notched aluminum plate loaded in tension at 20 Hz are presented together with a diagram of the SPATE equipment.

Oliver, David E.

43

The Fabric of Thought: Priming Tactile Properties during Reading Influences Direct Tactile Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present studies examined whether implied tactile properties during language comprehension influence subsequent direct tactile perception, and the specificity of any such effects. Participants read sentences that implicitly conveyed information regarding tactile properties (e.g., "Grace tried on a pair of thick corduroy pants while shopping")…

Brunye, Tad T.; Walters, Eliza K.; Ditman, Tali; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

2012-01-01

44

The Fabric of Thought: Priming Tactile Properties during Reading Influences Direct Tactile Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present studies examined whether implied tactile properties during language comprehension influence subsequent direct tactile perception, and the specificity of any such effects. Participants read sentences that implicitly conveyed information regarding tactile properties (e.g., "Grace tried on a pair of thick corduroy pants while shopping")…

Brunye, Tad T.; Walters, Eliza K.; Ditman, Tali; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

2012-01-01

45

The Effects of Individualization, Teacher-Directiveness, and Learner Support on First-Grade Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide data establishing the effects of individualization, teacher directiveness, and learner support on reading achievement, this study utilized 118 first-grade classrooms representing 44 schools located in suburban, rural, city, and inner city areas. Measurement of the three dimensions of the classroom environment was achieved…

Larrivee, Barbara Ann

46

Matching is not naming: A direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks.  

PubMed

The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of "automatic activation" of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a nonreading task for studying "reading effects" by directly comparing blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in "reading-related" regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs. naming) by string type (word vs. pseudoword vs. nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type × timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions and is thus nonautomatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2425-2438, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22711620

Vogel, Alecia C; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2012-06-19

47

Instrument Development Procedures for Rapid Reading Rate Measures. Technical Report # 08-05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we describe the development of rapid reading measures, sentences presented to students in a nearly subliminal manner, with a literal comprehension question asked following their removal. After administering alternate forms of these measures to students, we present the results from three statistical analyses to ascertain their…

Liu, Kimy; Carling, Kristy; Geller, Leanne Ketterlin; Tindal, Gerald

2008-01-01

48

A new theoretical perspective on deception detection: On the psychology of instrumental mind-reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be able to assess the veracity of statements offered by suspects, witnesses and alleged victims is of paramount importance in legal settings. The aim of this paper is to provide an initial piece of scientific support for the idea that psychologically informed mind-reading can improve people's ability to detect deception. To this end, a theoretical framework is sketched; a

Pär Anders Granhag; Maria Hartwig

2008-01-01

49

Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?  

PubMed Central

The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that separation anxiety symptoms were negatively predicted by fluency performance and harm avoidance symptoms were positively predicted by decoding performance. Fluency performance was positively predicted by harm avoidance and total anxiety (for girls only) symptoms, while decoding was not predicted by any anxiety subscale.

Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

2012-01-01

50

Bisections in two languages: when number processing, spatial representation, and habitual reading direction interact.  

PubMed

Calabria and Rossetti (2005) demonstrated that spatial biases related to the mental number line can be seen even when bisecting strings of number words. Strings of smaller magnitude number words were bisected further to the left than strings of larger magnitude number words. The current study investigated whether the left-to-right mental number line associated with number processing will result in similar spatial biases despite a habitual, right-to-left reading direction. Monolingual left-to-right readers were compared to bidirectional readers of English and Hebrew. Strings of Arabic numerals and of number words (e.g., THREE, EIGHT) were presented in separate conditions of English and Hebrew. Significant rightward biases were seen among native Hebrew readers, regardless of English reading level; whereas native English readers (both bidirectional and monodirectional) did not show significant biases to either the left or the right. The spatial bias in bisecting either Arabic numeral strings or number words was related to the habitual reading direction of the participant. There was no difference in spatial bias or for frequency of spatial bias based on numerical magnitude for either condition. We discuss the influence of cultural factors, such as reading direction and proficiency, on the representation of spatial and numerical material. PMID:20965204

Kazandjian, Seta; Cavézian, Céline; Zivotofsky, Ari Z; Chokron, Sylvie

2010-10-20

51

INSTRUMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given on instrumentation developments during the period 1960-; 61. Discussion is given on various instruments such as supersonic and ; electrolytic machines, spectrometers, coated filters, multiplier phototube, ; balances, photoelectric refractometers, and others. lt is felt that a milestone ; in instrumentation and metrology was established when a new international ; standard of length was adopted to

1962-01-01

52

Control of the Hepatic Parenchyma by Direct Compression: A New Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new instrument for direct compression of the hepatic parenchyma has been described. It was found to be effective in controlling arterial and venous hemorrhage from the divided liver surface. It also eliminated threat of air embolism and provided mechani...

D. B. Doty H. W. Kugler R. V. Moseley

1969-01-01

53

Offline improvement in learning to read a novel orthography depends on direct letter instruction.  

PubMed

Improvement in performance after the end of the training session, termed "Offline improvement," has been shown in procedural learning tasks. We examined whether Offline improvement in learning a novel orthography depends on the type of reading instruction. Forty-eight adults received multisession training in reading nonsense words, written in an artificial script. Participants were trained in one of three conditions: alphabetical words preceded by direct letter instruction (Letter-Alph); alphabetical words with whole-word instruction (Word-Alph); and nonalphabetical (arbitrary) words with whole-word instruction (Word-Arb). Offline improvement was found only for the Letter-Alph group. Moreover, correlation with a standardized measure of word reading ability showed that good readers trained in the Letter-Alph group exhibit greater Offline improvement, whereas good readers trained in the Word-Arb group showed greater Within-session improvement during training. These results suggest that different consolidation processes and learning mechanisms were involved in each group. We argue that providing a short block of direct letter instruction prior to training resulted in increased involvement of procedural learning mechanisms during training. PMID:22417104

Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R

2012-03-14

54

Direct and Indirect Teaching: Using E-Books for Supporting Vocabulary, Word Reading, and Story Comprehension for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examine the effect of direct and indirect teaching of vocabulary and word reading on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children following use of an electronic storybook (e-book). The children in each age group were randomly assigned to an intervention group which read the e-book or to a control group which was afforded the regular school…

Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

2012-01-01

55

Spatial biases in understanding descriptions of static scenes: the role of reading and writing direction.  

PubMed

Prior studies on reasoning tasks have shown lateral spatial biases on mental model construction, which converge with known spatial biases in the mental representation of number, time, and events. The latter have been shown to be related to habitual reading and writing direction. The present study bridges and extends both research strands by looking at the processes of mental model construction in language comprehension and examining how they are influenced by reading and writing direction. Sentences like "the table is between the lamp and the TV" were auditorily presented to groups of mono- and bidirectional readers in languages with left-to-right or right-to-left scripts, and participants were asked to draw the described scene. There was a clear preference for deploying the lateral objects in the direction marked by the script of the input language and some hints of a much smaller effect of the degree of practice with the script. These lateral biases occurred in the context of universal strategies for working memory management. PMID:23307481

Román, Antonio; El Fathi, Abderrahman; Santiago, Julio

2013-05-01

56

An instrumental case study of the phenomenon of collaboration in the process of improving community college developmental reading and writing instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing upon the intersections between community college faculty and assessment professionals (e.g., institutional researchers) in improving student learning outcomes, the purpose of this study was to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of these professionals as they planned for and conducted student learning outcomes assessment in developmental reading, writing, and study skills courses. This instrumental case study at one particular

Patricia C Gordin

2006-01-01

57

The effect of computer-assisted instruction and field independence on the development of rhythm sight-reading skills of middle school instrumental students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach rhythm reading skills may be influenced by subjects' level of field dependence\\/independence. The subjects for the study consisted of 120 middle school instrumental music students divided into four groups based on scores from the Group Embedded Figures Test. Each was randomly divided in half. Half were assigned to

Kenneth H. Smith

2009-01-01

58

Concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.  

PubMed

Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habitual stimulus-response processes that are insensitive to changes in outcome value and at the expense of goal-directed action-outcome processes. The neuroendocrine mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity bias instrumental behavior toward habitual performance. To this end, healthy men and women received hydrocortisone, the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine or both orally before they were trained in two instrumental actions leading to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the outcomes was devalued by inviting participants to eat that food to satiety. A subsequent extinction test revealed whether instrumental performance was goal-directed or habitual. Participants that received hydrocortisone or yohimbine alone decreased responding to the devalued action in the extinction test, i.e., they behaved goal-directed. The combined administration of hydrocortisone and yohimbine, however, rendered participants' behavior insensitive to changes in the value of the goal (i.e., habitual). These findings demonstrate that the concerted action of glucocorticoids and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control. PMID:20554869

Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

2010-06-16

59

Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…

Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

2011-01-01

60

Direct attention training as a treatment for reading impairment in mild aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although a variety of interventions for acquired reading disorders have been described in the aphasia literature, most have been designed for severe impairments. Individuals with mildly impaired reading characterised by inconsistent comprehension problems and\\/or by slower and variable reading rates, do not seem to benefit as much from these treatment approaches. These difficulties suggest relatively intact constituent reading processes

Carl Coelho

2005-01-01

61

Bayesian Analysis of Instrumental Variable Models: Acceptance-Rejection within Direct Monte Carlo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss Bayesian inferential procedures within the family of instrumental variables regression models and focus on two issues: existence conditions for posterior moments of the parameters of interest under a flat prior and the potential of Direct Monte Carlo (DMC) approaches for efficient evaluation of such possibly highly onelliptical posteriors. We show that, for the general case of m endogenous

A. Zellner; Ando T; N. Basturk; Dijk van H. K

2012-01-01

62

TANK VAPOR CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN & EXISTING DIRECT READING INSTRUMENTION & PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document takes the newly released Industrial Hygiene Chemical Vapor Technical Basis (RPP-22491) and evaluates the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) identified for selected implementation actions by the industrial hygiene organization. This document is not intended as a hazard analysis with recommended controls for all tank farm activities. Not all of the chemicals listed are present in all tanks; therefore,

2004-01-01

63

Assessing Potential Nanoparticle Release During Nanocomposite Shredding Using Direct-Reading Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine if engineered nanoparticles are released into the air when nanocomposite parts are shredded for recycling. Test plaques made from polypropylene resin reinforced with either montmorillonite nanoclay or talc and from the same resin with no reinforcing material were shredded by a granulator inside a test apparatus. As the plaques were shredded, an ultrafine condensation

Peter C. Raynor; Jessica Ingraham Cebula; Jeffrey S. Spangenberger; Bernard A. Olson; Jean M. Dasch; James B. D’Arcy

2012-01-01

64

Direct lexical control of eye movements in reading: Evidence from a survival analysis of fixation durations  

PubMed Central

Participants’ eye movements were monitored in an experiment that manipulated the frequency of target words (high vs. low) as well as their availability for parafoveal processing during fixations on the pre-target word (valid vs. invalid preview). The influence of the word-frequency by preview validity manipulation on the distributions of first fixation duration was examined by using ex-Gaussian fitting as well as a novel survival analysis technique which provided precise estimates of the timing of the first discernible influence of word frequency on first fixation duration. Using this technique, we found a significant influence of word frequency on fixation duration in normal reading (valid preview) as early as 145 ms from the start of fixation. We also demonstrated an equally rapid non-lexical influence on first fixation duration as a function of initial landing position (location) on target words. The time-course of frequency effects, but not location effects was strongly influenced by preview validity, demonstrating the crucial role of parafoveal processing in enabling direct lexical control of reading fixation times. Implications for models of eye-movement control are discussed.

Reingold, Eyal M.; Reichle, Erik D.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; Sheridan, Heather

2013-01-01

65

Using Planned Enrichment Strategies with Direct Instruction to Improve Reading Fluency, Comprehension, and Attitude toward Reading: An Evidence-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we used a randomized design to investigate the effects of an enriched reading program on 226 urban elementary students' (third through sixth grade) reading comprehension, oral reading fluency, and attitude toward reading in 2 elementary schools. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Reading Framework (SEM-R) provides enriched reading

Reis, Sally M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Coyne, Michael; Schreiber, Frederic J.; Eckert, Rebecca D.; Gubbins, E. Jean

2007-01-01

66

Effectiveness of Guided Co-Construction versus Direct Instruction for Beginning Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a field experiment with 178 first-grade pupils, the effects of an experimental beginning reading programme were investigated. Both an experimental and a control group worked with the most frequently used Dutch beginning reading programme, "Learning to Read Safely." The instructional approach implemented in the experimental group was guided…

Snel, M. J.; Terwel, J.; Aarnoutse, C. A. J.; van Leeuwe, J. F. J.

2012-01-01

67

Effectiveness of guided co-construction versus direct instruction for beginning reading instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field experiment with 178 first-grade pupils, the effects of an experimental beginning reading programme were investigated. Both an experimental and a control group worked with the most frequently used Dutch beginning reading programme, Learning to Read Safely. The instructional approach implemented in the experimental group was guided co-construction (GCC); the instructional approach implemented in the control group was

M. J. Snel; J. Terwel; C. A. J. Aarnoutse; J. F. J. van Leeuwe

2012-01-01

68

Effectiveness of Guided Co-Construction versus Direct Instruction for Beginning Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a field experiment with 178 first-grade pupils, the effects of an experimental beginning reading programme were investigated. Both an experimental and a control group worked with the most frequently used Dutch beginning reading programme, "Learning to Read Safely." The instructional approach implemented in the experimental group was guided…

Snel, M. J.; Terwel, J.; Aarnoutse, C. A. J.; van Leeuwe, J. F. J.

2012-01-01

69

Multilaboratory Study of the Biomic Automated Well-Reading Instrument versus MicroScan WalkAway for Reading MicroScan Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Identification Panels  

PubMed Central

This study compared the Biomic automated well reader results to the MicroScan WalkAway results for reading MicroScan antimicrobial susceptibility and identification panels at four different sites. Routine fresh clinical isolates and quality control (QC) organisms were tested at each study site. A total of 46,176 MicroScan panel drug-organism combinations were read. The Biomic category agreement for 3,117 Gram-negative bacteria was 98.4%, with 1.4% minor and 0.2% major discrepancies. The Biomic category agreement for 5,233 Gram-positive bacteria was 98.7%, with 0.9% minor, 0.3% major, and 0.1% very major errors. Essential agreement, defined as Biomic results that were within ±1 2-fold dilution of the MicroScan results, was 99.3% for Gram-negative bacteria and 98.3% for Gram-positive bacteria. Biomic reading of MicroScan identification panels provided an overall agreement (first- and second-choice organism match) of 99.5% with 846 Gram-negative isolates and 99.5% with 430 Gram-positive isolates. These results suggest that the Biomic automated reader can provide accurate reading of MicroScan panels and has the capability of a visual panel read for manual adjustment of results.

Weaver, Emily; Fossett, Rhonda; Toyras, Michele; Vanderlaan, John; Gibbs, David; Wang, Andrew; Thierjung, Nikolaus

2013-01-01

70

Instrument for layer-by-layer deposition of catalyst layers directly on proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalyst layer (CL) layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition instrument, consisting of an electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) device and a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fixing device, has been developed. It has been used to deposit anode CL on Nafion membrane under different working distances of 4, 5, and 6 mm. The incorporation of EHDA LbL deposition allowed the generation of the CLs with different structures, where the higher working distance produced more porous CL structure. A catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) was also produced using this EHDA LbL deposition and PEM fixing device. It was observed that the catalyst has been uniformly coated on the Nafion membrane and the CCM presents an uniform surface feature. The performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) assembled with the deposited CCM at different working temperatures was analysed. The cell performance increased when the temperature rose. This instrument has the potential of being developed into a powerful device for controlling the deposition of CL of desired structures directly on PEM for DMFCs.

Wang, D.; Wang, L.; Liang, J.; Liu, C.

2012-09-01

71

Instrument for layer-by-layer deposition of catalyst layers directly on proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell.  

PubMed

A catalyst layer (CL) layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition instrument, consisting of an electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) device and a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fixing device, has been developed. It has been used to deposit anode CL on Nafion membrane under different working distances of 4, 5, and 6 mm. The incorporation of EHDA LbL deposition allowed the generation of the CLs with different structures, where the higher working distance produced more porous CL structure. A catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) was also produced using this EHDA LbL deposition and PEM fixing device. It was observed that the catalyst has been uniformly coated on the Nafion membrane and the CCM presents an uniform surface feature. The performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) assembled with the deposited CCM at different working temperatures was analysed. The cell performance increased when the temperature rose. This instrument has the potential of being developed into a powerful device for controlling the deposition of CL of desired structures directly on PEM for DMFCs. PMID:23020410

Wang, D; Wang, L; Liang, J; Liu, C

2012-09-01

72

The Neurobiological Basis of Skilled and Impaired Reading: Recent Findings and New Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, significant progress has been made in the study of reading and read- ing disability with the use of functional neuroimaging techniques. There is substan- tial converging evidence that skilled word recognition requires the development of a highly integrated cortical system that includes left hemisphere dorsal, ventral, and anterior subsystems. This article highlights key findings regarding the functional

Rebecca Sandak; W. Einar Mencl; Stephen J. Frost; Kenneth R. Pugh

2004-01-01

73

Testing and Refining the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A significant proportion of American high school students struggle with reading comprehension. Theoretical models of reading comprehension might help researchers understand these difficulties, because they can point to variables that make the largest contributions to comprehension. On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we created…

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Azevedo, Roger

2007-01-01

74

Offline Improvement in Learning to Read a Novel Orthography Depends on Direct Letter Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Improvement in performance after the end of the training session, termed "Offline improvement," has been shown in procedural learning tasks. We examined whether Offline improvement in learning a novel orthography depends on the type of reading instruction. Forty-eight adults received multisession training in reading nonsense words, written in an…

Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

2012-01-01

75

Explaining Individual Differences in Reading: Theory and Evidence. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research into reading development and reading disabilities has been dominated by phonologically guided theories for several decades. In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections. The…

Brady, Susan A., Ed.; Braze, David, Ed.; Fowler, Carol A., Ed.

2011-01-01

76

Scanning direction and line bisection: a study of normal subjects and unilateral neglect patients with opposite reading habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty normal dextrals (30 left-to-right and 30 right-to-left readers) and two left unilateral neglect patient with opposite reading habits performed a passive line bisection task. In order to study the effect of scanning direction on performance, subjects had to stop a mark moving on the to-be-bisected line either from the left to the right or in the opposite direction. Results

Sylvie Chokron; Paolo Bartolomeo; Marie-Thérèse Perenin; Gérard Helft; Michel Imbert

1998-01-01

77

Instrument for measuring the volume scattering function in the backward direction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique underwater optical instrument is described that measures the volume scattering function (VSF) in the retro (180 degree(s)) direction, i.e., (beta) ((pi) ). The instrument, referred to as Beta Pi, was designed and built at SRI International and was recently deployed in Monterey Bay. Spectral measurements of direct backscatter are achieved by imaging the backward scattered light from a laser beam with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera. A large beam splitter, approximately 23 cm in diameter, is used to obtain the necessary monostatic geometry for imaging light scattered from the beam in the retro direction. With a 200 mm focal length, f/2 lens, measurements of volume scattering over the angular range from exactly 180 degree(s) to about 179 degree(s) are achieved. The angular resolution of the CCD/lens system is 0.0057 degree(s). The resolution of the scattering measurements, however, is determined by the divergence half-angle of the beam, which is about 0.02 degree(s). A fiber optic cable transmits the laser flux from the surface to a collimator in the underwater housing, so that almost any laser with a fiber optic coupler can be used as the source. An in-water calibration scheme is described and it is shown that the accuracy of the measured VSF at 180 degree(s) is only slightly less than the accuracy of the measured spectral beam attenuation coefficient. A measurement of the VSF from 179 degree(s) to 180 degree(s), made in shallow waters in Monterey Bay using a Nd:YAG (532 nm) laser, is shown.

Maffione, Robert A.; Honey, Richard C.

1992-12-01

78

Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.  

PubMed

Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the photometer-type dust monitors on the other hand showed little correlation. The Respicon also accurately measured the inhalable concentration, whereas the modified PDM underestimated it by ~27%. Photometer responses varied considerably with changing particle size, which resulted in appreciable errors in airborne inhalable dust concentration measurements. Similar trends were also observed during field trials. Despite having limitations, both the modified PDM and Respicon showed promise as real-time inhalable dust monitors. PMID:23704135

Thorpe, Andrew; Walsh, Peter T

2013-05-23

79

Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

1990-01-01

80

Michael Pressley's Educational Legacy and Directions He Identified for Future Research in Reading Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to document the legacy and continuing influence of Michael Pressley's work in the field of reading research and instruction. Descriptions are provided to demonstrate how he translated his data from the cognitive sciences into highly effective pedagogy. A second component of this article discusses how Michael Pressley, throughout his career, continuously collected converging evidence

CATHY COLLINS BLOCK

2008-01-01

81

Lateral Biases and Reading Direction: A Dissociation between Aesthetic Preference and Line Bisection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perceptual asymmetries for tasks involving aesthetic preference or line bisection can be affected by asymmetrical neurological mechanisms or left/right reading habits. This study investigated the relative contribution of these mechanisms in 100 readers of Japanese and English. Participants made aesthetic judgments between pairs of mirror-reversed…

Ishii, Yukiko; Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Imai, Hisato

2011-01-01

82

Direct observation of Frank-Read sources in stoichiometric bismuth telluride crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stoichiometric crystals of bismuth telluride have been grown from the melt by the horizontal zone levelling technique. The multiplication of dislocations and dislocation density was studied by using chemical etching. Dislocation spirals and loops due to Frank-Read sources have been observed on the basal plane.

