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1

Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved optoelectronic instruments (specially configured digital cameras) for reading direct-marked data-matrix symbols on the surfaces of optically reflective objects (including specularly reflective ones) are undergoing development. Data-matrix symbols are two-dimensional binary patterns that are used, like common bar codes, for automated identification of objects. The first data-matrix symbols were checkerboard-like patterns of black-and-white rectangles, typically existing in the forms of paint, ink, or detachable labels. The major advantage of direct marking (the marks are more durable than are painted or printed symbols or detachable labels) is offset by a major disadvantage (the marks generated by some marking methods do not provide sufficient contrast to be readable by optoelectronic instruments designed to read black-and-white data-matrix symbols). Heretofore, elaborate lighting, lensing, and software schemes have been tried in efforts to solve the contrast problem in direct-mark matrix- symbol readers. In comparison with prior readers based on those schemes, the readers now undergoing development are expected to be more effective while costing less. All of the prior direct-mark matrix-symbol readers are designed to be aimed perpendicularly to marked target surfaces, and they tolerate very little angular offset. However, the reader now undergoing development not only tolerates angular offset but depends on angular offset as a means of obtaining the needed contrast, as described below. The prototype reader (see Figure 1) includes an electronic camera in the form of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector equipped with a telecentric lens. It also includes a source of collimated visible light and a source of collimated infrared light for illuminating a target. The visible and infrared illumination complement each other: the visible illumination is more useful for aiming the reader toward a target, while the infrared illumination is more useful for reading symbols on highly reflective surfaces. By use of beam splitters, the visible and infrared collimated lights are introduced along the optical path of the telecentric lens, so that the target is illuminated and viewed from the same direction.

Schramm, Harry F.; Corder, Eric L.

2006-01-01

2

Simultaneous multi-instrumental monitoring of vapors in sewer headspaces by several direct-reading instruments.  

PubMed

Simultaneous monitoring of the vapors in several sewer headspaces by three direct-reading instruments, the Century OVA flame ionization detector, a 10.2 eV H-Nu Photoionization Detector, and a Hydrogen Sulfide Ecolyzer revealed that the majority of condensable organic vapors in areas of the Metropolitan Sewer District of Cincinnati appeared to be saturated aliphatic organics, except during short, unpredictable episodes. The monitoring was performed in the wet well of a sewage treatment plant, in sewers near two chemical plants, and in three other different sewers. The approach outlined in this paper does not require the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PMID:3956460

Barsky, J B; Que Hee, S S; Clark, C S; Trapp, J H

1986-04-01

3

Direct reading inductance meter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

Kolby, R. B. (inventor)

1977-01-01

4

Comparison of two direct-reading instruments (FM-7400 and Fibrecheck FC-2) with phase contrast optical microscopy to measure the airborne fibre number concentration.  

PubMed

The use of direct-reading instruments to measure the airborne fibre number concentration is on the increase. The response of two of these instruments (FM-7400 and Fibrecheck FC-2) was compared with the conventional method of sampling on filters and counting by phase contrast microscopy. Four types of fibres were studied at different concentrations and relative humidity levels. The FM-7400 can be calibrated by the manufacturer for two different levels of sensitivity (standard and high). For the tests where it was set to the sensitivity level with which it had been calibrated, the ratio of the concentration measured by the instrument to the concentration obtained by the conventional method varied in the range 0.5-1 for the different types of fibres studied (chrysotile, glass wool and ceramic fibres). The Fibrecheck FC-2 is a much less versatile instrument. On the basis of a calibration allowing correct detection of asbestos fibres, it greatly overestimated the concentration of man-made mineral fibres. In its normal calibration state a fine chrysotile aerosol was poorly detected. For man-made mineral fibres, the response was highly dependent on the nature of the fibres. These instruments require calibration with the type of fibres to be studied. Unfortunately, this operation is not always accessible to the user and may require the services of a specialized laboratory, as the manufacturer is not always in a position to carry this out. PMID:12855491

Kauffer, E; Martin, P; Grzebyk, M; Villa, M; Vigneron, J C

2003-07-01

5

Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

Wise, James H.

1995-01-01

6

Direct reading of electrocardiograms and respiration rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for reading heart and respiration rates is more accurate and direct than the previous method. Index of a plastic calibrated card is aligned with a point on the electrocardiogram. Complexes are counted as indicated on the card and heart or respiration rate is read directly from the appropriate scale.

Wise, J. P.

1969-01-01

7

Direct-reading inductance meter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

Kolbly, R. B.

1977-01-01

8

A Modified Direct-Reading Azimuth Protractor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction of a direct-reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) used for mapping fracture and joint-surface orientations in underground mines where magnetic disturbances affect typical geologic pocket transit. (SL)

Larson, William C.; Pugliese, Joseph M.

1977-01-01

9

Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and teachers new to material culture can readily use artefacts to reveal rich and complex networks of narratives. We illustrate this point by describing our own lay encounter with an artefact turned over for our analysis during a week-long workshop at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. The text explains how elements as disparate as the military appearance of the instrument, the crest stamped on its body, the manipulation of its telescopes, or a luggage tag revealed the object's scientific and political significance in different national contexts. In this way, the presence of the instrument in the classroom vividly conveyed the nature of geophysics as a field practice and an international science, and illuminated relationships between pure and applied science for early twentieth century geologists. We conclude that artefact study can be an unexpectedly powerful and accessible tool in the study of science, making visible the connections between past and present, laboratory and field, texts and instruments.

Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Mélanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

2013-05-01

10

Direct-Reading Frequency Measuring Equipment for the Range of 30 CPS to 30 MC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a direct-reading frequency-measuring equipment which enables precise frequency measurements between 30 cps and 30 mc to be carried out in one second. The measuring device itself consists of an electronic counter ranging from 30 cps + 1 mc, an instrument giving multiples of 1 mc in the range from 1 + 29 mc and a

L. R. M. Vos De Wael

1952-01-01

11

Improving Student Independent Reading Skills through Direct Phonics Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving student independent reading skills through direct phonics instruction. Students were exhibiting inadequate reading skills, which interfered with academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of second and third grade students from a northwestern Illinois city of about twelve thousand.…

Foes, Kathy; Sloan, Megan

12

Guest Editors' Introduction: Research on Direct Instruction in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a special issue devoted to recent studies of the direct instruction reading program, providing a history of direct instruction, examining research on the effects and outcomes of direct instruction, and reviewing the studies contained in this special issue. (Contains references.) (SM)

Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Kemper, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

13

Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

2012-01-01

14

Left lateralizing transcranial direct current stimulation improves reading efficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reading efficiency is the most persistent problem for adults with developmental dyslexia. Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between left posterior temporal cortex (pTC) function and reading ability, regardless of dyslexia status. Objective/Hypothesis In this study, we tested whether enhancing left lateralization of pTC using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves reading efficiency in adults without dyslexia. Method Twenty-five right-handed adults with no history of learning disorder participated. Real and sham “Left lateralizing” tDCS were applied to the pTC in separate sessions. Standardized word and nonword reading tests were given immediately after stimulation. Results Modeling of the induced electrical field confirmed that tDCS was likely to increase left pTC excitability and reduce right pTC excitability as intended. Relative to sham, real tDCS induced improvements in word reading efficiency in below average readers. Conclusions Enhancing left lateralization of the pTC using tDCS improves word reading efficiency in below-average readers. This demonstrates that left lateralization of the pTC plays a role in reading ability, and provides stimulation parameters that could be used for a trial of tDCS in adults with developmental dyslexia. Such short-term gains could amplify the effect of appropriate reading interventions when performed in conjunction with them. PMID:22305346

Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Benson, Jennifer; Hamilton, Roy H.; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Coslett, H. Branch

2011-01-01

15

Progress Monitoring Instrument Development: Silent Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension. Technical Report #1110  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is designed to measure students' academic status and growth so the effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated. In the most popular forms of reading CBM, the student's oral reading fluency is assessed. This behavior is difficult to sample in a computer-based format, a limitation that may be a function of the…

Nese, Joseph F. T.; Anderson, Daniel; Hoelscher, Kyle; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

2011-01-01

16

Maximum uncertainty estimation for the HB-Line ventilation instrumentation readings  

SciTech Connect

The HB-Line building vacuum instrumentation and glovebox vacuum instrumentation at the Savannah River Plant are described. The configuration and operation of the Foxboro 834 series transmitters and Moore 350 series controllers is detailed. In particular, the uncertainties in the differential pressure readings are explained.

Melton, D.R.

1992-12-04

17

Data-Collecting on Reading-Writing Strategies: A Comparison of Instruments: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on an attempt to compare two data-collecting instruments, Think-aloud Protocols and strategies questionnaires, applied to capture reading/writing strategies. Subjects were immigrant speakers of linguistically different heritage languages, Russian and Amharic first languages, and thus represented two ethnic groups, who went through the…

Levine, Adina; Reves, Thea

1997-01-01

18

Developing an Observation Instrument to Support Authentic Independent Reading Time during School in a Data-Driven World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to develop an instrument to measure reading during in-school independent reading (ISIR). Procedures to establish validity and reliability of the instrument included videotaping and observing students during ISIR, gathering feedback from literacy experts, establishing interrater reliability, crosschecking…

Williams, Lunetta M.; Hall, Katrina W.; Hedrick, Wanda B.; Lamkin, Marcia; Abendroth, Jennifer

2013-01-01

19

Theory Directed Reading Diagnosis Research Using Computer Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five year project studying the diagnosis and remediation of children with reading problems is described. The discussion includes observational studies of reading diagnosticians at work, observations of diagnostician training programs and computer simulation of theories about decision making in reading diagnosis. The results of the observational studies are mentioned and the theories and systems for computer simulated diagnosis are

Christian C. Wagner; John F. Vinsonhaler

1980-01-01

20

Testing and Refining the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of American high school students struggle with reading comprehension. Theoretical models of reading comprehension might help researchers understand these difficulties, because they can point to variables that make the largest contributions to comprehension. On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we created a new model of reading comprehension, the direct and inferential mediation (DIME)

Jennifer G. Cromley; Roger Azevedo

2007-01-01

21

Direction for Alabama Reading Teachers #3: Commercial Games and Activities for Title I Reading Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by Title I teachers, this handbook is designed to aid in the selection and use of commercially prepared reading games and game-like teaching materials that teach or reinforce (1) basic sight vocabulary, (2) spelling, (3) word meaning, (4) comprehension, (5) reading readiness, (6) perception, (7) study, (8) listening, (9) fluency,…

Alabama Univ., Birmingham.

22

The Impact of Direct Reading Instructional Strategies on Reading Achievement in 8th Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, about 60% of students cannot read proficiently at their current grade level. Findings from the National Reading Panel (NRP) indicate that there is not sufficient research on the topic of struggling middle school readers. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact…

Rider, Lynne Marie

2010-01-01

23

How Do Young Adults Read Directions with or without Pictures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is designed to explore the manner in which people read and use procedural information presented in text and illustrations. Recent theories are considered for their implications in this issue. (Author/GK)

Stone, David E.; Glock, Marvin D.

1981-01-01

24

Direct Instruction of Comprehension: Instructional Examples from Intervention Research on Listening and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of direct instruction in promoting listening and reading comprehension. Instructional examples from 2 programs of intervention research focused on improving comprehension; the Story Read Aloud Program and the Embedded Story Structure Routine are used to illustrate principles of direct instruction. An analysis of…

Coyne, Michael D.; Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.; Chard, David J.; Faggella-Luby, Michael; Ruby, Maureen; Santoro, Lana E.; Baker, Scott

2009-01-01

25

A Critical Review of Randall Ryder's Report of Direct Instruction Reading in Two Wisconsin School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report by Dr. Randall Ryder evaluated the use of Direct Instruction (DI) reading programs in 2 school districts in Wisconsin. In the report, Ryder claimed that students in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade who received Direct Instruction scored significantly lower on several standardized tests of reading than students who received more traditional…

Adams, Gary L.; Slocum, Timothy A.

2004-01-01

26

Research Directions and the Design of Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three areas of psychological research seem to hold implications for reading instruction. First, findings about the long-term effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation may be considered a challenge to popular technologies of instruction. Authors of highly structured systems, for example, tend to rely upon reinforcement to strengthen a child's…

McNeil, John D.

27

Patient Monitoring in the Operating Room: Validation of Instrument Readings by Artificial Intelligence Methods  

PubMed Central

Physiological monitoring in the operating room is needed to follow the patient's state of ventilation, circulation, etc. Parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas content are observed with devices of uncertain reliability. These provide speedy information in the form of cautions and alarms, which may indicate that corrective action is needed. In practice the large number of alarms when there is no hazard to the patient (false alarms) is a considerable problem. We describe a method of comparing and validating instrument readings in this situation involving a knowledge base whose core is a set of 36 rules. This was applied to 7803 warnings (6287 cautions and 1516 alarms) from 68 day surgery patients undergoing 115 hours of surgery. Most of the cautions were validated by our analysis, but 734 of the 1516 alarms were invalidated while 419 were validated and 363 left indeterminate. This translates to a potential reduction from one alarm every 4 minutes to one every 16 minutes.

Garfinkel, D.; Matsiras, P.V.; Mavrides, T.; McAdams, J.; Aukburg, S.J.

1989-01-01

28

Direction for Alabama Reading Teachers #1: Commercial Materials for Title I Reading Teachers. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by Title I reading teachers, this handbook is designed to aid in answering questions about the selection and use of instructional materials. The handbook lists materials according to the following skill areas: (1) auditory discrimination, (2) comprehension, (3) critical thinking, (4) dictionary skills; (5) fine motor skills, (6)…

Alabama Univ., Birmingham.

29

Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement…

Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

2012-01-01

30

Aerosol Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling  

PubMed Central

Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO2 were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 × 106 cm?3, were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m?3, were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control recommendations were described for processes as required. PMID:20447936

Evans, Douglas E.; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M. Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H.

2010-01-01

31

75 FR 64309 - Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors and Addendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...evaluation experimental testing methods to direct-reading monitors...the Components by presenting methods to be used in evaluating direct-reading...entitled ``Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analytical Method Development and...

2010-10-19

32

Curriculum-Based Measurement: Developing a Computer-Based Assessment Instrument for Monitoring Student Reading Progress on Multiple Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the technical adequacy of a computer-based assessment instrument which is based on hierarchical models of text comprehension for monitoring student reading progress following the Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) approach. At intervals of two weeks, 120 third-grade students finished eight CBM tests. To…

Forster, Natalie; Souvignier, Elmar

2011-01-01

33

Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

34

Development of a drift-correction procedure for a direct-reading spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure which provides automatic correction for drifts in the radiometric sensitivity of each detector channel in a direct-reading emission spectrometer is described. Such drifts are customarily controlled by the regular analyses of standards, which provide corrections for changes in the excitational, optical, and electronic components of the instrument. This standardization procedure, however, corrects for the optical and electronic drifts. It is a step that must be taken if the time, effort, and cost of processing standards is to be minimized. This method of radiometric drift correction uses a 1,000-W tungsten-halogen reference lamp to illuminate each detector through the same optical path as that traversed during sample analysis. The responses of the detector channels to this reference light are regularly compared with channel response to the same light intensity at the time of analytical calibration in order to determine and correct for drift. Except for placing the lamp in position, the procedure is fully automated and compensates for changes in spectral intensity due to variations in lamp current. A discussion of the implementation of this drift-correction system is included.

Chapman, G. B., II; Gordon, W. A.

1977-01-01

35

Reading Direction and the Central Perceptual Span in Urdu and English  

PubMed Central

Background Normal reading relies on the reader making a series of saccadic eye movements along lines of text, separated by brief fixational pauses during which visual information is acquired from a region of text. In English and other alphabetic languages read from left to right, the region from which useful information is acquired during each fixational pause is generally reported to extend further to the right of each fixation than to the left. However, the asymmetry of the perceptual span for alphabetic languages read in the opposite direction (i.e., from right to left) has received much less attention. Accordingly, in order to more fully investigate the asymmetry in the perceptual span for these languages, the present research assessed the influence of reading direction on the perceptual span for bilingual readers of Urdu and English. Methods and Findings Text in Urdu and English was presented either entirely as normal or in a gaze-contingent moving-window paradigm in which a region of text was displayed as normal at the reader's point of fixation and text outside this region was obscured. The windows of normal text extended symmetrically 0.5° of visual angle to the left and right of fixation, or asymmetrically by increasing the size of each window to 1.5° or 2.5° to either the left or right of fixation. When participants read English, performance for the window conditions was superior when windows extended to the right. However, when reading Urdu, performance was superior when windows extended to the left, and was essentially the reverse of that observed for English. Conclusion These findings provide a novel indication that the perceptual span is modified by the language being read to produce an asymmetry in the direction of reading and show for the first time that such an asymmetry occurs for reading Urdu. PMID:24586316

Paterson, Kevin B.; McGowan, Victoria A.; White, Sarah J.; Malik, Sameen; Abedipour, Lily; Jordan, Timothy R.

2014-01-01

36

Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction…

Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

2010-01-01

37

Matching is not Naming: A direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks  

PubMed Central

The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of “automatic activation” of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a non-reading task for studying “reading effects” by directly comparing BOLD activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in “reading-related” regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs naming) by string type (word vs pseudoword vs nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type by timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions, and is thus non-automatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. PMID:22711620

Vogel, Alecia C.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

2014-01-01

38

Instrument Development Procedures for Silent Reading Measures. Technical Report Number 08-03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and gather validity evidence for silent reading fluency passages. A number of passages were written following a traditional story grammar structure (character, setting, events) and placed on a computer for students to read silently. We describe in detail, the manner in which content-related evidence was…

Liu, Kimy; Sundstrom-Hebert, Krystal; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Tindal, Gerald

2008-01-01

39

The Effects of Directive-Individualized Instruction upon Reading Achievement and Locus of Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop a practical method of individualizing basal reading materials and to test possible effects upon pupils' achievement and awareness of the locus control of their learning when this method is employed, a fourth grade class received directive helpful teacher responses to their requests for assistance with workbook exercises. A tally of…

Tausig, Carl Mulford, Jr.

40

Chapter 8 Rapid DNA Sequencing by Direct Nanoscale Reading of Nucleotide Bases on Individual DNA chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and discuss two concepts for rapid DNA sequencing by direct nanoscale reading of nucleotide bases on individual DNA molecules. Although these two concepts are based on substantially different principles, they both rely on the fabrication of nanoscale devices using state of the art technologies. The first method, which has been recently invented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL),

James Weifu Lee; Amit Meller

2007-01-01

41

Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?  

PubMed Central

The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that separation anxiety symptoms were negatively predicted by fluency performance and harm avoidance symptoms were positively predicted by decoding performance. Fluency performance was positively predicted by harm avoidance and total anxiety (for girls only) symptoms, while decoding was not predicted by any anxiety subscale. PMID:21822734

Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

2012-01-01

42

Anxiety and reading difficulties in early elementary school: evidence for unidirectional- or bi-directional relations?  

PubMed

The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that separation anxiety symptoms were negatively predicted by fluency performance and harm avoidance symptoms were positively predicted by decoding performance. Fluency performance was positively predicted by harm avoidance and total anxiety (for girls only) symptoms, while decoding was not predicted by any anxiety subscale. PMID:21822734

Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Fletcher, Jack M; Vaughn, Sharon R; Stuebing, Karla K

2012-02-01

43

Low-cost coding of directivity information for the recording of musical instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most musical instruments radiate sound according to characteristic spatial directivity patterns. These patterns are usually not only strongly frequency dependent, but also time-variant functions of various parameters of the instrument, such as pitch and the playing technique applied (e.g., plucking versus bowing of string instruments). To capture the directivity information when recording an instrument, Warusfel and Misdariis (2001) proposed to record an instrument using four channels, one for the monopole and the others for three orthogonal dipole parts. In the new recording setup presented here, it is proposed to store one channel at a high sampling frequency, along with directivity information that is updated only every few milliseconds. Taking the binaural sluggishness of the human auditory system into account in this way provides a low-cost coding scheme for subsequent reproduction of time-variant directivity patterns.

Braasch, Jonas; Martens, William L.; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

2001-05-01

44

Instrument Development Procedures for Rapid Reading Rate Measures. Technical Report # 08-05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we describe the development of rapid reading measures, sentences presented to students in a nearly subliminal manner, with a literal comprehension question asked following their removal. After administering alternate forms of these measures to students, we present the results from three statistical analyses to ascertain their…

Liu, Kimy; Carling, Kristy; Geller, Leanne Ketterlin; Tindal, Gerald

2008-01-01

45

Direct measurement of skin friction with a new instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a small belt-type skin-friction gage to measure wall shear-stress coefficients in wind-tunnel testing are described, summarizing the report of Vakili and Wu (1982). The sensor employs a flexible belt of variable surface characteristics; this belt, wrapped tightly around two cylinders mounted on frictionless flexures, is equipped with strain gages to estimate the deflection of the belt by the flow. An alternative approach uses IR illumination, optical fibers, and a photosensitive transistor, permitting direct measurement of the belt deflection. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of sample data are provided.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

46

Calibration of Instruments for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was calibrated for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented calibration at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this calibration two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was calibrated for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was calibrated up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,

Vogler, Raymond D.; Pilny, Miroslav J.