A. G. Kunjomana; E. Mathai

1991-01-01

83

Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literary Works. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This sourcebook presents reading guides for 22 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

Ley, Terry C., Ed.

84

Using Literature-Based Prompts To Teach Writing Competencies: Directed Reading and Writing Lessons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to help teachers integrate writing instruction with the study of literature, this teaching guide offers a philosophy of writing instruction, describes a procedure for teaching reading and writing lessons, and provides a sequence of writing skills. For various literature selections, the guide defines vocabulary, provides topic discussion…

Gelsinger, Barry D.

85

Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literacy Works. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This sourcebook presents reading guides for 27 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

Ley, Terry C., Ed.

86

Direct Instruction in Reading in Special Education: Evaluation of an Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All children can learn. Each child learns in numerous ways and at a different pace. When children are given opportunity, appropriate foundation, support, and precise instruction, learning is enhanced and encouraged. This study investigated an instructional approach for teaching reading to elementary students who were determined to have a learning…

Jackson, Sherry D.

2010-01-01

87

Direct Evidence for Two Different Neural Mechanisms for Reading Familiar and Unfamiliar Words: An Intra-Cerebral EEG Study  

PubMed Central

After intensive practice, unfamiliar letter strings become familiar words and reading speed increases strikingly from a slow processing to a fast and with more global recognition of words. While this effect has been well documented at the behavioral level, its neural underpinnings are still unclear. The question is how the brain modulates the activity of the reading network according to the novelty of the items. Several models have proposed that familiar and unfamiliar words are not processed by separate networks but rather by common regions operating differently according to familiarity. This hypothesis has proved difficult to test at the neural level because the effects of familiarity and length on reading occur (a) on a millisecond scale, shorter than the resolution of fMRI and (b) in regions which cannot be isolated with non-invasive EEG or MEG. We overcame these limitations by using invasive intra-cerebral EEG recording in epileptic patients. Neural activity (gamma-band responses, between 50 and 150?Hz) was measured in three major nodes of reading network – left inferior frontal, supramarginal, and inferior temporo-occipital cortices – while patients silently read familiar (words) and unfamiliar (pseudo-words) items of two lengths (short composed of one-syllable vs. long composed of three-syllables). While all items elicited strong neural responses in the three regions, we found that the duration of the neural response increases with length only for pseudo-words, in direct relation to orthographic-to-phonological conversion. Our results validate at the neural level the hypothesis that all words are processed by a common network operating more or less efficiently depending on words’ novelty.

Juphard, Alexandra; Vidal, Juan R.; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Baciu, Monica

2011-01-01

88

Direct evidence for two different neural mechanisms for reading familiar and unfamiliar words: an intra-cerebral EEG study.  

PubMed

After intensive practice, unfamiliar letter strings become familiar words and reading speed increases strikingly from a slow processing to a fast and with more global recognition of words. While this effect has been well documented at the behavioral level, its neural underpinnings are still unclear. The question is how the brain modulates the activity of the reading network according to the novelty of the items. Several models have proposed that familiar and unfamiliar words are not processed by separate networks but rather by common regions operating differently according to familiarity. This hypothesis has proved difficult to test at the neural level because the effects of familiarity and length on reading occur (a) on a millisecond scale, shorter than the resolution of fMRI and (b) in regions which cannot be isolated with non-invasive EEG or MEG. We overcame these limitations by using invasive intra-cerebral EEG recording in epileptic patients. Neural activity (gamma-band responses, between 50 and 150?Hz) was measured in three major nodes of reading network - left inferior frontal, supramarginal, and inferior temporo-occipital cortices - while patients silently read familiar (words) and unfamiliar (pseudo-words) items of two lengths (short composed of one-syllable vs. long composed of three-syllables). While all items elicited strong neural responses in the three regions, we found that the duration of the neural response increases with length only for pseudo-words, in direct relation to orthographic-to-phonological conversion. Our results validate at the neural level the hypothesis that all words are processed by a common network operating more or less efficiently depending on words' novelty. PMID:21960968

Juphard, Alexandra; Vidal, Juan R; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Baciu, Monica

2011-09-20

89

Direct measurement of suspended particulate volume concentration and far-infrared extinction coefficient with a laser-diffraction instrument.  

PubMed

A laser-diffraction instrument is described for measuring directly and in situ the absolute particulate volume concentration or the infrared optical extinction coefficient of a polydisperse aerosol. Diffraction and Mie theory are used to write integrals that describe the interaction of light scattered by the particles and the optics of the instrument. These integrals are inverted to yield variable transmission filters that interact with the scattered light to give the desired instrument response. The particle-size dependency of the instrument's performance is established, and the effect of the refractive index of the particles is evaluated. The design, major components, and absolute and field calibrations of the instrument are described. Examples of measurements in the field and laboratory are given. PMID:20717285

Gerber, H

1991-11-20

90

An instrumented glove for grasp specification in virtual-reality-based point-and-direct telerobotics.  

PubMed

Hand posture and force, which define aspects of the way an object is grasped, are features of robotic manipulation. A means for specifying these grasping "flavors" has been developed that uses an instrumented glove equipped with joint and force sensors. The new grasp specification system will be used at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) in a Virtual Reality based Point-and-Direct (VR-PAD) robotics implementation. Here, an operator gives directives to a robot in the same natural way that human may direct another. Phrases such as "put that there" cause the robot to define a grasping strategy and motion strategy to complete the task on its own. In the VR-PAD concept, pointing is done using virtual tools such that an operator can appear to graphically grasp real items in live video. Rather than requiring full duplication of forces and kinesthetic movement throughout a task as is required in manual telemanipulation, hand posture and force are now specified only once. The grasp parameters then become object flavors. The robot maintains the specified force and hand posture flavors for an object throughout the task in handling the real workpiece or item of interest. In the Computer integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Laboratory at Penn State, hand posture and force data were collected for manipulating bricks and other items that require varying amounts of force at multiple pressure points. The feasibility of measuring desired grasp characteristics was demonstrated for a modified Cyberglove impregnated with Force-Sensitive Resistor (FSR) (pressure sensors in the fingertips. A joint/force model relating the parameters of finger articulation and pressure to various lifting tasks was validated for the instrumented "wired" glove. Operators using such a modified glove may ultimately be able to configure robot grasping tasks in environments involving hazardous waste remediation, flexible manufacturing, space operations and other flexible robotics applications. In each case, the VR-PAD approach will finesse the computational and delay problems of real-time multiple-degree-of-freedom force feedback telemanipulation. PMID:11542952

Yun, M H; Cannon, D; Freivalds, A; Thomas, G

1997-10-01

91

Testing for Dual Brain Processing Routes in Reading: A Direct Contrast of Chinese Character and Pinyin Reading Using fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese offers a unique tool for testing the effects of word form on language processing during reading. The processes of letter-mediated grapheme-to-phoneme translation and phonemic assembly (assembled phonology) critical for reading and spelling in any alphabetic orthography are largely absent when reading nonalphabetic Chinese characters. In contrast, script-to-sound translation based on the script as a whole (addressed phonology) is absent

Yiping Chen; Shimin Fu; Susan D. Iversen; Steve M. Smith; Paul M. Matthews

2002-01-01

92

Direct detection and spectral characterization of outer exoplanets with the SPICA coronagraph instrument (SCI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPICA coronagraph instrument (SCI) provides high-contrast imaging and moderate resolution ( R < 200) spectroscopy at the wavelength range from 3.5 to 27 ?m. Based on the planet evolutional model calculated by Burrows et al. (2003), SCI will search for gas giant planets down to one Jupiter mass around nearby young (1 Gyr) stars and two Jupiter masses around nearby old (5 Gyr) stars. SCI also allows to characterizing those planets of less than 1 Gyr by spectroscopic observations to reveal the nature of planetary formation and evolution. Focusing on the high sensitivity and high contrast at wavelengths longer than 10 ?m, we show that SCI also allows us to directly image icy giant planets like Uranus and Neptune as well as gas giant planets around nearby early-type stars. In this paper, we compare the capabilities of SCI and the JWST coronagraphs and also discuss a new approach to answering questions concerning the formation and evolution of planetary systems through planet detection with SCI.

Matsuo, Taro; Fukagawa, Misato; Kotani, Takayuki; Itoh, Yoichi; Tamura, Motohide; Nakagawa, Takao; Enya, Keigo; SCI Team

93

High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument.  

PubMed

The detection of extrasolar planets implies an extremely high-contrast, long-exposure imaging capability at near infrared and probably visible wavelengths. We present here the core of any Planet Finder instrument, that is, the extreme adaptive optics (XAO) subsystem. The level of AO correction directly impacts the exposure time required for planet detection. In addition, the capacity of the AO system to calibrate all the instrument static defects ultimately limits detectivity. Hence, the extreme AO system has to adjust for the perturbations induced by the atmospheric turbulence, as well as for the internal aberrations of the instrument itself. We propose a feasibility study for an extreme AO system in the frame of the SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument, which is currently under design and should equip one of the four VLT 8-m telescopes in 2010. PMID:19529118

Fusco, T; Rousset, G; Sauvage, J-F; Petit, C; Beuzit, J-L; Dohlen, K; Mouillet, D; Charton, J; Nicolle, M; Kasper, M; Baudoz, P; Puget, P

2006-08-21

94

Learning Indirect Acquisition of Instrumental Gestures using Direct Sensors (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensing instrumental gestures is a common task in interactive electroacoustic music performances. The sensed gestures can then be mapped to sounds, synthesis algorithms, visuals etc. Two of the most common approaches for acquiring these gestures are 1) Hybrid Instruments which are \\

George Tzanetakis; Ajay Kapur; Adam R. Tindale

95

Effect of calibration and environmental condition on the performance of direct-reading organic vapor monitors.  

PubMed

The performance of three MIRAN SapphIRe Portable Infrared Ambient Air Analyzers and three Century Portable Toxic Vapor Analyzers equipped with photoionization (PID) and flame ionization (FID) detectors was compared with charcoal tube sampling. Relationships were investigated using two different calibration methods at four cyclohexane concentrations, three temperatures, and four relative humidities. For the first method, the TVA monitors were calibrated with a single concentration of methane for the FID, and isobutylene for the PID. The SapphIRe monitors were zeroed and the monitor's manufacturer-supplied library was used. For the second method, a five-point cyclohexane calibration curve was created for each monitor. Comparison of the monitor results of each calibration method (pooled data) indicated a significant difference between methods (t-test, p < 0.001), The SapphIRe group had results closer to the charcoal tubes with the second calibration method, while the PID and FID monitor groups performed better using the first calibration method. The PID monitor group's performance was affected only at the 90% relative humidity (RH) condition. Using the first method, the monitor readings were compared with the charcoal tube average using mixed linear model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and regression. The ANOVA results showed there was a statistically significant difference among readings from all monitor types (p <0.0001). The regression results demonstrated that the SapphIRe (r² = 0.97) and FID (r² = 0.92) monitor groups correlated well with the charcoal tubes. The PID monitor group had a similar correlation when 90% RH was excluded (r² = 0.94) but had a weaker correlation when it was included (r² = 0.58). The operator should take care when using these monitors at high concentrations and the PID monitors at high humidities, consider the variability between units of the same monitor, and conduct performance verification of the monitor being used. PMID:23016630

Coffey, Christopher; LeBouf, Ryan; Lee, Larry; Slaven, James; Martin, Stephen

2012-01-01

96

Development and preliminary testing of a self-rating instrument to measure self-directed learning ability of nursing students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWith the growing trend of preparing students for lifelong learning, the theory of self-directed learning (SDL) has been increasingly applied in the context of higher education. In order to foster lifelong learning, abilities among nursing students, faculties need to have an appropriate instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students.

Su-Fen Cheng; Chien-Lin Kuo; Kuan-Chia Lin; Jane Lee-Hsieh

2010-01-01

97

Rapid DNA Sequencing by Direct Nanoscale Reading of Nucleotide Bases on Individual DNA Chains  

SciTech Connect

Since the independent invention of DNA sequencing by Sanger and by Gilbert 30 years ago, it has grown from a small scale technique capable of reading several kilobase-pair of sequence per day into today's multibillion dollar industry. This growth has spurred the development of new sequencing technologies that do not involve either electrophoresis or Sanger sequencing chemistries. Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) involves multiple parallel micro-sequencing addition events occurring on a surface, where data from each round is detected by imaging. New High Throughput Technologies for DNA Sequencing and Genomics is the second volume in the Perspectives in Bioanalysis series, which looks at the electroanalytical chemistry of nucleic acids and proteins, development of electrochemical sensors and their application in biomedicine and in the new fields of genomics and proteomics. The authors have expertly formatted the information for a wide variety of readers, including new developments that will inspire students and young scientists to create new tools for science and medicine in the 21st century. Reviews of complementary developments in Sanger and SBS sequencing chemistries, capillary electrophoresis and microdevice integration, MS sequencing and applications set the framework for the book.

Lee, James Weifu [ORNL; Meller, Amit [Harvard University

2007-01-01

98

Contextual Modulation of Reading Rate for Direct versus Indirect Speech Quotations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In human communication, direct speech (e.g., "Mary said: "I'm hungry"") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., "Mary said [that] she was hungry"). However, the processing consequences of this distinction are largely unclear. In two experiments, participants were asked to either orally (Experiment 1) or silently (Experiment 2,…

Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

2011-01-01

99

Cattell–Horn–Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Their Effects on Reading Decoding Skills: g Has Indirect Effects, More Specific Abilities Have Direct Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed structural equation modeling to examine the effects of Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) abilities on reading decoding skills using five age-differentiated subsamples from the standardization sample of the Woodcock–Johnson III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Using the Spearman Model including only g, strong direct effects of g on reading decoding skills were demonstrated at all ages. Using the Two-Stratum Model

Randy G. Floyd; Timothy Z. Keith; Gordon E. Taub; Kevin S. McGrew

2007-01-01

100

Multicolor instrumentation for direct fluorescent detection of nucleic acids in a microchip format  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of nucleic acids on solid support in the form of high density arrays (a DNA microarray) creates a powerful nonelectrophoretic technology for highly parallel genetic analysis. Microarrays have applications in the areas of DNA sequencing, genetic mutation detection and gene expression monitoring. We report here the design and utility of an experimental instrument for microchip parallel hyperspectral fluorescent imaging.

Valery L. Bogdanov; Yu-Hui Rogers; Guang Lan; Michael Boyce-Jacino

1998-01-01

101

Globalization and the Choice of Governing Instruments: The Direct, Indirect, and Opportunity Effects of Internationalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to shed light on the effect of globalization on the choice of policy tools. Contrary to what is commonly believed, we find that the source of many of the changes in the patterns of instrument choice found in contemporary society lies in the domestic rather than the international arena. To the extent that global factors have had an

Michael Howlett; M. Ramesh

2006-01-01

102

A New Direct Beam Irradiance Instrument for Aircraft Measurement of Ozone Columns and Wavelength Dependent UV and Visible Aerosol Optical Depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Direct beam Irradiance Airborne Spectroradiometer (DIAS instrument) for the measurement of the direct beam solar irradiance was deployed on the NASA DC-8 for the SOLVE II mission. The instrument employed three narrow field of view optical collectors with different detection systems to measure the irradiance from 280 to 700 nm. The collection optics were mounted on a 2-axis gimbal

R. E. Shetter; B. L. Lefer; S. R. Hall; E. P. Riedel; P. B. Russell; J. Livingston; B. Schmid; C. Trepte; M. Pitts

2003-01-01

103

An instrument for direct measurements of sputtering related momentum transfer to targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents an instrument that measures sputtering related momentum transfer to a target. The instrument is operated in the beam of a broad-beam ion source and its main part is similar to a rotor of a wind mill. One component of the transferred momentum perpendicular to the beam is converted into a rotational movement of its rotor. This geometry makes the device sensitive to the momentum of sputtered target atoms and reflected beam particles, but insensitive for the momentum of the impinging particles itself. Exemplary measurements with argon ions in the energy range from 0.5 keV to 1.5 keV impinging onto copper targets at an incidence angle of 56° are presented. The results are compared with simulations based on the popular Monte-Carlo program TRIM and show a good agreement.

Rutscher, J.; Trottenberg, Th.; Kersten, H.

2013-04-01

104

SPICA coronagraph instrument: characterization of atmospheres and physical parameters of giant planets by direct imaging and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the current status of the development of the SPICA Coronagraph Instrument (SCI). SPICA is a next-generation 3-meter class infrared telescope, which will be launched in 2022. SCI is high-contrast imaging, spectroscopic instrument mainly for direct detection and spectroscopy of extra-solar planets in the near-to-mid infrared wavelengths to characterize their atmospheres, physical parameters and evolutionary scenarios. SCI is now under the international review process. In this paper, we present a science case of SCI. The main targets of SCI, not only for direct imaging but also for spectroscopy, are young to matured giant planets. We will also show that some of known exoplanets by ground-based direct detection are good targets for SCI, and a number of direct detection planets that are suitable for SCI will be significantly increased in the next decade. Second, a general design of SCI and a key technology including a new high-throughput binary mask coronagraph, will be presented. Furthermore, we will show that SCI is potentially capable of achieving 10-6 contrast by a PSF subtraction method, even with a telescope pointing error. This contrast enhancement will be important to characterize low-mass and cool planets.

Kotani, T.; Enya, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Kataza, H.; Kawada, M.; Mita, M.; Komatsu, K.; Uchida, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Mitani, S.; Sakai, S.; Haze, K.; Kaneda, H.; Oyabu, S.; Ishihara, D.; Miyata, T.; Sako, S.; Nakamura, T.; Asano, K.; Tamura, M.; Nishikawa, J.; Yamashita, T.; Narita, N.; Hayano, H.; Oya, S.; Kokubo, E.; Itoh, Y.; Matsuo, T.; Fukagawa, M.; Shibai, H.; Honda, M.; Baba, N.; Murakami, N.; Okamoto, Y. K.; Ida, S.; Takami, M.; Abe, L.; Guyon, O.; Yamamuro, T.

2012-09-01

105

Design of an intelligent instrument for large direct-current measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle and structure of an intelligent large direct current measurement is presented in this paper. It is of reflective type and detects signal by employing the high direct current sensor. The single-chip microcomputer of this system provides a powerful function of control and processing and greatly improves the extent of intelligence. The value can be displayed and printed automatically

Rong Zhang; Gang Zhang; Zhipeng Zhang

2000-01-01

106

The Effect of Student-Directed Transition Planning with a Computer-Based Reading Support Program on the Self-Determination of Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of student-directed transition planning instruction ("Whose Future Is It Anyway?" curriculum) with a computer-based reading support program ("Rocket Reader") on the self-determination, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy, and transition planning knowledge of students with disabilities. This…

Lee, Youngsun; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Palmer, Susan B.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra; Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.

2011-01-01

107

Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Their Effects on Reading Decoding Skills: g Has Indirect Effects, More Specific Abilities Have Direct Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study employed structural equation modeling to examine the effects of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) abilities on reading decoding skills using five age-differentiated subsamples from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Using the Spearman Model including only g, strong direct effects of g on…

Floyd, Randy G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

2007-01-01

108

Effects of Teacher-Directed and Student-Interactive Summarization Instruction on Reading Comprehension and Written Summarization of Korean Fourth Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean fourth graders' performance on reading comprehension and written summarization changes as a function of instruction in summarization across test times. Seventy five Korean fourth graders from three classes were randomly assigned to the collaborative summarization, direct instruction, and…

Jeong, Jongseong

2009-01-01

109

A review of direct liquid introduction interfacing for LC\\/MS Part I: Instrumental aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Considerable progress has been made in the coupling of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry over the past ten years.\\u000a Three interfaces tend to dominate the LC\\/MS market: transport systems, direct liquid introduction, and the thermospray interface.\\u000a In this paper the developments in direct liquid introduction interfacing for LC\\/MS will be reviewed. The paper will be published\\u000a in two parts. Mass

W. M. A. Niessen

1986-01-01

110

Contribution of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability to L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced EFL learners: testing direct and indirect effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness\\u000a and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in\\u000a a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling) methods, the study found that morphological awareness contributed to L2\\u000a vocabulary knowledge directly

Dongbo Zhang; Keiko Koda

111

Direct Sun Measurements of NO2 Column Abundances With FTUVS From Table Mountain, California: Retrieval Method, Instrument Intercomparison, and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO2 total column abundances have been measured with a high resolution Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) instrument continuously during clear and lightly cloudy days at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California since 2005. The NO2 total column is retrieved after removing the solar background using Doppler shifted spectra from the east and west limbs of the rotating sun. The major advantage of this method over other direct Sun techniques is that it provides an absolute NO2 measurement technique and thus requires no calibration. An instrument intercomparison campaign was conducted at TMF during July, 2007, which involved the MF- DOAS and PANDORA from Washington State University and GSFC, respectively. Because the latter two instruments use a high-sun reference spectrum which contains an unknown NO2 column, the simultaneous measurements from FTUVS was shown to be useful as an independent calibration for the two grating spectrometers. The NO2 retrieval method and the intercomparison results are presented. Furthermore, the NO2 columns measured by FTUVS are compared to OMI measurements, after a terrain adjustment, for a period of near three years. While the linear correlation of the two datasets shows reasonable agreement, the comparison shows variability due to the distance between TMF and the center of OMI footprints. The interannual and seasonal behavior of NO2 abundances and their implications on atmospheric chemistry are discussed.

Wang, S.; Pongetti, T. J.; Spinei, E.; Mount, G.; Cede, A.; Herman, J.; Sander, S. P.

2008-12-01

112

A Successful Method to Assess Student Learning Outcomes Using Multiple Direct and Indirect Assessment Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) criteria for assessing learning outcomes requires that each program have in place an assessment process with documented results on program improvements. The program must not rely only on self-reported surveys but it must include direct, observable measures of outcomes. Evidence of how students achieve these outcomes in the curriculum must me included.

Lewis Thigpen; Horace A. Whitworth

113

Direct Democracy and Higher Education: The State Ballot as an Instrument of Higher Education Policy Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

A topic to which students of higher education politics and public policy have paid no attention is the resurgent direct democracy movement in the American states. This article seeks to clarify the nature and scope of the statewide ballot phenomenon as it affects the higher education policy domain. The article embeds the issue of higher education balloting in historical context

Michael K. McLendon; Stuart Eddings

2002-01-01

114

Read! Read! Read! Training Effective Reading Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the premise that by engaging parents as effective partners, teachers and students win at the reading game, this book aims to help teachers tap into all the resources of school and home to maximize children's learning potential. The book provides teachers with a concrete framework for training parents to learn strategic techniques in…

Glass, Laurie; Peist, Linda; Pike, Beth

115

Content Reading Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reading comprehension skills promote achievement in science, so how can teachers help students to develop these skills? Research indicates that students who read well are more likely to be successful in school and in life (Belk 1999). Furthermore, there is a direct link between science skills and reading skills (Carter and Simpson 1978). There…

Belk, Elizabeth Joann; Seed, Allen H.; Abdi, Wali

2005-01-01

116

Content Reading Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension skills promote achievement in science, so how can teachers help students to develop these skills? Research indicates that students who read well are more likely to be successful in school and in life (Belk 1999). Furthermore, there is a direct link between science skills and reading skills (Carter and Simpson 1978). There are…

Belk, Elizabeth Joann; Seed, Allen H.; Abdi, Wali

2005-01-01

117

An Instrument for the Direct , Simultaneous Measurement of Radionuclides in Various Matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the radionuclide content of samples acquired by customs officials, law enforcement officers, or treaty verification personnel almost always needs to be done in a timely and efficient manner. Traditionally, high sensitivities to radionuclides in a sample were achieved by first carrying-out complicated and lengthy chemical separation procedures. Recent advancements in solid-state radiation detectors and coincidence electronics now make efficient, high-resolution, large-area, multi-detector coincidence counting systems a practical reality for use in industrial and mobile laboratories. Such systems allow for a single, direct measurement of many radionuclides in various matrices: filtered air samples, thin soil samples, small liquid samples, and charcoal samples. This is accomplished by detecting alphas, betas, photons, and internal conversion electrons simultaneously in a multicoincidence detector system comprised of several layers of large-area silicon detectors placed in between two high-efficiency, high-purity germanium detectors. We will report on the achieved sensitivities to date.

Bowyer, Sonya M.

1998-10-01

118

Reading(s).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

119

Reading and reading disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent functional neuroimaging studies are generating novel insights into our knowledge of skilled and disturbed reading. In neurologically normal subjects, a double dissociation in neural activation in response to reading words and pseudowords has been revealed that corresponds to that observed in the comparison of semantic and phonological tasks. In patients with acquired dyslexia, functional imaging is demonstrating re-organisation within

Cathy J Price; Andrea Mechelli

2005-01-01

120

Reading(s).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

121

A Direct Method for Calculating Instrument Noise Levels in Side-by-Side Seismometer Evaluations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The subject of determining the inherent system noise levels present in modem broadband closed loop seismic sensors has been an evolving topic ever since closed loop systems became available. Closed loop systems are unique in that the system noise can not be determined via a blocked mass test as in older conventional open loop seismic sensors. Instead, most investigators have resorted to performing measurements on two or more systems operating in close proximity to one another and to analyzing the outputs of these systems with respect to one another to ascertain their relative noise levels. The analysis of side-by-side relative performance is inherently dependent on the accuracy of the mathematical modeling of the test configuration. This report presents a direct approach to extracting the system noise levels of two linear systems with a common coherent input signal. The mathematical solution to the problem is incredibly simple; however the practical application of the method encounters some difficulties. Examples of expected accuracies are presented as derived by simulating real systems performance using computer generated random noise. In addition, examples of the performance of the method when applied to real experimental test data are shown.

Holcomb, L. Gary

1989-01-01

122

Co-phasing of a diluted aperture synthesis instrument for direct imaging: Experimental demonstration on a temporal hypertelescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The diluted aperture synthesis is one of the most promising ways of obtaining direct images with an angular resolution in the milliarcsecond range. By applying apodization techniques to a hypertelescope, it is possible to discriminate between objects with a high contrast in intensity with a reasonable number of telescopes (<10). Aims: To reach such performances, we attempt to develop a co-phasing system capable of stabilizing the optical path differences with an accuracy better than ?/100 RMS. Methods: We propose a method based on a joint use of a sub-aperture piston phase-diversity technique and a genetic algorithm to co-phase a laboratory prototype called a temporal hypertelescope (THT). First, we simulated the behavior of this instrument and inferred the related statistical properties of our co-phasing method. In a second step, we implemented this co-phasing system on our THT prototype. Results: We obtain an experimental stabilization of the optical path differences of about ?/300 RMS over 1000 s. Thanks to this result, we are able to acquire an image of a high-contrast binary system. We also validate that the instrument accurately estimates the object characteristics, i.e. 25 ?rad for the angular separation and ?H = 9.1 magnitude difference between the main star and its companion.

Bouyeron, L.; Delage, L.; Grossard, L.; Reynaud, F.

2012-09-01

123

Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To clarify the role of decoding in reading and reading disability, a model of reading is proposed, which holds that reading equals the product of decoding and comprehension. Three types of reading disability are posited, resulting from an inability to decode (dyslexia), an inability to comprehend (hyperlexia), or both (reading disability).…

Gough, Philip B.; Tunmer, William E.

1986-01-01

124

A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss…

Hovardas, Tasos

2013-01-01

125

Contact force measurement of instruments for force-feedback on a surgical robot: acceleration force cancellations based on acceleration sensor readings.  

PubMed

For delicate operations conducted using surgical robot systems, surgeons need to receive information regarding the contact forces on the tips of surgical instruments. For the detection of this contact force, one of the authors previously proposed a new method, called the overcoat method, in which the instrument is supported by sensors positioned on the overcoat pipe. This method requires cancellation of the acceleration forces of the instrument/holder attached to the overcoat sensor. In the present report, the authors attempt to use acceleration sensors to obtain the acceleration forces of the instrument/holder. The new cancellation method provides a force-detection accuracy of approximately 0.05-0.1 N for a dynamic response range of up to approximately 20 Hz, compared to approximately 1 Hz, which was achieved by using acceleration forces based on the theoretical robot motion. PMID:16685948

Shimachi, Shigeyuki; Kameyama, Fumie; Hakozaki, Yoshihide; Fujiwara, Yasunori

2005-01-01

126

Pedicle Screw Instrumentation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: The Insertion Technique, the Fusion Levels and Direct Vertebral Rotation  

PubMed Central

The pedicle is a power nucleus of the vertebra and offers a secure grip of all 3 columns. Pedicle screw instrumentation has advantages of rigid fixation with improved three-dimensional (3D) correction and it is accepted as a reliable method with a high margin of safety. Accurate placement of the pedicle screws is important to reduce possible irreversible complications. Many methods of screw insertion have been reported. The author has been using the K-wire method coupled with the intraoperative single posteroanterior and lateral radiographs, which is the most safe, accurate and fast method. Identification of the curve patterns and determining the fusion levels are very important. The ideal classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis should address the all patterns, predict the extent of accurate fusion and have good inter/intraobserver reliability. My classification system matches with the ideal classification system, and it is simple and easy to learn; and my classification system has only 4 structural curve patterns and each curve has 2 types. Scoliosis is a 3D deformity; the coronal and sagittal curves can be corrected with rod rotation, and rotational deformity has to be corrected with direct vertebral rotation (DVR). Rod derotation and DVR are true methods of 3D deformity correction with shorter fusion and improved correction of both the fused and unfused curves, and this is accomplished using pedicle screw fixation. The direction of DVR is very important and it should be opposite to the direction of the rotational deformity of the vertebra. A rigid rod has to be used to prevent rod bend-out during the derotation and DVR.

2011-01-01

127

Direct Measurement of Cloud Condensation Nuclei Chemistry using a New Microfluidic Instrument During the CalWater 2011 Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CalWater 2011 campaign took place in the California Sierra Nevada with the objective of determining the effects atmospheric rivers and aerosols have on California precipitation. To meet this goal, the role of chemistry on atmospheric aerosols' ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) needed to be evaluated because not all aerosols are CCN active. To date, direct measurement of ambient CCN chemistry has been difficult or unobtainable because of the difficulty in obtaining a well-defined CCN population, small aerosol masses, and low measurement flow rates. To address this need, a miniature CCN collector was employed that directly deposits CCN-active aerosol into an aqueous sample solution in a microfluidic device. Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) then performs chemical analysis on the soluble CCN components, and concentrations of water-soluble inorganic anions were obtained. Additional instruments were run alongside the CCN-MCE system to obtain a more complete characterization of the aerosol, including MCE coupled to a collector for all water condensation nuclei (WCN), two aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometers (ATOFMS), optical CCN counters, condensation particle counters, and aerosol sizing instrumentation. The work discussed here will describe the operation of the CCN-MCE instrument and show the preliminary results obtained for CCN chemistry measurements at the Sugar Pine Reservoir during CalWater 2011. The prototype CCN-MCE analyzer permits online monitoring at a single, constant supersaturation. The outlet stream of the CCN system inertially impacts wetted CCN particles into a buffer-filled sample reservoir for immediate electrophoretic analysis, requiring <1 min per run. The integrated CCN-MCE system collects aerosols at ~0.05 lpm and deposits them into ~20 ?L of solution, providing detection limits of ~0.1 ?g per cubic meter with 10 min of sampling. Because of the low (mostly rural) aerosol concentrations monitored at the Sugar Pine Reservoir, a poorer time resolution of ~1 hr was used to improve detection limits and precision. Results showed that large concentrations of nitrate aerosol were transported into the Sierra from the California Central Valley in front of approaching storm fronts. This nitrate corresponded to increases in CCN counts at low supersaturation values, and measurements with the CCN-MCE (~0.13% supersaturation) showed that nitrate particles may act as giant CCN. Sulfate was also observed in the CCN chemistry but showed concentrations that were sometimes lower than those observed in the total aerosol analysis, indicating that ambient sulfate's CCN activity depended on particle size and/or mixing state. Comparisons between the CCN-MCE, WCN-MCE, ATOFMS, and size distribution data will be made to help elucidate which factors are important in determining precipitation in the California Sierra Nevada.

Noblitt, S. D.; Roberts, G. C.; Corrigan, C.; Creamean, J.; Collins, D. B.; Cahill, J. F.; Prather, K. A.; Collett, J. L.; Henry, C.

2011-12-01

128

Accurate, direct measurements of oh yields from gas-phase ozone-alkene reactions using an in situ LIF Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present direct, pressure-dependent measurements of OH yields from gas-phase ozone-alkene reactions, using the Harvard HOx instrument to obtain sensitive, accurate, and precise OH concentrations. As in previous studies from our laboratory, steady-state [OH] is measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF); here, the accurate LIF calibration allows us to present absolute OH yields for the first time. To calibrate our original LIF system, we measure yields from ozone plus tetramethylethylene (TME) as a function of pressure. The pressure dependence agrees with our previous results, so our yield measurements are now of comparable accuracy to those from indirect studies. Prompt, low-pressure yields agree well with 1 atm yields measured over longer timescales, confirming that much of the OH arises from decomposition of stabilized carbonyl oxides. We also explore the pressure dependence of yields from ethene, isobutene, and isoprene. Yields from isobutene and isoprene are pressure-dependent, consistent with the formation of substituted carbonyl oxides. We observe no pressure dependence of the OH yield from ozone + ethene, finding instead a constant yield of 14%, in line with most 1 atm studies but in contrast with the results of another pressure-dependent study.

Kroll, Jesse H.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Donahue, Neil M.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.; Anderson, James G.

129

Teaching LD Adolescents to Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggestions for successfully teaching severely reading disabled adolescents are presented in terms of: preparing for instruction (analyze students' instructional and achievement histories, identify current reading demands); providing direct instruction (solicit active student involvement, individualize instructional activities); and monitoring…

Houck, Cherry K.

1987-01-01

130

A direct correlation among indoor Rn, soil gas Rn and geology in the Reading Prong near Boyertown, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We feel that this study suggests a relationship among geology, soil gas Rn and the potential for indoor Rn accumulation in this portion of the Reading Prong. There are deviations from a perfect correlation but these are related to inhomogeneities in the geologic environment and perhaps variations in construction techniques of homes in the area. This study also demonstrates that several analyses in a small area may be necessary to adequately determine the Rn distribution for a particular geologic unit. That scale would be determined by the complexity of the local geology. Where no discrete source of elevated Rn supply is found for dwellings having a significant Rn accumulation, the implication is that overall gross permeability may be sufficient to supply Rn from a larger volume of soil and rock.

Reimer, G. M.; Gundersen, L. C. S.

1989-01-01

131

Project Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a project developed at Damiansville Elementary School (Illinois) to improve reading scores on state reading tests and encourage students to improve reading achievement. Topics include funding; the Standardized Tests for Assessment of Reading; the Accelerated Reader program; planning; the role of the library; and community participation.…

Pingsterhaus, Ruth

2000-01-01

132

Porch Reads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leisure reading in America has declined in the last 20 years, especially among 18 to 24 year olds. Studies show, however, that a positive relationship exists between college students' academic achievement and the time they spend in recreational reading. Reading for pleasure improves reading comprehension, writing style, vocabulary, spelling, and grammatical development. Librarians at the Roesch Library, University of Dayton

Heidi Gauder; Joan Giglierano; Christine H. Schramm

2007-01-01

133

Reading Rituals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2007-01-01

134

Reading Comics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of…

Tilley, Carol L.

2008-01-01

135

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

136

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

137

Correlative Observations with Space-Borne Direct Doppler Wind Instruments of the Rapid Transport of Shuttle Exhaust Plumes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched by Space Shuttle STS-48 on 12 September 1991 and included a direct Doppler experiment, the High Resolution Doppler Imager, HRDI. Ten years later, the TIMED Doppler Interferometer, TIDI, joined HRDI in direct neutral wind observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The removal of instrumental artifacts from the raw spectra, complicated by the loss of good attitude knowledge for HRDI and unexpected signal contamination for TIDI has matured to a level where excellent agreement exists for common volume measurements between them. The two experiments were able to perform overlapping measurements of tidal and planetary wave fields for three years permitting unprecedented clarity in the description of the cyclical behaviour of the MLT. The exhaust plume left in the wake of the launch of STS-107 (16 January 2003) provided a stringent test between TIDI, HRDI, and independent imagery, the latter of which showed rapid transport across the equator to the Antarctic. Though TIDI and HRDI observed the atmosphere at the plume’s location at different local solar times, all correlative observations supported the hypothesis indicated by once-a-day images of the plume - rapid southern transport over thousands of kilometers. A simple spectral analysis of simultaneous observations of the neutral winds by HRDI and TIDI indicates that a classical two-day wave (longitudinal wavenumber = 3) exists in the southern hemisphere during the ~80-hour transit time coinciding with the transport of the plume exhaust from launch to the Antarctic. A least-squares fit of the wave in the meridional wind indicates maximum amplitude in the MLT of ~80 m/s southwards. Other shuttle launches have also been accompanied by evidence that implies rapid transport of exhaust plumes to Arctic latitudes. This paper will summarize correlative HRDI and/or TIDI wind observations of these events and associated spectral analysis of the meridional wind in the MLT. There is no question that TIDI and HRDI confirm the rapid implied motion suggested by space-borne imagery of shuttle exhaust plumes. Empirical and first-principle physical models of MLT dynamics fall short in describing the amplitude and long life of strong meridional flow. The consistency between TIDI, HRDI, and independent observations of rapid plume transport indicate that our understanding of MLT dynamics is far from complete.

Niciejewski, R.; Meier, R. R.; Stevens, M. H.; Skinner, W. R.; Cooper, M.; Marshall, A.; Ortland, D. A.; Wu, Q.

2010-12-01

138

Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and validation of a new self-report instrument, the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory, which is designed to assess adolescent and adult readers' metacognitive awareness and perceived use of reading strategies while reading academic or school-related materials.There were 3 strategy subscales or factors: Global Reading Strategies, Problem-Solving Strategies, and Support Reading Strategies.The reliability and factorial

Kouider Mokhtari; Carla A. Reichard

2002-01-01

139

An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 MK3 open reading frame.  

PubMed

The gammaherpesviruses characteristically drive the proliferation of latently infected lymphocytes. The murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) MK3 protein contributes to this process in vivo by evading CD8(+)-T-cell recognition during latency, as well as during lytic infection. We analyzed some of the molecular mechanisms that control MK3 expression. No dedicated MK3 mRNA was detected. Instead, the MK3 open reading frame (ORF) was transcribed as part of a bicistronic mRNA, downstream of a previously unidentified ORF, 13M. The 13M/MK3 promoter appeared to extend approximately 1 kb 5' of the transcription start site and included elements both dependent on and independent of the ORF50 lytic transactivator. MK3 was translated from the bicistronic transcript by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. RNA structure mapping identified two stem-loops between 13M and MK3 that were sufficient for IRES activity in a bicistronic reporter plasmid and a third stem-loop just within the MK3 coding sequence, with a subtler, perhaps regulatory role. Overall, translation of the MHV-68 MK3 bore a striking resemblance to that of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vFLIP, suggesting that IRES elements are a common theme of latent gammaherpesvirus immune evasion in proliferating cells. PMID:14645566

Coleman, Heather M; Brierley, Ian; Stevenson, Philip G

2003-12-01

140

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

141

Parental Involvement in Reading Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that parental involvement in activities that support academic areas is directly correlated with reading achievement and development. This study stresses the importance of reading aloud to your child, the connections between reading aloud at home and at school, the value of implementing hands-on literacy based activities that…

Colgan, Karen A.

142

Summer Reading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer, a great time for leisure reading, a great time to try something different! Dick Pagni, Cheryl Frech, Brian Coppola, Jeffrey Kovac, and Hal Harris provide plenty of suggestions to keep you reading!

Pagni, Dick; Frech, Cheryl; Coppola, Brian; Kovac, Jeffrey; Harris, Hal

2007-06-01

143

Reading & Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several large-scale studies confirm that students nationwide are eschewing reading for other pursuits. Less than one third of 13-year-olds read daily; the percentage of 17-year-olds who read nothing for pleasure has ballooned. In a span of 20 years, American students have transformed from being among the most to the least avid readers of…

Baines, Lawrence

2009-01-01

144

Multicultural Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

Veltze, Linda

2004-01-01

145

Multicultural Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

Veltze, Linda

2004-01-01

146

Instrumented SSH  

SciTech Connect

NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

2009-05-27

147

Historians Reading/Reading Historians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the entire fabric of one's historical knowledge is based on inferences drawn by historians in their readings of primary sources, a study of their reading habits, and a comparison of those habits with the habits of others who read for the purposes of discovery and interpretation may lead to areas of mutual interest or benefit. Although the…

Vann, Richard T.

148

An instrumental cigarette smoke monitor designed for the direct measurement of smoke particulate matter generated in human smoking studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumental cigarette smoke monitor (CSM) system designed for human smoking studies has been developed and validated using\\u000a a smoking machine as a human surrogate. The cigarette holder contains both smoke-mixing and flow-measurement orifices and\\u000a a smoke-concentration sensor. Smoke flow through the holder and smoke concentration in the holder are determined simultaneously.\\u000a The two signals are multiplied electronically and the

Roger A. Jenkins; Thomas M. Gayle

1984-01-01

149

Reconstructing mitochondrial genomes directly from genomic next-generation sequencing reads--a baiting and iterative mapping approach.  