1950-01-01

47

RESEARCH DIRECTION IN INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Instrumentation and automatic control, already common in oil, chemical and other industries, is making rapid strides in water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The report describes some of the capability now available and suggests directions for new research....

48

D-Zero Superconducting Soleniod RTD Instrumentation Readings Upon Receipt at Fermialb  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note documents the Dzero Superconducting Solenoid Platinum RTD, Carbon Glass RTD, and Helium level gage instrumentation values upon receipt at Fermilab. This note is concerned with the internal instrumentation, the external instrumentation can easily be repaired if any problems arise. The Solenoid was Purchased from Toshiba and shipped from the Kehin Works in Japan. The Solenoid was received at Dzero May 12, 1997. The Solenoid was shipped in three large components. They are the Solenoid, Control Dewar, and Chimney. There are 2 main instrumentation port areas where all the internal instrumentation is available to the outside world. These 2 places are the top of the Control Dewar and the North end of the Solenoid. These two instrumentation feedthrough area's have Cyocera hermetic feedthrough port connectors welded into place. The Cyocera connector can and does mate with the Burndy Bantom cable end connector of the same pin/socket number. Since the Hermetic feedthrough and cable connector are different manufacturers, the pin layout pattern is not the same. The Toshiba drawings show both manufacturers pin numbers. The Dzero engineering notes show only the Burndy pin numbers.

Markley, D.; /Fermilab

1998-03-10

49

Native reading direction and corresponding preferences for left- or right-lit images.  

PubMed

The first language an individual learns has been shown to influence performance on cognitive tasks. Individuals who first learn to read and write in a left-to-right direction (native left-to-right readers) tend to bisect lines left of centre and draw counterclockwise circles, whereas those who learn to read and write from right-to-left (native right-to-left readers) will bisect lines closer to the objective centre and draw circles in a clockwise direction. The aim of the current study was to assess group differences in image preferences and eye movements when participants are simultaneously presented with an original and mirror image with an obvious illumination difference. Twenty native left-to-right readers (4 men, 16 women) and 25 native right-to-left readers (13 men, 12 women) participated. Left-to-right readers made more fixations on the left side of images and exhibited a significantly different left-lit image bias than right-to-left readers' choices. These results draw attention to the influence that reading direction has on scanning distributions and lighting preferences, and question previous results finding no difference between groups. PMID:24032316

Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J

2013-04-01

50

Direct and Indirect Teaching: Using E-Books for Supporting Vocabulary, Word Reading, and Story Comprehension for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the effect of direct and indirect teaching of vocabulary and word reading on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children following use of an electronic storybook (e-book). The children in each age group were randomly assigned to an intervention group which read the e-book or to a control group which was afforded the regular school…

Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

2012-01-01

51

Spatial biases in understanding descriptions of static scenes: the role of reading and writing direction.  

PubMed

Prior studies on reasoning tasks have shown lateral spatial biases on mental model construction, which converge with known spatial biases in the mental representation of number, time, and events. The latter have been shown to be related to habitual reading and writing direction. The present study bridges and extends both research strands by looking at the processes of mental model construction in language comprehension and examining how they are influenced by reading and writing direction. Sentences like "the table is between the lamp and the TV" were auditorily presented to groups of mono- and bidirectional readers in languages with left-to-right or right-to-left scripts, and participants were asked to draw the described scene. There was a clear preference for deploying the lateral objects in the direction marked by the script of the input language and some hints of a much smaller effect of the degree of practice with the script. These lateral biases occurred in the context of universal strategies for working memory management. PMID:23307481

Román, Antonio; El Fathi, Abderrahman; Santiago, Julio

2013-05-01

52

Developing the Self-Directed Learning Instructional Model to Enhance English Reading Ability and Self-Directed Learning of Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to develop the instructional model for enhancing self-directed learning skills of Bangkok University students, study the impacts of the model on their English reading comprehension and self-directed learning ability as well as explore their opinion towards self-directed learning. The model development process…

Wichadee, Saovapa

2011-01-01

53

Structural determinants of an internal ribosome entry site that direct translational reading frame selection  

PubMed Central

The dicistrovirus intergenic internal ribosome entry site (IGR IRES) directly recruits the ribosome and initiates translation using a non-AUG codon. A subset of IGR IRESs initiates translation in either of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), resulting in expression of the 0 frame viral structural polyprotein and an overlapping +1 frame ORFx. A U–G base pair adjacent to the anticodon-like pseudoknot of the IRES directs +1 frame translation. Here, we show that the U-G base pair is not absolutely required for +1 frame translation. Extensive mutagenesis demonstrates that 0 and +1 frame translation can be uncoupled. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) structural probing analyses reveal that the mutant IRESs adopt distinct conformations. Toeprinting analysis suggests that the reading frame is selected at a step downstream of ribosome assembly. We propose a model whereby the IRES adopts conformations to occlude the 0 frame aminoacyl-tRNA thereby allowing delivery of the +1 frame aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site to initiate translation of ORFx. This study provides a new paradigm for programmed recoding mechanisms that increase the coding capacity of a viral genome. PMID:25038250

Ren, Qian; Au, Hilda H.T.; Wang, Qing S.; Lee, Seonghoon; Jan, Eric

2014-01-01

54

Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results  

SciTech Connect

Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends were identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered.

Shaw, K.R.

1993-07-01

55

An electronic instrument for direct-reading indication of thermocouple temperature  

E-print Network

to Storage Time for N aiory Typ RN-A Nercury Cell. . . . . . . . 26 g Schematic Diagram of Cold-junction Compensation Bridge . ~ 10. Schematic Diagram of Cold-+motion Compensation Bridge as Altered for Range Expansion. v 3l ll. Schematic Diagram... unless the temperature of the thermocouplexs cold-function is known. This temperature must be known because the thermocouple electromotive force is a function of the temperature difference between the hot- junction and the cold-junction. Therefore...

Hartung, Robert Leonard

2012-06-07

56

Effectiveness of Guided Co-Construction versus Direct Instruction for Beginning Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a field experiment with 178 first-grade pupils, the effects of an experimental beginning reading programme were investigated. Both an experimental and a control group worked with the most frequently used Dutch beginning reading programme, "Learning to Read Safely." The instructional approach implemented in the experimental group was guided…

Snel, M. J.; Terwel, J.; Aarnoutse, C. A. J.; van Leeuwe, J. F. J.

2012-01-01

57

Rethinking Strategy Instruction: Direct Reading Strategy Instruction versus Computer-Based Guided Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many established reading strategy training programmes, which explicitly teach strategic and meta-cognitive knowledge to improve reading comprehension. Although instruction in strategy knowledge leads to improvements in meta-cognitive skills, the effects do not always transfer to reading comprehension. Therefore, to investigate…

Lenhard, Wolfgang; Baier, Herbert; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Joachim

2013-01-01

58

Enhanced discrimination of boreal forest covers with directional reflectances from the airborne polarization and directionality of Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), directional and spectral reflectance measurements were acquired from May to July 1994 with the polarization and directionality of Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument on board a NASA C-130 aircraft. The instrument has a wide field-of-view optics, a two-dimensional CCD array, and a rotating wheel carrying filters in the visible and near infrared. Measurements were obtained (1) over coniferous forests at the young and old jack pine and old black spruce sites, (2) over a deciduous forest at the old aspen site, and (3) over a fen at the fen site. A prominent hot spot feature was apparent at each site, with an additional strong peak in the specular direction for the fen site. Strong variations of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) with sun zenith angle were observed. For a constant sun zenith angle, the variation of the BRDF of conifer stands between May and July was relatively weak. A key objective of this paper is to quantify the improvement of discrimination of various forest covers when remotely sensed directional signatures are added to the more conventional spectral signatures. The experimental protocol consisted of the following steps. First, 150 pixels pertaining to five different classes of forest covers were selected on land cover maps available in the BOREAS Information System (BORIS) data base. Second, the BRDF measurements acquired by POLDER at each pixel were adjusted against a three-parameter semiempirical BRDF model and processed to retrieve the reflectance seen in three different viewing directions. Third, the results of supervised classifications were compared on all selected pixels, using as input, either the reflectances in only one direction (this simulates the case of conventional spectral signatures), or reflectances acquired in three directions (this simulates the case of spectral + directional signatures). The results showed that when only one spectral band was used, the proportion of correctly classified pixels increased from 36-59% with one viewing direction to 64-84% with three viewing directions. When three spectral bands were considered, this proportion improved from 72-87% to 83-97%. These results demonstrate that the account of directional information enhances the ability to discriminate forest covers by remotesensing.

Bicheron, P.; Leroy, M.; Hautecoeur, O.; BréOn, F. M.

1997-12-01

59

Using Planned Enrichment Strategies with Direct Instruction to Improve Reading Fluency, Comprehension, and Attitude toward Reading: An Evidence-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we used a randomized design to investigate the effects of an enriched reading program on 226 urban elementary students' (third through sixth grade) reading comprehension, oral reading fluency, and attitude toward reading in 2 elementary schools. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Reading Framework (SEM-R) provides enriched reading

Reis, Sally M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Coyne, Michael; Schreiber, Frederic J.; Eckert, Rebecca D.; Gubbins, E. Jean

2007-01-01

60

Effectiveness of Direct Instruction for Teaching Statement Inference, Use of Facts, and Analogies to Students with Developmental Disabilities and Reading Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) reading comprehension program implemented with students who had developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and reading delays. There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students with ASD and no research as to the effectiveness of…

Flores, Margaret Munro; Ganz, Jennifer B.

2007-01-01

61

Teaching Reading Comprehension and Language Skills to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities Using Direct Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is limited research demonstrating Direct Instruction (DI) as an effective reading comprehension intervention for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities (DD). Previous research has shown that DI, when portions of the program were implemented, resulted in increased skills (Flores & Ganz, 2007; Flores…

Flores, Margaret M.; Nelson, Cynthia; Hinton, Vanessa; Franklin, Toni M.; Strozier, Shaunita D.; Terry, LaTonya; Franklin, Susan

2013-01-01

62

Explaining Individual Differences in Reading: Theory and Evidence. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into reading development and reading disabilities has been dominated by phonologically guided theories for several decades. In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections. The…

Brady, Susan A., Ed.; Braze, David, Ed.; Fowler, Carol A., Ed.

2011-01-01

63

The Neurobiological Basis of Skilled and Impaired Reading: Recent Findings and New Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, significant progress has been made in the study of reading and reading disability with the use of functional neuroimaging techniques. There is substantial converging evidence that skilled word recognition requires the development of a highly integrated cortical system that includes left hemisphere dorsal, ventral, and anterior…

Sandak, Rebecca; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2004-01-01

64

Examining the Validity of a New Large-Scale Reading Assessment Instrument from Two Perspectives. Technical Report No. 623.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated the validity of the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) grade-3 reading assessment from 2 perspectives: its relationship to 21 other measures of reading via factor analyses, and the sensitivity of the IGAP to instruction in 3 schools via multiple regression. Data were collected in a longitudinal study involving 350 students.…

Greer, Eunice Ann

65

Lab-on-a-bubble: direct and indirect assays with portable Raman instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-Bubble (LoB) is a new method for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) assays that combines separationand concentration of the assay results. A direct LoB assay is comprised of gold nanoparticles coupled directly to the ~30 ?m diameter buoyant silica bubble. The direct LoB method was evaluated with cyanide and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). An indirect assay uses the same ~ 30 ?m diameter buoyant silica bubble and a silica coated SERS reporter. Both the bubble and SERS reporter are coated with a coupling agent for the analyte. The assay measures the amount of SERS reporter coupled to the bubble through a sandwich created by the analyte. The couling agent could consist of an immunological coupling agent (antibody) or a nucleic acid coupling agent (single strand DNA). The indirect LoB method was examined with Cholera toxin (CT) and antibodies against the ? subunit. An LOD of ~ 170 pptrillion was measured for cyanide and a limit of detection of 1100 ng was found for CT. Instrumentation for the assay and a novel technique of dynamic SERS (DSERS) will also be discussed. The instrument is a small hand-held Raman device called the CBEx (Chemical Biological Explosive) with a novel raster system to detect heterogeneous or light sensitive materials. DSERS is a mathematical algorithm which eliminates background interference in SERS measurements with colloidal nanoparticles.

Carron, Keith; Schmit, Virginia; Scott, Brandon; Martoglio, Richard

2012-10-01

66

Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

2012-06-01

67

An instrument for direct observations of seismic and normal-mode rotational oscillations of the Earth  

PubMed Central

The rotations around the vertical axis associated with the normal mode oscillations of the Earth and those induced by the seismic and other disturbances have been very difficult to observe directly. Such observations will provide additional information for 3D modeling of the Earth and for understanding earthquakes and other underground explosions. In this paper, we describe the design of an instrument capable of measuring the rotational motions associated with the seismic oscillations of the Earth, including the lowest frequency normal mode at ? ? 3.7 × 10?4 Hz. The instrument consists of a torsion balance with a natural frequency of ?0 ? 1.6 × 10?4 Hz, which is observed by an autocollimating optical lever of high angular resolution and dynamic range. Thermal noise limits the sensitivity of the apparatus to amplitudes of ? 1.5 × 10?9 rad at the lowest frequency normal mode and the sensitivity improves as ??3/2 with increasing frequency. Further improvements in sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude may be achieved by operating the balance at cryogenic temperatures. Alternatively, the instrument can be made more robust with a reduced sensitivity by increasing ?0 to ?10?2 Hz. This instrument thus complements the ongoing effort by Igel and others to study rotational motions using ring laser gyroscopes and constitutes a positive response to the clarion call for developments in rotation seismology by Igel, Lee, and Todorovska [H. Igel, W.H.K. Lee and M.I. Todorovska, AGU Fall Meeting 2006, Rotational Seismology Sessions: S22A,S23B, Inauguration of the International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS)]. PMID:17438268

Cowsik, R.

2007-01-01

68

Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.  

PubMed

Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the photometer-type dust monitors on the other hand showed little correlation. The Respicon also accurately measured the inhalable concentration, whereas the modified PDM underestimated it by ~27%. Photometer responses varied considerably with changing particle size, which resulted in appreciable errors in airborne inhalable dust concentration measurements. Similar trends were also observed during field trials. Despite having limitations, both the modified PDM and Respicon showed promise as real-time inhalable dust monitors. PMID:23704135

Thorpe, Andrew; Walsh, Peter T

2013-08-01

69

Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literacy Works. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook presents reading guides for 27 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

Ley, Terry C., Ed.

70

Direct Instruction in Reading in Special Education: Evaluation of an Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All children can learn. Each child learns in numerous ways and at a different pace. When children are given opportunity, appropriate foundation, support, and precise instruction, learning is enhanced and encouraged. This study investigated an instructional approach for teaching reading to elementary students who were determined to have a learning…

Jackson, Sherry D.

2010-01-01

71

Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literacy Works. Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook presents reading guides for 39 literary works frequently used by scondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

Ley, Terry C., Ed.

72

Using Literature-Based Prompts To Teach Writing Competencies: Directed Reading and Writing Lessons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help teachers integrate writing instruction with the study of literature, this teaching guide offers a philosophy of writing instruction, describes a procedure for teaching reading and writing lessons, and provides a sequence of writing skills. For various literature selections, the guide defines vocabulary, provides topic discussion…

Gelsinger, Barry D.

73

Scanning direction and line bisection: a study of normal subjects and unilateral neglect patients with opposite reading habits.  

PubMed

Sixty normal dextrals (30 left-to-right and 30 right-to-left readers) and two left unilateral neglect patient with opposite reading habits performed a passive line bisection task. In order to study the effect of scanning direction on performance, subjects had to stop a mark moving on the to-be-bisected line either from the left to the right or in the opposite direction. Results showed that the position of the subjective middle was dependent upon the scanning direction of the line for all the subjects. A leftward deviation appeared for left to right scanning, whereas a rightward shift occurred when the mark moved from the right to the left. These results emphasize the role of scanning direction in space organization and are discussed with respect to the explanatory hypotheses of unilateral neglect. PMID:9774725

Chokron, S; Bartolomeo, P; Perenin, M T; Helft, G; Imbert, M

1998-10-01

74

Evolution of SILS Cholecystectomy in the Caribbean: The Direct Transfascial Puncture Technique Using Conventional Instruments without Working Ports  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has become accepted as an alternative to conventional multiport cholecystectomy. However, SILC is still limited in applicability in low resource centres due to the expense associated with specialized access platforms, curved instruments, and flexible scopes. Presentation of Case. We present three cases where a modified SILC technique was used with conventional instruments and no working ports. The evolution of this technique is described. Discussion. In order to contain cost, we used conventional instruments and three transfascial ports placed in an umbilical incision, but we noted significant instrument clashes that originated at the port platforms. Therefore, we modified our technique by omitting ports for the working instruments. The technique allowed us to exchange instruments as necessary, maximized ergonomics, and prevented collisions from the bulky port platforms. Finally, the puncture left by the instrument alone did not require fascial closure at the termination of the procedure. Conclusion. The direct transfascial puncture using conventional laparoscopic instruments without working ports is a feasible option that minimizes cost and increases ergonomics. PMID:25349766

Cawich, Shamir O.; Thomas, Dexter; Hassranah, Dale; Naraynsingh, Vijay

2014-01-01

75

Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

1938-01-01

76

New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Matthew Sigelman on Reading the Labor Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Matthew Sigelman, CEO of Burning Glass Technologies, a Boston-based labor market…

DiSalvio, Philip

2014-01-01

77

Contextual Modulation of Reading Rate for Direct versus Indirect Speech Quotations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In human communication, direct speech (e.g., "Mary said: "I'm hungry"") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., "Mary said [that] she was hungry"). However, the processing consequences of this distinction are largely unclear. In two experiments, participants were asked to either orally (Experiment 1) or silently (Experiment 2,…

Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

2011-01-01

78

Part 1(50%) Instructions: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed.  

E-print Network

; its students party animals), higher education is a major societal player. The borders between.questionsas directed. Once again, the Irish offer Swift a version of the dilemma of all humans, whose cruelty to one another, though awful, is as nothing compared with the cruelty of being human. Their sufferings seem

Huang, Haimei

79

Motivation and Reading Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most factors including age, learning style, motivation and so on can influence students ' use of learning strategy in reading comprehension. This paper describes two types of motivation— integrative motivation and instrumental motivation and the relationship between motivation and reading strategy: integrated motivation relates to social\\/affective strategies significantly while instrumental motivation correlates to cognitive strategies negatively. Motivation does have great

YANG Xiao-ling

2006-01-01

80

Reading between the lines: direct-to-consumer advertising of genetic testing in the USA.  

PubMed

This article critiques an advertisement in a theatre playbill by a bio-technology company for its commercial test for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic mutation, which may indicate a higher risk for breast and ovarian cancer. The advertisement targets a vulnerable audience attending a play about one woman's isolated and painful death from ovarian cancer. It promotes a product with incomplete and at times incorrect information, and it misguides women by suggesting that they contact the company directly about this test, rather than encouraging them to talk to their health care providers about genetic testing and their personal risk of breast cancer. In an era in which more genetic tests will be integrated into clinical practice, we can expect an increase in direct-to-consumer marketing for such tests. This advertisement is an example of what we need to be on guard against. PMID:11765398

Hull, S C; Prasad, K

2001-11-01

81

Comparison of instrument-read dipsticks for albumin and creatinine in urine with visual results and quantitative methods.  

PubMed

Three hospital sites evaluated the Bayer two-pad urine dipstick as a screening test for microalbuminuria. One pad estimates albumin concentrations between 10 and 150 mg/L, and the second estimates creatinine values between 300 and 3,000 mg/L. The Boehringer Mannheim (BMD) Micral dipstick was also compared and evaluated. The accuracy of the dipsticks was judged by comparison with cuvet-based immunonephelometry for albumin and to standard rate-Jaffe methods for creatinine; these assays were well standardized and controlled and were assumed to give accurate values. Precision of these methods and that of the dipsticks was determined by multiple assays of control materials. Visual or instrument (Clinitek 50 or 100) evaluation of the Bayer or visual checks of the BMD albumin dipstick pad with patients' urines gave clinically acceptable accuracy. The albumin/creatinine ratio from the Bayer dipsticks gave better accuracy for albumin excretion than the albumin pads alone from either manufacturer. This ratio should permit making a good estimate of the 24-hr albumin excretion in a randomly collected urine. PMID:9773958

Pugia, M J; Lott, J A; Luke, K E; Shihabi, Z K; Wians, F H; Phillips, L

1998-01-01

82

Direct Intracranial, fMRI, and Lesion Evidence for the Causal Role of Left Inferotemporal Cortex in Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Models of the ''visual word form system'' postulate that a left occipitotemporal region implements the au- tomatic visual word recognition required for efficient reading. This theory was assessed in a patient in whom reading was explored with behavioral measures, fMRI, and intracranial local field potentials. Prior to surgery, when reading was normal, fMRI revealed a normal mosaic of ventral

Raphaël Gaillard; Lionel Naccache; Philippe Pinel; Stéphane Clémenceau; Emmanuelle Volle; Dominique Hasboun; Sophie Dupont; Michel Baulac; Stanislas Dehaene; Claude Adam; Laurent Cohen

2006-01-01

83

SCExAO as a precursor to an ELT exoplanet direct imaging instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 lambda/D and an ideal testbed for exploring coronagraphic techniques for ELTs. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss several exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks. In addition we will elucidate the unique role extreme AO systems will play in enabling high precision radial velocity spectroscopy for the detection of small companions.

Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; Singh, Garima; Vievard, Sebastien; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Garrel, Vincent; Norris, Barnaby; Tuthill, Peter; Stewart, Paul; Huby, Elsa; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre

2013-12-01

84

Instrumentation for direct observation of frozen hydrated specimens in the electron microscope.  

PubMed

Instrumentation and techniques are described for the transfer and observation of frozen hydrated specimens in the transmission electron microscope. The transfer is accomplished without the complexity of a vacuum transfer device but also without significant sublimation of specimen ice or frosting. Examples are given of the transfer and observation of thin sections of rapidly frozen muscle and of rapidly frozen thin film preparations of isolated cells. PMID:734786

Hutchinson, T E; Johnson, D E; MacKenzie, A P

1978-01-01

85

Design of an intelligent instrument for large direct-current measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle and structure of an intelligent large direct current measurement is presented in this paper. It is of reflective type and detects signal by employing the high direct current sensor. The single-chip microcomputer of this system provides a powerful function of control and processing and greatly improves the extent of intelligence. The value can be displayed and printed automatically or manually.

Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Zhipeng

2000-05-01

86

ScienceDirect -Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Researc... 1 of 2 3/16/05 4:36 PM  

E-print Network

ScienceDirect - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Researc... 1 of 2 3/16/05 4:36 PM: Quick Search: within All Full-text SourcesAll Full-text Sources 2 of 2 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment Volume 407

Ng, Chung-Sang

87

A Direct Method for Calculating Instrument Noise Levels in Side-by-Side Seismometer Evaluations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The subject of determining the inherent system noise levels present in modem broadband closed loop seismic sensors has been an evolving topic ever since closed loop systems became available. Closed loop systems are unique in that the system noise can not be determined via a blocked mass test as in older conventional open loop seismic sensors. Instead, most investigators have resorted to performing measurements on two or more systems operating in close proximity to one another and to analyzing the outputs of these systems with respect to one another to ascertain their relative noise levels. The analysis of side-by-side relative performance is inherently dependent on the accuracy of the mathematical modeling of the test configuration. This report presents a direct approach to extracting the system noise levels of two linear systems with a common coherent input signal. The mathematical solution to the problem is incredibly simple; however the practical application of the method encounters some difficulties. Examples of expected accuracies are presented as derived by simulating real systems performance using computer generated random noise. In addition, examples of the performance of the method when applied to real experimental test data are shown.

Holcomb, L. Gary

1989-01-01

88

National Reading Panel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 13, 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released the results of "the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading." Established in response to a 1997 congressional directive, the NRP is composed of "leading scientists in reading research, representatives of colleges of education, reading teachers, educational administrators, and parents." The NRP Homepage offers background information, additional documents, and related links.

89

There Is More to Mind Reading than Having Theory of Mind Concepts: New Directions in Theory of Mind Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than 30 years, researchers have focused on the important transition that children undergo between the ages of 3 and 5, when they start to solve mind-reading problems that require reasoning about complex mental states, such as beliefs. The main question for debate has been whether, during that transition, children acquire new concepts…

Samson, Dana; Apperly, Ian A.

2010-01-01

90

Area co-operations as an instrument of public participation for implementing the EU Water Framework Directive: networking and social learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the results of an evaluation that was conducted in order to investigate the role and potentials of the participatory process according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Lower Saxony, Northwest Germany. The most important participatory instruments within the implementation process of the WFD in Lower Saxony are the 30 'area co-operations'. As a local and direct

Ilke Borowski; Britta Kastens; Dagmar Ridder

2008-01-01

91

Reading(s).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

92

Active Reading Read and Understand  

E-print Network

Active Reading Read and Understand Power Hour for Active Reading! 1. Preview/Skim (5 minutes) Read the table of contents to find out how information is organized. Read/think about the chapter title ­ how can it guide you to look for information while you read? Flip to the summary at the end of chapter

Kasman, Alex

93

Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To clarify the role of decoding in reading and reading disability, a model of reading is proposed, which holds that reading equals the product of decoding and comprehension. Three types of reading disability are posited, resulting from an inability to decode (dyslexia), an inability to comprehend (hyperlexia), or both (reading disability).…

Gough, Philip B.; Tunmer, William E.

1986-01-01

94

Reading Practices in Singapore Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted a pilot questionnaire study on Singaporean family reading practices. Found that in the majority of homes, the mother initiated reading of mostly fictional material borrowed from public libraries. Reading aloud to children occurred in about one-third of homes, with direct reading instruction occurring in over two-thirds of families. Found…

Mee, Cheah Yin; Gan, Linda

1998-01-01

95

Direct Measurement of Cloud Condensation Nuclei Chemistry using a New Microfluidic Instrument During the CalWater 2011 Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CalWater 2011 campaign took place in the California Sierra Nevada with the objective of determining the effects atmospheric rivers and aerosols have on California precipitation. To meet this goal, the role of chemistry on atmospheric aerosols' ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) needed to be evaluated because not all aerosols are CCN active. To date, direct measurement of ambient CCN chemistry has been difficult or unobtainable because of the difficulty in obtaining a well-defined CCN population, small aerosol masses, and low measurement flow rates. To address this need, a miniature CCN collector was employed that directly deposits CCN-active aerosol into an aqueous sample solution in a microfluidic device. Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) then performs chemical analysis on the soluble CCN components, and concentrations of water-soluble inorganic anions were obtained. Additional instruments were run alongside the CCN-MCE system to obtain a more complete characterization of the aerosol, including MCE coupled to a collector for all water condensation nuclei (WCN), two aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometers (ATOFMS), optical CCN counters, condensation particle counters, and aerosol sizing instrumentation. The work discussed here will describe the operation of the CCN-MCE instrument and show the preliminary results obtained for CCN chemistry measurements at the Sugar Pine Reservoir during CalWater 2011. The prototype CCN-MCE analyzer permits online monitoring at a single, constant supersaturation. The outlet stream of the CCN system inertially impacts wetted CCN particles into a buffer-filled sample reservoir for immediate electrophoretic analysis, requiring <1 min per run. The integrated CCN-MCE system collects aerosols at ~0.05 lpm and deposits them into ~20 ?L of solution, providing detection limits of ~0.1 ?g per cubic meter with 10 min of sampling. Because of the low (mostly rural) aerosol concentrations monitored at the Sugar Pine Reservoir, a poorer time resolution of ~1 hr was used to improve detection limits and precision. Results showed that large concentrations of nitrate aerosol were transported into the Sierra from the California Central Valley in front of approaching storm fronts. This nitrate corresponded to increases in CCN counts at low supersaturation values, and measurements with the CCN-MCE (~0.13% supersaturation) showed that nitrate particles may act as giant CCN. Sulfate was also observed in the CCN chemistry but showed concentrations that were sometimes lower than those observed in the total aerosol analysis, indicating that ambient sulfate's CCN activity depended on particle size and/or mixing state. Comparisons between the CCN-MCE, WCN-MCE, ATOFMS, and size distribution data will be made to help elucidate which factors are important in determining precipitation in the California Sierra Nevada.

Noblitt, S. D.; Roberts, G. C.; Corrigan, C.; Creamean, J.; Collins, D. B.; Cahill, J. F.; Prather, K. A.; Collett, J. L.; Henry, C.

2011-12-01

96

Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct imaging instruments with a Zernike phase mask sensor  

E-print Network

Context. Several exoplanet direct imaging instruments will soon be in operation. They use an extreme adaptive optics (XAO) system to correct the atmospheric turbulence and provide a highly-corrected beam to a near-infrared (IR) coronagraph for starlight suppression. The performance of the coronagraph is however limited by the non-common path aberrations (NCPA) due to the differential wavefront errors existing between the visible XAO sensing path and the near-IR science path, leading to residual speckles in the coronagraphic image. Aims. Several approaches have been developed in the past few years to accurately calibrate the NCPA, correct the quasi-static speckles and allow the observation of exoplanets at least 1e6 fainter than their host star. We here propose an approach based on the Zernike phase-contrast method for the measurements of the NCPA between the optical path seen by the visible XAO wavefront sensor and that seen by the near-IR coronagraph. Methods. This approach uses a focal plane phase mask of s...

N'Diaye, M; Fusco, T; Paul, B

2013-01-01

97

Exploration of the Consortium on Reading Excellence Phonics Survey: An Instrument for Assessing Primary-Grade Students' Phonics Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Consortium on Reading Excellence-Phonics Survey (CORE-PS), an informal, inexpensive, and widely disseminated assessment tool that is used to determine primary-grade students' knowledge of and abilities to apply key alphabetic and phonics understandings to decode a mix of real and pseudo-words. Evidence is reported of…

Reutzel, D. Ray; Brandt, Lorilynn; Fawson, Parker C.; Jones, Cindy D.

2014-01-01

98

LD-PCR coupled to long-read direct sequencing: an approach for mutation detection in genes with compact genomic structures.  

PubMed

A number of techniques have been developed as primary screens to scan for DNA sequence variants, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis. Variant alleles detected by these assays are subsequently characterised by DNA sequencing. Sequencing itself is rarely used as a primary screen because of labour intensity, cost, and, upon automation, occasional inaccuracy in identifying heterozygous sites. We have previously developed an approach based on coupling long-distance PCR (LD-PCR) to long-read direct sequencing to allow the detection of mutations in the approximately 1.1 kb exon 3 of MECP2. Our use of dye-labelled primers generated high-quality bi-directional sequence runs > 650 bp and allowed easy discrimination of heterozygous bases. We now describe the application of this approach to the detection of mutations in a considerably larger 6.35 kb LD-PCR fragment spanning 10 exons (exons 32-41) of the structurally complex, but genomically compact, TSC2 gene. In a blind analysis, 15/15 previously characterised mutations were successfully identified using seven overlapping bi-directional sequencing reactions. Our approach of long-read sequencing of long-distance PCR products may allow rapid sequencing of multiple exons of compact genes and may be appropriate as a highly sensitive primary screen for mutations. PMID:11179769

Fleming, N; Maynard, J; Tzitzis, L; Sampson, J R; Cheadle, J P

2001-01-30

99

Observation of gravity waves by limb-viewing satellite instruments: Impact of the measuring direction on the observational-filter effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limb-viewing satellite instruments are often used to observe atmospheric gravity waves (GW) on global scales. Derived parameters (amplitudes, wavelengths…) give information about GW activity, for example, as input for models. However, small-scale processes like GWs cannot be completely resolved by remote sensing instruments because they integrate over relatively large air volumes along their ray-of-sight, known as the observational-filter effect. Radiosonde measurements are used as reference to temperature profiles of the satellite-based instrument TIMED/SABER in order to compare signatures of present GWs in both data sets. Results show that among known aspects (e.g. the wavelengths) the measuring direction of the satellite with regard to the direction of wave propagation influences the intensity of the observational-filter effect. If GWs have a prevailing orientation in particular regions, e.g. orographic induced GWs, this leads to systematic errors in observed GW activity derived by satellite instruments. Since the wave orientation cannot be determined solely by the temperature profiles of an instrument, it is not possible to specify a general correction function for this effect. This implies a need for the development of improved techniques concerning the measuring geometry of satellite instruments.

Wendt, Verena; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

2013-04-01

100

Reading Recovery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

1992-01-01

101

Prose reading in neglect.  

PubMed

Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers. PMID:24321197

Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

2014-02-01

102

A direct correlation among indoor Rn, soil gas Rn and geology in the Reading Prong near Boyertown, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We feel that this study suggests a relationship among geology, soil gas Rn and the potential for indoor Rn accumulation in this portion of the Reading Prong. There are deviations from a perfect correlation but these are related to inhomogeneities in the geologic environment and perhaps variations in construction techniques of homes in the area. This study also demonstrates that several analyses in a small area may be necessary to adequately determine the Rn distribution for a particular geologic unit. That scale would be determined by the complexity of the local geology. Where no discrete source of elevated Rn supply is found for dwellings having a significant Rn accumulation, the implication is that overall gross permeability may be sufficient to supply Rn from a larger volume of soil and rock.

Reimer, G.M.; Gundersen, L.C.S.

1989-01-01

103

Can Art Develop Reading Ability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that, while art activities can be defended as a way of adding variety or diversion in the teaching of reading, the proposition that they have a direct and positive influence on children's learning to read cannot be supported. (GT)

Groff, Patrick

1977-01-01

104

Read More... Read More...  

E-print Network

S5Gear : , $3000 Galaxy S5Gear : , $3000 Samsung... : iPhone 6 / iPhone : iPhone 6 / iPhone i Director" ... Apple iPhone Samsung Galaxy S5 2013 Apple HKTV UTV HKTV/02/2014 Read More... Written on 22/03/2014 BlackBerry ... Samsung Galaxy Camera 2 NT$14,900 Samsung 21

Chiao, Jung-Chih

105

The Relationship between Musical Instrumental Performance Skills and Postsecondary Musical Independence (How Important Are Scales, Etudes, Solos, Sight-Reading, Improvisation, Etc.?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationships among a variety of secondary/postsecondary experiences and activities and postsecondary students' musical independence (MI). The paper reports on the impact Instrumental Performance Skills (IPSs) have on the students" MI development during private lessons, band rehearsal, and individual practicing. The study…

Bobbett, Gordon C.; And Others

106

Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Several exoplanet direct-imaging instruments (VLT-SPHERE, Gemini Planet Imager, etc.) will soon be in operation, providing original data for comparative exoplanetary science to the community. To this end, exoplanet imagers use an extreme adaptive optics (XAO) system to correct the atmospheric turbulence and provide a highly corrected beam to a near-infrared (NIR) coronagraph for suppressing diffracted stellar light. The performance of the coronagraph is, however, limited by the non-common path aberrations (NCPA) due to the differential wavefront errors existing between the visible XAO sensing path and the NIR science path and leading to residual speckles that hide the faintest exoplanets in the coronagraphic image. Aims: Accurate calibration of the NCPA in exoplanet imagers is mandatory to correct the residual, quasi-static speckles remaining in the coronagraphic images after XAO correction in order to allow the observation of exoplanets that are at least 106 fainter than their host star. Several approaches have been developed during these past few years to reach this goal. We propose an approach based on the Zernike phase-contrast method operating in the same wavelength as the coronagraph for the measurements of the NCPA between the optical path seen by the visible XAO wavefront sensor and that seen by the NIR coronagraph. Methods: This approach uses a focal plane phase mask of size ~?/D, where ? and D denote the wavelength and the telescope aperture diameter, respectively, to measure the quasi-static aberrations in the upstream pupil plane by encoding them into intensity variations in the downstream pupil image. The principle of this approach as described in several classical optical textbooks is simplified by the omission of the spatial variability of the amplitude diffracted by the phase mask. We develop a more rigorous formalism, leading to highly accurate measurement of the NCPA, in a quasi-linear way during the observation. Results: With prospects of achieving subnanometric measurement accuracy with this approach for a static phase map of standard deviation 44 nm rms at ? = 1.625 ?m (0.026 ?), we estimate a possible reduction of the NCPA due to chromatic differential optics by a factor ranging from 3 to 10 in the presence of adaptive optics (AO) residuals compared with the expected performance of a typical current-generation system. This would allow a reduction of the level of quasi-static speckles in the detected images by a factor 10 to 100, thus correspondingly improving the capacity to observe exoplanets.

N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.; Fusco, T.; Paul, B.

2013-07-01

107

CREATIVE READING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CREATIVE READING IS DEFINED AS READING FOR IMPLIED AND INFERRED MEANINGS, APPRECIATIVE REACTIONS, AND CRITICAL EVALUATION. THE ACT OF CRITICAL READING GOES BEYOND LITERAL COMPREHENSION TO DEMAND THAT THE READER PRODUCE FRESH, ORIGINAL IDEAS NOT EXPLICITLY STATED IN THE READING MATERIAL. THE READER BECOMES AN ACTIVE PARTICIPANT AND ADDS TO WHAT THE…

ADAMS, PHYLLISS J.

108

Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.  

PubMed

Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

2014-12-01

109

Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits ...

Christodoulou, Joanna

110

An instrumental cigarette smoke monitor designed for the direct measurement of smoke particulate matter generated in human smoking studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumental cigarette smoke monitor (CSM) system designed for human smoking studies has been developed and validated using\\u000a a smoking machine as a human surrogate. The cigarette holder contains both smoke-mixing and flow-measurement orifices and\\u000a a smoke-concentration sensor. Smoke flow through the holder and smoke concentration in the holder are determined simultaneously.\\u000a The two signals are multiplied electronically and the

Roger A. Jenkins; Thomas M. Gayle

1984-01-01

111

Reconstructing mitochondrial genomes directly from genomic next-generation sequencing reads--a baiting and iterative mapping approach.  

PubMed

We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of non-model organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data-mitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are available as starting-reference sequences or seeds, respectively. We demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in case studies using real NGS data sets of the two monogenean ectoparasites species Gyrodactylus thymalli and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides including their respective teleost hosts European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). MITObim appeared superior to existing tools in terms of accuracy, runtime and memory requirements and fully automatically recovered mitochondrial genomes exceeding 99.5% accuracy from total genomic DNA derived NGS data sets in <24 h using a standard desktop computer. The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR. We furthermore demonstrate the applicability of MITObim for metagenomic/pooled data sets using simulated data. MITObim is an easy to use tool even for biologists with modest bioinformatics experience. The software is made available as open source pipeline under the MIT license at https://github.com/chrishah/MITObim. PMID:23661685

Hahn, Christoph; Bachmann, Lutz; Chevreux, Bastien

2013-07-01

112

Multicultural Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

Veltze, Linda

2004-01-01

113

Aeronautic Instruments. Section IV : Direction Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part one points out the adequacy of a consideration of the steady state gyroscopic motion as a basis for the discussion of displacements of the gyroscope mounted on an airplane, and develops a simple theory on this basis. Principal types of gyroscopic inclinometers are described and requirements stated. Part two describes a new type of stabilizing gyro mounted on top of a spindle by means of a universal joint, the spindle being kept in a vertical position by supporting it as a pendulum of which the bob is the driving motor. Methods of tests and the difficulties in designing a satisfactory and reliable compass for aircraft use in considered in part three. Part four contains a brief general treatment of the important features of construction of aircraft compasses and description of the principal types used.

Franklin, W S; Stillman, M H; Sanford, R L; Warner, John A C; Sylvander, R C; Rounds, E W

1923-01-01

114

Instrumented SSH  

SciTech Connect

NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

2009-05-27

115

Mappability and read length  

PubMed Central

Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 ? 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability.

Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

2014-01-01

116

Always read and follow label directions before buying or using a pesticide. Follow all appropriate federal, state, tribal, and local regulations concerning the use of pesticides and personal protective equipment.  

E-print Network

Always read and follow label directions before buying or using a pesticide. Follow all appropriate federal, state, tribal, and local regulations concerning the use of pesticides and personal protective equipment. Some Things to Know About Personal Protective Equipment BEFORE You Handle a Pesticide Dress

117

Nonword Response Form circle one: reading writing  

E-print Network

Nonword Response Form circle one: reading writing Directions: Writing: I'm going to say a made-up word. Repeat it, then write it. Reading: Provide typed list to read from. Item # Nonword *Repeat (waip, wayp) 19 trad (tradd) 20 squate (skwate, skwait) Repetition Score: /20 Reading/Writing Score /20

118

Reading Mastery. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Reading Mastery" is designed to provide explicit reading instruction to students in grades pre-K-5. One of several Direct Instruction curricula from McGraw-Hill, "Reading Mastery" is available in two versions: (1) "Reading Mastery Classic" (for grades pre-K-2) aims to help beginning readers identify letter sounds, segment words into sounds, blend…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

119

Exemplary Practices in Junior College Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This topical paper is fourth in a series prepared for reading specialists. Others in the series include: Number 18, Directions for Research and Innovation in Junior College Reading Programs; Number 20, Skill Development in Junior College Reading Programs; Number 21, Community College Reading Center Facilities; and Number 24, Training Faculty for…

Darnes, G. Robert; And Others

120

Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for NMR/MRI instruments at low-field.  