PubMed

We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of non-model organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data-mitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are available as starting-reference sequences or seeds, respectively. We demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in case studies using real NGS data sets of the two monogenean ectoparasites species Gyrodactylus thymalli and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides including their respective teleost hosts European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). MITObim appeared superior to existing tools in terms of accuracy, runtime and memory requirements and fully automatically recovered mitochondrial genomes exceeding 99.5% accuracy from total genomic DNA derived NGS data sets in <24 h using a standard desktop computer. The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR. We furthermore demonstrate the applicability of MITObim for metagenomic/pooled data sets using simulated data. MITObim is an easy to use tool even for biologists with modest bioinformatics experience. The software is made available as open source pipeline under the MIT license at https://github.com/chrishah/MITObim. PMID:23661685

Hahn, Christoph; Bachmann, Lutz; Chevreux, Bastien

2013-05-09

150

An Optical Thermometer for Direct Measurement of Cell Temperature in the Beckman Instruments XL-A Analytical Ultracentrifuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical thermometer has been evaluated for use in the Beekman Instruments Optima XL-A Analytical Ultracentrifuge. A thermochromic solution of CoCl2·6H2O was used as the temperature sensing material. The dehydration of CoCl2·6H2O is temperature dependent resulting a highly temperature dependent absorption peak at 660 nm. Spectra of 0.1 M CoCl2·6H2O in an alcohol-water mixture were measured at different temperature settings

S. Liu; W. F. Stafford

1995-01-01

151

Reading Reflections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reading reflections are designed to encourage students to complete readings before coming to class, to reflect more deeply on the content of the reading, to make personal meaning from the meaning, and to develop their metacognitive skills for lifelong learning. The reflections consist of three questions: (1) What is the main point of the reading?, (2) What information did you find surprising? Why?, and (3) What did you find confusing? Why? Students submit short responses to two of three questions prior to coming to class. Metacognitive components of the activity Reading reflections address many elements of metacognition, including knowledge, control, and reflection. Reading reflections are designed to help students develop knowledge about themselves as learners, learning tasks (reading), prior knowledge, content, self-monitoring, self-assessment, and reflection. Metacognitive goals The primary goals of this activity are to help students develop their skills of self-assessment, and to reflect more deeply on the content of their reading assignments. Reflective thinking is an essential element of expert learners, so this activity helps students develop skills as intentional learners for lifelong learning. Assessing students' metacognition Reading reflections (n = 35 in a typical semester) count for approximately 10% of the course grade. I do not grade these reflections, but give students credit if they are turned in on time (before class) and if they clearly demonstrate significant reflection.

Wirth, Karl

152

Against Readings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

Edmundson, Mark

2009-01-01

153

Reading Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful…

Delo, Lynda

2008-01-01

154

Slow Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the early elementary years, teachers generally pay attention to the act of reading--to the appropriate skill level and pace. But as students move on in the educational system and get to an age when teachers expect them to read on their own, the author suspects teachers pay less and less attention to this problem of pace. When they push…

Newkirk, Thomas

2011-01-01

155

Reading Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some ideas for promoting reading at home. These ideas are geared mostly for teachers of K-2 students. Engage the family during a family trip. Have them keep a journal using the following lesson plan: family journal Remember to match the book to the journal prompt. Each family will have the opportunity to read the same book. Be ...

Hedden, Ms.

2005-06-23

156

Reading Remixed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

2012-01-01

157

Reading Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in conducting a reading lab for a broad group of workers ranging from nonreaders to persons reading at a fifth-grade level. Presented first is a course overview that includes the following: information on the course's targeted population, student selection process, and demographics; strategies for adult remediation;…

Burt, Lorna

158

Use of antibodies directed against synthetic peptides for identifying cDNA clones, establishing reading frames, and deducing the gene order of measles virus.  

PubMed Central

A number of cDNA clones complementary to measles virus mRNA and 50S genome RNA have been generated. These clones have been mapped by restriction enzyme analysis and were subsequently sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert (A. M. Maxam and W. Gilbert, Methods Enzymol. 65:499-560, 1980). Computer analysis of these DNA sequences revealed open reading frames which potentially could code for a number of gene products. Portions of these putative polypeptides were synthesized, and rabbit antibodies directed against peptide-hemocyanin conjugates were produced. These antibodies were used to immunoprecipitate virus-specific polypeptides which were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. For each of the antisera tested, a unique protein was precipitated whose migration on polyacrylamide gels corresponded to standard gene products identified by monoclonal antibodies and antisera against measles virus. By using this method, we were able to assign the coding regions of cDNA clones to specific protein products and, subsequently, to order the genes of the 3'-terminal third of measles genome RNA. Images

Richardson, C D; Berkovich, A; Rozenblatt, S; Bellini, W J

1985-01-01

159

Chronic scopolamine-injection-induced cognitive deficit on reward-directed instrumental learning in rat is associated with CREB signaling activity in the cerebral cortex and dorsal hippocampus.  

PubMed

RATIONALE: Scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, has been used in experimental animal models of dementia. It has been demonstrated to disrupt performances in a battery of behavioral tests. However, no attempt has been made to determine how scopolamine-treated animals would respond to a series of reward-directed instrumental learning (RDIL) tasks. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine in Wistar rats on RDIL, as well as on the expression of memory-related molecules in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and cerebral cortex (CCx). METHODS: The effects of the pretraining injection of scopolamine on the acquisition of instrumental response (experiment 1) were first investigated. Then, the effects of post-training manipulation on the maintenance of instrumental response and the responses to changes in contingency degradation and signal discrimination were assessed (experiment 2). Finally, the expression of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DH and CCx were examined using Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The acquisition of instrumental conditioning is more vulnerable than its maintenance. The 3.0-mg/kg dose of scopolamine rendered rats unable to make adaptive changes in facing contingency degradation and correct responses in signal discrimination tasks. Furthermore, CREB signaling was inactivated by pretraining scopolamine treatment in both the DH and CCx. Nevertheless, this pathway was selectively suppressed by post-training treatment only in the CCx during memory reconsolidation. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits on RDIL are related to the distinguishing alteration of CREB signaling in the DH and CCx. PMID:23722831

Shi, Zhe; Chen, Lingling; Li, Sidi; Chen, Shanguang; Sun, Xiuping; Sun, Lihua; Li, Yinghui; Zeng, Jianguo; He, Yiran; Liu, Xinmin

2013-05-31

160

Instrument Modeling and Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

161

Interaction Quality during Partner Reading.  

PubMed

The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental support, emotional support, and conflict management) and on/off task behavior was evaluated. Children who chose their own partners showed greater social cooperation than those children whose teacher selected their partner. However, when the positive interdependence requirements of the task were not met within the pair (neither child had the skills to provide reading support or no one needed support), lower levels of on-task behavior were observed. Providing basic partner reading script instruction at the beginning of the year was associated with better social cooperation during partner reading, but providing elaborated instruction or no instruction was associated with poorer social cooperation. It is recommended that teachers provide basic script instruction and allow children to choose their own partners. Additionally, pairings of low ability children with other low ability children and high ability children with other high ability children should be avoided. Teachers may want to suggest alternate partners for children who inadvertently choose such pairings or adjust the text difficulty to the pair. Overall, partner reading seems to be an enjoyable pedagogical strategy for teaching reading fluency. PMID:19830259

Meisinger, Elizabeth B; Schwanenflugel, Paula J; Bradley, Barbara A; Stahl, Steven A

2004-06-01

162

Using a Repeated Reading Program to Improve Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three second-grade students at-risk for reading failure participated in an adult-directed repeated reading program that integrated isolated word reading practice, unison reading, error correction, and performance cueing and feedback procedures. During each intervention session, the participants practiced five difficult words key to a first-grade…

Lo, Ya-yu; Cooke, Nancy L.; Starling, A. Leyf Peirce

2011-01-01

163

Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

Casler, Frederick H.

164

The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandesburgi 1598, Nuremberg 1602). One of Tycho's instruments in original size was reconstructed in Oldenburg University and in the Steno Museum in Aarhus, Denmark. In Munich, in the Deutsches Museum's permanent astronomy exhibition (opened in 1992), the Uraniborg observatory and its instruments are shown at a scale of 1:10. A similar but larger model (scale 1:5) from the workshop of the Deutsches Museum was given to the Technical Museum in Malmø, Sweden. Tycho's later observatory Stjerneborg can be seen as a reconstruction on the island Hven (Ven/Sweden) with the original foundations for the instruments.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

165

How Do I Read a Seismogram?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces novice users to reading the lines on a seismograph. Topics include how to distinguish a real earthquake from background vibrations (microseisms) recorded by the instrument, how to read the minute marks that record the passage of time, and how to distinguish the types of earthquake waves that appear on the chart.

166

Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)|

Harris, Albert J.

1979-01-01

167

Reading Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on satellite images and how they are made by active, passive, and remote-sensing instruments. Students analyze satellite images and answer questions about them. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

168

Reading Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two processes involved in reading mathematics are discussed in this document: eye movements and relating the mathematical idea to the appropriate word or symbol. Many kinds of eye movements are used in mathematics--around, top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top, diagonal, backward and forward, and follow the arrow. Examples of each kind are presented. The…

Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

169

Reading performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television's potential effect on children's reading performance has become an issue of concern among educators. The estimate that by the end of the high school years, children will have spent more time watching television than attending school is frequently quoted and has both alarmed and intrigued researchers. Such a ubiquitous phenomenon as television is presumed to have effects on the

Susan B. Neuman

1984-01-01

170

Reading Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a first-year English-as-foreign-language junior college reading course in Japan that utilized a combination of whole class instruction and cooperative learning techniques to encourage group discussion and language skill development. Students were randomly divided into groups of eight--a group which became the students' home…

Thornton, Patricia

171

Developmental College Reading: Secrets of Our Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Effective Reading," a newly revised community college developmental reading course, which focuses on reading comprehension skills of predicting, confirming, and integrating; uses the direct teaching model of demonstration, guided practice, and independent practice; and is corequisite with an introductory sociology course. Reports…

Stone, Nancy; Miller, Karen

1991-01-01

172

The Changing Role of the Reading Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of special reading teachers is currently in flux, as local education agencies expect them to work increasingly with other teachers and parents and consequently provide less direct instruction for students. Historically, reading specialists taught disabled readers since it was hypothesized that their special training in reading diagnosis…

Tutolo, Daniel

173

Working Memory Resources and Children's Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in fourth-grade children and the nature of the working memory resources involved in reading comprehension. Shows that working memory capacity was a direct predictor of reading comprehension when contrasted with vocabulary and decoding skills. Discusses the reasons…

Seigneuric, Alix; Ehrlich, Marie-France; Oakhill, Jane V.; Yuill, Nicola M.

2000-01-01

174

Reading/Writing Connections: Learning from Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents an overview of reading/writing research, discussing specific reading/writing processes, instructional issues, teacher research, and directions for future research. Chapter titles are: (1) Alternative Research Perspectives (Sarah J. McCarthey and Taffy E. Raphael); (2) Reading, Writing, and Genre Development (Judith A. Langer);…

Irwin, Judith W., Ed.; Doyle, Mary Anne, Ed.

175

Reading and Subcortical Auditory Function  

PubMed Central

Although it is largely agreed that phonological processing deficits are a major cause of poor reading, the neural origins of phonological processing are not well understood. We now show, for the first time, that phonological decoding, measured with a test of single-nonword reading, is significantly correlated with the timing of subcortical auditory processing and also, to a lesser extent, with the robustness of subcortical representation of the harmonic content of speech, but not with pitch encoding. The relationships we observe between reading and subcortical processing fall along a continuum, with poor readers at one end and good readers at the other. These data suggest that reading skill may depend on the integrity of subcortical auditory mechanisms and are consistent with the idea that subcortical representation of the acoustic features of speech may play a role in normal reading as well as in the development of reading disorders. These data establish a significant link between subcortical auditory function and reading, thereby contributing to the understanding of the biological bases of reading. At a more general level, these findings are among the first to establish a direct relationship between subcortical sensory function and a specific cognitive skill (reading). We argue that this relationship between cortical and subcortical function could be shaped during development by the corticofugal pathway and that this cortical–subcortical link could contribute to the phonological processing deficits experienced by poor readers.

Banai, Karen; Hornickel, Jane; Skoe, Erika; Nicol, Trent; Zecker, Steven

2009-01-01

176

Reading Chess  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying semantic analysis to images of extended passages of text, several volumes of a chess encyclopedia have been read with high accuracy. Although carefully proofread, the books were poorly printed and posed a severe challenge to conventional page-layout analysis and character-recognition methods. An experimental page-reader system performed strictly top-down layout analysis for identification of columns, lines, words, and characters.

Henry S. Baird; Ken Thompson

1990-01-01

177

Reading Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this website, you will practice reading with some super fun games! Fly a dragon to pick the right words in Blending dragon Make words with shadow faces in Say What?! Can you follow a recipe? Find out by Cooking with Abuela Fly through the air to save the day in Sentence Flying! Help Binky get his story straight in Story Scramble Go fishing for sightwords on Fishing with Kirima Try matching prefixes and suffixes in Balloon popping fun! Write a new ...

Peake, Mrs.

2010-11-29

178

Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was launched aboard the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite on 14 Feb. 1990. Both the spacecraft and the UVPI were sponsored by the Directed Energy Office of the Strategic Defense Initiati...

D. M. Horan

1993-01-01

179

Toddler Reading Time  

MedlinePLUS

... reading are just right. Reasons to Read to Toddlers Studies show that kids with active exposure to ... and comfortable. When and How to Read to Toddlers Experts recommend reading to toddlers as often as ...

180

Comparison of a Direct-Reading Device to Gravimetric Methods for Evaluating Organic Dust Aerosols in an Enclosed Swine Production Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of livestock in enclosed facilities has become an accepted practice, driven by the need for increased efficiency.Exposure to organic dusts, containing various bioactive components, has been identified an important risk factor for the high rate of lung disease found among workers in these environments. Assessment of organic dust exposure requires technical skills and instrumentation not readily available to

Craig D. Taylor; Stephen J. Reynolds

2001-01-01

181

Reading Research 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet reviews reading research that was reported in Great Britain during 1974. The introductory pages highlight research on reading standards and tests, dyslexia and specific reading difficulties, remedial reading instruction, and reading as it relates to language. Annotated items listed include reading research reported in articles or…

Goodacre, Elizabeth J.

182

Reading Research 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The reading research contributions discussed in this survey are arranged under the following headings: reading standards and tests, dyslexia and specific reading retardation, remedial and reading provision, reading development, and materials and reading interests. Each section summarizes research and findings in that area of study during 1975.…

Goodacre, Elizabeth J.

183

Reading Research 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography lists the reading research that was published in England during 1976. An introduction highlights specific research on reading tests and standards, dyslexia and specific reading retardation, remedial reading, reading development, and reading material selection. The booklet's sections list research reported in articles…

Goodacre, Elizabeth J.

184

Academic English Reading for International College Students: The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language…

Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen

2011-01-01

185

The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities  

PubMed Central

This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9–12. Students were paired within classes and pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: repeated reading (N = 33), wide reading (N = 34), or typical instruction (N = 29). Intervention was provided daily for approximately 15–20 minutes for 10 weeks. Results indicated no overall statistically significant differences for any condition, with effect sizes ranging from ?.31 to .27. Findings do not support either approach for severely impaired readers at the high school level. We hypothesize that these students require more intensive interventions that include direct and explicit instruction in word- and text-level skills as well as engaged reading practice with effective feedback.

Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A.

2010-01-01

186

Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

2011-01-01

187

Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading

Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

2012-01-01

188

14 CFR 29.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights mustâ (a) Make each instrument...direct rays are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and (2) No objectionable...

2013-01-01

189

14 CFR 27.1381 - Instrument lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights mustâ (a) Make each instrument...direct rays are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and (2) No objectionable...

2013-01-01

190

Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument  

SciTech Connect

An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) ({sigma} < 5%); (3) Determination of burn up (BU) ({sigma} {approx} 6%); (4) Determination of cooling time (CT) ({sigma} {approx} 20-50%); and (5) DDA instrument as a standalone device. DDA response (fresh fuel vs. spent fuel) is: (1) Fresh fuel => DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13

191

Cordless Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

1981-01-01

192

Reading Consultant's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook contains brief essays concerning aspects of reading and reading skills, activities designed to promote those skills, and biographies of reading specialists. The first section of the handbook discusses reading readiness, word recognition, word analysis, word meaning, comprehension, and content area reading. After discussion of each…

Bourgeois, Penny, Comp.; And Others

193

Parents Teach Reading, Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and teachers need to be involved in teaching children to read and to enjoy reading. There are three planks in a platform that will help all parents become involved in their children's learning to read. First, parents must set the example. If they want their children to read, parents must read around them and to them. Secondly, they must…

Clary, Linda Mixon

194

Ozone monitoring instrument calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched on July 15, 2004 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite. The OMI instrument is an ultraviolet-visible imaging spectrograph that uses two-dimensional charge-coupled device detectors to register both the spectrum and the swath perpendicular to the flight direction with a 115° wide swath, which enables global daily ground

Marcel R. Dobber; Ruud J. Dirksen; Pieternel F. Levelt; Robert H. M. Voors; Quintus Kleipool; Glen Jaross; Matthew Kowalewski; Ernest Hilsenrath; Gilbert W. Leppelmeier; Johan de Vries; Werner Dierssen; Nico C. Rozemeijer

2006-01-01

195

Reading Music Affects Reading Language: Says Who?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rejects the belief that teaching music reading affects the teaching of language reading. Article is a further extension of the research provided by Ruth Zinar on the connection between the two (EJ 147 534). (Editor/RK)

Groff, Patrick

1977-01-01

196

SURVEY INSTRUMENT  

DOEpatents

This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

Borkowski, C.J.

1952-10-31

197

Children Can Love Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)|

Zibart, Rosemary

1980-01-01

198

Reading Better and Faster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most people, it is easy to learn to read faster. A reading rate is often just a matter of habit. To change some habits, try these tips: (1) pay attention when reading and read as if it really matters; (2) do not talk either silently or aloud while reading; (3) read in thought groups or phrases of 3-4 words, especially in complete clauses and…

Doyle, Dennis

199

Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

Monteiro, Vera

2013-01-01

200

Teaching Adults to Read with Reading Apprenticeship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adult students have basic reading skills, but they are inexperienced readers who need to learn skills beyond the basics to equip them for success in college and career. How do educators face such adults with optimism and an eagerness to help improve specific reading skills so that these students can read and understand a variety of materials?…

Lesmeister, Michele Benjamin

2010-01-01

201

Reading program—Remedial, integrated, and innovative  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative integrated remedial reading program has been developed based on recent research findings. My longitudinal studies\\u000a have revealed that poor reading compounds itself over the years. The majority of children with reading disabilities currently\\u000a remain in regular classrooms with varying techniques being used depending upon individual school directives and current educational\\u000a theory.\\u000a \\u000a Despite current remedial techniques, the poorer reader

Susan R. Butler

1991-01-01

202

"Why are Your Kids Writing during Reading Time?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hypothetical situation of an elementary school principal's concern at students writing during reading time, and offers a possible teacher's response with information about the direct tie between writing and reading improvement. (JC)

Harp, Bill

1987-01-01

203

Instrumentation '79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)|

Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

1979-01-01

204

Dental instrument  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An instrument for determining the occlusal space between a person's upper and lower teeth thereby facilitating the formation of apparatus such as dentures and splints for removable positioning in the person's mouth.

2008-04-22

205

Laparoscopic Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Laparoscopic instrumentation continues to evolve towards smaller, more reliable, and better ergonomic devices, with a larger\\u000a variety of choices. Since the first edition of this textbook, subtle improvements are readily apparent in existing devices\\u000a as first-generation instruments progress towards later-generation models. New technology exists to allow procedures to be\\u000a performed with fewer complications. Combined with refinements in techniques, new and

Patrick S. Lowry

206

Reading Therapy Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the results of using the Phono-Graphix reading method, designed for students with reading disabilities, to teach nine prison inmates to read. Reports that inmates' average basic reading skills standard score gains were 17 points (more than one standard deviation) after 33 one-hour sessions, an average gain of 1.9 standard points per…

McCarty, Roxanne

2002-01-01

207

Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A. Crowe); (3) "Reading

Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

208

Psychometric Research in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

Davis, Frederick B.

209

Research in Secondary Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summers' annotated bibliographies of secondary reading (1963, 1964), "Review of Educational Research,""Journal of Reading," ERIC/CRIER, and "Research in Education" are listed as resources for all phases of reading. A shifting of trends in the nature and scope of research topics in secondary reading is noted, with diagnosis and treatment,…

Kling, Martin

210

Reading difficulties in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading plays an important role in the learning process. It involves both decoding and comprehension skills. Reading plays a vital role in the acquisition of knowledge, which leads to independent learning. But if the child faces problems in learning to read, then these reading difficulties do compound the other language learning problems, like writing, spelling, pronunciation, comprehension, etc. which affects

Meenaz Shams Hashwani

2000-01-01

211

Building Bridges to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading aloud to kindergarten children makes good educational sense. For this group, teachers should emphasize the aspects of reading aloud that promote a love of story listening as a bridge to future reading. To read aloud well, teachers should: (1) use stories with strong plots, vivid characters, and interesting settings; (2) select a book they…

Krolikowski, Sue

212

Reading to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading

Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

2012-01-01

213

Reading Assessment and Illettrisme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the global and analytical approaches to reading assessment. Points out that the first approaches reading as a self-contained activity, while the second presupposes both a reading model and a reader model. Applies each to the context of reading assessment in France. Suggests discarding the global approach as a diagnostic tool. (KO)|

Aubret, J.; Chartier, D.

1988-01-01

214

Theme: Reading for Enjoyment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The articles in this journal for reading teachers stress the importance of enjoyment in the reading process. The topics discussed include the following: the role of comic books in the classroom, the effect of story telling on oral language and imagination development, the place of the library in reading for enjoyment, reading motivation through…

Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

1978-01-01

215

America Reads Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes various components of the America Reads Challenge program, which will mobilize AmeriCorps members, skilled reading specialists, and trained volunteer reading tutors to ensure that every student can read independently and well by the end of third grade. The booklet begins with advice on how to get involved right now and…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

216

Reading Instruction for Struggling Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey conducted among approximately 1,400 students at 63 primary schools showed that learning gains for initial reading varied significantly for students in the last 6 months of Year 3. Learning gains turned out to be much higher in classes where students had received explicit or direct instruction, where instruction had been organized efficiently, and where appropriate remedial measures for

Thoni Houtveen; Wim van de Grift

2007-01-01

217

Teachers' Opinions of the DISTAR Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Direct Instructional System for Teaching Arithmetic and Reading (DISTAR) was developed to provide beginning and remedial instruction to disadvantaged children. This paper describes the DISTAR reading program, noting its heavy emphasis on programmed learning and repetitive drill exercises; it then cites the opinions of proponents and opponents…

Ogletree, Earl J.; Ogletree, Gerda S.

218

A title I reading success story  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the evolution of an exemplary Title I reading program in a rural elementary school. The key element in the program was a knowledgeable reading teacher who worked directly with children and also supervised the tutoring efforts of others (teacher assistants and community volunteers). A snapshot of longitudinal test data showed that out of 12 children identified as

Darrell Morris

2005-01-01

219

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

220

EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF VARIABILITY IN READING RATE IN GRADES FOUR, FIVE AND SIX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

METHODS OF TESTING, EVALUATING, AND TEACHING READING IN THE FOURTH, FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES ARE DESCRIBED. CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF VARIABILITY IN READING SPEED ARE DISCUSSED. DESIGN WAS BASED ON THE RATIONALE THAT A MEANINGFUL READING-TIME SCORE DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE SUBJECT'S PURPOSE FOR READING. WHILE READING SPEED MAY…

HARRIS, THEODORE L.; AND OTHERS

221

The relationsip between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading is the most fundamental tool for learning for students. Learning and implementing special reading strategies and specializing in the implementation of such strategies enable not only a more efficient use of time but also an easier and more sustained period of reading. Increasing brain power at the time of reading is directly related to developing strategic reading skills. The

H. ?enay ?en

2009-01-01

222

Learning to Read in Different Languages. Linguistics and Literacy Series: 1. Papers in Applied Linguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers on acquisition of reading skills are included: (1) "Miscue Analysis and Future Research Directions" (Goodman); (2) "Reading in Spanish: Insights from Children's Miscues" (Barrera); (3) "An Investigation of the Oral Reading Behaviors of Native Spanish Speakers Reading in Spanish" (Hudelson); (4) "A Study of Oral Reading in…

Hudelson, Sarah, Ed.

223

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field o...

D. S. Hartley

1998-01-01

224

Instrument for Measuring Evaporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaporation rate meter, or evaporimeter, has been devised that shows promise of directly measuring the rate of evaporation near the sea surface. The simplicity of the instrument indicates that it may be of interest to oceanographers, and possibly to me...

A. H. Schooley

1965-01-01

225

On the observational estimation of thermal instrumental and refractional errors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From astronomical observations, level readings and temperature determinations with a transit instrument at the Pulkovo observatory, an estimation is obtained of some instrumental and refraction errors, caused by an inhomogeneous thermal field around the instrument. The contribution of abnormal refraction ?Vz on the time correction depending on the inclination of the atmospheric level at the moment of star transit is estimated.

Gorshkov, V.; Shcherbakova, N.

226

On Linguistic Structure and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stella Center's belief in the basic importance of grammatical structure as a factor in reading comprehension substantiated the author's theory that the ability to comprehend syntactic structure is positively correlated with the ability to comprehend meaning. Original instruments devised to test this hypothesis included a test which utilized…

O'Donnell, Roy C.

227

Performance determined instruction for training in remedial reading1  

PubMed Central

A system called Performance Determined Instruction (PDI) is presented as a methodological tactic for training in remedial reading. The system incorporates aspects of binary logic, instrumental conditioning, and programmed instruction. Results suggest that PDI is a high-precision instructional procedure effective in obtaining desired changes in reading-task performance.

Gray, Burl B.; Baker, Richard D.; Stancyk, Susan E.

1969-01-01

228

32 CFR 701.6 - Reading rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...establish a GILS record for each document it places...forms, and addresses for DON activities (i.e. , the Standard Navy...are located on the Navy Electronics Directives System (http...in FOIA reading rooms for inspection and...

2013-07-01

229

Divided Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

230

Teaching Reading and Mathematics. Reading Aids Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph is designed to furnish classroom teachers with insight and ideas for teaching reading more carefully by emphasizing the what and how aspects of instruction. It is written for the teacher of mathematics in the middle and secondary grades who realizes the important relationship between effective reading skills and learning…

Earle, Richard A.

231

Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

232

Deep Read: a reading comprehension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes initial work on Deep Read , an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 to 6th grade material; each story is followed by short - answer questions (an answer key was also provided)

Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01

233

Imaging brain connectivity in children with diverse reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading is a complex cognitive skill that requires the coordination of multiple brain regions. Although functional neuroimaging studies highlight the cortical brain regions associated with a specific cognitive task like reading, they do not directly address the underlying neural connections necessary for efficient performance of this task. Adults with reading disability have demonstrated lower regional white matter connectivity, but it

Christian Beaulieu; Christopher Plewes; Lori Anne Paulson; Dawne Roy; Lindsay Snook; Luis Concha; Linda Phillips

2005-01-01

234

Learning and Assessing Mathematics through Reading and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learn mathematics more effectively and more deeply when reading and writing is directed at learning mathematics. Although reading and writing in mathematics may necessitate more skills and practice to master, the mathematical learning derived from reading and writing mathematics far outweighs the burden it places on teachers and students.…

Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna

2008-01-01

235

The Dynamics of Language Learning: Research in Reading and English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on future directions for English and reading research, the papers presented in this book examine the complex interplay of skills, processes, and classroom conditions that influence the development of children's competence in reading, writing, and the language arts. The titles and authors of the essays are as follows: (1) "Reading and…

Squire, James R., Ed.

236

What About Special Theories of Teaching Remedial Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four new approaches to remedial reading directed toward the stimulation of defective perceptual areas by procedures other than teaching reading skills are reviewed. The Delacato approach emphasizes the development of neurological organization and laterality. It may be useful for a small percentage of children with severe reading disabilities, but…

Harris, Albert J.

237

Learning and Assessing Mathematics through Reading and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students learn mathematics more effectively and more deeply when reading and writing is directed at learning mathematics. Although reading and writing in mathematics may necessitate more skills and practice to master, the mathematical learning derived from reading and writing mathematics far outweighs the burden it places on teachers and…

Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna

2008-01-01

238

Reading to Preschoolers Exposed: Is the Emperor Really Naked?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues there is reason for more optimism concerning the effects of reading to preschoolers than suggested by the Scarborough and Dobrich review in this issue (PS522390). Discusses methodological problems in many studies; cites studies indicating direct and indirect links between reading to preschoolers and reading achievement, suggesting that…

Lonigan, Christopher J.

1994-01-01

239

What About Special Theories of Teaching Remedial Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four new approaches to remedial reading directed toward the stimulation of defective perceptual areas by procedures other than teaching reading skills are reviewed. The Delacato approach emphasizes the development of neurological organization and laterality. It may be useful for a small percentage of children with severe reading disabilities, but…

Harris, Albert J.

240

Reading with the ears.  

PubMed

We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian language areas, prefrontal cortex, and premotor cortex. In a within-subject comparison between reading Morse code and reading print, the activation pattern in the left temporoparietal association cortex was similar for both forms of reading, suggesting that reading Morse code shares part of its cortical networks with reading print. PMID:15196672

Maier, J; Hartvig, N Vaever; Green, A C; Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H

2004-07-01

241

Can Reading Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)|

Crowe, Chris

2003-01-01

242

Coaxial curved instrumentation for minimal access surgery.  

PubMed

New coaxial curved and bayonet instruments have been designed which permit controlled dissection and directional change of the functional tip, blunt dissection and lift retraction. The instruments are introduced into the peritoneal and thoracic cavities through flexible re-usable metal cannulae. The excellent ergonomic properties of the new instruments have been confirmed by their use in major laparoscopic and thoracoscopic operations. Coaxial instruments enhance the scope of minimal access surgery and have distinct advantages over the traditional straight instruments. PMID:8081901

Cuschieri, A; Shimi, S; Banting, S; Van Velpen, G; Dunkley, P

243

Role of reading engagement in mediating effects of reading comprehension instruction on reading outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' read- ing comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and moti- vational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for cognitive strategies in reading), and traditional instruction in fourth-grade classrooms differentially influenced students' reading comprehension,

Allan Wigfield; John T. Guthrie; Kathleen C. Perencevich; Ana Taboada; Susan Lutz Klauda; Angela McRae; Pedro Barbosa

2008-01-01

244

ELEMENTARY TEACHERS' BELIEFS ABOUT READING AND KNOWLEDGE OF READING CONTENT: RELATIONSHIPS TO DECISION ABOUT READING OUTCOMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between elementary teachers' beliefs about reading, knowledge of basic reading content, and decisions about the importance of students' reading behavior in relation to grade level were examined. Significant correlation coefficients were found for (1) knowledge of reading and reading behavior outcomes focusing on discrimination of sounds represented by consonants and consonant clusters and (2) student?centered reading beliefs and reading

William H. Rupley; John W. Logan

1985-01-01

245

Impact of an integrated science and reading intervention (INSCIREAD) on bilingual students' misconceptions, reading comprehension, and transferability of strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes a research study that resulted in an instructional model directed at helping fourth grade diverse students improve their science knowledge, their reading comprehension, their awareness of the relationship between science and reading, and their ability to transfer strategies. The focus of the instructional model emerged from the intersection of constructs in science and reading literacy; the model

Patricia Martinez

2008-01-01

246

The Future of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

Peters, Tom

2009-01-01

247

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

248

Levels of Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As students progress through the different grade levels, reading across the curriculum needs to be emphasized because it provides opportunities for students to practice reading in each academic discipline. Becoming a good reader is a curriculum "must." On the kindergarten level, experience charts may be used as an early means of teaching reading.…

Ediger, Marlow

249

PAWs for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a program at an Illinois middle school that was designed to increase reading achievement, vocabulary, and the enjoyment of reading. Highlights include the library's role; use of the Standardized Test for Assessment of Reading; the Accelerated Reader program; teacher training; teacher comments; and grant funds. Four appendices include:…

Krause, Robin

2000-01-01

250

Rapid Reading, Yes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

Frommer, Harvey

1971-01-01

251

Ethnic Heritage: Supplemental Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These supplemental readings are part of a total packet of learning materials on the heritage of Southern agrarians. The readings are prefaced by a story of Southern life told in pictures. The primary source readings cover the following topics: (1) Farmers Unions, (2) Farm Tenancy, (3) Recovery Programs of the Roosevelt Administration, (4) Cotton…

Powell, Roberta

252

Reading with the ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian

J Maier; N. Vaever Hartvig; A. C Green; H Stodkilde-Jorgensen

2004-01-01

253

Learning Vocabulary Through Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the hypothesis that new vocabulary knowledge can be acquired through incidental learning of word meanings from context. Fifth graders of two reading abilities read passages containing unfamiliar words. Students were randomly assigned to different numbers of context presentations: 0, 2, 6, or 10 passages read over several days. Half of the unfamiliar words were informally taught before

Joseph R Jenkins; Marcy L Stein; Katherine Wysocki

1984-01-01

254

Reading Difficulties in Albanian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years…

Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

2012-01-01

255

Free Reading Is UTOPIA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

LeCrone, Nancy

2010-01-01

256

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

257

Reading for Profit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading First is a $900-million-a-year project that offers states grants to improve reading instruction for children in kindergarten through third grade. However, Reading First is now awash in allegations of mismanagement and conflicts of interest. The Education Department's inspector general issued a report that declared that the program's…

Glenn, David

2007-01-01

258

Issues in Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presently, reading is much discussed by senators, representatives, and state legislatures--the debate is on the following issues in reading instruction: (1) having all students in public school achieve at grade level as a reading minimum; (2) accountability of teachers for student achievement; (3) teachers having high achievement expectations from…

Ediger, Marlow

259

The Future of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

Peters, Tom

2009-01-01

260

Reading One on One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students can fall behind early in reading and never catch up. Hoboken (New Jersey) teachers are using Reading Recovery, an innovative New Zealand program, to provide low-achieving first graders with daily tutoring sessions for 18 to 22 weeks. Reading Recovery offers confidence-building strategies that combine skill-and-drill and whole-language…

Sevano, Dennis

1994-01-01

261

ELLs' Perceptions of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

Howard, Rachael M.

2012-01-01

262

Reading and Understanding Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the suggested use of three types of reading/study guides (K-W-L, Selective Reading Guide-O-Rama, and Levels of Comprehension) which can be used with students at all levels of academic and learning proficiency to help them read their textbooks with understanding. (RS)|

Misulis, Katherine E.

1994-01-01

263

Reading Effects of IBM's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews evaluations of IBM's Writing to Read program in kindergartens and first grades. In Writing to Read (WTR), students rotate through five learning stations to learn and practice phonics, to write stories, and to listen to recorded books. Two of these stations involve computers. Twenty-one studies of Writing to Read in kindergartens found a median effect size of

Robert E. Slavin

1991-01-01

264

Balancing Instrumental and Identity Goals in Relationships: The Role of Request Directness and Request Persistence in the Selection of Sexual Resistance Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies the general frameworks of Politeness Theory and Planning Theory to explain the selection of sexual resistance strategies among undergraduates following both initial and persisting requests. Investigates contingent effects of request directness on characteristics of the resistance message. Tests influence of resister sex on strategy choice.…

Afifi, Walid A.; Lee, Josephine W.

2000-01-01

265

Assessing Affective Constructs in Reading: A Mixed Methods Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigating affective dimensions in reading has long been plagued by vaguely defined constructs and, consequently, by an array of potentially problematic instruments designed to measure them. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship among three popular group-administered instruments intended to tap affective constructs in…

Conradi, Kristin

2011-01-01

266

Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first- through fifth-grade classrooms, a total of 751 minutes (or 25% of instructional time) was

Molly Ness

2011-01-01

267

The Role of Reading Comprehension in Word Meaning Acquisition during Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the influence of reading comprehension on the acquisition of word meanings from context and compares it to the effects of local context characteristics, such as proximity and directness of context clues. Indicates that reading-comprehension level and prior main-concept knowledge facilitate vocabulary learning from context. (DSK)|

Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

1998-01-01

268

Assessing Reading. Using Cloze Procedure To Assess Reading Skills. [Packet] and Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…

Vaughan, Judy

269

Preservice Childhood Education Teachers' Perceptions of Instructional Practices for Developing Young Children's Interest in Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of the increasing attention to reading in educational contexts around the globe, this study uses a semistructured interview to explore 93 Jordanian preservice teachers' perceptions of instructional practices for developing young children's interest in reading. The participants reported on 7 major teacher practices they perceive as instrumental in developing young children's interest in reading. These relate to

Ali Ahmad Al-Barakat; Ruba Fahmi Bataineh

2011-01-01

270

Test Reviews: Flynn, J. (2001). "The Predictive Reading Profile." East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Predictive Reading Profile (PRP) is an individual or group-administered instrument designed to examine precursors to reading difficulties by identifying children at risk for reading failure in later grades and special instructional needs for children in late kindergarten and first grade. The purpose of the PRP "is to develop a profile of a…

Fudge, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

271

Reading Attitudes of Middle School Students: Results of a U.S. Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine the current state of reading attitudes among middle school students in the United States, a survey was developed and administered to 4,491 students in 23 states plus the District of Columbia. The instrument comprised four subscales measuring attitudes toward: recreational reading in print settings, recreational reading in digital…

McKenna, Michael C.; Conradi, Kristin; Lawrence, Camille; Jang, Bong Gee; Meyer, J. Patrick

2012-01-01

272

Letter Knowledge Predicts Grade 4 Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the predictors of fourth graders' reading skills (reading comprehension, text reading and word chain reading). Reading skill antecedents of 158 children of 5-6 years of age were measured at the beginning of kindergarten; students' reading skills were measured in kindergarten and in Grades 1 and 4. The results showed…

Leppanen, Ulla; Aunola, Kaisa; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2008-01-01

273

I Can't Read (Directions)!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notation systems for the arts were developed to educate students in performing the art form. Soon notation systems were used in research and archiving performances and skills that could have been lost to the following generations. Virtual travel through the written notations brings experts to students rather than having students go to the…

Miller, Penelope

2012-01-01

274

How to Read Drug Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version How to Read Drug ... read drug labels How to read a prescription drug label View a text version of this picture. ...

275

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over the Tropical Oceans from the Clouds and the Earth?s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Satellite Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine months of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)\\/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) broadband fluxes combined with the TRMM visible infrared scanner (VIRS) high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the Tropics of 4.6

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato

2002-01-01

276

Neurobiological studies of reading and reading disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from neuroimaging studies, including our own, suggest that skilled word identification in reading is related to the functional integrity of two consolidated left hemisphere (LH) posterior systems: a dorsal (temporo-parietal) circuit and a ventral (occipito-temporal) circuit. This posterior system appears to be functionally disrupted in developmental dyslexia. Relative to nonimpaired readers, reading-disabled individuals demonstrate heightened reliance on both inferior

Kenneth R Pugh; W. Einar Mencl; Annette R Jenner; Leonard Katz; Stephen J Frost; Jun Ren Lee; Sally E Shaywitz; Bennett A Shaywitz

2001-01-01

277

From Language to Reading and Reading Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Reading comprehension is seen as an end product of a number of subprocesses involving the mediation from visual input to phonological\\u000a representation, in particular, and processes of language comprehension in general which in turn are modulated by aspects of\\u000a working memory and attention. The neural basis of each of these functionally different subprocesses constituting normal reading\\u000a is presented. Empirical findings

Angela D. Friederici; Thomas Lachmann

278

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

Hartley, D.S. III

1998-01-01

279

Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

2012-01-01

280

Achieving Balance in Reading Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

his is an era of great promise and great challenge for reading assessment. Our evolving knowledge of reading and reading assessment helps us conceptualize students' reading growth and determine appropriate assessments to measure and describe that growth. An array of reading assessment materials and procedures, including teacher questioning, performance assessment, portfolio assessment, checklists, reading inventories, and quizzes and tests, can

281

Assessing Reading Performance with Curriculum-Based Reading Inventories: The Case of Korea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports the findings of a study that explored the validity of curriculum-based measures of reading in order to develop a valid and practical instrument for regular education teachers as well as special education teachers in Korea. Participants in the study were 213 students from 7 elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. Of the total, 183…

Kim, Dong-il; Hwang, Mae-hyang; Lim, Ji-hyun; Lim, Hyo-jin; Kim, Kwang-seon

282

Scientific instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation (NSF), through its College Science Instrumentation Program (CSIP), is now accepting proposals from qualified undergraduate colleges or consortiums for the purchase of laboratory and instructional equipment. CSIP provides matching support from $5,000 to $50,000 for acquisition of new state-of-the-art instructional scientific equipment or renovation, replacement, and upgrading of existing equipment. The deadline for submission of proposals is January 11, 1985. All fields of science and engineering are eligible for the grants.Proposals will be evaluated on the basis of performance competence, intrinsic merit, utility, or relevance of the project, and effect on the infrastructure of science and engineering. Evaluation and processing of proposals will require approximately 6 months.

283

Visual noise disrupts conceptual integration in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Effortfulness Hypothesis suggests that sensory impairment (either simulated or age-related) may decrease capacity for\\u000a semantic integration in language comprehension. We directly tested this hypothesis by measuring resource allocation to different\\u000a levels of processing during reading (i.e., word vs. semantic analysis). College students read three sets of passages word-by-word,\\u000a one at each of three levels of dynamic visual noise. There

Xuefei Gao; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow; Soo Rim Noh; Rhea T. Eskew Jr

2011-01-01

284

Optimizing Write Performance for Read Optimized Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Compression in column-oriented databases has been proven to offer both performance enhancements and reductions in storage\\u000a consumption. This is especially true for read access as compressed data can directly be processed for query execution.Nevertheless,\\u000a compression happens to be disadvantageous when it comes to write access due to unavoidable re-compression: write-access requires\\u000a significantly more data to be read than involved in

Jens Krueger; Martin Grund; Christian Tinnefeld; Hasso Plattner; Alexander Zeier; Franz Faerber

2010-01-01

285

Reading, Writing, and Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many secondary content-area teachers are reluctant to integrate reading and writing in their instruction because they feel that reading and writing skills are add-ons to their central job of teaching content knowledge. The author discusses secondary reading-to- learn and writing-to-learn as processes that support an instructional goal common to all content areas: understanding. Staff development for content-area literacy, she writes,

Vicki A. Jacobs

2002-01-01

286

How psychological science informs the teaching of reading.  

PubMed

This monograph discusses research, theory, and practice relevant to how children learn to read English. After an initial overview of writing systems, the discussion summarizes research from developmental psychology on children's language competency when they enter school and on the nature of early reading development. Subsequent sections review theories of learning to read, the characteristics of children who do not learn to read (i.e., who have developmental dyslexia), research from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience on skilled reading, and connectionist models of learning to read. The implications of the research findings for learning to read and teaching reading are discussed. Next, the primary methods used to teach reading (phonics and whole language) are summarized. The final section reviews laboratory and classroom studies on teaching reading. From these different sources of evidence, two inescapable conclusions emerge: (a) Mastering the alphabetic principle (that written symbols are associated with phonemes) is essential to becoming proficient in the skill of reading, and (b) methods that teach this principle directly are more effective than those that do not (especially for children who are at risk in some way for having difficulty learning to read). Using whole-language activities to supplement phonics instruction does help make reading fun and meaningful for children, but ultimately, phonics instruction is critically important because it helps beginning readers understand the alphabetic principle and learn new words. Thus, elementary-school teachers who make the alphabetic principle explicit are most effective in helping their students become skilled, independent readers. PMID:11878018

Rayner, K; Foorman, B R; Perfetti, C A; Pesetsky, D; Seidenberg, M S

2001-11-01

287

Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension.  