PubMed

A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to "enjoy" from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed. PMID:24287540

Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

121

Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for NMR/MRI Instruments at Low-Field  

PubMed Central

A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to “enjoy” from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed. PMID:24287540

Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

122

Required Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

Janko, Edmund

2002-01-01

123

Slow Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early elementary years, teachers generally pay attention to the act of reading--to the appropriate skill level and pace. But as students move on in the educational system and get to an age when teachers expect them to read on their own, the author suspects teachers pay less and less attention to this problem of pace. When they push students…

Newkirk, Thomas

2011-01-01

124

Music: Instrumental Techniques, Strings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course in music which emphasizes harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing orchestral string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody…

Ryan, Philip

125

READING HABITS OF ELDERLY ADULTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elderly adults, 18 male and 31 female, with a mean age of 67 years, participated in a study of their reading habits. Subjects responded to the Survey of Elderly Reading Attitudes instrument. Findings indicated that similarities and differences did occur among the reading habits of elderly adults. For example, most subjects felt that they had time to read; significantly more

Alice M. Scales; Shirley A. Biggs

1987-01-01

126

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

2002-01-01

127

A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System  

PubMed Central

This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

2013-01-01

128

Geometric-Optical Modeling of Directional Thermal Radiance for Improvement of Land Surface Temperature Retrievals from MODIS, ASTER, and Landsat-7 Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objectives of this project were to improve understanding of the directional emittance properties of land surfaces in the thermal infrared (TIR) region of the electro-magnetic spectrum. To accomplish these objectives our research emphasized a combination of theoretical model development and empirical studies designed to improve land surface temperature (LST) retrievals from space-borne remote sensing instruments. Following the proposal, the main tasks for this project were to: (1) Participate in field campaigns; (2) Acquire and process field, aircraft, and ancillary data; (3) Develop and refine models of LST emission; (4) Develop algorithms for LST retrieval; and (5) Explore LST retrieval methods for use in energy balance models. In general all of these objectives were addressed, and for the most part achieved. The main results from this project are described in the publications arising from this effort. We summarize our efforts related to each of the objectives.

Li, Xiaowen; Friedl, Mark; Strahler, Alan

2002-01-01

129

Using a Repeated Reading Program to Improve Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three second-grade students at-risk for reading failure participated in an adult-directed repeated reading program that integrated isolated word reading practice, unison reading, error correction, and performance cueing and feedback procedures. During each intervention session, the participants practiced five difficult words key to a first-grade…

Lo, Ya-yu; Cooke, Nancy L.; Starling, A. Leyf Peirce

2011-01-01

130

Reading Recovery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of Reading Recovery, a preventative one-on-one tutoring program that targets first-grade students whose reading skills place them in the lowest 10-20% at their school. First implemented in the United States in 1986, by 1995-96, the program was being used by over 9,000 schools in 2,940 districts. Key components of…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

131

Development of Language and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United Kingdom at present, there is a rift between leading authorities who stress the use of oral language in helping children learn to read and those who focus directly on the teaching of reading and writing. This paper identifies five phases in educational development from 1870 to the present; for each phase, indication is given of the…

Morris, Joyce M.

132

The Development of Gender Achievement Gaps in Mathematics and Reading during Elementary and Middle School: Examining Direct Cognitive Assessments and Teacher Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using K-8 national longitudinal data, the authors investigate males' and females' achievement in math and reading, including when gender gaps first appear, whether the appearance of gaps depends on the metric used, and where on the achievement distribution gaps are most prevalent. Additionally, teachers' assessments of males and females are…

Robinson, Joseph Paul; Lubienski, Sarah Theule

2011-01-01

133

Improving Reading and Language Arts Skills of At-Risk First Graders through Direct Instruction of Print Awareness, Phoneme Awareness, and Phonological Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program to improve reading and language arts skills. The targeted population consisted of students in 2 first grade classrooms (average class size 25) from a midwestern elementary school in a predominantly white, middle to upper-middle class neighborhood. Data documenting the problem was obtained from the previous year's…

Bump, Sandra K.; Swedberg, Trina L.; Yates, Carol R.

134

The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandesburgi 1598, Nuremberg 1602). One of Tycho's instruments in original size was reconstructed in Oldenburg University and in the Steno Museum in Aarhus, Denmark. In Munich, in the Deutsches Museum's permanent astronomy exhibition (opened in 1992), the Uraniborg observatory and its instruments are shown at a scale of 1:10. A similar but larger model (scale 1:5) from the workshop of the Deutsches Museum was given to the Technical Museum in Malmø, Sweden. Tycho's later observatory Stjerneborg can be seen as a reconstruction on the island Hven (Ven/Sweden) with the original foundations for the instruments.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

135

How Do I Read a Seismogram?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces novice users to reading the lines on a seismograph. Topics include how to distinguish a real earthquake from background vibrations (microseisms) recorded by the instrument, how to read the minute marks that record the passage of time, and how to distinguish the types of earthquake waves that appear on the chart.

136

Reading performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television's potential effect on children's reading performance has become an issue of concern among educators. The estimate that by the end of the high school years, children will have spent more time watching television than attending school is frequently quoted and has both alarmed and intrigued researchers. Such a ubiquitous phenomenon as television is presumed to have effects on the

Susan B. Neuman

1984-01-01

137

The Changing Role of the Reading Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of special reading teachers is currently in flux, as local education agencies expect them to work increasingly with other teachers and parents and consequently provide less direct instruction for students. Historically, reading specialists taught disabled readers since it was hypothesized that their special training in reading diagnosis…

Tutolo, Daniel

138

Reading Research 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reviews reading research that was reported in Great Britain during 1973. The introductory pages highlight research in reading standards and tests, dyslexia and specific reading difficulties, remedial reading instruction, reading and its relation to language, reading materials, and reading interests. Annotated bibliographies list…

Goodacre, Elizabeth J.

139

Aeronautic instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of aeronautic instruments. Vibrations, rapid changes of the conditions of flight and of atmospheric conditions, influence of the air stream all call for particular design and construction of the individual instruments. This is shown by certain examples of individual instruments and of various classes of instruments for measuring pressure, change of altitude, temperature, velocity, inclination and turning or combinations of these.

Everling, E; Koppe, H

1924-01-01

140

Finger Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (10th activity on the page) about the sense of touch, learners make Braille letters out of cork or cardboard and map pins. Learners test to see if they can identify the letters of the alphabet by feeling the blunt ends of the pins with just their fingertips. Use this activity to teach learners how blind people use their sense of touch to read.

Chudler, Eric H.

2009-01-01

141

Summer Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summer is a great time to kick back with a good book. Try The Bailey School Kids Series... it\\'s Great! Bailey School Kids Jan Brett is my favorite artist. It takes longer to look at the pictures than it does to read the book. But it\\'s worth it. Jan Brett I love Bunnicula, almost as much as I love Harold. Find out ...

Roner, Mrs.

2005-03-31

142

Effects of Corrective Reading on the Reading Abilities and Classroom Behaviors of Middle School Students with Reading Deficits and Challenging Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple probe design was employed for this study to assess the effectiveness of the "Corrective Reading" program (Engelmann et al., 1999) on students' reading fluency and behavior during reading-related instruction. Direct observations assessed the effect on students' behavior in both general and special education classrooms. Reading fluency…

Lingo, Amy S.; Slaton, Deborah Bott; Jolivette, Kristine

2006-01-01

143

ANALYTIC AND PRAGMATIC FACTORS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS' METACOGNITIVE READING STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the development and validation of a self-report instrument that is designed to measure college students' use of reading strategies for comprehension and for studying while reading school-related materials. Principal components analysis (PCA) of an initial sample (n = 575) of college students showed that the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Questionnaire (MRSQ) measured two constructs: analytic cognitions aimed

ROMAN TARABAN; MARCEL KERR; KIMBERLY RYNEARSON

2004-01-01

144

School Personnel Perceptions of the Elementary Reading Specialist's Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify and compare concepts of the ideal role and functions with the actual role and functions of the reading specialist. The public elementary reading specialists, classroom teachers, principals, and reading supervisors of Franklin County, Ohio, served as subjects. A Q-sort instrument was used for gathering the…

Ivers, Merle Hairston

145

Reading Habits of Elderly Adults: Implications for Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elderly adults responded to the Survey of Elderly Reading Attitudes instrument. Most felt they had time to read, more married than single subjects reported buying magazines and daily newspapers, and more females than males reported reading advertisements without difficulty. (Author/KS)

Scales, Alice M.; Biggs, Shirley A.

1987-01-01

146

Assessing Adult/Child Storybook Reading Practices. CIERA Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the existing research on joint storybook reading practices, outlining the behaviors essential for success. It then describes and reports on the efficacy of an assessment instrument, the Adult/Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI). The ACIRI is an observational tool for assessing the joint reading behaviors of both adults…

DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea

147

Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

1923-01-01

148

Redesigning Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All students, including struggling readers, need opportunities to make choices in their reading. Schools should shun round-robin oral reading and basal readers, prioritize reading time, allocate resources for varied reading materials keyed to student interests, and develop better reading teachers, not better reading programs. (Contains 20…

Ivey, Gay

2000-01-01

149

Elementary Reading Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reading guide is intended to assist elementary teachers in planning, implementing, and evaluating reading programs in order to improve reading instruction. The introduction discusses such topics as the status of reading in society and school, the purpose of reading instruction, and goals of reading instruction. "Organizing for Instruction"…

Greenville County School District, Greenville, SC.

150

Reading Mastery/SRA/McGraw-Hill. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Reading Mastery" is a direct instruction program designed to provide explicit, systematic instruction in English language reading. Reading Mastery is available in two versions, "Reading Mastery Classic" levels I and II (for use in grades K-3) and "Reading Mastery Plus," an integrated reading-language program for grades K-6. The program begins by…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

151

Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

2003-01-01

152

Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument  

SciTech Connect

An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) ({sigma} < 5%); (3) Determination of burn up (BU) ({sigma} {approx} 6%); (4) Determination of cooling time (CT) ({sigma} {approx} 20-50%); and (5) DDA instrument as a standalone device. DDA response (fresh fuel vs. spent fuel) is: (1) Fresh fuel => DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13

153

Exertion instruments  

E-print Network

This dissertation describes the research, development and reasoning behind a family of musical instruments called Exertion Instruments. They use inline electrical generators to run a synthesizer and an amplifier while ...

Vawter, Noah (Noah Theodore)

2011-01-01

154

Icing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The types and usage categories of icing instrumentation are discussed. The state-of-the-art for the technology governing the use of icing instrumentation is reported with particular emphasis on ground based facilities for icing tests.

Olsen, W.

1980-01-01

155

Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

Matz, Karl A.

156

Matching Reading Styles and Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that reading instruction designed to incorporate students' preferred reading styles resulted in greater achievement gain when compared to controls was tested with 198 third and sixth graders. Results support the hypothesis that incorporating reading styles in reading instruction result in greater achievement gain. (SLD)

Oglesby, Frankie; Suter, W. Newton

1995-01-01

157

Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading

Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

2012-01-01

158

Reading Rates Attained by First-Year LISTEN LOOK LEARN Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading rates achieved by first graders taught reading by the Listen Look Learn (LLL) materials and procedures were compared to available norms of children who have had no instrument use as a part of their reading instruction. In the LLL program the Aud-X, Tach-X, and Controlled Reader Instruments were used to increase sight vocabulary,…

Brickner, Ann; Senter, Donald R.

159

Reading Consultant's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains brief essays concerning aspects of reading and reading skills, activities designed to promote those skills, and biographies of reading specialists. The first section of the handbook discusses reading readiness, word recognition, word analysis, word meaning, comprehension, and content area reading. After discussion of each…

Bourgeois, Penny, Comp.; And Others

160

A Study of the Relationship between the Theoretical and Empirical Research of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and the Specific Comprehension Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoreticians and empiricists have stressed the importance of organization in the learning process and, therefore, the importance of instructional strategies that help develop a child's ability to organize information. Theoreticians have also stressed the importance of the student's active participation in the learning process. The Directed

Lederer, Debra Yuhas

161

Using School Reform Models to Improve Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction and Success for All in an Urban District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the effectiveness in an urban school district of 2 of the most widely used Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs-Direct Instruction (DI), implemented in 9 district elementary schools, and Success for All (SFA), implemented in 2 elementary schools. In examining impacts on student achievement and school change outcomes…

Ross, Steven M.; Nunnery, John A.; Goldfeder, Elizabeth; McDonald, Aaron; Rachor, Robert; Hornbeck, Matthew; Fleischman, Steve

2004-01-01

162

Teaching Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Strategic Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as an approach to enhancing the reading-comprehension skills of students with learning disabilities. Procedures for implementing CSR with collaborative groups and techniques for teaching reading-comprehension skills are provided. The role of the teacher is described and sample teaching…

Vaughn, Sharon; Klingner, Janette Kettman

1999-01-01

163

Choosing to Read: Overcoming Reading Apathy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an intervention developed to help overcome reading apathy and motivate high school students to read. The intervention involved teaching students how to select books to read by practicing the creation of book previews in the computer lab. Evaluation of student surveys, book selections, and book reports indicated that learning to preview…

Wright, Donna J.

1998-01-01

164

survey and certification of ships. Together the Convention and Protocol are to be read as one instrument and is usually referred to as MARPOL 73/78. MARPOL prevents pollution by  

E-print Network

packaged materials, sewage, garbage, and air pollution and are optional. Under the Convention, "special instrument and is usually referred to as MARPOL 73/78. MARPOL prevents pollution by governing the design of pollution from ships, except the disposal of waste into the sea by dumping; it applies to all ships of all

165

"Why are Your Kids Writing during Reading Time?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hypothetical situation of an elementary school principal's concern at students writing during reading time, and offers a possible teacher's response with information about the direct tie between writing and reading improvement. (JC)

Harp, Bill

1987-01-01

166

Reading Instruction for Struggling Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey conducted among approximately 1,400 students at 63 primary schools showed that learning gains for initial reading varied significantly for students in the last 6 months of Year 3. Learning gains turned out to be much higher in classes where students had received explicit or direct instruction, where instruction had been organized…

Houtveen, Thoni; van de Grift, Wim

2007-01-01

167

Raising the Bar in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to present strategies and discussion about how teachers can adapt the curriculum in order to provide authentic needs-based programmes. Identifying students' strengths and needs gave us clear directions as to what we needed to teach. In this article, the research team discuss how they successfully raised the reading achievement of…

Naidoo, Taryn; Naicker, Roshilla

2006-01-01

168

Oral Language and Reading: Reply to Bracken  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early language competence in preschool relates both directly and indirectly to elementary school reading in both 1st and 3rd grades. Further, comprehensive language skills are more strongly related to early reading than are vocabulary scores alone. In response to a challenge by S. A. Bracken (2005), the current article reaffirms the National…

Developmental Psychology, 2005

2005-01-01

169

Factoring AAVE into Reading Assessment and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our increasingly diverse schools, students bring diverse ways of speaking to the classroom. In turn, as features from students' home language varieties transfer into their readings of texts, teachers' assessment and intervention plans may be directly affected. If teachers conflate dialect influence with reading error in Standard English, they…

Wheeler, Rebecca; Cartwright, Kelly B.; Swords, Rachel

2012-01-01

170

Instrumentation '79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

1979-01-01

171

Oceanographic Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

1994-01-01

172

EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF VARIABILITY IN READING RATE IN GRADES FOUR, FIVE AND SIX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

METHODS OF TESTING, EVALUATING, AND TEACHING READING IN THE FOURTH, FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES ARE DESCRIBED. CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF VARIABILITY IN READING SPEED ARE DISCUSSED. DESIGN WAS BASED ON THE RATIONALE THAT A MEANINGFUL READING-TIME SCORE DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE SUBJECT'S PURPOSE FOR READING. WHILE READING SPEED MAY…

HARRIS, THEODORE L.; AND OTHERS

173

Big Read, Big ROI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

Dempsey, Beth

2008-01-01

174

Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A. Crowe); (3) "Reading

Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

175

Motivated: They Will Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion presents ways in which disadvantaged secondary students in an inner-city school may be motivated to read. Some ways are (1) giving training in the teachings of reading to secondary teachers, (2) making the disadvantaged students aware that reading is a lifetime learning process and that all hope is not lost if basic reading skills…

Alsobrooks, Jennye B.

176

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

177

Influence of reading habits on line bisection.  

PubMed

The effect of scanning direction on perception of space is studied with a visuo-motor bisection task, among 120 normal dextrals with opposite reading habits (60 French subjects, 60 Israeli subjects). Bisection is found to depend upon subject's reading habits. Israeli bisected the line to the right of the objective centre, while French subjects placed their subjective middle to the left of the objective one. Results are discussed with respect to hemispheric activation theories, directional hypotheses and the neglect syndrome. PMID:8003920

Chokron, S; Imbert, M

1993-12-01

178

Research Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

1992-01-01

179

NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Reading Disorders,  

E-print Network

NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Reading Disorders, and Reading Instruction IN READING DEVELOPMENT, READING DISORDERS, AND READING INSTRUCTION INITIATED: 1965 G. Reid Lyon, PhD National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Reading achievement in the United States

Rau, Don C.

180

Musical Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of new instruments and controllers for performing live computer music is an exciting field of research that can lead to truly new music- making paradigms. The ever-increasing availability of sensing technologies that enable virtually any kind of physical gesture to be detected and tracked has indeed sprouted a wealth of experimental in- struments and controllers with which to

Sergi Jorda

181

Simple Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work with partners to create four different instruments to investigate the frequency of the sounds they make. Teams may choose to make a shoebox guitar, water-glass xylophone, straw panpipe or a soda bottle organ (or all four!). Conduct this activity in conjunction with Lesson 3 of the Sound and Light unit.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

182

Adjustable Support For Instrument Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong, lightweight structure designed to support instrument package. Provides choice of attachment locations to accommodate variety of sizes and shapes. Composed of seven webbed metal parts. Honeycomb panels cover vertical sides of structure. Instrumentation package, such as telescope or infrared sensor, bolted to top of structure. Accompanying electronics boxes mounted on inside surfaces of panels. Weight of instrumentation carried in direct paths through webbed members to base plate. Structure used for submillimeter-wave astronomy satellite.

Sneiderman, Gary

1991-01-01

183

The Dynamics of Language Learning: Research in Reading and English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on future directions for English and reading research, the papers presented in this book examine the complex interplay of skills, processes, and classroom conditions that influence the development of children's competence in reading, writing, and the language arts. The titles and authors of the essays are as follows: (1) "Reading and…

Squire, James R., Ed.

184

University Students' Reading of Their First-Year Mathematics Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the observed behaviors and difficulties that 11 precalculus and calculus students exhibited in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. To gauge the "effectiveness" of these students' reading, we asked them to attempt straightforward mathematical tasks, based directly on what they had just read. The students had…

Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

2012-01-01

185

Beginning Readers' Reading Performance and Reading Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prospective relationships between reading performance and reading habits among Finnish children during the first and second grades of primary school. One hundred and ninety-five children were examined twice during their first primary school year and once during the spring term of Grade 2. The results showed, first, that…

Leppanen, Ulla; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2005-01-01

186

Shared Reading Correlates of Early Reading Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that examined the relations between shared reading and the development of phonological sensitivity and oral language skills in very young children. Explains that preschool measures of shared reading were found to be correlated significantly with these developmental outcomes. Discusses results in the context of calls for improved…

Burgess, Stephen

2002-01-01

187

Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

188

Neurobiological Studies of Reading and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a neurobiological account of reading and reading disability suggesting that for normally developing readers, the dorsal (tempo-parietal) circuit predominates at first, and in conjunction with premotor systems, is associated with analytic processing necessary for learning to integrate orthographic with phonological and…

Pugh, Kenneth R.; Mencl, W. Einar; Jenner, Annette R.; Katz, Leonard; Frost, Stephen J.; Lee, Jun Ren; Shaywitz, Sally E.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.

2001-01-01

189

Laboratory Investigation of Direct Measurement of Ice Water Content, Ice Surface Area, and Effective Radius of Ice Crystals Using a Laser-Diffraction Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft microphysics probe, PVM-100A, was tested in the Colorado State University dynamic cloud chamber to establish its ability to measure ice water content (IWC), PSA, and Re in ice clouds. Its response was compared to other means of measuring those ice-cloud parameters that included using FSSP-100 and 230-X 1-D optical probes for ice-crystal concentrations, a film-loop microscope for ice-crystal habits and dimensions, and an in-situ microscope for determining ice-crystal orientation. Intercomparisons were made in ice clouds containing ice crystals ranging in size from about 10 microns to 150 microns diameter, and ice crystals with plate, columnar, dendritic, and spherical shapes. It was not possible to determine conclusively that the PVM accurately measures IWC, PSA, and Re of ice crystals, because heat from the PVM evaporated in part the crystals in its vicinity in the chamber thus affecting its measurements. Similarities in the operating principle of the FSSP and PVM, and a comparison between Re measured by both instruments, suggest, however, that the PVM can make those measurements. The resolution limit of the PVM for IWC measurements was found to be on the order of 0.001 g/cubic m. Algorithms for correcting IWC measured by FSSP and PVM were developed.

Gerber, H.; DeMott, P. J.; Rogers, D. C.

1995-01-01

190

I Can't Read (Directions)!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notation systems for the arts were developed to educate students in performing the art form. Soon notation systems were used in research and archiving performances and skills that could have been lost to the following generations. Virtual travel through the written notations brings experts to students rather than having students go to the…

Miller, Penelope

2012-01-01

191

Reading Room Research Room  

E-print Network

Reading Room Research Room 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 Tech Services Stairs Assistant Library DirectorSeminar Room John Grisham Law Library First Floor #12;(Reading Room - Glassed-in) Study Carrels Rare Books 2017

Tchumper, Gregory S.

192

Goodbye to Reading Glasses?  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Goodbye to Reading Glasses? Implantable eye device shows promise in preliminary ... News) -- A new implantable eye device might make reading glasses a thing of the past, researchers report. ...

193

14 CFR 25.1305 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...instruments are required: (1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the pilot. The indication must be based on the direct measurement of thrust or of parameters that are directly related to...

2012-01-01

194

14 CFR 25.1305 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instruments are required: (1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the pilot. The indication must be based on the direct measurement of thrust or of parameters that are directly related to...

2010-01-01

195

14 CFR 25.1305 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...instruments are required: (1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the pilot. The indication must be based on the direct measurement of thrust or of parameters that are directly related to...

2011-01-01

196

14 CFR 25.1305 - Powerplant instruments.  

...instruments are required: (1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the pilot. The indication must be based on the direct measurement of thrust or of parameters that are directly related to...

2014-01-01

197

14 CFR 25.1305 - Powerplant instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...instruments are required: (1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the pilot. The indication must be based on the direct measurement of thrust or of parameters that are directly related to...

2013-01-01

198

Role of reading engagement in mediating effects of reading comprehension instruction on reading outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' read- ing comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and moti- vational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for cognitive strategies in reading), and traditional instruction in fourth-grade classrooms differentially influenced students' reading comprehension,

Allan Wigfield; John T. Guthrie; Kathleen C. Perencevich; Ana Taboada; Susan Lutz Klauda; Angela McRae; Pedro Barbosa

2008-01-01

199

Oral Reading Fluency and Prediction of Reading Comprehension in African American and Caucasian Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the differential predictive bias of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading across African American and Caucasian students. Results of this study suggest that CBM continues to appear to be a sensitive form of direct reading assessment in the local curriculum for both African American and Caucasian elementary-age students. (Contains…

Hintze, John M.; Callahan, James E., III; Matthews, William J.; Williams, Stacy A.S.; Tobin, Kevin G.

2002-01-01

200

Assessing Reading. Using Cloze Procedure To Assess Reading Skills. [Packet] and Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…

Vaughan, Judy

201

Philosophies of Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are selected philosophies of reading instruction which are relevant in providing for individual differences among learners. These need to be studied in-depth by reading teachers in order to best provide for each pupil in the classroom. Pupils differ from each other in reading achievement, interests, and purposes, and it is a challenge to…

Ediger, Marlow

2013-01-01

202

SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS  

E-print Network

SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS Margaret J. Early Graduate Scholarship This scholarship in the Reading & Language Arts Department with preference given to a minority student, a student from a rural, rather than paying for my tuition. I'm so thankful for the helpful faculty and sta in Reading & Language

Mather, Patrick T.

203

Issues in Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presently, reading is much discussed by senators, representatives, and state legislatures--the debate is on the following issues in reading instruction: (1) having all students in public school achieve at grade level as a reading minimum; (2) accountability of teachers for student achievement; (3) teachers having high achievement expectations from…

Ediger, Marlow

204

The Teaching of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a sourcebook, this volume considers reading instruction as a complex, intellectual task rather than as just a matter of pronunciation of words. It is designed for both teachers and parents interested in developing the language and concepts of children. Contents include "Reading in Today's World" by Ralph C. Staiger, "Learning to Read"…

Staiger, Ralph C., Ed.

205

Reading and the Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For each student to achieve optimally, a quality reading program must provide for individual differences. To guide students to learn as much as possible individually, selected philosophies of reading instruction may be used. These include: (1) experimentalism with its stress placed upon students reading to solve problems; (2) measurably stated…

Ediger, Marlow

206

Goals of Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading teacher needs to choose students' reading goals carefully. This paper considers some of these possible goals, and states that, in the reading curriculum, the teacher needs to guide pupils to move upward on the cognitive level of objectives. The paper also states that pupils need to achieve well in the affective dimension of objectives,…

Ediger, Marlow

207

Literature without Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During one term at a laboratory school, reading was systematically deleted from activites in one secondary level class and replaced with film, lecture, oral reading, slides, and other audiovisual aids. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test served as pretest-posttest for the twelve-week experiment, with 19 of 25 students completing both tests. The results…

Knighten, Katherine W.

208

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

209

Reading Difficulties in Albanian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years…

Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

2012-01-01

210

Motivating Students To Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a research study in which motivational strategies were used to increase student enjoyment of reading and to foster a life-long love of reading. The targeted populations consisted of primary and middle grade students in three different urban midwestern settings. The problem of motivating students to read was documented through…

Green, Patricia; Kandyba, Christine; McDonald, Colleen; Stevens, Tricia

211

Reading in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties inherent in the reading of mathematics at secondary and college levels are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the reading of arithmetic numerals, literal numbers, operational symbols, and expressions of relationships, as well as the reading of technical vocabularies and specialized meanings of general words. While each…

Taschow, Horst G.

212

Carbo Reading Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the Carbo Reading Styles Program (RSP), a comprehensive reading program that applies learning styles concepts to reading. The program uses themes, activities, and literature to help improve student performance across all subject areas. Main components of RSP include: a variety of instructional strategies to…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

213

FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING STUDIES OF READING AND READING DISABILITY  

E-print Network

FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING STUDIES OF READING AND READING DISABILITY (DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA) Kenneth in develop- mental dyslexia. Reading disabled readers, relative to nonimpaired readers, demonstrate Reviews 2000;6:207­213. Key Words: dyslexia; neuroimaging; reading; lexical processing; phonol- ogy R

214

Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

2008-01-01

215

Amblyopic reading is crowded.  

PubMed

We measure acuity, crowding, and reading in amblyopic observers to answer four questions. (1) Is reading with the amblyopic eye impaired because of larger required letter size (i.e., worse acuity) or larger required spacing (i.e., worse crowding)? The size or spacing required to read at top speed is called "critical". For each eye of seven amblyopic observers and the preferred eyes of two normal observers, we measure reading rate as a function of the center-to-center spacing of the letters in central and peripheral vision. From these results, we estimate the critical spacing for reading. We also measured traditional acuity for an isolated letter and the critical spacing for identifying a letter among other letters, which is the classic measure of crowding. For both normals and amblyopes, in both central and peripheral vision, we find that the critical spacing for reading equals the critical spacing for crowding. The identical critical spacings, and very different critical sizes, show that crowding, not acuity, limits reading. (2) Does amblyopia affect peripheral reading? No. We find that amblyopes read normally with their amblyopic eye except that abnormal crowding in the fovea prevents them from reading fine print. (3) Is the normal periphery a good model for the amblyopic fovea? No. Reading centrally, the amblyopic eye has an abnormally large critical spacing but reads all larger spacings at normal rates. This is unlike the normal periphery, in which both critical spacing and maximum reading rate are severely impaired relative to the normal fovea. (4) Can the uncrowded-span theory of reading rate explain amblyopic reading? Yes. The case of amblyopia shows that crowding limits reading solely by determining the uncrowded span: the number of characters that are not crowded. Characters are uncrowded if and only if their spacing is more than critical. The text spacing may be uniform, but the observer's critical spacing increases with distance from fixation, so the uncrowded span extends out to where the spacing is critical. Amblyopes have normal critical spacing in the periphery, so, when the uncrowded span extends into the periphery, it has normal extent, which predicts our finding that reading rate is normal too. This confirms the theory that reading rate is determined by the width of the uncrowded span, independent of the critical spacing within the span. The uncrowded-span model of normal reading fits the amblyopic results well, with a roughly fivefold increase in the critical spacing at fixation. Thus, the entire amblyopic reading deficit is accounted for by crowding. PMID:18217836

Levi, Dennis M; Song, Shuang; Pelli, Denis G

2007-01-01

216

Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

Lyutaya, Tatiana

2011-01-01

217

Introducing a digital library reading appliance into a reading group  

E-print Network

Introducing a digital library reading appliance into a reading group Catherine C. Marshall, Morgan will we read digital library materials? This paper describes the reading practices of an on-going reading group, and how these practices changed when we introduced XLibris, a digital library reading appliance

Marshall, Cathy

218

Standardized Reading Tests and the Postsecondary Reading Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help college reading teachers develop an awareness of what standardized reading tests do and do not reveal about students' reading abilities, a study examined the testing of reading and criticized four major standardized tests. Results indicated that reading is tested through (1) reading passages accompanied by multiple choice questions, (2)…

Wood, Nancy V.

219

Read naturally”: A strategy to increase oral reading fluency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading fluency is a key skill of effective readers. The speed and effortlessness with which readers process text is highly correlated with comprehension. Optimal levels of oral reading fluency and typical rates of improvement in fluency have been determined. Research findings support instructional methods for increasing reading fluency: hearing fluent reading modeled, repeated readings, and progress monitoring. “Read Naturally” (RN)

Jan E. Hasbrouck; Candyce Ihnot; Ginger H. Rogers

1999-01-01

220

Test Reviews: Flynn, J. (2001). "The Predictive Reading Profile." East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Predictive Reading Profile (PRP) is an individual or group-administered instrument designed to examine precursors to reading difficulties by identifying children at risk for reading failure in later grades and special instructional needs for children in late kindergarten and first grade. The purpose of the PRP "is to develop a profile of a…

Fudge, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

221

Literature in the Reading Textbook: A Comparative Study from a Sociological Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument structured around Kenneth Burke's "dramatistic pentad" (agent-act-scene-agency-purpose) was used to analyze and compare children's stories in Indian and Canadian fourth, fifth, and sixth grade reading series. The selections included 77 stories from the Madhya Pradesh, India, reading series and 196 stories from two reading series used…

Kumar, Krishna

222

How to Read Drug Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version How to Read Drug ... read drug labels How to read a prescription drug label View a text version of this picture. ...

223

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

Hartley, D.S. III

1998-01-01

224

South Entrance North Reading Room  

E-print Network

South Entrance FLOOR 2 North Reading Room Heyns Reading Room Current Periodicals Rosberg Reading 251 M Dissertation Writers' Room Reference Desk 215 Current Periodicals FLOOR 2 North Reading Room Heyns Reading Room Current Periodicals Rosberg Reading Room Graduate Services 212 218 Reference Hall

Walker, Matthew P.

225

Reading Assignment 1 This assignment is about reading strategies. There are six steps. Read about the steps before reading the  

E-print Network

Reading Assignment 1 This assignment is about reading strategies. There are six steps. Read about the steps before reading the paper: 1. Select for how long you will read this paper: five, ten, twenty, or thirty minutes. (Any choice is valid, but stick to your choice.) 2. Read the paper during the selected

Hart, Gus

226

Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

2012-01-01

227

10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...readings up to 10 mSv (1000 mrem) per hour with a radiation source; (2) Calibrate two separated readings on each scale or decade that will be used to show compliance; and (3) Conspicuously note on the instrument the date of calibration....

2010-01-01

228

The Construction of Meaning from Text: Possible Effects of Different Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the effect of differences in reading strategies on the construction of meaning from novel length text. Discusses relevant psychological theory. Hypothesizes effects of differing strategies in reading the book "Animal Farm." Concludes that teacher-directed reading provides a depth of meaning not found when students read without…

Rowell, Jack A.; And Others

1990-01-01

229

Surface irregularities detected by flare inspection instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable fiber optics sensing device which detects surface irregularities in a specific tube flare, permits discrete dimensional measurements to be taken, scanned and read out with only one setup. Capabilities of the instrument can be expanded to include surface inspection of various kinds of tube flares.

Zoike, H. M.

1969-01-01

230

Music: Beginning Strings, Instrumental Techniques--Strings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course in introduction to music emphasizing modes and forms is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on identification of elementary concepts of mode and form. Course objectives include: (1) The pupil will select the…

Biringer, Frank A., Jr.; Ronci, Sal

231

Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments that may ...

232

Reading for University Seven Principles of Reading & Learning  

E-print Network

: 1. When we are interested in what we are reading. 2. When we are actively engaged with what we engaged with the reading if your interest is high - Interest increases if you can identify personallyReading for University Workshop #12;2 Seven Principles of Reading & Learning We read and learn best

233

Binocular Coordination during Reading and Non-Reading Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature on binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks in adult, child, and dyslexic populations. The review begins with a description of the basic characteristics of eye movements during reading. Then, reading and non-reading studies investigating binocular coordination are evaluated.…

Kirkby, Julie A.; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Blythe, Hazel I.; Liversedge, Simon P.

2008-01-01

234

Relationships of Three Components of Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships of 3 levels of reading fluency--the individual word, the syntactic unit, and the whole passage--to reading comprehension among 278 5th graders heterogeneous in reading ability. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that reading fluency at each level related uniquely to performance on a standardized reading

Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.

2008-01-01

235

Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K–12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument. PMID:23125521

Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

2011-01-01

236

Optical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

1990-01-01

237

Heterosexual Instrumentalism: Past and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinct strands of feminist thought have emerged in the past 20 years in explaining the behaviors of rape, sexual harassment, incest, prostitution and the presentation of these found in pomography. One group of theorists construes these behaviors and pornography as violent and terroristic outcomes of male dominance, while a second group views them simply as forms of heterosexuality. Utilizing,

S. P. Schacht; Patricia H. Atchison

1993-01-01

238

Simulating a Direction-Finder Search for an ELT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program simulates the operation of direction-finding equipment engaged in a search for an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) aboard an aircraft that has crashed. The simulated equipment is patterned after the equipment used by the Civil Air Patrol to search for missing aircraft. The program is designed to be used for training in radio direction-finding and/or searching for missing aircraft without incurring the expense and risk of using real aircraft and ground search resources. The program places a hidden ELT on a map and enables the user to search for the location of the ELT by moving a 14 NASA Tech Briefs, March 2005 small aircraft image around the map while observing signal-strength and direction readings on a simulated direction- finding locator instrument. As the simulated aircraft is turned and moved on the map, the program updates the readings on the direction-finding instrument to reflect the current position and heading of the aircraft relative to the location of the ELT. The software is distributed in a zip file that contains an installation program. The software runs on the Microsoft Windows 9x, NT, and XP operating systems.

Bream, Bruce

2005-01-01

239

Keep Them Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relentless quest of the school librarian is finding the right book for each student, searching for the home-run book for every child, and keeping students reading book after book after book. A considerable amount of the school librarian's time, effort, and creativity are devoted not only to motivating students to read, but to keeping them…

Vanneman, Susan

2010-01-01

240

Concurrent reading and writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of sharing data among asynchronous processes is considered. It is assumed that only one process at a time can modify the data, but concurrent reading and writing is permitted. Two general theorems are proved, and some algorithms are presented to illustrate their use. These include a solution to the general problem in which a read is repeated if

Leslie Lamport

1977-01-01

241

Concurrent Reading While Writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of asynchronous processes reading shared data while the data are being modified by another process is considered. This problem differs from the standard readers\\/writers problem in that concurrent reading while writing is allowed. The model used here strongly limits the use and size of the shared variables. If multiple copies of the shared data are allowed, then simple,

Gary L. Peterson

1983-01-01

242

Critical Reading School COMSC  

E-print Network

unchanged. This module will equip the students with robust critical reading skills which will provide a core interests. Additional materials will be obtained in discussion with #12;the student and academic staff. Students will be asked to read certain materials and discuss these in regular contact sessions. The student

Martin, Ralph R.

243

Making Textbook Reading Meaningful  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students enter middle school, they are confronted with the necessity of learning from complex content-area textbooks. Many students find these texts boring, and they may lack the higher-order reading comprehension skills they need to tackle complex text. Yet the ability to read informational text is essential to success in middle school and…

Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

2012-01-01

244

Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

245

Against Reading Lists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

Davis, Lennard J.

2012-01-01

246

The Roots of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…

Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

2002-01-01

247

Reading to Learn Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog entry discusses the importance of strong reading comprehension in the mathematics classroom. It gives examples of problems that require careful attention when reading and cites paraphrasing problems as a crucial skill for students. It contains links to related articles.

Denise

2007-09-07

248

Television and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.

249

A Beginning Reading Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-graders (identified as high-risk for reading difficulties) were taught to read examples of "environmental print" (words on candy wrappers, grocery bags, newspaper advertisements) and were able to identify and write words when logos and supporting detail were removed, indicating that activities using environmental print can effectively…

Aldridge, Jerry T.; Rust, Debra

1987-01-01

250

THE READING BUS \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the potential of parents to develop and use social capital generated through research activities organised by the Aberdeen Reading Bus. The Reading Bus project is a multi- agency partnership between schools, local libraries and colleagues working in adult learning, family learning and Community Learning and Development, with support and input from school liaison police officers, the

Kevin Stelfox; Rachel Shanks

251

Education: Is Reading Important?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes arguments in favor of teaching people to read. Arguments include that television and radio cannot help individuals adapt and retrain quickly in their jobs; promotion in the armed services and elsewhere depends upon a certain degree of reading expertise; and people are unable to fill out income tax and other forms if they do not possess…

USA Today, 1980

1980-01-01

252

I Can Read!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Easy-to-read books are not just stories. Many are about science, math, and history. This article provides an annotated bibliography of story, history, math, and science easy-to-read books published in 1997. The author recommends spending money to replace worn older outstanding titles rather than automatically buying new titles of lesser quality.…

Winkel, Lois

1998-01-01

253

Adult Reading, Rated G.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests books for summer reading for Department of Education officials involved in closing all 16 ERIC Clearinghouses or touting the superiority of a Christian education, standardized test-makers, planners of the Gates Foundation, and the creator of the Algebra Project. For example, suggests that standardized test-makers read William Bennett's…

Lewis, Anne C.

2003-01-01

254

On Hermetic Reading Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a review of the literature on hyperlexia (better described as hermetic reading), and often associated with autism, a theory is proposed suggesting that such reading arises from a dysfunctional procedural memory system and a disconnected though functional declarative memory system. (Author/DB)

Goldberg, Terry E.

1987-01-01

255

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

1996-01-01

256

Using Collaborative Strategic Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes collaborative strategic reading (CSR), a technique for teaching students, such as those with learning disabilities, reading comprehension and vocabulary skills in a cooperative setting. Covers teaching the four strategies of CSR (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up), as well as teaching students cooperative learning group…

Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon

1998-01-01

257

Measuring Reading Performance Informally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve the accuracy of the informal reading inventory (IRI), a differential set of criteria is necessary for both word recognition and comprehension scores for different levels and reading conditions. In initial evaluation, word recognition scores should reflect only errors of insertions, omissions, mispronunciations, substitiutions, unkown…

Powell, William R.

258

Novel Reading Maturity Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assess the maturity level of the novels which students read, the Novel Reading Maturity Scale (NRMS) is based on the notion that fiction of high quality is characterized by a number of themes or topics. The list of 22 topics in NRMS came from a survey of several guides on books for teenagers. To explore the reliability of the scale,…

Reich, Carol

259

Can India's "Literate" Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-01-01

260

Academy of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the Academy of Reading program (by AutoSkill International, Inc.), a comprehensive reading remediation tool designed to complement curriculum for grades K-12. It notes the computer-based approach is designed to help underachieving readers get the skills they need to become proficient, and the product includes…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

261

Reading, Writing, and Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educators guide blends space exploration with reading and writing. The materials are divided into two units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.

2004-01-01

262

An introduction to the reading of Bion.  

PubMed

The author suggests that a good deal of the confusion that arises in the course of reading Bion derives from the fact that Bion's analytic writing is comprised of two periods of work that involve markedly different conceptions of psychoanalysis. These two periods require of the reader very different ways of reading and generate contrasting experiences in reading. Bion, in passages in Learning from experience (1962) and Attention and interpretation (1970), offers advice to the reader regarding how he would like his 'early' and 'late' work to be read. The author treats the experience of reading these passages as ports of entry into the fundamental tenets underlying Bion's widely differing conceptions of the psychoanalytic enterprise. The experience of reading early Bion generates a sense of psychoanalysis as a never completed process of clarifying obscurities and obscuring clarifications, which enterprise moves in the direction of a convergence of disparate meanings. In contrast, the experience of reading Bion's later work conveys a sense of psychoanalysis as a process involving a movement toward infinite expansion of meaning. The author offers a detailed account of an analytic experience which he discusses from a point of view informed by Bion's work, particularly his late work. PMID:15142286

Ogden, Thomas H

2004-04-01

263

SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

264

Reading with a Special Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disadvantaged secondary school students with special reading needs can be motivated in the reading room. The school year can start with "popcorn" reading involving materials that are funny, interesting, and exciting. The teacher reads to the students or the students read silently, using materials on the students' independent rather than…

McCool, Mary

265

Recovering Innocence: Growing Up Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a plan for changing the perception among teenagers that reading for pleasure is an activity of their childhood past. Suggests an elective Reading Workshop that allows students to share favorite books and authors, to read aloud and listen to others read aloud, and to discuss their reading processes and decisions. (PRA)

Spencer, Patricia Sylvester

1991-01-01

266

Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

Heiser .