PubMed

The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument. PMID:23125521

Reed, Deborah K; Vaughn, Sharon

2011-04-11

288

Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K–12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument.

Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

2011-01-01

289

Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a…

Guthrie, John T., Ed.; Wigfield, Allan, Ed.; Perencevich, Kathleen C., Ed.

2004-01-01

290

Binocular Coordination during Reading and Non-Reading Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature on binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks in adult, child, and dyslexic populations. The review begins with a description of the basic characteristics of eye movements during reading. Then, reading and non-reading studies investigating binocular coordination are evaluated.…

Kirkby, Julie A.; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Blythe, Hazel I.; Liversedge, Simon P.

2008-01-01

291

Repeated Reading of Poetry Can Enhance Reading Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using poetry to teach fluency through repeated reading is an effective way to improve students' reading fluency. Repeated reading of poetry is effective with students whose instructional reading level is between the first and third grades. Ten to 15 minutes of repeated reading per day over an extended length of time has proven successful for both…

Faver, Sherri

2008-01-01

292

Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a…

Guthrie, John T., Ed.; Wigfield, Allan, Ed.; Perencevich, Kathleen C., Ed.

2004-01-01

293

Maintaining reading-disabled students' attention during reading instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief review of the professional literature as it is related to reading-disabled students and their inability to maintain attention during reading instruction. Factors that can cause or contri bute to reading-disabled pupils' inability to attend during reading are delineated General strategies which reading teachers and specialists can use to increase their disabled readers' attention are described

Jimmy D. Lindsey; Earl H. Cheek; Diane Kritsonis

1989-01-01

294

The Effect of Guided Reading Instruction on Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reading achievement correlates highly with a student's ability to do well in school, not all children achieve in reading. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate whether reading instruction provided in small groups at the child's own reading level, known as "guided reading instruction," would result in significant…

Underwood, Vanda Lea

2010-01-01

295

Two Instructional Approaches to the Development of Aural and Instrumental Performance Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates whether introduction of music reading activities during beginning instrumental music instruction impedes student's development of aural musicianship and instrumental performance skills because of the division of attention between aural and visual activities. Concludes that music reading activities do not adversely affect the…

Kendall, Michael J.

1988-01-01

296

Optical Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

1990-01-01

297

VISION AND READING ABILITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

298

Adult Reading, Rated G.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests books for summer reading for Department of Education officials involved in closing all 16 ERIC Clearinghouses or touting the superiority of a Christian education, standardized test-makers, planners of the Gates Foundation, and the creator of the Algebra Project. For example, suggests that standardized test-makers read William Bennett's…

Lewis, Anne C.

2003-01-01

299

Assistive Technologies for Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

Ruffin, Tiece M.

2012-01-01

300

On Hermetic Reading Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a review of the literature on hyperlexia (better described as hermetic reading), and often associated with autism, a theory is proposed suggesting that such reading arises from a dysfunctional procedural memory system and a disconnected though functional declarative memory system. (Author/DB)|

Goldberg, Terry E.

1987-01-01

301

Assistive Technologies for Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

Ruffin, Tiece M.

2012-01-01

302

Get That Brain Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting the National Reading Panel's suggestions on assessing and improving children's phonemic awareness, this paper discusses how reading can be improved through think-alouds and visualizations. Comprehension strategies that teachers can model during think-alouds are: activating prior knowledge; building vocabulary; determining importance;…

Lapin, Gloria

303

Reading in Kazakhstan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes sociological research conducted by Kazakhstan libraries between 1991 and 1994. Highlights include discussions on the sociology of reading, research results, and library facilities. It was found that reading is characterized by frequent changes in demands of readers caused by dramatic shifts in ideology, politics, and economics in the…

Beisembaeva, Zhanat Abaevna

1995-01-01

304

What Are Reading Disorders?  

MedlinePLUS

... of the reading process. Reading and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age and usually result from specific differences in the way the brain processes language. There are many different symptoms and ...

305

Cerebral Laterality and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has confirmed that hemispheric patterns of dominance are related to reading skills. Reading is more complex than speech because it includes a visuo-spatial element. In the great majority of people, the left hemisphere deals with speech and sequencing skills. Visual matching of printed words requires the spatial skills of the right…

Mackworth, Jane F.

306

Television and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.

307

Does "Reading Recovery" Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes one school district's (Wareham, Massachusetts) experience with Reading Recovery, a first-grade program to help low achievers and at-risk readers. In contrast to reports from Reading Recovery staff, an outside evaluation found that the program did not meet expectations and did not produce lasting results. The district concluded that it…

Collins, James D.; Stevens, Linda Medeiros

1997-01-01

308

Reading social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a brief preliminary report on our attempts to apply “close reading” a technique drawn from contemporary literary criticism to social work writing. Reading turns out to be very difficult -something we have had to re-learn but reveals ideological formations deeply embedded in social work texts. Hugh England's “Social Work as Art” is taken as a working example

Sue Billington; John Paley

1990-01-01

309

Read With Your Fingers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in partners to create and exchange messages written in Braille. Learners use a Braille key and thumbtacks to write their messages in Braille. This activity will demonstrate to learners how kids who are blind read. It also demonstrates that human brains are "plastic" and can be re-trained to read by touch.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

310

Reading, Mathematics, and Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mathematics has its own unique vocabulary as well as words which cut across all academic disciplines. It also has abstract symbols which belong to mathematics solely. Words and symbols need to be read meaningfully by students. Along with reading, mathematics teaching stresses the use of a variety of learning opportunities to guide students to…

Ediger, Marlow

311

Reading to Learn Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog entry discusses the importance of strong reading comprehension in the mathematics classroom. It gives examples of problems that require careful attention when reading and cites paraphrasing problems as a crucial skill for students. It contains links to related articles.

Denise

2007-09-07

312

The cold reading technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client

D. L. Dutton

1988-01-01

313

Let's Teach Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two essential concepts are developed in this paper: (1) the first year of language instruction is a period in which the student should gain basic command of the target language verbally and develop reading skills as well, and (2) the "comfort level" in reading should be retained as the student progresses. The latter, the author suggests, assures…

Wall, Lillian

1969-01-01

314

Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

315

Cerebral Laterality and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has confirmed that hemispheric patterns of dominance are related to reading skills. Reading is more complex than speech because it includes a visuo-spatial element. In the great majority of people, the left hemisphere deals with speech and sequencing skills. Visual matching of printed words requires the spatial skills of the right…

Mackworth, Jane F.

316

VISION AND READING ABILITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

317

Why I Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes that the author was struck by the "self-centered" readers she encountered in her classroom and at professional conferences--readers who respond to reading by thinking of their own life and experiences. Argues that reading is so much more than a trip into the self. Presents two brief responses, by Lauren L. Wohl and Daniel Hade. (RS)|

Mori, Kyoko

2002-01-01

318

Television and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.

319

Reading Knee-Deep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, “You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it” (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading knee-deep

Pamela Jewett

2007-01-01

320

Get That Brain Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting the National Reading Panel's suggestions on assessing and improving children's phonemic awareness, this paper discusses how reading can be improved through think-alouds and visualizations. Comprehension strategies that teachers can model during think-alouds are: activating prior knowledge; building vocabulary; determining importance;…

Lapin, Gloria

321

Learn to Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learn to Read project was designed to provide a supportive setting in which functionally illiterate adult students from suburban Cook County, Illinois, and surrounding areas could develop reading and writing skills. The target population included English-dominant adults with basic oral competency but no literacy skills, as well as…

Appelson, Marilyn; And Others

322

Measuring Reading Performance Informally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve the accuracy of the informal reading inventory (IRI), a differential set of criteria is necessary for both word recognition and comprehension scores for different levels and reading conditions. In initial evaluation, word recognition scores should reflect only errors of insertions, omissions, mispronunciations, substitiutions, unkown…

Powell, William R.

323

Superheroes and Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)|

Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

1980-01-01

324

PRIMIR (Primary Individualized Reading).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," is designed to minimize the rigidities of the typical basal, three-group plan for teaching primary-level reading. The program serves over 4600 students in grades one through three throughout the Seattle School District. The students come from both inner-city and residential areas of the…

Seattle School District 1, WA.

325

Lippincott Basic Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding process that…

Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

326

Empowering students through reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

If “learning how to learn” is the most important subject matter of 20th Century schools, then the time has come to encourage the widespread development of undergraduate reading degree programs for future teachers. Ten years ago, Eastern Washington University began offering Reading Education as an undergraduate major for elementary teaching candidates, and as an undergraduate minor for secondary teaching candidates.

Janet R. Norby; William Shreeve; William G. J. Goetter; Arnold F. Stueckle; T. K. Midgley; Barbara de Michele

1986-01-01

327

Factors Affecting Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of literature indicates that schools with effective reading programs tend to have common characteristics, such as a strong commitment to improved reading; a competent teaching and administrative staff; clearly defined objectives; a structured, intensified program; adequate assessment techniques; a variety of materials; and parental…

Felsenthal, Helen

328

Supporting Older Students' Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a 2010 report by ACT, "Only 31 percent of students are performing at a college-and-career reading level with respect to successfully understanding complex text" (p. 5). This statistic demonstrates what educators know: Middle and high school students face numerous challenges in reading, understanding, connecting to, and remembering…

Gutchewsky, Kim; Curran, Joanne

2012-01-01

329

Psychophysics of reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to link spatial and temporal properties of letter recognition to reading speed for text viewed centrally or in peripheral vision. We propose that the size of the visual span — the number of letters recognizable in a glance — imposes a fundamental limit on reading speed, and that shrinkage of the visual span in peripheral vision accounts

Gordon E Legge; J. Stephen Mansfield; Susana T. L Chung

2001-01-01

330

Are Reading Standards Falling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds that the Reading-for-Meaning Scale (first standardized in 1979) shows no drop in reading standards among 7- to 12-year-olds, but shows a widening performance gap between middle-class and low-income schools. Attributes this gap to segregation of schools based on socioeconomic status. Suggests that primary teachers do as good a job as they…

Hunter-Grundin, Elizabeth

1997-01-01

331

Driven to Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a teacher used the "hypothesis-test" (HT) approach with a first grader for a school year to examine up close the process of a child learning to read. Describes how the teacher saw what was happening as the children read and then brought that to the rest of the class so everyone could learn from each other. (SR)

Kawamoto, Carrie

1997-01-01

332

Superheroes and Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

1980-01-01

333

Books for Summer Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author, Roger Soder, discusses past books he has read throughout the year on his own and with his book club. He also makes suggestions for summer reading selections. He thanks valued and nearby colleagues and friends for blessing him with books of great wisdom throughout the year.

Soder, Roger

2004-01-01

334

The Reading Wars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article's fundamental argument is that the reading instruction and reading research have been shaped by political forces desiring to privilege particular approaches to instruction or particular combinations of methodological and epistemological perspectives on research. The swings in both dominant pedagogies and dominant research paradigms…

Pearson, P. David

2004-01-01

335

Mind-Reading versus Muscle-Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL years ago I had the opportunity of witnessing in a private circle of friends some experiments on so-called ``thought-reading'', even more striking than those recently described in your columns and elsewhere. An attentive observation of these experiments led me to question the accuracy of that explanation of the phenomenon with which Dr. Carpenter has made us so familiar, namely,

W. F. Barrett

1881-01-01

336

On the reading of readings of texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materialist criticism treats literary texts as essentially in process, as being open to continual (socially determined) recreation. Critical readings of texts are as obviously ideologically determined as the critical production of texts, to the point where the critic can be seen at times to be ‘recreating’ the text in order to make it fit a set of ideologically determined moral

David Maughan

1984-01-01

337

Right to Read in Tennessee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tennessee's Right to Read Effort is described in terms of six on-going programs: State Leadership and Training (the basics and free reading); Reading Improvement (pre-elementary and elementary schools); Special Emphasis (intensive instruction); Adult Reading Academy (for the functionally illiterate); Reading Is Fundamental (community book…

Green, Elizabeth; And Others

1977-01-01

338

Recovering Innocence: Growing Up Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers a plan for changing the perception among teenagers that reading for pleasure is an activity of their childhood past. Suggests an elective Reading Workshop that allows students to share favorite books and authors, to read aloud and listen to others read aloud, and to discuss their reading processes and decisions. (PRA)|

Spencer, Patricia Sylvester

1991-01-01

339

The Beginning Stages of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that in the beginning stages of reading it is helpful for children to be surrounded by the written word and to be read to by adults, this article offers brief encapsulations of and responses to five articles about beginning reading and reading readiness. The five articles are as follows: (1) "Three-Year-Olds in Their Reading Corner" by…

Wilkie, Fiona, Comp.

340

Reading with a Special Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disadvantaged secondary school students with special reading needs can be motivated in the reading room. The school year can start with "popcorn" reading involving materials that are funny, interesting, and exciting. The teacher reads to the students or the students read silently, using materials on the students' independent rather than…

McCool, Mary

341

When do children read books?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction books. Reading comic

2008-01-01

342

Florida Center for Reading Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shared Reading segment of the lesson centers around the Big Book reading in which the teacher models fluent reading, offers explanations to the meaning of the story, demonstrates think-aloud strategies, and students listen and gradually begin to participate in the reading of the story. Lessons for each big book span 10 days, allowing the students ample opportunities to read

Rigby Literacy

343

SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

344

READING--A THINKING PROCESS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN ORDER TO TEACH READING AS A THINKING PROCESS, TEACHERS SHOULD BELIEVE THAT CHILDREN CAN THINK AND CAN BE TAUGHT TO READ CRITICALLY, EVEN AT A VERY YOUNG AGE. THREE ASPECTS OF THE READING-THINKING PROCESS INCLUDE DECLARATION OF PURPOSES, REASONING, AND JUDGMENT. THE NATURE OF THE PURPOSES DETERMINES WHAT IS TO BE READ AND HOW IT IS TO BE READ.…

STAUFFER, RUSSELL G.

345

Buffering New Information during Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two subject-paced reading experiments in which word-reading times were collected using the moving-window method. Finds that reading times of content words increase more steeply than reading times for function words. Discusses results in terms of buffer models of reading, the processing of different lexical classes, and hypotheses which…

Haberlandt, Karl; Graesser, Arthur C.

1989-01-01

346

Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?  

PubMed

The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading. PMID:18768772

Morgan, Paul L; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Cordray, David S; Fuchs, Lynn S

347

The Carrot To Read: Computerized Reading Incentive Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and compares four computerized reading incentive programs that quiz students on their reading comprehension of self-selected books and award points for their efforts. Topics include price, hardware requirements, reading level, training, and recommendations. (LRW)

Engvall, Barb

1999-01-01

348

Developing reading fluency in EFL: How assisted repeated reading and extensive reading affect fluency development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however, indicates that good reading ability is virtually impossible in the absence of

Etsuo Taguchi; Miyoko Takayasu-Maass; Greta J. Gorsuch

349

Getting Your Students To Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides instructional strategies for various business courses, adaptable to all grade levels, to encourage students to read. The strategies include notetaking, chapter outlines, vocabulary building, web-enhanced reading, concept mapping, and "drop everything and read" periods. (JOW)|

Keil, Janice C.; Olivo, John

2003-01-01

350

Study of Compensatory Reading Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of compensatory reading programs in U.S. public schools during 1972 - 1973 is presented. The study of compensatory reading programs had three primary objectives: (1) obtain a detailed description of compensatory reading practices in grades two, ...

1976-01-01

351

GEO sounding using microwave instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding by themselves and in conjunction with companion IR sounders. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and are undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power requirements from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and Aqua spacecraft, with the IR sounders HIRS3 and AIRS respectively. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS IR sounder. A number of enabling technologies acquired from the ATMS instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to performing similar microwave sounding on a geostationary platform. Because these technologies are already in place, they are readily available for the development of a geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, thereby avoiding costly technology development and minimizing the risk of not achieving the scientific requirements. In fact, the MMIC microwave components that were developed by ATMS for size and volume reduction are directly applicable to a GEO microwave sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known. They penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for accurate soundings obtained with a collocated high spectral resolution IR sounder in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be its ability to provide high temporal resolution and uniform spatial resolution, and it will expand the utility of a collocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint in the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 57 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Lambeck, Robert; Davis, Martin A.

2004-11-01

352

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

353

Choices Reading Lists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Reading Association has crafted these Choices Reading Lists for librarians, teachers, students, and anyone else with a passion for reading. There are three sets: ChildrenâÂÂs Choices, Young Adults' Choices, and Teachers' Choices. Each list is fully annotated with additional information such as fact sheets, information on the texts selected, and some information about the criteria used to select the texts. The Young Adults' Choices brings together works selected by young people each year; recent selections include "Awaken," "Between," and "What Happened to Goodbye." The site is rounded out by a collection of downloadable bookmarks that can be used between the pages of these fine selections.

2012-01-01

354

Reaching the Summit: The Contribution of America Reads and AmeriCorps to School and University Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present climate of declining resources and increased accountability, partnerships are instrumental in achieving student outcomes. The purpose of this article is to describe an unusual university and district partnership supported through America Reads Challenge and AmeriCorps. The America Reads Challenge was to mobilize an army of reading

Coulter, Gail

2004-01-01

355

[Instruments for quantitative methods of nursing research].  

PubMed

Instruments for quantitative nursing research are a mean to objectify and measure a variable or a phenomenon in the scientific research. There are direct instruments to measure concrete variables and indirect instruments to measure abstract concepts (Burns, Grove, 1997). Indirect instruments measure the attributes by which a concept is made of. Furthermore, there are instruments for physiologic variables (e.g. for the weight), observational instruments (Check-lists e Rating Scales), interviews, questionnaires, diaries and the scales (Check-lists, Rating Scales, Likert Scales, Semantic Differential Scales e Visual Anologue Scales). The choice to select an instrument or another one depends on the research question and design. Instruments research are very useful in research both to describe the variables and to see statistical significant relationships. Very carefully should be their use in the clinical practice for diagnostic assessment. PMID:11228871

Vellone, E

356

Science Sampler: Annotated reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to make reading assignments a more meaningful instructional strategy, the author created MP3 audio recordings of the textbook, which included commentary that was interspersed in the recording. At the start of every recording, he also modeled text

Dohrenwend, Peter

2010-07-01

357

The Reading Matrix  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the fall of 2000, a group of concerned educators came together to form The Reading Matrix, which was designed to create a place where both teachers and other interested persons could come together to find resources about reading and writing. Most of the resources are geared towards the language needs of ESL and international students, but given the cornucopia of materials here, there is really something for everyone. Scrolling down from the site’s homepage, visitors will come across areas that include a job database, the Reading Matrix Archives, interactive reading exercises, and a list of germane online journals. The Archives are a good place to start, as users will have the opportunity to look through subject-oriented resources for English-language learners that range from dictionaries, grammar quizzes, and speaking and listening practice.

358

Reading: Interactions with Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research proposed that the representation of linguistic and contextual information be kept in working memory during reading or listening can be described as a discourse model, representing the concepts referenced in the discourse and the relations amo...

G. McKoon

1991-01-01

359

Competency Based Curriculum: Reading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document, produced by a committee of teachers in reading instruction, includes a program description with pertinent extracts from the school district philosophy, as well as major goals and objectives. Curricular objectives state what a student should...

1978-01-01

360

Reading: Ave Atque Vale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although basic literacy will continue to be necessary for survival, mass communications and information technology are bringing about an inevitable and lamentable decline in reading for pleasure and in the love of literature for its own sake. (TE)

Donovan, Ann

1984-01-01

361

Formal verification of concurrent programs with read-write locks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Read-write locking is an important mechanism to improve concurrent granularity, but it is difficult to reason about the safety\\u000a of concurrent programs with read-write locks. Concurrent separation logic (CSL) provides a simple but powerful technique for\\u000a locally reasoning about concurrent programs with mutual exclusive locks. Unfortunately, CSL cannot be directly applied to\\u000a reasoning about concurrent programs with read-write locks due

Ming Fu; Yu Zhang; Yong Li

2010-01-01

362

Reading Knee-Deep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, "You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it" (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading knee-deep as we…

Jewett, Pamela

2007-01-01

363

Celebrate Summer with Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of NSTA Recommends --ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach chairs, flags, and fireworks schedules; collect some reading material for a summer of personal enrichment.

Texley, Juliana

2007-07-01

364

Neural activations correlated with reading speed during reading novels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural activations in subjects instructed to silently read novels at ordinary and rapid speeds. Among the 19 subjects, 8 were experts in a rapid reading technique. Subjects pressed a button to turn pages during reading, and the interval between turning pages was recorded to evaluate the reading speed. For each subject, we

Norio Fujimaki; Shinji Munetsuna; Toyofumi Sasaki; Tomoe Hayakawa; Aya Ihara; Qiang Wei; Yasushi Terazono; Tsutomu Murata

2009-01-01

365

Relationships of Three Components of Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationships of 3 levels of reading fluency--the individual word, the syntactic unit, and the whole passage--to reading comprehension among 278 5th graders heterogeneous in reading ability. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that reading fluency at each level related uniquely to performance on a standardized…

Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.

2008-01-01

366

The assessment of reading comprehension difficulties for reading intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a multifaceted approach to reading diagnosis and flexible interventions in order to cater for individual learning

Gary Woolley

2008-01-01

367

The Potency of "READS" to Inform Students' Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper shares an initiative conducted in Malaysia in terms of knowledge to gauge students' Reading Age and to inform teachers of their students' reading progress and learning. Ensuring teachers understand the needs of students' reading ability and preparing students to read and comprehend texts are the two most fundamental parallel tasks in…

Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik

2012-01-01

368

History of Reading: A Bible Corpus for Reading Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify and make available reading-related Bible references for reading teachers, a computerized text of the 1611 King James Bible was generated, using reading-related terms extracted from Bible concordances and student papers. Such words as "read," book,""word,""study," and "language" generated about 4,800 references. Thirteen annotated…

Cranney, A. Garr; Holladay, Valerie

369

Low vision reading training outcomes: The reading behavior inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An easily administered outcome measure, the Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI), for low vision reading device prescription and training has been developed and pilot tested. The measure incorporates both objective (reading speed) and subjective (patient reports of satisfaction, task difficulty, and amount and type of material read). The results of the pilot study suggest that the RBI can be a useful

Gregory L. Goodrich; Jennine Kirby; Jennifer Wood

2005-01-01

370

Parents' Reading-Related Knowledge and Children's Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related…

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-01-01

371

Reading Rates of Young Braille-Reading Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three tables present data from 22 braille-reading blind children, ages 6 to 12, including demographic data (such as years of braille use, IQ, age, hand movement type, and reading rate); highest and lowest reading rates, by years of braille instruction and IQ scores; and oral reading rates. The methodology used is suggested for teachers doing…

Wormsley, D. P.

1996-01-01

372

Headsprout Early Reading™: Reliably Teaching Children to Read 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading proficiency is a crucial foundation for success in all academic areas, yet we are a nation faced with a reading crisis. Four in ten children have literacy problems, and over 40% of our nation's fourth graders score below basic reading levels (National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2001). Learning to read is a formidable challenge for more than 50% percent

T. V. Joe Layng; Janet S. Twyman; Greg Stikeleather

2003-01-01

373

Reading Specialist: Key to a Systematic Schoolwide Reading Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existence of elementary reading specialists in schools has increased, and their role in improving schoolwide efforts for prevention and intervention of reading risk has received increased emphasis. The purpose of this article is to describe the components of a multitier schoolwide reading model in the early grades in which the reading

Helf, Shawnna; Cooke, Nancy L.

2011-01-01

374

Fostering Reading Excellence at Every Level of School through Reading Clinics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increased emphasis on standardized testing from state and federal mandates, the need for reading remediation has intensified. Programs directed toward increasing student test scores have been put in place nationwide with mixed results. These initiatives include response to intervention (RTI), direct instruction, and individualized…

Ortlieb, Evan; Grandstaff-Beckers, Gerlinde; Cheek, Earl H., Jr.

2012-01-01

375

Low activated incore instrument  

DOEpatents

Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

Ekeroth, D.E.

1994-04-19

376

Unique Instruments' Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to help you find unique instruments from a specific country. For whatever country you have chosen, the following resources should help you locate some unique instruments from that country. For starters, check out this link: Instruments By Country You will find a list of musical instruments for many countries in the world. Once you find an instrument from your country you want to explore, look here: Unique World Instruments Here ...

Smith, Mr.

2012-09-11

377

Relationships of Three Components of Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships of 3 levels of reading fluency—the individual word, the syntactic unit, and the whole passage—to reading comprehension among 278 5th graders heterogeneous in reading ability. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that reading fluency at each level related uniquely to performance on a standardized reading comprehension test in a model including inferencing skill and background knowledge. The

Susan Lutz Klauda; John T. Guthrie

2008-01-01

378

Time to Read: Advancing Reading Achievement After School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out-of-school programs provide a context for enriching academic experiences. This study describes a 12-week after-school reading program, Project Expanding Horizons, which is based on the Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading (SEM-R) framework. SEM-R has three phases: exposure, supported independent reading, and choice. The exposure phase is designed to broaden students’ literature experiences through short read-alouds. During the next phase, supported independent reading,

Catherine A. Little; Ashley H. Hines

2006-01-01

379

Success in the Reading Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores what a reading teacher might do to guide students to achieve and be successful in reading. The paper first points out that there are selected programs of reading instruction which are individualized for optimal student success, and then discusses some of these programs, such as: individualized reading; the experience chart;…

Ediger, Marlow

380

Explorations in Second Language Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in "Explorations in Second Language Reading" reveal the importance of reading in the classroom and how instructors can use reading as a bridge to improve learners' other linguistic and interpersonal skills. Most significantly, each author prompts us to rediscover how enjoyable ESOL reading can be and how it can increase learner…

Cohen, Roger, Ed.

2009-01-01

381

Investigating gender differences in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the following different aspects of reading: differences in behavioural and

Sarah Logan; Rhona Johnston

2010-01-01

382

Reading and the Special Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…

Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.

383

Reading and the Slow Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Advocates of high standards and expectations usually believe that gaps in reading achievement can be eliminated with good teaching, but slow readers need a specially designed reading curriculum. The teacher first needs to use an informal reading inventory to determine the student's reading level. Functioning generally on a higher level than…

Ediger, Marlow

384

Reading in the Geography Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To become an efficient reader of subject matter in geography, students need to have adequate background information to read the ensuing content. Vocabulary considerations thoroughly enter into the reading act. A major problem for the teacher when students read geographical content is to develop meaning. To assist students in reading and…

Ediger, Marlow

385

What Is a Reading Error?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early efforts to apply knowledge of dialect differences to reading stressed the importance of the distinction between differences in pronunciation and mistakes in reading. This study develops a method of estimating the probability that a given oral reading that deviates from the text is a true reading error by observing the semantic impact of the…

Labov, William; Baker, Bettina

2010-01-01

386

Teachers' views of reading research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to ascertain teachers’ views of reading research. Three main questions were addressed: 1) What are teachers’ beliefs about what constitutes reading research? 2) What are teachers’ views of the functions or purposes of reading research?, and 3) Do teachers tend to have positive attitudes toward reading research? Four hundred fifty?five teachers who were students

Jill Fitzgerald

1984-01-01

387

The Many Fibers of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can library media specialists encourage kids to read outside the curriculum and maintain this reading beyond elementary school? What does it take to get children involved in recreational reading and turn their focus to books? At Sycamore Elementary School in Avon, Indiana, library media specialists have organized reading programs which have…

Leloup, Dennis

2009-01-01

388

When Do Children Read Books?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read

van Ours, Jan C.

2008-01-01

389

Dyslexia: Problems of Reading Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this book is to provide an understanding of both the educational and medical aspects of reading and to show how they are interrelated in reading disabilities. The various aspects of reading disabilities are presented in the following chapters: Introduction to the Reading Problem; Early Predictive Studies; Psychological Evaluation;…

Goldberg, Herman K.; Schiffman, Gilbert B.

390

Peer Tutors Improve Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…

LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

2011-01-01

391

Explorations in Second Language Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chapters in "Explorations in Second Language Reading" reveal the importance of reading in the classroom and how instructors can use reading as a bridge to improve learners' other linguistic and interpersonal skills. Most significantly, each author prompts us to rediscover how enjoyable ESOL reading can be and how it can increase learner…

Cohen, Roger, Ed.

2009-01-01

392

Genes for reading and spelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the behavioral and molecular genetics of reading and, where available, spelling. Recent research is summarized, suggesting that reading and spelling appear to share a common genetic basis, and that dyslexia lies on a genetic continuum with normal variance in reading skill. Research also suggests that while many of the genes involved in reading disorder affect

Timothy C. Bates

2006-01-01

393

Reading and the Classroom Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The school library is very important in developing a quality reading program. The library books and other reading materials need to be varied and on various levels of reading complexity so that students can read meaningfully without facing failure in word recognition and comprehension of ideas. This paper discusses school libraries and their…

Ediger, Marlow

394

Does DIBELS Put Reading First?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools across the nation are responding to reading assessment mandates by turning to DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills), a program endorsed by the Federal Reading First Grant Office, to assess fluency on a range of reading-related tasks. DIBELS makes strong claims regarding its usefulness in documenting reading progress…

Shelton, Nancy Rankie; Altwerger, Bess; Jordan, Nancy

2009-01-01

395

READING READINESS--FACT AND FANCY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FOURTEEN STUDIES IN THE AREA OF READING READINESS ARE SURVEYED. MUCH OF THE RESEARCH IS DIRECTED AT THE CHILD WHO NEEDS A PERIOD OF READINESS, PARTICULARLY THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD. THE VALIDITY OF READINESS TESTS, THE IMPORTANCE OF SEX DIFFERENCES, AND BEGINNING READERS ARE OTHER TOPICS DISCUSSED. REFERENCES ARE GIVEN. THIS ARTICLE IS…

GUNDERSON, DORIS V.

396

Automobile Maintenance. Reading and Language Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed primarily for special needs students in a vocational program in automobile maintenance, this book was written to refine the basic skills of following directions, reading comprehension, vocabulary building, spelling, word usage, and word recognition, while relating these skills to some of the tasks a beginning student in the program must…

Kessman, William A.

397

What is remedial reading? A descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remedial reading instruction in five classrooms in four different school districts was observed over a six?month period of time. From these observations a description of remedial instruction evolved. Remediation consisted primarily of students completing skill lessons in workbook or worksheet activities with the teacher serving as a manager. In this role the remedial teacher offered little direct instruction but distributed

Richard Allington; Helen Stuetzel; Mary Shake; Sharron Lamarche

1986-01-01

398

ANALOGICAL REASONING IN BASAL READING MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if analogical reasoning was included in basal reading materials as a component skill and if so, to examine the nature of that instruction. Three of the four basal series examined directly taught analogical reasoning. The nature and extent of the instructional recommendations in the three series varied widely. Two of the series

Nancy Bacharach

1988-01-01

399

Automobile Maintenance. Reading and Language Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed primarily for special needs students in a vocational program in automobile maintenance, this book was written to refine the basic skills of following directions, reading comprehension, vocabulary building, spelling, word usage, and word recognition, while relating these skills to some of the tasks a beginning student in the program must…

Kessman, William A.

400

Connectionist Models of Reading: Incorporating Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There now exist direct route connectionist models of reading aloud (i.e. text to phoneme conversion) that learn to perform on their training data and unseen words with accuracy comparable to that of humans. They also exhibit a number of developmental , reaction time and brain damage effects that are observed experimentally. However, various deficiencies (such as their failure to perform

John A. Bullinaria

1996-01-01

401

Isolating the impact of visual perception on dyslexics’ reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of data suggests that phonological deficits play an important causal role in dyslexics’ reading difficulties. The functional role of visual impairments is still highly debated. Many recent studies have shown clear visual deficits in large subgroups of dyslexics. However, the relationship between these deficits and visual routines required for reading is not clear. To assess the direct

Mark M. Shovman; Merav Ahissar

2006-01-01

402

Evidence for Multiple Routes in Learning to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe a multiple-route model of reading development in which coarse-grained orthographic processing plays a key role in optimizing access to semantics via whole-word orthographic representations. This forms part of the direct orthographic route that gradually replaces phonological recoding during the initial phases of reading acquisition.…

Grainger, Jonathan; Lete, Bernard; Bertand, Daisy; Dufau, Stephane; Ziegler, Johannes C.

2012-01-01

403

Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

2004-01-01

404

Reading Instruction: Present and Future Needs and Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses some of the larger trends in present day American society and education, indicates how these trends are affecting reading, and points out some possible directions for future development. The trends discussed include "Sex Equality," which discusses sexism in basal tests, male teachers of reading, and the greater number of boys…

Smith, Nila Banton

405

Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Structural equation modeling procedures are applied to the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson III to simultaneously estimate the effects of a psychometric general factor (g), specific cognitive abilities, and reading skills on reading achievement. The results of this study indicate that g has a strong direct relationship with basic…

Benson, Nicholas

2008-01-01

406

A Systematic Approach to the Establishment of a Reading Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes steps for a systematic, logical method of moving from a nonexistent or limited reading program at the secondary or junior college level to a highly effective one which better meets the needs of the students. The first step suggested is to survey general reading ability within a school in order to formulate the direction the…

Babcock, Natalie; Bartin, Norma

407

Reading and Learning-Disabled Children: Understanding the Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors assess the evidence related to various instructional styles for teaching reading to children with learning disabilities. Results of the literature review indicate that whole language and direct instruction are the two major approaches to teaching reading. Whole language has proven successful for many students with…

Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Carvalho, Kathleen

2008-01-01

408

Using Higher Order Questioning to Accelerate Students' Growth in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to describe the changes in reading instruction that teachers made that contributed to students' growth in reading. Teachers made the transition from instruction that was primarily teacher-directed and focused on lower-level questions to instruction that supported students in their higher order talk and writing about…

Peterson, Debra S.; Taylor, Barbara M.

2012-01-01

409

ScentHighlights: highlighting conceptually-related sentences during reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have noticed that readers are increasingly skimming instead of reading in depth. Skimming also occur in re-reading activities, where the goal is to recall specific topical facts. Bookmarks and highlighters were invented precisely to achieve this goal. For skimming activities, readers need effective ways to direct their attention toward the most relevant passages within text. We describe how we

Ed H. Chi; Lichan Hong; Michelle Gumbrecht; Stuart K. Card

2005-01-01

410

Rethinking Middle School Reading Instruction: A Basic Literacy Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on subject matter instruction across the 20th century (e.g., Stevens, 1912; Bellack, 1966; Hoetker & Ahlbrand; 1969; Gall, 1970; Langer, 1999; Mehan, 1979; Nystrand, 1997;) reveals a preponderance of teacher-directed lecture, recitation, and round-robin reading of text in place of instruction that focuses on reading-to-learn, thinking,…

Blanton, William E.; Wood, Karen D.; Taylor, D. Bruce

2007-01-01

411

Affective Variables and Japanese L2 Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how 17 affective factors are related to Japanese second language (L2) reading comprehension and "kanji" knowledge test scores of 43 university students in advanced Japanese courses. Major findings are that: a) reading comprehension ability and "kanji" knowledge have direct associations with self-perception of Japanese…

Kondo-Brown, Kimi

2006-01-01

412

Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the

Collins P. Cannon; Donald P. Brown

1979-01-01

413

Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is disclosed. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed

C. P. Cannon; D. P. Brown

1979-01-01

414

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was launched aboard the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite on 14 Feb. 1990. Both the spacecraft and the UVPI were sponsored by the Directed Energy Office of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The mission of the UVPI was to obtain radiometrically calibrated images of rocket plumes at high altitude and background image data of

D. M. Horan

1993-01-01

415

Technical Report of the NAEP 1992 Trial State Assessment Program in Reading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview:--The Design, Implementation, and Analysis of the 1992 Trial State Assessment Program in Reading; Developing the Objectives, Cognitive Items, Background Questions, and Assessment Instruments; Sample Design and Selection; State and Schoo...

E. G. Johnson J. Mazzeo D. L. Kline

1994-01-01

416

Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary Content Area Classrooms: Teacher Use of and Attitudes towards Reading Comprehension Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this mixed methodology study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in middle and high school social studies and science classrooms. An additional purpose was to explore teachers' perceptions of and beliefs about the need for reading comprehension instruction. In 2,400 minutes of direct classroom…

Ness, Molly K.

2009-01-01

417

Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

2004-01-01

418

Reading and Revolution: The Role of Reading in Today's Society. Perspectives in Reading No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight papers read at a joint International Reading Association (IRA) and Association of American Publishers conference in March, 1969, are included in this volume of the IRA Perspectives in Reading series. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the place of reading as a basic communication skill in an increasingly technological society. The…

Dietrich, Dorothy M.; Mathews, Virginia H.

419

What Are Teenagers Reading? Adolescent Fiction Reading Habits and Reading Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are adolescents choosing to read? This is an important question because of potential divergence between school students' reading interests and reading expectations in school. This article considers the findings from a study of the reading over one week in May 2002 of 707 school students aged between 11 and 15, undertaken in 30 schools in the…

Hopper, Rosemary

2005-01-01

420

Students' Self-Perception of Reading Ability, Enjoyment of Reading and Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project, a light sampling, low stakes performance based national school assessment program, reading self-efficacy, reading enjoyment, and reading achievement were examined in samples of 8 and 12 year old children. Sample sizes were n = 480 for each group. While reading achievement…

Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.; Gilmore, Alison; Jameson, Madgerie

2012-01-01

421

Improving Reading Rate Activities for EFL Students: Timed Reading and Repeated Oral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effect of timed reading (TR) and repeated oral reading (RR) on 35 adult students of English as a foreign language. Students in the TR (n =18) and RR (n =17) groups read 52 and 26 passages respectively over a 13-week period. Reading rates and comprehension levels were measured at three occasions: pre-intervention,…

Chang, Anna C. -S.

2012-01-01

422

Methodological variables in choral reading.  

PubMed

This preliminary study explored changes in prosodic variability during choral reading and investigated whether these changes are affected by the method of eliciting choral reading. Ten typical adult talkers recorded three reading materials (poetry, fiction and textbook) in three reading conditions: solo (reading aloud alone), track (reading aloud with a recording), and choral (reading aloud with another live talker). Measurements of fundamental frequency, amplitude, and vowel duration variability were performed. Compared to solo reading, choral reading featured decreased variability of fundamental frequency, amplitude, and vowel duration. In track reading, only decreased fundamental frequency variability was observed, while vowel duration variability increased. Track reading also contained significantly more errors than choral or solo reading. The reading material used did not significantly affect the prosodic features of talkers' speech, but did affect talkers' error rate. These results suggest that, in studies of choral reading as a fluency-evoking condition, track reading might not be an appropriate substitute. In addition, the text used may affect fluency in these conditions. These results also have theoretical implications for studies of how talkers manipulate and execute the prosodic features of speech. PMID:18092217

Poore, Meredith A; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

2008-01-01

423

Reentry vehicle instrumentation survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the state of the art in reentry vehicle on-board instrumentation. Brief descriptions of each class of instruments are given with the discussion centering principally on the currently employed instrumentation and their limitations (accuracy). References are given to provide further information on individual instrumentation systems. These systems include methods to measure nosetip forces and shapes, vehicle dynamics, and

W. R. Grabowsky; H. P. Eldridge; R. C. Wheaton

1981-01-01

424

IOT Overview: IR Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing,\\u000a in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype\\u000a for the coming instruments.

E. Mason

2008-01-01

425

INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.  

SciTech Connect

Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

2001-05-04

426

Improvement of Reading Speed and Change of Eye Movements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many studies have examined eye movements in reading, it is unclear what factors separate fast readers from slow readers. Some studies suggest that effective visual field size should be a dominant factor. However, a direct link between reading speed and effective visual field is under controversial. To clarify this issue, we investigated eye movements in reading in conjunction with speed reading training. Four participants (approx. 600 letters per minute in Japanese) improved thier reading speed through training for half an hour per day for 30 days. Reading performance of Japanese editorial articles was recorded every five days of training by the gaze-contingent window method. In three participants, effective visual field size did not increase in the same manner as reading speed which increased up to 1000 lpm. Instead, we found that in those three participants mean saccadic length became longer due to the reduction of short and unsystematic saccades. On the contrary, one participant showed high correlation between effective visual field and reading speed. Our results suggest that not only the size of the effective visual field but also efficiency of comprehension at a single gaze may be important factors for reading speed. The qualitative discrepancy among individuals suggests the existence of multiple strategies for fast reading.

Yokoi, Kenji; Tomita, Tsuyoshi; Saida, Shinya

427

Baboons Learn to Read  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to recognize strings of letters as words, also known as orthographic processing, is a key component of reading. The ability to develop this skill has commonly been attributed to prior acquisition of a spoken language, but Grainger et al. argue that linguistic ability may instead be related to simple object recognition. To test this, Grainger and colleagues studied orthographic processing in a group of captive but freely ranging baboons, who learned to read and distinguish real English words from non-words with remarkable accuracy. These results suggest that a basic ability to recognize words does not require complex linguistic understanding.

Jonathan Grainger (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Stephane Dufau (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Marie Montant (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Johannes C. Ziegler (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Joel Fagot (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;)

2012-04-13

428

Measuring and Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Basic Skills Reading Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A vocabulary improvement project, comprised of three components, was initiated at Del Mar College (DMC) in Corpus Christi, Texas, in spring 1991. Component 1 consisted of a baseline study of vocabulary knowledge among students in two levels of remedial reading classes. The test instrument measured content-specific vocabulary in…

Snouffer, Nancy Kendall; And Others

429

An Evaluation of a Summer Reading Institute, 1968.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes part of the evaluation of a six-week reading institute for 69 K-3 teachers from the Raymond School, Model School Division (MSD), Washington, D.C. and thereby provides an evaluation model for schools to use in their own inservice training programs. Two evaluation instruments developed by an MSD innovation team in…

Rosenfeld, Michael

430

Read, Sing, Play, and Create a Musical Storm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dayle Ann Dodds and Rosanne Litzinger's children's book, "Sing, Sophie!" provides the elementary general music teacher with an opportunity to read a captivating children's story, sing the main character's song and play her guitar, and create a song as well as instrumental music. Lessons outlined in this article may culminate in a veritable musical…

Cardany, Audrey Berger

2012-01-01

431

Organizing and Evaluating Results from Multiple Reading Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The challenges of understanding how reading abilities vary within the classroom can be daunting. This article offers techniques to organize a variety of assessment data to give teachers a clear picture of individual achievement, how students compare with one another, and how reliably various assessment instruments yield an accurate picture of…

Rubin, Jim

2011-01-01

432

Measuring and Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Basic Skills Reading Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vocabulary improvement project, comprised of three components, was initiated at Del Mar College (DMC) in Corpus Christi, Texas, in spring 1991. Component 1 consisted of a baseline study of vocabulary knowledge among students in two levels of remedial reading classes. The test instrument measured content-specific vocabulary in English/literature,…

Snouffer, Nancy Kendall; And Others

433

Understanding Attitudes of Educators toward Content Area Reading in the Early Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the attitudes of educators toward content area reading in the early elementary grades. A self-report survey instrument called the Attitudes Toward Content Area Reading (ATCAR) was developed to measure educators' attitudes and to ascertain whether there were different theoretical orientations of educators relative to content area…

Grierson, Sirpa T.; Daniel, Larry G.