2013-02-16

267

Design and Development of the Aircraft Instrument Comprehension Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aircraft Instrument Comprehension (AIC) Program is a self-instructional program designed to teach undergraduate student pilots to read instruments that indicate the position of the aircraft in flight, based on sequential instructional stages of information, prompted practice, and unprompted practice. The program includes a 36-item multiple…

Higgins, Norman C.

268

GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

2004-01-01

269

?-RA: a parallel sparse index for genomic read alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Genomic read alignment involves mapping (exactly or approximately) short reads from a particular individual onto a pre-sequenced\\u000a reference genome of the same species. Because all individuals of the same species share the majority of their genomes, short\\u000a reads alignment provides an alternative and much more efficient way to sequence the genome of a particular individual than\\u000a does direct sequencing. Among

M O?uzhan Külekci; Wing-Kai Hon; Rahul Shah; Jeffrey Scott Vitter; Bojian Xu

2011-01-01

270

Simulating Responses of Gravitational-Wave Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic LISA is a computer program for simulating the responses of the instrumentation of the NASA/ESA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, the purpose of which is to detect and study gravitational waves. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the time-delay-interferometry (TDI) observables. (TDI is a method of canceling phase noise in temporally varying unequal-arm interferometers.) Synthetic LISA provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves, according to a full model of TDI (including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the arm lengths). Synthetic LISA is written in the C++ programming language as a modular package that accommodates the addition of code for specific gravitational wave sources or for new noise models. In addition, time series for waves and noises can be easily loaded from disk storage or electronic memory. The package includes a Python-language interface for easy, interactive steering and scripting. Through Python, Synthetic LISA can read and write data files in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), which is a commonly used astronomical data format.

Armstrong, John; Edlund, Jeffrey; Vallisneri. Michele

2006-01-01

271

Fostering Reading Excellence at Every Level of School through Reading Clinics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increased emphasis on standardized testing from state and federal mandates, the need for reading remediation has intensified. Programs directed toward increasing student test scores have been put in place nationwide with mixed results. These initiatives include response to intervention (RTI), direct instruction, and individualized…

Ortlieb, Evan; Grandstaff-Beckers, Gerlinde; Cheek, Earl H., Jr.

2012-01-01

272

Television and Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey of 78 seventh-grade students, conducted to investigate the relationship between television viewing and reading achievement. Notes that good readers' viewing habits were not significantly different from those of poor readers. (JT)

Moldenhauer, Deborah L.; Miller, Wilma H.

1980-01-01

273

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Sep 3,2014 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ... blood). What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined ...

274

Read Without Seeing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners write a message in Braille using beans to form the patterns of dots. Learners glue beans in place, and then challenge another learner to read the message. This resource includes a Braille chart.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

275

Science Sampler: Annotated reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to make reading assignments a more meaningful instructional strategy, the author created MP3 audio recordings of the textbook, which included commentary that was interspersed in the recording. At the start of every recording, he also modeled text

Dohrenwend, Peter

2010-07-01

276

Reading the Body.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents brief summaries of 26 children's books (published between 1996 and 2001) about physiology, health and sexuality, and sports and recreation. Also presents new books of professional interest that might provoke some visceral reaction from their reading. (SG)

Dressman, Mark; Abbott, Judy

2001-01-01

277

The "Enigma" Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches are discussed for constructing and implementing the ENIGMA (Engineering Individual Growth Through Manipulative Associations) reading program, a language-based activity using teacher-made puzzles and stories in a manipulative-associative manner. (CL)

Sachs, Frances Greenberg; Banas, Norma

1985-01-01

278

Can India's ``literate'' read?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-12-01

279

Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

2011-01-01

280

When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

2013-01-01

281

"Read Naturally": A Strategy To Increase Oral Reading Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Read Naturally (RN) strategy to improve reading fluency that combines reading from a model, repeated readings, and progress-monitoring. Suggests positive results found in data collected from classroom implementations with K-3 remedial and special education students and 6th-grade special education students. (NH)

Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Ihnot, Candyce; Rogers, Ginger H.

1999-01-01

282

A Developmental Path to Reading: Reading the Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the developmental path that children typically take when learning to read. The purpose is to help parents take steps to ensure that their children will make the transition from learning to read to reading to learn by the end of third grade. An introductory section includes two articles: "Parents, Children, and Reading" (Carol…

Mitchell, Kevin, Ed.

2000-01-01

283

The Potency of "READS" to Inform Students' Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shares an initiative conducted in Malaysia in terms of knowledge to gauge students' Reading Age and to inform teachers of their students' reading progress and learning. Ensuring teachers understand the needs of students' reading ability and preparing students to read and comprehend texts are the two most fundamental parallel tasks in…

Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik

2012-01-01

284

Teenagers Do Read: What Rural Youth Say about Leisure Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the leisure reading patterns of rural ninth graders gathered data on what percentage of respondents claimed that they read in their spare time; non-reader's reasons for not reading; and such factors as types of books purchased, and where and when they were read. (EM)

Mellon, Constance A.

1987-01-01

285

The Impact of Oregon Reading First on Student Reading Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of Oregon Reading First on student reading outcomes. Outcomes in schools that began Reading First implementation in 2003-2004 (Cohort A) were compared to outcomes in schools that began Reading First implementation in 2005-2006 (Cohort B). The primary hypothesis, that experienced Cohort A schools would outperform…

Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jeanie Mercier; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Beck, Carrie Thomas

2011-01-01

286

"Read To Me!" Some Tips on Reading to Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to provide adult basic education students with some tips on reading to their children. The booklet emphasizes that it is important for parents to read to their children (regardless of how well they read themselves). The benefits that parents and children derive when parents read to children are discussed. Tips on finding…

Eno, Rebecca A.

287

Binocular advantages in reading.  

PubMed

Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

2014-03-01

288

Report on Supplementary ESL Reading Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ESL Reading course described in this report was conducted for Latin American scholarship students during the summer of 1973 at the School for International Training. Since it was intended to be a supplement to the regular classes of these students, every effort was made to allow the course direction to develop according to the needs of the participants. Although

David B. Hopkins

1973-01-01

289

Do Reading Habits Influence Aesthetic Preferences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the idea that the directionality of a person's primary writing system has influences outside the domain of reading and writing, specifically influences on aesthetic preferences. The results of several previous studies suggest that people whose primary writing system goes from left to right prefer pictures of moving and static…

Treiman, Rebecca; Allaith, Zainab

2013-01-01

290

Building a Case against Scripted Reading Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to this author, it was inevitable that No Child Left Behind's emphasis on standardized testing and scientifically-based reading instruction would lead to a standardized curriculum. Programs such as Open Court, Success for All, and Direct Instruction further refined standardized curriculum to a scripted curriculum that requires teachers…

Milosovic, Sharon

2007-01-01

291

Automobile Maintenance. Reading and Language Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed primarily for special needs students in a vocational program in automobile maintenance, this book was written to refine the basic skills of following directions, reading comprehension, vocabulary building, spelling, word usage, and word recognition, while relating these skills to some of the tasks a beginning student in the program must…

Kessman, William A.

292

Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

293

READING IMPROVEMENT IN THE DETROIT GREAT CITIES PROJECT SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SCHOOL ACTIVITIES WHICH DESCRIBE SPECIFIC STEPS AND PROCEDURES AIMED AT IMPROVING READING ACHIEVEMENT OF PUPILS IN THE SEVEN DETROIT GREAT CITIES PROJECT EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED. EACH PUPIL SHOULD BE HELPED TO FORM A BETTER SELF-IMAGE SO THAT HIS MOTIVATION AND SELF-DIRECTION CAN BE IMPROVED. ALSO, THE CHILD SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO READ

MCNEIL, SHIRLEY A.; RASSCHAERT, WILLIAM M.

294

The Montessori Preschool: Preparation for Writing and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how Montessori principles and practices pertain specifically to the indirect and direct preparation of the child for writing and reading. The general principles are outlined first, followed by a specific discussion relating Montessori's approach to language instruction to current issues in reading disability. (CR)

Richardson, Sylvia Onesti

1997-01-01

295

Should the Simple View of Reading Include a Fluency Component?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Simple View of Reading states that reading comprehension is the product of word recognition and listening comprehension. Whereas much research has focused on word recognition accuracy, recent attention has been directed toward word recognition fluency. The current study investigated whether a separate fluency component should be added to the…

Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.; Little, Todd D.

2006-01-01

296

Rethinking Middle School Reading Instruction: A Basic Literacy Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on subject matter instruction across the 20th century (e.g., Stevens, 1912; Bellack, 1966; Hoetker & Ahlbrand; 1969; Gall, 1970; Langer, 1999; Mehan, 1979; Nystrand, 1997;) reveals a preponderance of teacher-directed lecture, recitation, and round-robin reading of text in place of instruction that focuses on reading-to-learn, thinking,…

Blanton, William E.; Wood, Karen D.; Taylor, D. Bruce

2007-01-01

297

Office of Probation - Richmond College: Reading Center Assessment. Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program serves a population of disaffected, underachieving inner-city youth of junior high and high school age who are known to the Family and/or Criminal courts and are at least two years retarded in reading. In most cases, the first efforts of the center are said to be directed to the provision of remedial reading services, and toward…

Brown, James M.

298

The Impact of Environmental Print Instruction on Early Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to ascertain if there were any significant differences in the ability to read logos and to make the transition to reading logos in manuscript forms of kindergarten children who received direct instruction with environmental print, those who received indirect instruction, and those who received no instruction with…

Kuby, Patricia; Aldridge, Jerry

2004-01-01

299

Lifelong Learning and the Visual Arts: A Book of Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of selected readings is designed to aid artists and educators in the development of a knowledge base within the realm of lifelong learning and the visual arts. Compiled for use by both student and practitioner, these readings are divided into three chapters. The first chapter provides readers with background, rationale, and directions

Hoffman, Donald H.; And Others

300

On the Nonsmooth, Nonconstant Velocity of Braille Reading and Reversals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative to print reading, braille-reading finger movements are held to be of more constant speed, with continuous and exhaustive contact with all words. However, the continuity of movements is intermittent in two distinct ways: (a) readers reverse direction and reread material already encountered and (b) the continual fluctuations of velocity…

Hughes, Barry; McClelland, Amber; Henare, Dion

2014-01-01

301

Home literacy predictors of early reading development in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The goal of the present 1-year long longitudinal study was to determine which home literacy variables were effective in stimulating early reading skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) directly or indirectly via the reading precursors. Parents of 35 children with CP completed questionnaires regarding aspects of the home literacy environment (HLE). The reading precursors: Vocabulary, Syntactic skills and phonological awareness, i.e., Rhyme and Phonemic awareness, were assessed at the end of Kindergarten and the end of Grade 1, while the early reading skills Letter knowledge and Word recognition were assessed only at the end of Grade 1. Three HLE variables were found to be related to reading precursors and early reading skills: Parent literacy mediation, Word orientation and Story orientation activities during shared book reading. Path analyses showed that these three HLE variables were not directly related to early reading skills in Grade 1, but indirectly via the reading precursors, in particular phonological awareness. PMID:18541405

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans; van Leeuwe, Jan

2009-01-01

302

Low activated incore instrument  

DOEpatents

Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

Ekeroth, D.E.

1994-04-19

303

Reading for Kicks, Not Kickbacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second-graders and a new teacher came up with an approach that showed him how much fun reading can be. The students voted on reading privileges; peer pressure maintained discipline; students shared books that their parents had read to them and invited "guest readers" to read with their class. (MLF)

Brassell, Danny

2003-01-01

304

Analyzing Student Difficulties in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to this paper, a good reading teacher is able to analyze problems faced by students in reading and remediate that which is necessary. The paper stresses that the reading teacher needs to be a good observer of student reading habits to notice where to intervene to improve the skills and attitudes of the reader. It discusses diagnosis and…

Ediger, Marlow

305

The Philosophical Arena and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each plan for guiding pupils to read emphasizes an inherent philosophy or philosophies of education. Existentialism encourages reading by promoting free choice of reading material and relating decisions to results. A reading curriculum based on the tenets of realism would give the learner a view of the world as it actually exists. Experimentalism…

Ediger, Marlow

306

Love for/and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are taught to read in a number of ways, are helped by reading specialists, tutors, parents, and peers, and are provided with a variety of materials designed to meet their needs and interests. Yet many children grow up with not only a dislike for reading, but a fear of it. It is not enough for teachers to develop reading skills in their…

Nelson, Robert L.

307

College Students' Views of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to get some idea of how 18- to 25-year-olds felt about some of their reading moments in school, a reading interest survey was given to 189 college students at the University of Wisconsin, LaCrosse. Females reacted more positvely to questions about the impact of teachers, home life, and methods on their feelings for reading. Oral reading

Nelson, Robert L.

308

Dyslexia: Problems of Reading Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to provide an understanding of both the educational and medical aspects of reading and to show how they are interrelated in reading disabilities. The various aspects of reading disabilities are presented in the following chapters: Introduction to the Reading Problem; Early Predictive Studies; Psychological Evaluation;…

Goldberg, Herman K.; Schiffman, Gilbert B.

309

Does DIBELS Put Reading First?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools across the nation are responding to reading assessment mandates by turning to DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills), a program endorsed by the Federal Reading First Grant Office, to assess fluency on a range of reading-related tasks. DIBELS makes strong claims regarding its usefulness in documenting reading progress…

Shelton, Nancy Rankie; Altwerger, Bess; Jordan, Nancy

2009-01-01

310

The PTA and Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The position of the PTA on issues relating to reading instruction is stated. Support for good literature is emphasized, and the topic of censorship is discussed. The methods of teaching reading are seen to involve teachers and other reading professionals, but the right to expect sound reading instruction is viewed as a basic right of the parents.…

Mallory, Elizabeth

311

Reading in Recession. A Report on the "Comparative Reading Survey" from the National Foundation for Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the existence and direction of any change in reading standards of pupils in England and Wales between 1987 and 1991. The Reading Ability Series Test A was completed by two independent samples (comprised of 2170 pupils in 61 schools) of Year 3 pupils aged seven to eight years in the spring of 1991. The first sample consisted of…

Gorman, Tom; Fernandes, Cres

312

Math 250A: Reading and Concepts for 11/9-11/19 General reading note: This is the final section of our course: modules and category theory. As with Galois  

E-print Network

Math 250A: Reading and Concepts for 11/9-11/19 General reading note: This is the final section/9: Modules continued: submodules, quotient modules, direct sums of modules, torsion modules. Reading: III.1 modules over a PID. Reading: Basically the relevant section is III.7 of Lang. He avoids alluding

Fuchs, Elena

313

Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates. PMID:25058010

Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

2014-01-01

314

Unidextrality and mirror-reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the correlation of expertness in mirror-reading and the degree of one-handedness. The experiments were conducted in 2 parts. Part 1 involved: mirror-reading test; steadiness test, using Whipple's test; strength of grip was measured with Smedley's dynamometer; speed and quality of writing of the inferior hand; and mirror-reading and unidextrality tests. Part 2 included: standardization of mirror-reading test; mirror-reading and

June E. Downey; Edwin B. Payson

1917-01-01

315

Reading meters by telephony  

SciTech Connect

In mid-1984 as the price of microcomputers and networking software began to fall, it became apparent to Equitable Gas Co. that the age of efficient and effective remote meter reading was, indeed, an economic reality. The deregulation of the telephone industry had made it possible for Federal Communication Commission approved devices, developed and manufactured by non-telephone companies, to be connected to the local telephone network facilities. These regulatory changes helped to encourage the development of telephony-based, remote meter reading systems. In late 1984 an extensive study was made to evaluate the various automated meter reading systems then available. The systems considered and evaluated used three different technologies that included handheld, radio-frequency, and telephony-based systems. To select a remote meter reading system that was truly cost effective relative to the information provided, a set of evaluation objectives was established. The system selected for a pilot program included would provide: improved meter reading efficiency and effectiveness; improved bill processing; improved collection rate; immediate reporting of theft; operational data; cost effective installation and operation; and rate structure design.

Welch, J.W.

1986-11-01

316

The Gravity Probe B Science Instrument.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment employs a unique state-of-the-art science instrument to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity for gyroscopes orbiting a massive spinning body, in this case the Earth. The GP-B instrument comprises four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, each of which is independently subject to both the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions, and a telescope that tracks the guide star, IM Pegasi. Each gyroscope is read out with a dc SQUID system utilizing the London magnetic moment of the spinning gyroscope. The two axes of the telescope are read out with an image divider assembly, solid-state photo detectors and JFET preamplifiers. The telescope and gyroscopes are mechanically and thermally linked by a fused quartz block, which forms the metrology bench for the experiment. The instrument is located in a probe/helium dewar system, which provides a low-temperature environment of about 2.7 K for the instrument, as well as the ultra-low magnetic field, the ultrahigh magnetic shielding of the on-orbit ambient magnetic field, and the ultrahigh vacuum environments. The instrument was designed to allow a measurement of the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions to an accuracy of better than 0.5 mill-arc second/year for one year of science data collection. The instrument also provides the signals needed for drag-free and attitude control of the space vehicle. This presentation will include a description of the instrument and its principal on-orbit performance characteristics. Many persons at various institutions contributed to the development of the instrument. Numerous contributed presentations in a poster session will provide more detail.

Turneaure, John

2007-04-01

317

What Are Teenagers Reading? Adolescent Fiction Reading Habits and Reading Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are adolescents choosing to read? This is an important question because of potential divergence between school students' reading interests and reading expectations in school. This article considers the findings from a study of the reading over one week in May 2002 of 707 school students aged between 11 and 15, undertaken in 30 schools in the…

Hopper, Rosemary

2005-01-01

318

Reading Improvement in English- and Hebrew-Speaking Children with Reading Difficulties after Reading Acceleration Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia

2014-01-01

319

Reading Laboratories: The Conversion of the Speed Reading Lab into an ESL Reading Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that the reading-machine laboratory provides a means for the classroom ESL instructor to continue using his present method in the classroom (intensive, theoretical-grammatical instruction) while providing additional extensive reading and learning practice with the machines in the reading laboratory. Two speed reading systems…

Novak, Sigrid Scholtz

320

Improving Reading Rate Activities for EFL Students: Timed Reading and Repeated Oral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of timed reading (TR) and repeated oral reading (RR) on 35 adult students of English as a foreign language. Students in the TR (n =18) and RR (n =17) groups read 52 and 26 passages respectively over a 13-week period. Reading rates and comprehension levels were measured at three occasions: pre-intervention,…

Chang, Anna C. -S.

2012-01-01

321

Baboons Learn to Read  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to recognize strings of letters as words, also known as orthographic processing, is a key component of reading. The ability to develop this skill has commonly been attributed to prior acquisition of a spoken language, but Grainger et al. argue that linguistic ability may instead be related to simple object recognition. To test this, Grainger and colleagues studied orthographic processing in a group of captive but freely ranging baboons, who learned to read and distinguish real English words from non-words with remarkable accuracy. These results suggest that a basic ability to recognize words does not require complex linguistic understanding.

Jonathan Grainger (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Stephane Dufau (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Marie Montant (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Johannes C. Ziegler (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Joel Fagot (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;)

2012-04-13

322

Training and Reading Level  

E-print Network

the Fourth Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 4-7, 1982 Extra Reading Level Writi ng Style Words per Sentence Syllables (lOa Wds.) a to 3 Very Easy Up to 8 Up to 22 3 to 5 Easy 11 26 5 to 7 Fairly Easy 14 31 7 to 10 Standard..., fourth, and fifth columns in the chart. They are the Average Number of Words per Sentence, the Number of Extra Syllable per 100 Words and the Number of Personal References per 100 Words. All of these are very valuable in determin ing the reading...

Bishop, D. l.

1982-01-01

323

Drugstore Reading Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occasion for this paper was my reading of a paper in the February 2005 issue of TPT. As one gets older the near point of the eye begins to recede.2 This is called presbyopia.3 An alternative to purchasing glasses from an optometrist is to purchase an inexpensive pair of reading glasses in a pharmacy. The pharmacy has these glasses ordered by diopters corresponding to the strength of the lens needed for a particular presbyopic eye. The glasses are, of course, not available for myopic eyes.

Erlichson, Herman

2006-03-01

324

INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.  

SciTech Connect

Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

2001-05-04

325

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners design and create musical instruments from common objects; their challenge is to create an instrument that can make three different tones. They investigate how energy is transferred from their hands to their instrument to create sound. Learners also compare the different instruments to understand how the different designs produce different sounds. Resource contains investigating questions to assess and extend learning.

Kempton, Adam

2013-01-01

326

Advanced Java bytecode instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bytecode instrumentation is a valuable technique for trans- parently enhancing virtual execution environments for pur- poses such as monitoring or profiling. Current approaches to bytecode instrumentation either exclude some methods from instrumentation, severely restrict the ways certain methods may be instrumented, or require the use of native code. In this paper we compare different approaches to bytecode in- strumentation in

Walter Binder; Jarle Hulaas; Philippe Moret

2007-01-01

327

Instrumentation for Materials Research - Major Instrumentation Projects  

NSF Publications Database

... Materials Research - Major Instrumentation Project (IMR-MIP) program in the Division of Materials ... for materials preparation and characterization essential for researchers studying materials in a ...

328

The right not to read.  

PubMed

Skill in reading is desirable. However, the importance of reading may be overemphasized in schools. Reading skills are determined relatively and not absolutely. Thus, relatively poor readers will persist. Schools cannot eradicate individual differences. Biological makeup and societal pressures are the important factors in determining reading skill. Present methods of reading remediation are of questionable efficacy and are traumatic to some children. Time with its associated normal development succeeds in remediating the majority of children with dyslexia. Most poor readers eventually attain reading levels that enable them to comprehend the types of printed materials commonly encountered. If a child finds reading difficult or distasteful, that child should be encouraged to read but should have the right not to be forced to read. PMID:440902

Snyder, R D

1979-05-01

329

The Interaction of Picture and Print in Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to consider whether pictures might facilitate word identification and word learning and to determine the most appropriate design of pictures to aid in independent reading, this instrument consists of 24 sentences and accompanying pictures that completely or partially represent the noun information in the sentence. Substitutions for the…

Denburg, Susan Dalfen

330

Organizing and Evaluating Results from Multiple Reading Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges of understanding how reading abilities vary within the classroom can be daunting. This article offers techniques to organize a variety of assessment data to give teachers a clear picture of individual achievement, how students compare with one another, and how reliably various assessment instruments yield an accurate picture of…

Rubin, Jim

2011-01-01

331

Opportunities Gained & Lost: Placement in an Alternative Reading Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of one class of sixth grade middle students enrolled in a Title I reading class. The class consisted of 15 students. Through instrumental case study, qualitative data were collected over 24 weeks through (a) interviews, (b) observations, and (c) documents: student…

Donalson, Kathleen

2009-01-01

332

Selecting and Evaluating Standardized Reading Tests (Test Review).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an approach for selecting and evaluating both group and individually administered standardized tests of reading. Reviews considerations of the quality of test development; test content; test reliability and validity; and concerns of cost and time investment. Presents sample ratings of two common instruments. (RS)

Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Martens, Brian K.

1990-01-01

333

Read, Sing, Play, and Create a Musical Storm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dayle Ann Dodds and Rosanne Litzinger's children's book, "Sing, Sophie!" provides the elementary general music teacher with an opportunity to read a captivating children's story, sing the main character's song and play her guitar, and create a song as well as instrumental music. Lessons outlined in this article may culminate in a veritable musical…

Cardany, Audrey Berger

2012-01-01

334

An Evaluation of a Summer Reading Institute, 1968.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes part of the evaluation of a six-week reading institute for 69 K-3 teachers from the Raymond School, Model School Division (MSD), Washington, D.C. and thereby provides an evaluation model for schools to use in their own inservice training programs. Two evaluation instruments developed by an MSD innovation team in cooperation…

Rosenfeld, Michael

335

A Comparison of the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Used by EFL and ESL Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between EFL and ESL readers in metacognitive reading strategies when they are reading academic texts in English. One hundred and ninety undergraduate students (96 Iranians and 93 Indians) completed an instrument designed to measure the students' metacognitive awareness of…

Karbalaei, Alireza

2010-01-01

336

The Relationship between Contrast Sensitivity, Gait, and Reading Speed in Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) results in reduced walking speed and visual difficulties, including difficulty reading (Davidsdottir, Cronin-Golomb, & Lee, 2005). PD is characterized by a reduction in dopamine, which is instrumental in determining a person's contrast sensitivity (CS). This study assessed the relationship between CS, gait (step length and walking speed), and reading speed in 18 non-demented PD volunteers with normal

Elisabeth Moes; Kathryn M. Lombardi

2009-01-01

337

Criterion-Referenced Reading Assessment in a Large City School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The test-development process used to develop criterion-referenced tests in reading for a large-city school district's system-wide testing program is described. Two types of instruments were developed: (a) a measure of students' ability to read text-books at their assigned grade levels and (b) tests of enabling skills emphasized in the basal…

Olson, Margot A.

338

A Validity and Reliability Update on the Informal Reading Inventory with Suggestions for Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews validity and reliability studies on the informal reading inventory, a diagnostic instrument to identify reading grade-level placement and strengths and weaknesses in work recognition and comprehension. Gives suggestions to improve the validity and reliability of existing inventories and to evaluate them in newly published…

Klesius, Janell P.; Homan, Susan P.

1985-01-01

339

A new electronic sphygmomanometer: testing observer reliability and instrument comparability.  

PubMed

A new electronic sphygmomanometer, Visomat II, featuring a new microphone sound chamber and signal light as a substitute for stethoscope use, was tested in two experiments. The study first measured the degree to which two persons observing the same instrument would have similar readings. Standard aneroid and mercury instruments were also tested. This was done to compare readability of the three scales. There were no statistically significant differences in the readings of the three types of units. In the second experiment, pairs of different sphygmomanometers were connected with Y fittings. Technicians compared in random order the similarity of readings of the three possible pairs of units. There were no statistically significant differences in the three pairings. The authors conclude that the new electronic instruments is comparable to the standard aneroid and mercury units. PMID:10249889

Villaveces, J W; Evans, J

1980-12-01

340

XS: a FASTQ read simulator  

PubMed Central

Background The emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) is bringing, besides the natural huge amounts of data, an avalanche of new specialized tools (for analysis, compression, alignment, among others) and large public and private network infrastructures. Therefore, a direct necessity of specific simulation tools for testing and benchmarking is rising, such as a flexible and portable FASTQ read simulator, without the need of a reference sequence, yet correctly prepared for producing approximately the same characteristics as real data. Findings We present XS, a skilled FASTQ read simulation tool, flexible, portable (does not need a reference sequence) and tunable in terms of sequence complexity. It has several running modes, depending on the time and memory available, and is aimed at testing computing infrastructures, namely cloud computing of large-scale projects, and testing FASTQ compression algorithms. Moreover, XS offers the possibility of simulating the three main FASTQ components individually (headers, DNA sequences and quality-scores). Conclusions XS provides an efficient and convenient method for fast simulation of FASTQ files, such as those from Ion Torrent (currently uncovered by other simulators), Roche-454, Illumina and ABI-SOLiD sequencing machines. This tool is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/software/xs/. PMID:24433564

2014-01-01

341

Reading and Generalist Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading

Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

2007-01-01

342

Risking Aesthetic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reflective article explores a tension between private and public expression of deep aesthetic response to reading, with specific reference to the play of this tension in the public space of the classroom. Implications for teaching are included, most specifically the need to understand the sensitivities and emotional vulnerability of students,…

Calderwood, Patricia E.

2005-01-01

343

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and education professors suggest various nonfiction and fiction books for summer reading enjoyment, from Robert Putnam's "Bowling Alone," C.A. Bowers's "Let Them Eat Data," and Larry McMurtry's "Roads: Driving America's Great Highways" to Kent Hauf's "Plainsong, J.M. Coetzee's "Disgrace," and Michael Cunningham's "The Hours." (MLH)

[Editors

2001-01-01

344

Cerebellum and Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Traditionally, the cerebellum has been considered to control coordinated movement. However, in recent years it has been argued that it contributes to higher cognitive functions. Objectives: This review aims to present recent evidence concerning the role of the cerebellum and discusses how it can contribute to reading. Method: The procedure used involves findings coming from three quite different areas,

Filippos Vlachos; Ilias Papathanasiou; Georgia Andreou

2007-01-01

345

Medication and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The clinical syndrome which relates most frequently to the reading-disabled child is the attention deficity disorder. The child psychiatrist will generally resort to medication only when behavioral management techniques have failed. The two most frequently used medications are Ritalin and Dexedrine, central nervous system stimulants. (JN)

Humphries, Laurie L.

1981-01-01

346

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

1991-01-01

347

Seminar on Reading Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the activities of a seminar on learning disabilities in reading other than those associated with gross intellectual or physical handicaps; includes recommendations arising from group discussions of teacher education, the problems of children of differing ethnic backgrounds, and the integration of theory and techniques of diagnosis,…

Hewitson, Mal

1978-01-01

348

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For educators' summer reading enjoyment, "Kappan" editors recommend three books on nature (Robert Richardson's biography "Emerson: The Mind on Fire, William Cronin's edited book "Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature," and Gary Snyder's poetry volume "Mountain and Rivers Without End"). Also recommended are three culturally diverse…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1997

1997-01-01

349

Saccadic Inhibition in Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 5 experiments, participants read text that was briefly replaced by a transient image for 33 ms at random intervals. A decrease in saccadic frequency, referred to as saccadic inhibition, occurred as early as 60–70 ms following the onset of abrupt changes in visual input. It was demonstrated that the saccadic inhibition was influenced by the saliency of the visual

Eyal M. Reingold; Dave M. Stampe

2004-01-01

350

Evaluation in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation in reading must be a continuous process. The assessment of readiness, progress, and mastery in the development of skills, concepts, and behaviors must be an ongoing process if the best decisions are to be made for each learner. The articles included in this yearbook offer a variety of assessment techniques, using both objective and…

Randolph, Huberta V., Ed.

351

Reading and Analyzing Nanotechnology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers nanotechnology in literature and culture. The purpose of the lesson is for students to "read and analyze science outside of their textbooks." At the end of the lesson, students discuss nanotechnology's implications and significance for the future. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, and Next Generation Science Standards are included. 

2014-09-01

352

Chicano Special Reading Selections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this selective bibliography of approximately 350 works is to draw the various materials on Mexican American culture together for use by students at different age levels. The materials are separated into lists for preschool and primary, intermediate, and advanced students. The reading selections provide information in the following…

Feeney, Joan V., Comp.

353

Summative Evaluation in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summative evaluation of student achievement in reading emphasizes determining learner progress at the end of a unit of study, end of course, or end of the school year. Generally, state mandated tests stress an end of the school year percentile which is to indicate the present state of learner achievement. This paper discusses and analyzes…

Ediger, Marlow

354

Saccadic Inhibition in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 5 experiments, participants read text that was briefly replaced by a transient image for 33 ms at random intervals. A decrease in saccadic frequency, referred to as saccadic inhibition, occurred as early as 60-70 ms following the onset of abrupt changes in visual input. It was demonstrated that the saccadic inhibition was influenced by the…

Reingold, Eyal M.; Stampe, Dave M.

2004-01-01

355

Reading, Writing and Relevance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents classroom activities that were designed to encourage children to read and write in a self-reliant and responsible manner. The activities were chosen for their relevance to the children involved and because the vocabulary involved was interesting, familiar, and worth remembering and using again. The topics are arranged in…

Hoffman, Mary

356

Rules or Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…

Ruefle, Anne E.

2011-01-01

357

Reading, 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Instructional Objectives Exchange (IOX) collected for several subject areas objectives and measurement items based upon curricular material either submitted by teachers, schools, and school districts, or generated by the IOX staff. Contained in the reading collection are 93 objectives and related evaluation items for grades 7-12. For the most…

Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

358

Reading's Next Chapter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

Kellman, Steven G.

2008-01-01

359

Construction Print Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on construction print reading is designed to provide Marines of all ranks and Military Occupation Specialities with the basic information to recognize the terms and symbols used in construction prints; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction.…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

360

Critical Reading: A Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Lye, a professor in the Departments of English and Communication Studies at Brock University (Canada), offers this resource designed for beginning literature students. Critical Guide contains sections on poetry, fiction, prose in fiction, and writing analytical essays. Though not exhaustive, this guide forms a useful framework to help beginning students think critically about the literature they are reading.

Lye, John.

1996-01-01

361

Reading for Basic Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document offers materials for a year-long course on general basic reading skills that was part of a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey), and its partners. The document contains the following: (1) outlines (each of which contains objectives, a topical outline, and list of textbooks) for two…

Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

362

Visual Factors in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews current knowledge about how the visual system recognizes letters and words, and the impact on reading when parts of the visual system malfunction. The physiology of eye and brain places important constraints on how we process text, and the efficient organization of the neurocognitive systems involved is not inherent but…

Singleton, Chris; Henderson, Lisa-Marie

2006-01-01

363

Speaking of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in the tradition of Studs Terkel, this book presents oral histories of 77 diverse readers (from avid to infrequent readers) about how reading affects their lives. Sprinkled throughout the book are narratives of nationally recognized personalities, such as Maxine Hong-Kingston, Robert MacNeil, Gloria Steinem, Linus Pauling, Julie Harris,…

Rosenthal, Nadine

364

Teaching Reading Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

2010-01-01

365

Learning To Read Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ease with which we process the written word belies its complexities and makes it easy to forget that it is a highly skilled behaviour and one that takes time to master. In this paper, I argue that our ability to read words has its roots in our capacity for language. Good progress has been made towards understanding how children

Kate Nation

2008-01-01

366

BOYS, FUN, AND READING  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HELPS TO GET THOSE BOY BOOKS OFF THE SHELVES Teachers for many years have known that boys reading interest and doing has lagged way behind girls. Luckily for the boys, much interest and research has been going on to understand this phenomenon. There are many web sites of research findings that are available for the teacher and ...

Carol, Miss

2006-11-14

367

Reading and Deaf Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and field-testing of Cornerstones, an approach to classroom literacy instruction for young deaf children that utilizes an educational television program and other engaging media components. Focuses on word-knowledge aspect, because of its influence on the development of background knowledge and reading comprehension.…

Loeterman, Mardi; Paul, Peter V.; Donahue, Sheila

2002-01-01

368

Reading Current Events Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

Ediger, Marlow

369

Improving Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for advancing reading comprehension skills. The targeted population consisted of second and fourth grade students in an affluent northern suburb of a large midwestern community. The problem of a lack of comprehension skills was documented through teacher observations, student and parent surveys, comprehension…

Spiegel, Gayle; Vickers, Lara; Viviano, Jean

370

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen Place, the Timeless People," and numerous…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

1992-01-01

371

Predictive Assessment of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study 1 retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological and psychoeducational tests given to N = 220 first graders, with follow-up assessments in third and eighth grade. Four predictor constructs were derived: (1) Phonemic Awareness, (2) Picture Vocabulary, (3) Rapid Naming, and (4) Single Word Reading. Together, these accounted for 88%, 76%, 69%, and…

Wood, Frank B.; Hill, Deborah F.; Meyer, Marianne S.; Flowers, D. Lynn

2005-01-01

372

Reading context in design  

E-print Network

This study explores how, in the process of design, the reading of an existing order in the organizing features of a setting potentiates form. For this purpose, a design exercise on a site in the city of Jaipur in India has ...

Agrawal, Vivek

1993-01-01

373

Reading and Writing Effectively.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, covers effective reading and writing. Introductory materials include objectives, a topical outline, sources, and information on time for the course and continuing education credits. The 16 sessions of the course cover the following topics: job terms; abbreviations, acronyms, and pictorial…

Lewandowski, Carol; Burt, Lorna

374

Reading and Writing II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for the second part of a course on reading and writing effectively. Introductory materials include objectives, a topical outline, sources, and information on time for the course and continuing education credits. The 16 sessions of the course cover the following topics:…

Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

375

Books Still Worth Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 10 major articles in this special journal issue deal with literary works designated by individual educators as "still worth reading." The works discussed are (1) "Madeline" by L. Bemelmans; (2) "The Assistant" by B. Malamud; (3) "The Pitfalls for Readers of Fiction" by H. Sample, the first of the pamphlet publications by the National Council…

McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

1983-01-01

376

Terrorism: Current Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents selected readings published in the English language on the subject of terrorism dating from 1985 to the present. Materials covered include books, periodicals, encyclopedias and dictionaries, directories, bibliographies, and online databases that cover definitions of terrorism, psychological and religious aspects of terrorism, and how to…

El-Sherbini, Magda

1990-01-01

377

Appraising Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

Ediger, Marlow

378

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends many books for summer reading enjoyment, concentrating on historical and contemporary fiction. Different cultures clash in William T. Vollman's "Fathers and Crows" and John Demos's adventuresome "Unredeemed Captive." Other suggestions: "Snow Falling on Cedar Mountain" (David Gutterman) and "Foxfire" (Joyce Carol Oates). For professional…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1995

1995-01-01

379

Reading Mathematics is Different  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication will discuss why reading mathematics is challenging for many students and what teachers can do. We will examine how mathematics symbols, vocabulary, and content presentation can create roadblocks to studentsâ mathematics understanding. Learn how to address studentsâ difficulties by approaching mathematics as a language and to use specific strategies to improve mathematics learning.

2009-01-01

380

Third Grade Reading Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

Rose, Stephanie

2012-01-01

381

A Reading of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite progress in decipherment of Maya hieroglyphic script in recent years, there are still a great many glyphs that epigraphers are unable to read completely. This can be for a number of reasons. In many cases, the remains of the glyphs are too badly eroded to be properly understood. In other cases, it is due to a lack of consideration

Suzanne Nolan

382

Book Reading Styles in Dual-Parent and Single-Mother Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Whereas many studies have investigated quantitative aspects of book reading (frequency), few have examined qualitative aspects, especially in very young children and through direct observations of shared reading. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in book-reading styles between mothers and fathers and …

Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea

2006-01-01

383

Home literacy predictors of early reading development in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present 1-year long longitudinal study was to determine which home literacy variables were effective in stimulating early reading skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) directly or indirectly via the reading precursors. Parents of 35 children with CP completed questionnaires regarding aspects of the home literacy environment (HLE). The reading precursors: Vocabulary, Syntactic skills and phonological

Marieke Peeters; Ludo Verhoeven; J. M. H. de Moor; Hans van Balkom; J. F. J. van Leeuwe

2009-01-01

384

What Cognitive Benefits Does an Activity-Based Reading Strategy Afford Young Native American Readers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted 2 experiments with children from a reservation community. In Experiment 1, 45 third-grade children were randomly assigned to the following reading strategies: (a) “reread,” in which participants read each sentence of a story and then reread it; (b) “observe,” in which participants read sentences and then observed an experimenter move manipulatives as directed by the story; and

Scott C. Marley; Joel R. Levin; Arthur M. Glenberg

2010-01-01

385

Instrument Construction, Site Selection and Set-Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides guidance on site selection for the GLOBE Atmosphere data collection protocols. Instructions for building an instrument shelter, a snowboard, an ozone measurement station, and a wind direction instrument are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

386

Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.  

PubMed

Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy. PMID:21678121

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-12-01

387

Reading improvement in English- and Hebrew-speaking children with reading difficulties after reading acceleration training.  

PubMed

A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training. Results of pre- and post-testing of reading abilities point to a significant main effect of the test, demonstrating improvements in silent contextual reading speed, reading comprehension, and speed of processing in both Hebrew and English training groups as compared to their performance before the intervention. This study indicates that the Reading Acceleration Program might be an effective program for improving reading abilities in children, independent of language. PMID:24919641

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K; Breznitz, Zvia

2014-10-01

388

Electronic Instrumentation in A-Level Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) the light beam galvanometer; (2) the electrometer/direct current amplifier; and (3) digital multimeters. Focuses on the uses or potential uses of these instruments in teaching A-level physics. (JN)

Ellse, Mark

1986-01-01

389

Piping inspection instrument carriage  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

1993-09-20

390

Does Early Reading Failure Decrease Children's Reading Motivation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure…

Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Cordray, David S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

2008-01-01

391

Reading practices, reading skills, and cognitive growth in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading is assumed to play an important role in the development of literate persons in that it is consciousness-altering activity. The manner by which reading contributes to development is unclear, however, and has been debated by social scientists for some years. Despite the importance of reading in adult life, only recently have researchers devoted significant attention to what and how

M. Cecil Smith

1995-01-01

392

Reading Development and the Teaching of Reading: A Psychological Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis on the idea of reading as a "socio-cultural" phenomenon, derived from the idea that reading is not an isolated skill but is necessarily related to the purposes reading will be put to in particular social and cultural contexts. This collection of essays acknowledges the undoubted contribution of…

Oakhill, Jane, Ed.; Beard, Roger, Ed.

393

Read Me a Song: Teaching Reading Using Picture Book Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about the beginnings of literacy in young children and the skills they need for reading readiness. The paper also describes what is meant by a "quality early literacy instruction" and reading skill development in early childhood settings. It outlines early reading behaviors, including phonemic awareness, concept of…

Routier, Wanda J.