434

VISION AND COLLEGE READING - A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND REPORT OF A SURVEY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE AMERICAN OPTICAL (AO) COMPANY'S SIGHT SCREENER, A PORTABLE BINOCULAR INSTRUMENT DESIGNED FOR MASS VISION TESTING, WAS EVALUATED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND READING AND STUDY SKILLS LABORATORY TO DETERMINE ITS CAPACITY TO IDENTIFY STUDENTS NEEDING PROFESSIONAL EYE EXAMINATIONS PRIOR TO READING INSTRUCTION. DATA FROM 106 PROBATIONARY…

MAXWELL, MARTHA J.

435

"I Am in Grade One and I Can Read!" The Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzed the effects of the implementation of the readers' workshop on students' reading levels and comprehension skills in a first-grade, mixed-ability classroom in Lebanon. The instruments used at the beginning were running records and reading continuums, and at the end of the academic year, teachers' professional notebooks and notes…

Mounla, Ghina; Bahous, Rima; Nabhani, Mona

2011-01-01

436

A Validity and Reliability Update on the Informal Reading Inventory with Suggestions for Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews validity and reliability studies on the informal reading inventory, a diagnostic instrument to identify reading grade-level placement and strengths and weaknesses in work recognition and comprehension. Gives suggestions to improve the validity and reliability of existing inventories and to evaluate them in newly published…

Klesius, Janell P.; Homan, Susan P.

1985-01-01

437

Effects on Reading Achievement in Developmental Education: Computer Assisted Instruction and the College Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study measured the effectiveness of the computerized remedial reading program at Spartanburg Methodist College (South Carolina), and scrutinized potential instruments that might be used for placement and for exiting the program. Subjects were 48 college freshmen enrolled in a remedial reading class which consisted of 60% computer assisted…

Lang, William Steve; Brackett, Elizabeth Jane

438

The impact of public library use on reading, television, and academic outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do individuals engage in beneficial activities, like recreational reading, if the necessary materials are easily accessible and relatively inexpensive? I investigate this issue by estimating how much reading time increases as a result of public library use. To address the endogeneity of library use I use an IV approach where the instrument is a household’s distance to their closest public

Rachana Bhatt

2010-01-01

439

Direct Identification of Bacteria from Positive Blood Cultures by Amplification and Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene: Evaluation of BACTEC 9240 Instrument True- Positive and False-Positive Results  

PubMed Central

In a previous study which evaluated the BACTEC 9240 automated blood culture system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.), we noted a 1.3% “instrument false-positive” rate. That is, the BACTEC system signaled that a bottle (BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle or BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle) culture was positive but a Gram stain was negative and there was no growth of bacteria or yeasts on subculture to chocolate agar. Furthermore, from the same sample of blood, cultures for fungi using the Isolator blood culture system (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) were negative for growth. For the present study, we evaluated 76 instrument false-positive samples for the presence of 16S ribosomal DNA using the MicroSeq 500 kit (PE Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.). These samples also were negative for fungi by the Isolator method. This kit has a PCR module and sequencing module for the amplification and sequencing of the 16S RNA gene and provides a database for sequence alignment and identification of bacteria. To optimize the assay, we evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% bovine serum albumin to the sample from blood culture bottles and found that it decreased the effects of inhibitors on the PCR. Two control groups of blood culture specimens were also evaluated. One group (n = 45) were “instrument true positives”; the instrument signaled positive, and subsequent Gram stains were positive and subcultures on chocolate agar grew bacteria. The other group (n = 20) were “instrument true negatives”; the instrument signaled negative, the Gram stain was negative, and subcultures on chocolate agar and from the Isolator tube on fungal media showed no growth. None of the 76 instrument false-positive samples had evidence for 16S rRNA gene sequences. All of the instrument true-positive samples and all of the instrument true-negative specimens were positive and negative, respectively, using the MicroSeq 500 kit. Total peripheral white blood cell counts were statistically significantly higher for patients who had instrument false-positive results than for patients who had instrument true-positive or true-negative results (P = 0.001). We conclude that instrument false positives signaled by the BACTEC 9240 system are not due to bacteria in the blood culture samples.

Qian, Qinfang; Tang, Yi-Wei; Kolbert, Christopher P.; Torgerson, Catherine A.; Hughes, John G.; Vetter, Emily A.; Harmsen, W. Scott; Montgomery, Stacy O.; Cockerill, Franklin R.; Persing, David H.

2001-01-01

440

The neural bases of attentive reading.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that attention facilitates the formation of synchronous neural assemblies in the gamma range (>40 Hz) to amplify behaviorally relevant signals. Whether this mechanism is general or confined to sensory cortices is still a matter of debate, since there is little evidence of a direct link between attention and increased gamma synchronization in high-level brain regions. We recorded the intracerebral EEG of 10 epileptic patients while manipulating their attention during reading, and compared the neural responses to attended and unattended words. Visual presentation of attended words induced gamma band responses in the major brain regions associated with reading and those responses were attenuated for unattended words. The attenuation was not uniform within the reading network but followed a gradient from the posterior visual to the frontal areas. Altogether, these results support the view that the gamma band response can be used as a quantitative marker of attention. PMID:17894399

Jung, Julien; Mainy, Nelly; Kahane, Philippe; Minotti, Lorella; Hoffmann, Dominique; Bertrand, Olivier; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

2008-10-01

441

A Flight Instrumentation System for Acquisition of Atmospheric Turbulence Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flight instrumentation system for the acquisition of atmospheric turbulence data is described. Airflow direction transducers and an impact pressure transducer are the primary instruments for measuring vertical and lateral gust velocity, and a sensitive ...

C. W. Meissner

1976-01-01

442

Learning To Read Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ease with which we process the written word belies its complexities and makes it easy to forget that it is a highly skilled behaviour and one that takes time to master. In this paper, I argue that our ability to read words has its roots in our capacity for language. Good progress has been made towards understanding how children

Kate Nation

2008-01-01

443

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For educators' summer reading enjoyment, "Kappan" editors recommend three books on nature (Robert Richardson's biography "Emerson: The Mind on Fire, William Cronin's edited book "Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature," and Gary Snyder's poetry volume "Mountain and Rivers Without End"). Also recommended are three culturally diverse…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1997

1997-01-01

444

GENDER SCHEMA AND READING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author's quirky reading of Winnie the Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner is investigated in terms of reader response and gender schema theory. The connections between these two theories are exemplified. Researchers attest to the pervasiveness of the gender schema, and the effects of gender schema on memory are presented in summaries of empirical studies with subjects from

Susan X Day

1994-01-01

445

Medication and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The clinical syndrome which relates most frequently to the reading-disabled child is the attention deficity disorder. The child psychiatrist will generally resort to medication only when behavioral management techniques have failed. The two most frequently used medications are Ritalin and Dexedrine, central nervous system stimulants. (JN)|

Humphries, Laurie L.

1981-01-01

446

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

447

Increasing Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes a program for improving reading comprehension. The targeted population consists of first, second, third, and fourth grade classrooms in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large midwestern city. The problem regarding poor comprehension skills is evident from teacher observation, student performance, previous…

Dixon, Mary; Harris, Linda; McGrath, Marianne; O'Neill, Sheila; Swanson, Sandra

448

Charles Reade's Sensational Realism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensation fiction, which flourished in England from the 1850s to the 1880s, was viewed by Victorian establishment figures as a threat to prevailing social values. This dissertation focuses on the work of Charles Reade, who along with Wilkie Collins and Mary Elizabeth Braddon, was among the most well-known sensation novelists. While several novels by Collins and Braddon have been rediscovered

Richard Fantina

2007-01-01

449

Affective Factors in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of affective factors in reading within the framework of the substrata factor theory is presented. The substrata factor theory and theories of the intellect are briefly discussed, and the absence of affective factors in these theories is pointed out. These affective factors are seen as influential in the individual's…

Athey, Irene

450

Reading Current Events Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

Ediger, Marlow

451

Braille Reading System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Braille reading system wherein the display of characters is controlled by moving a position sensor is developed. A text recorded on a cassette tape is removed by a cassette player under the control of loading logic. The logic controls the cassette playe...

H. D. Garner

1986-01-01

452

Basic readings in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps one of the best criteria of a book's present significance is whether or not it is deemed important enough to be chosen to appear on the reading lists for graduate students preparing for their doctoral examinations. With this criterion in mind, letters were sent to all American and Canadian psychology departments granting doctor's degrees in 1953-54 and again, five

Norman D. Sundberg

1960-01-01

453

Saccadic Inhibition in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 5 experiments, participants read text that was briefly replaced by a transient image for 33 ms at random intervals. A decrease in saccadic frequency, referred to as saccadic inhibition, occurred as early as 60-70 ms following the onset of abrupt changes in visual input. It was demonstrated that the saccadic inhibition was influenced by the…

Reingold, Eyal M.; Stampe, Dave M.

2004-01-01

454

Suburban Queer: Reading Grease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how nontraditional representations of gender can complicate received social norms, and it examines, in particular, how pre-adolescent suburban youth reconfigure social codes within popular film in order to identify positive queer aesthetics. While several studies have documented the function of classic and mainstream film in the tradition of queer reading, there has been comparatively less analysis devoted

Michael Borgstrom

2011-01-01

455

Reading Current Events Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

Ediger, Marlow

456

Reading in Place  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…

Price, Leah

2012-01-01

457

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

1991-01-01

458

The cold reading technique.  

PubMed

For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities. PMID:3360083

Dutton, D L

1988-04-15

459

A Reading of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite progress in decipherment of Maya hieroglyphic script in recent years, there are still a great many glyphs that epigraphers are unable to read completely. This can be for a number of reasons. In many cases, the remains of the glyphs are too badly eroded to be properly understood. In other cases, it is due to a lack of consideration

Suzanne Nolan

460

Teaching Reading through Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses a teaching method called reading through writing (RtW), based on the use of computers rather than handwriting. The pupils use the computers in pairs and decide themselves what they will write about. The use of this method is studied via a questionnaire to 22 teachers and via seven Master's and two Bachelor's theses,…

Takala, Marjatta

2013-01-01

461

Reading and Deaf Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development and field-testing of Cornerstones, an approach to classroom literacy instruction for young deaf children that utilizes an educational television program and other engaging media components. Focuses on word-knowledge aspect, because of its influence on the development of background knowledge and reading comprehension.…

Loeterman, Mardi; Paul, Peter V.; Donahue, Sheila

2002-01-01

462

Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

Rozeboom, Deborah A.

463

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and education professors suggest various nonfiction and fiction books for summer reading enjoyment, from Robert Putnam's "Bowling Alone," C.A. Bowers's "Let Them Eat Data," and Larry McMurtry's "Roads: Driving America's Great Highways" to Kent Hauf's "Plainsong, J.M. Coetzee's "Disgrace," and Michael Cunningham's "The Hours." (MLH)

[Editors

2001-01-01

464

Reading and Generalist Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading

Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

2007-01-01

465

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)|

Phi Delta Kappan, 2000

2000-01-01

466

Early Reading in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are several reasons why Japan has one of the world's highest literacy rates. One reason is the nature of the Japanese written language, which employs a dual code of ideographs representing specific objects and a syllabary, in which each symbol represents a separate syllable. The syllable symbols are read consistently the same way, and…

Sheridan, E. Marcia

467

Reading Mathematics is Different  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication will discuss why reading mathematics is challenging for many students and what teachers can do. We will examine how mathematics symbols, vocabulary, and content presentation can create roadblocks to studentsâ mathematics understanding. Learn how to address studentsâ difficulties by approaching mathematics as a language and to use specific strategies to improve mathematics learning.

2009-01-01

468

Reading Graduated Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)|

Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

1982-01-01

469

Teachers Reading Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Creating research-based expectations and education strategies for all teachers to implement consistently are the beginning steps in giving all students access to standards-based curriculum and in creating readers, writers, and content learners. Reading aloud is one research-based practice that enhances achievement for all students, whether they…

McQuillan, Kristin

2009-01-01

470

Cerebellum and Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Traditionally, the cerebellum has been considered to control coordinated movement. However, in recent years it has been argued that it contributes to higher cognitive functions. Objectives: This review aims to present recent evidence concerning the role of the cerebellum and discusses how it can contribute to reading. Method: The procedure used involves findings coming from three quite different areas,

Filippos Vlachos; Ilias Papathanasiou; Georgia Andreou

2007-01-01

471

Reading and Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes wrought in reading instruction and education in the last decade have not really been changes but merely old ideas in new packages. Many think that the key to a true revolution in education lies in technology, but technology itself does not change the quality of instruction and may in fact diminish it. The more basic and useful issue…

Howards, Melvin

472

Appraising Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

Ediger, Marlow

473

Read and Write Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For parents of young children, this packet offers ideas of things to do at home to help in the development of children's reading and writing. The packet discusses how children learn and how parents can help; shows the stages a child goes through in learning to write; offers ideas for activities parents and children can do together; explains how…

Basic Skills Agency, London (England).

474

Risking Aesthetic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This reflective article explores a tension between private and public expression of deep aesthetic response to reading, with specific reference to the play of this tension in the public space of the classroom. Implications for teaching are included, most specifically the need to understand the sensitivities and emotional vulnerability of…

Calderwood, Patricia E.

2005-01-01

475

Rules or Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…

Ruefle, Anne E.

2011-01-01

476

Reading, Culture and Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A notable feature of current approaches to reading (in first or second language) is a preoccupation with the internal "causes" of comprehension, regarded as a terminal state of the cognitive system. Yet by allowing only for a private encounter between reader and text, the cognitive approach lacks terms to give more than a contingent account of…

Gill, Martin

1992-01-01

477

Teaching Reading Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

2010-01-01

478

Predictors of Reading Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a study in which two reading literacy/text comprehension (on-line comprehension versus memory-based comprehension) tests were administered to fifteen year old students (n=6104) from all German states and school types. Explains that on-line comprehension was affected by metacognitive knowledge, decoding speed, and the number of books at…

Artelt, Cordula; Schiefele, Ulrich; Schneider, Wolfgang

2001-01-01

479

Promoting Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to present a historical account of instructional approaches to the teaching of comprehension as well as insights into effective approaches for the present and the future, this collection of papers is divided into three parts, concerned respectively with: (1) instructional research in reading comprehension, (2) the reader and the text,…

Flood, James, Ed.

480

Reading the Miller's Tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern narrative theory has provided new ways of analysing stories and a new critical vocabulary for discussing narratives. Some such theories emphasise the way in which the reader is involved in the act of reading a narrative, bringing skills and assumptions to the text which enable him to interpret the words which make up the story. Traditionally we have tended

Valerie Edden

481

Visual Factors in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews current knowledge about how the visual system recognizes letters and words, and the impact on reading when parts of the visual system malfunction. The physiology of eye and brain places important constraints on how we process text, and the efficient organization of the neurocognitive systems involved is not inherent but…

Singleton, Chris; Henderson, Lisa-Marie

2006-01-01

482

Reading's Next Chapter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

Kellman, Steven G.

2008-01-01

483

Family Influence on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|No one denies that students have many more distractions today than in days gone by. The need for family involvement in a child's reading progress joins a surge in American society for parents to take more responsibility for their children's character and in the condition of their communities. Some hints for parents in establishing family literacy…

Walker, Scott S.

484

Wilson Reading System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides an overview of the Wilson Reading System, which teaches students word structure and language through a carefully sequenced, 12-step system that helps them master decoding and spelling. The program targets the needs of students at all levels (K-12), specifically students with language learning disabilities such as dyslexia;…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

485

Unexpected Reading Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Of 108 7- to 13-year-old children having reading problems with no obvious cause, 54 children with any prior or current condition indicative of predisposition to learning problems were eliminated, leaving a sample of 5 boys and one girl. (Author/MC)|

Symmes, Jean S.; Rapoport, Judith L.

1972-01-01

486

Reading on Television?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The portrayal of reading, writing, and other selected behaviors on prime-time network television was examined in this two-part study. First, an interest inventory was administered to a sample of 301 elementary students (i.e., grades 1-5) in South Carolina, Virginia, and Pennsylvania to determine their favorite television shows, books, and school…

Dewalt, Mark W.; And Others

487

Reading, Writing, and Rings!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Reading, Writing, and Rings!" was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have…

Aschbacher, Pamela; Li, Erika; Hammon, Art

2008-01-01

488

Terrorism: Current Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents selected readings published in the English language on the subject of terrorism dating from 1985 to the present. Materials covered include books, periodicals, encyclopedias and dictionaries, directories, bibliographies, and online databases that cover definitions of terrorism, psychological and religious aspects of terrorism, and how to…

El-Sherbini, Magda

1990-01-01

489

Children, Television, and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author summarizes a research review conducted at William Paterson College. Information is presented on the amount of time spent watching television, types of programs preferred by different age groups, and the impact of television on reading habits and achievement. No consistent relationship between TV viewing and achievement was found. (SJL)|

Feeley, Joan T.

1980-01-01

490

Literature and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The articles in this themed issue focus on the use of real literature in reading instruction. Following a comment from the editor, the titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Understanding Poetry: Questions to Consider" (Nancy Wiseman Seminoff); (2) "Experiencing a Novel: The Short and Long of It" (David M. Bishop and…

French, Michael P., Ed.; Elford, Shirley J., Ed.

1986-01-01

491

Reading De Profundis  

Microsoft Academic Search

DE PROFUNDIS is the most infamous, but the least analysed of Wilde's works. On those occasions when it has been discussed, it is most often read in terms of a love letter, or as Wilde's attempt to justify himself—in his words, to \\

Josephine M. Guy; Ian Small

2006-01-01

492

"Write" Reading Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes a model which connects the acts of reading and writing in three cyclical components: the forming cycle, the coding cycle, and the reviewing cycle. Explains in each interlock of the cycles are the subprocesses generating, organizing, and editing. Notes that the sensor is centered where all three prime processes overlap, serving to…

Chai, Constance

2002-01-01

493

Attention and Eye Movements in Reading  

PubMed Central

A spatial cuing task was used to identify two types of readers, those with a relatively fast and those with a relatively slow buildup of inhibition of return (IOR). Backward-directed eye movements (regressions) during sentence reading were then examined as a function of the two IOR types. The results revealed that readers with fast IOR executed larger regressions than readers with slow IOR, as they directed the eyes away from the most recently attended area of text. Forward-directed eye movements (saccades), by contrast, were not a function of IOR type. Ease of sentence comprehension influenced the size of regressions, but this effect was also independent of IOR type. Multiple mechanisms of spatial attention, including IOR, bias eye movements toward upcoming words in the text during reading.

Weger, Ulrich W.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

2009-01-01

494

Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.  

PubMed

Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy. PMID:21678121

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-06-16

495

Do doctors, nurses, and midwives read?  

PubMed

Results and recommendations generated by a study of the effectiveness of various types of family planning publications directed at clinic personnel in the Philippines are outlined. Independent variables used in the study were readability and attention-attracting devices of scientific publications about family planning; dependent variables were the extent of reading, sharing of information, and recall among doctors, nurses, and midwives working in clinics. An additional project studying the use of the comic book form in communicating technical information is also reported. It was found that doctors read and remembered the most of all types of publications but did not share the information; nurses who read tended to share, but most did not read; midwives were more likely to read materials in comic book form; and greater readability fostered greater recall among nurses and midwives. Recommendations stemming from this study included stressing the importance of sharing information to clinic staff, presenting technical information in more readable forms, and targeting publications to different types of personnel, as well as conducting more research on how to more effectively disseminate information. PMID:12309987

Zurbano-pardo, A

496

Vocabulary assistance before and during reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but not for those receiving it before reading. Reading time of the newspaper article was less for students receiving prereading vocabulary assistance, but total lesson

Stephen Alessi; Angelique Dwyer

2008-01-01

497

Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading

Rasinski, Timothy V.

2012-01-01

498

Read Me a Song: Teaching Reading Using Picture Book Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about the beginnings of literacy in young children and the skills they need for reading readiness. The paper also describes what is meant by a "quality early literacy instruction" and reading skill development in early childhood settings. It outlines early reading behaviors, including phonemic awareness, concept of…

Routier, Wanda J.

499

Reading Counts: Expanding the Role of Reading in Mathematics Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this book is to integrate reading into school mathematics. A secondary aim is to reintegrate mathematics into society and humanity. This book goes beyond the traditional concern for reading word problems and math textbooks to consider how reading can support inquiry-oriented mathematics instruction. Drawing on findings from a…

Borasi, Raffaella; Siegel, Marjorie

500

Read Across Texas! 2002 Texas Reading Club Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the Texas Reading Club is to encourage the children of Texas to become library users and lifelong readers. This manual was created for the 2002 Texas Reading Club, a program of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. The theme, "Read Across Texas!" invites children to explore the history, geography, and culture of Texas…

Edgmon, Missy; Ferate-Soto, Paolo; Foley, Lelana; Hager, Tina; Heard, Adriana; Ingham, Donna; Lopez, Nohemi; McMahon, Dorothy; Meyer, Sally; Parrish, Leila; Rodriguez-Gibbs, Josefina; Moreyra-Torres, Maricela; Travis, Gayle; Welch, Willy