394

Read Across Texas! 2002 Texas Reading Club Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the Texas Reading Club is to encourage the children of Texas to become library users and lifelong readers. This manual was created for the 2002 Texas Reading Club, a program of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. The theme, "Read Across Texas!" invites children to explore the history, geography, and culture of Texas…

Edgmon, Missy; Ferate-Soto, Paolo; Foley, Lelana; Hager, Tina; Heard, Adriana; Ingham, Donna; Lopez, Nohemi; McMahon, Dorothy; Meyer, Sally; Parrish, Leila; Rodriguez-Gibbs, Josefina; Moreyra-Torres, Maricela; Travis, Gayle; Welch, Willy

395

Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

1997-01-01

396

Predicting FCAT Reading Scores Using the Reading-Level Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple regression analysis indicates that the Reading-Level Indicator, a paper-and-pencil test, is a moderately strong predictor for the high-stakes standardized test, the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test in Reading. Classroom teachers can administer the inexpensive Reading-Level Indicator in a short period of time and use the results as a…

Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel

2011-01-01

397

Developing Reading Fluency: A Study of Extensive Reading in EFL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the great interest of practitioners on reading fluency in first language (L1) and second language (L2) English classroom settings, fluency has become a hot topic. A number of studies have suggested that an extensive reading (ER) program can lead to improvement of L2 learners' reading rate; however, studies about high school students are…

Iwahori, Yurika

2008-01-01

398

Reading Fluency: A Critical Component of Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Without the development of reading fluency as part of reading instruction, teachers may end up with a classroom full of students who read roughly and slowly, and who may not completely gather the important information from the text. One strategy to increase fluency is the fluency development lesson (FDL) that includes seven steps modeled by the…

Olmscheid, Carey

399

Endoscopes integrated into instruments for spinal surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With minimally invasive approaches the visual path to guide instruments becomes constricted. Often one is unable to visualize adequately interaction of the instrument with tissue. We have incorporated 1.2-mm diameter 10,000 pixel fiberoptic endoscopes into instruments for spinal surgery. With these instruments one has a direct view of the instrument's interaction with the surgical anatomy. We have studied a variety of endoscopic instruments including malleable forceps, retractors and punches in over 40 cases of lateral disc herniations, migrated disc fragments and spinal stenosis. The instruments provided excellent visualization of spinal structures. The size and effect of the pathologic process could be readily evaluated, as could neural decompression. Operative times were not significantly increased and there were no complications attributable to the instruments. This preliminary work documents that 'seeing instruments' can be safely used and add to our appreciation of operative anatomy. It is suggested that these instruments may provide more complete decompression through a more limited, less invasive, access. Further study of these instruments may provide better understanding of their overall utility.

Frank, E.; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.; Winn, Shelley R.

2000-06-01

400

Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview  

SciTech Connect

The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.

Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.

1992-10-01

401

Instrumentation for the CCAT Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a first cut instrument design package for the proposed 25 meter Cornell-Caltech Atacama Telescope (CCAT). The primary science for CCAT can be achieved through wide field photometric imaging in the short submillimeter through millimeter (200 ?m to 2 mm) telluric windows. We present strawman designs for two cameras: a 32,000 pixel short submillimeter (200 to 650 ?m) camera using transition edge sensed bare bolometer arrays that Nyquist samples (@ 350 ?m) a 5'×5' field of view (FoV), and a 45,000 pixel long wavelength camera (850 ?m to 2 mm) that uses slot dipole antennae coupled bolometer arrays with wavelength dependent sampling that covers up to a 20' square FoV. These are our first light instruments. We also anticipate "borrowed" instruments such as direct detection and heterodyne detection spectrometers will be available at, or nearly at first light.

Stacey, G. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Bradford, C. M.; Dowell, C. D.; Cortes-Medellin, G.; Nikola, T.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Herter, T. L.; Radford, S. J.; Lloyd, J. P.; Blain, A. W.; Brown, R. L.; Campbell, D. B.; Giovanelli, R.; Goldsmith, P.; Harvey, P. M.; Henderson, C.; Langer, W. D.; Phillips, T. G.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Woody, D. P.

2006-06-01

402

Action video games make dyslexic children read better.  

PubMed

Learning to read is extremely difficult for about 10% of children; they are affected by a neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia [1, 2]. The neurocognitive causes of dyslexia are still hotly debated [3-12]. Dyslexia remediation is far from being fully achieved [13], and the current treatments demand high levels of resources [1]. Here, we demonstrate that only 12 hr of playing action video games-not involving any direct phonological or orthographic training-drastically improve the reading abilities of children with dyslexia. We tested reading, phonological, and attentional skills in two matched groups of children with dyslexia before and after they played action or nonaction video games for nine sessions of 80 min per day. We found that only playing action video games improved children's reading speed, without any cost in accuracy, more so than 1 year of spontaneous reading development and more than or equal to highly demanding traditional reading treatments. Attentional skills also improved during action video game training. It has been demonstrated that action video games efficiently improve attention abilities [14, 15]; our results showed that this attention improvement can directly translate into better reading abilities, providing a new, fast, fun remediation of dyslexia that has theoretical relevance in unveiling the causal role of attention in reading acquisition. PMID:23453956

Franceschini, Sandro; Gori, Simone; Ruffino, Milena; Viola, Simona; Molteni, Massimo; Facoetti, Andrea

2013-03-18

403

Reading: Tired of Round Robin?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Oral reading is a process abundant in potential for teacher and learner" says the author, in response to a reader's question. Here she sets down some strategies to help you with a more effective reading program. (Editor/RK)

Indrisano, Roselmina

1975-01-01

404

Reading Comprehension: Cognitive Training Contributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rationale for using cognitive-behavior modification (CBM) procedures in reading instruction, particularly with students who have reading difficulties, is presented. Specific interventions are described. (Author/GK)

Lloyd, John Wills, And Others

1982-01-01

405

Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

1973-01-01

406

Reading Readiness Activities for FLES  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several reading readiness activities developed in a class on teaching reading are explained in detail. The article shows how these activities can be adapted by the foreign language teacher for use in FLES classes. (CHK)

Larew, Leonor A.

1976-01-01

407

Paraprofessional Reading Tutors: Assessment of the Edmark Reading Program and Flexible Teaching1  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of two strategies for using undergraduate paraprofessionals as tutors for first-grade children with reading difficulties. The two groups of undergraduates taught first graders the same 150 words, and both reinforced (socially and materially) correct performances. However, one group employed a programmed method of word presentation (i.e., the Edmark Reading Program), while the other group of tutors was allowed flexibility in the pacing and methods for presenting words. The performance of each reading group was compared to that of a control group who engaged in educational activities not directly related to reading. Thirty-six poor readers were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Subjects were tutored after school by university undergraduates for an average of twenty-three 40-minute sessions. Children in both reading groups showed significantly more improvement than controls on an oral reading posttest of the 150 criterion words. Treatment effects did not emerge on a test composed mainly of noncriterion words. PMID:19668353

Andersen, Barbara L.; Licht, Barbara G.; Ullmann, Rina K.; Buck, Sylvia T.; Redd, William H.

2009-01-01

408

Paraprofessional Reading Tutors: Assessment of the Edmark Reading Program and Flexible Teaching.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of two strategies for using undergraduate paraprofessionals as tutors for first-grade children with reading difficulties. The two groups of undergraduates taught first graders the same 150 words, and both reinforced (socially and materially) correct performances. However, one group employed a programmed method of word presentation (i.e., the Edmark Reading Program), while the other group of tutors was allowed flexibility in the pacing and methods for presenting words. The performance of each reading group was compared to that of a control group who engaged in educational activities not directly related to reading. Thirty-six poor readers were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Subjects were tutored after school by university undergraduates for an average of twenty-three 40-minute sessions. Children in both reading groups showed significantly more improvement than controls on an oral reading posttest of the 150 criterion words. Treatment effects did not emerge on a test composed mainly of noncriterion words. PMID:19668353

Andersen, Barbara L; Licht, Barbara G; Ullmann, Rina K; Buck, Sylvia T; Redd, William H

1979-12-01

409

Reading in advanced level physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers often report that their A-level pupils are unwilling to read physics-related material. What is it about physics texts that deters pupils from reading them? Are they just too difficult for 16-18 year olds, or is it that pupils lack specific reading skills? This article describes some of the results from my research into pupils' reading of physics-related texts and tries to clarify the situation.

Fagan, Dorothy

2005-10-21

410

A comparison of multiple methods for the identification of children with reading disabilities.  

PubMed

There has been considerable discussion of the methods used for the identification of children with reading disabilities. This study examined three different methods that could be used in the identification of children with reading disabilities and their consistency with teacher ratings of behaviors believed to be associated with reading disabilities. Standardized, norm-referenced measures of achievement, phonological processing measures, and curriculum-based measures of reading fluency were used with 40 children in Grades 1 and 2. Comparisons were made to determine which measures, if any, differentiated between children referred for reading disabilities (n = 20) and children who were progressing typically in reading in their general education classroom settings (n = 20). The results indicated significant between-group differences on standardized, norm-referenced measures of reading recognition, word attack, and comprehension; phonological measures of blending nonwords and elision; and reading fluency. Teacher ratings on the Dyslexia Screening Instrument were consistent with teacher beliefs regarding children's progress in reading. All measures were found to correlate significantly with each other. However, correlations were generally in the moderate range, suggesting that the measures used did not measure the same reading skills or, in the case of phonological processing, the underlying abilities believed to be necessary for reading. Given the differences in tasks and the moderate correlations, it is likely that the choice of measures may affect the conclusions reached regarding a student's reading ability. PMID:15493320

Sofie, Cecilia A; Riccio, Cynthia A

2002-01-01

411

Closing in on Close Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text--whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced--to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness" (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7). When the author…

Boyles, Nancy

2013-01-01

412

Integrating Reading and Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating reading and language arts at all levels is the focus of this journal issue. The articles and their authors are as follows: "Reading and Writing: Close Relatives or Distant Cousins" (Kathryn A. Koch); "The Reading-Writing Relationship: Myths and Realities" (Timothy Shanahan); "The Classroom Teacher as an Action Researcher: Beginning…

French, Michael P., Ed.; Elford, Shirley J., Ed.

1986-01-01

413

Rekindle the Love of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This author describes a reading project using Kindles that was designed to increase the reading habits of 9th graders. With a selection of 500 titles for classroom usage, students were encouraged to read any book they chose--in addition to those required for their school term. Isero states that, in the past, many of his students would not risk…

Isero, Mark

2014-01-01

414

The Simple View of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a simple view of reading consisting of decoding and linguistic comprehension. Assesses predictions of the view in a longitudinal sample of English-Spanish bilingual children in first through fourth grade. Finds support for the view. Discusses implications for reading instruction, definition of reading disability, and the notion of…

Hoover, Wesley A.; Gough, Philip B.

1990-01-01

415

Identified Sins in Teaching Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper cites as selected taboos in teaching reading (identified by educators very frequently) the following: (1) homogeneous grouping; (2) round robin reading; (3) use of textbooks and workbooks in the curriculum; (4) individual endeavors in school work; (5) memorization of content; and (6) the controlled vocabulary in reading. The paper…

Ediger, Marlow

416

Reading Textbooks Academic Learning Centre  

E-print Network

1 Reading Textbooks Academic Learning Centre 201 Tier 480-1481 #12;2 Don't Get Lost! Pre-read You are going #12;3 SQ3R Survey Question Read Recite Review © Robinson, F.P. (1970). SQ3R: Effective study, what, where, when, why, how?" #12;SQ3R: Question Turn headings into questions. Turn boldfaced

Major, Arkady

417

Title I Compensatory Reading Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 1650 disadvantaged students in grades three through seven at ten elementary schools and three middle schools. Reading centers in the elementary and middle schools are designed to give intensive individualized instruction in basic reading skills. Students at least one year behind…

Greenville County School District, Greenville, SC.

418

The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

2010-01-01

419

All about Reading and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central theme in this journal issue is the use of the computer in teaching reading. The following articles are included: "The Use of Computers in the Reading Program: A District Approach" by Nora Forester; "Reading and Computers: A Partnership" by Dr. Martha Irwin; "Rom, Ram and Reason" by Candice Carlile; "Word Processing: Practical Ideas and…

Karbal, Harold, Ed.

1985-01-01

420

Alphaphonics Reading Readiness Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the twelve exemplary programs summarized in the Introduction to Right to Read's "Effective Reading Programs: Summaries of 222 Selected Programs" (CS001934), this program uses an organized phonics system to increase the reading readiness of one school's kindergarten children, many of whom have bilingual parents. In a careful sequence of…

South San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

421

The Science of Reading. 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of the 1990 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 23 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "The Effects of Oral Story-Telling and…

Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others

1990-01-01

422

Reading, dyslexia and the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Neuroimaging offers unique opportunities for understanding the acquisition of reading by children and for unravelling the mystery of developmental dyslexia. Here, I provide a selective overview of recent neuroimaging studies, drawing out implications for education and the teaching of reading.Purpose: The different neuroimaging technologies available offer complementary techniques for revealing the biological basis of reading and dyslexia. Functional magnetic

Usha Goswami

2008-01-01

423

Book Clubs: Reading for Fun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading program described in this lesson plan outlines a "just for fun" book club that was a student-organized, student-driven reading experience that built community in the classroom and encouraged students to read independently, taking responsibility for their literacy learning. During 5 to 15 minute lessons every other day, students will:…

Gardner, Traci

424

Readability, Reading Ability, and Readership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…

Kern, Richard P.; And Others

425

Investigating Gender Differences in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

2010-01-01

426

Reading in Virginia; Bicentennial Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Reading in Virginia" features a bicentennial article on three early pioneers in the diagnosis of specific reading problems: Adolf Kussmaul, Rudolf Berlin, and Samuel Orton. Additional material includes sketches of the two recipients of the Virginia State Reading Association (VSRA) Distinguished Teacher Awards (Kim Rusinow and Polly…

Gibbons, Robert D., Ed.

427

The Science of Reading. 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of the 1991 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 18 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "Features of Large-Print Picture Books for…

Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others

1991-01-01

428

Electronic Thermometer Readings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Stennis' adaptive predictive algorithm for electronic thermometers uses sample readings during the initial rise in temperature and applies an algorithm that accurately and rapidly predicts the steady state temperature. The final steady state temperature of an object can be calculated based on the second-order logarithm of the temperature signals acquired by the sensor and predetermined variables from the sensor characteristics. These variables are calculated during tests of the sensor. Once the variables are determined, relatively little data acquisition and data processing time by the algorithm is required to provide a near-accurate approximation of the final temperature. This reduces the delay in the steady state response time of a temperature sensor. This advanced algorithm can be implemented in existing software or hardware with an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The capability for easy integration eliminates the expense of developing a whole new system that offers the benefits provided by NASA Stennis' technology.

2001-01-01

429

The use and calibration of read-out streaks to increase the dynamic range of the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic range of photon counting micro-channel-plate (MCP) intensified charged-coupled device (CCD) instruments such as the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) is limited at the bright end by coincidence loss, the superposition of multiple photons in the individual frames recorded by the CCD. Photons which arrive during the brief period in which the image frame is transferred for read out of the CCD are displaced in the transfer direction in the recorded images. For sufficiently bright sources, these displaced counts form read-out streaks. Using UVOT observations of Tycho-2 stars, we investigate the use of these read-out streaks to obtain photometry for sources which are too bright (and hence have too much coincidence loss) for normal aperture photometry to be reliable. For read-out-streak photometry, the bright-source limiting factor is coincidence loss within the MCPs rather than the CCD. We find that photometric measurements can be obtained for stars up to 2.4 mag brighter than the usual full-frame coincidence-loss limit by using the read-out streaks. The resulting bright-limit Vega magnitudes in the UVOT passbands are UVW2 = 8.80, UVM2 = 8.27, UVW1 = 8.86, u = 9.76, b = 10.53, v = 9.31 and White = 11.71; these limits are independent of the windowing mode of the camera. We find that a photometric precision of 0.1 mag can be achieved through read-out streak measurements. A suitable method for the measurement of read-out streaks is described and all necessary calibration factors are given.

Page, M. J.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Breeveld, A. A.; Hancock, B.; Holland, S. T.; Marshall, F. E.; Oates, S.; Roming, P. W. A.; Siegel, M. H.; Smith, P. J.; Carter, M.; De Pasquale, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Yershov, V.; Beardmore, A. P.

2013-12-01

430

Regional Instrumentation Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

Cromie, William J.

1980-01-01

431

Quantum reading capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

2011-11-01

432

Predictive assessment of reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study 1 retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological and psychoeducational tests given to N=220 first graders, with follow-up assessments in third and eighth grade. Four predictor constructs were derived: (1) Phonemic\\u000a Awareness, (2) Picture Vocabulary, (3) Rapid Naming, and (4) Single Word Reading. Together, these accounted for 88%, 76%,\\u000a 69%, and 69% of the variance, respectively, in first, third, and eighth grade Woodcock

Frank B. Wood; Deborah F. Hill; Marianne S. Meyer; D. Lynn Flowers

2005-01-01

433

ReadDB Provides Efficient Storage for Mapped Short Reads  

PubMed Central

Background The advent of high-throughput sequencing has enabled sequencing based measurements of cellular function, with an individual measurement potentially consisting of more than 108 reads. While tools are available for aligning sets of reads to genomes and interpreting the results, fewer tools have been developed to address the storage and retrieval requirements of large collections of aligned datasets. We present ReadDB, a network accessible column store database system for aligned high-throughput read datasets. Results ReadDB stores collections of aligned read positions and provides a client interface to support visualization and analysis. ReadDB is implemented as a network server that responds to queries on genomic intervals in an experiment with either the set of contained reads or a histogram based interval summary. Tests on datasets ranging from 105 to 108 reads demonstrate that ReadDB performance is generally within a factor of two of local-storage based methods and often three to five times better than other network-based methods. Conclusions ReadDB is a high-performance foundation for ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analysis. The client-server model provides convenient access to compute cluster nodes or desktop visualization software without requiring a shared network filesystem or large amounts of local storage. The client code provides a simple interface for fast data access to visualization or analysis. ReadDB provides a new way to store genome-aligned reads for use in applications where read sequence and alignment mismatches are not needed. PMID:21736741

2011-01-01

434

Make Your Own Instrument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will give you some ideas on how to make your own musical instrument. So, you have to make your own musical instrument, huh? No idea where to start? Feeling overwhelmed? NEVER FEAR! Here are some great ideas. Although these websites talk about specific instruments which might not be what you want to make, they will get you started thinking. Often, the principles behind many instruments are the ...

Smith, Mr.

2012-09-11

435

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn to apply the principles and concepts associated with energy and the transfer of energy in an engineering context by designing and making musical instruments. They choose from a variety of provided supplies to make instruments capable of producing three different tones. After completing their designs, students explain the energy transfer mechanism in detail and describe how they could make their instruments better.

Engineering K-Phd Program

436

Diagnosis of instrument fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of faults in instrumentation equipment can often be confused with faults in the system. The correct diagnosis of instrument faults is of importance. Here it is described how to detect instrument faults in non-linearity. Time-varying processes that include uncertainties such as modelling error, parameter ambiguity, and input and output noise. The design of state estimation filters with zero

K. Watanabe; A. Komori; T. Kiyama

1994-01-01

437

Polymorphic bytecode instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bytecode instrumentation is a widely used technique to implement aspect weaving and dynamic analyses in virtual machines such as the Java Virtual Machine. Aspect weavers and other instrumentations are usually developed independently and combining them often requires significant engineering effort, if at all possible. In this paper we introduce polymorphic bytecode instrumentation (PBI), a simple but effective technique that allows

Philippe Moret; Walter Binder; Éric Tanter

2011-01-01

438

Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)

1989-01-01

439

Reading Comprehension under Listening, Silent, and Round Robin Reading Conditions as a Function of Text Difficulty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment investigating the reading comprehension performance of fifth grade readers under three reading conditions: listening, silent reading, and round robin oral reading. Finds that comprehension declined from listening, to silent, to round robin oral reading. (RAE)

Lynch, Douglas J.

1988-01-01

440

The Effect of Shared Reading on Sixth Grade Students' Motivation to Read and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are changes in student motivation to read and reading comprehension when the instructional strategy of shared reading is used with sixth grade students. The quasi-experimental design for the study was based on the pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. The sample for the study…

Hollimon, Deborah Neal

2008-01-01

441

Repeated Reading for Developing Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: The Case of EFL Learners in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…

Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

2008-01-01

442

Response to Intervention With Secondary School Students With Reading Difficulties  

PubMed Central

The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities with older students with intractable reading disabilities, (c) the reliability, validity, and use of screening and progress monitoring measures with middle school students, and (d) the implications of implementing response to intervention (RTI) practices at the middle school level. The authors provide guidance about prevailing questions about remediating reading difficulties with secondary students and discuss future directions for research using RTI frameworks for students at the secondary level. PMID:22491811

Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

2012-01-01

443

The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

2014-01-01

444

Science Teaching and Literacy, Part 2: Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of reading in science lessons, and offers practical solutions to the problems of structuring shared reading, making reading active, encouraging note-taking, and locating potential sources of reading material. (Author/MM)

Heselden, Russ; Staples, Rebecca

2002-01-01

445

What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident of bullying or violence directed toward youth in our communities or neighborhood schools.  

E-print Network

of bullying or violence directed toward youth in our communities or neighborhood schools. Youth violence Zimmerman Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids and the Arts Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids

Shyy, Wei

446

Historical Scientific Instrument Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual gallery features a collection of scientific instruments used in the early days of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The gallery's inroduction briefly describes the history of the department and its early instrument purchases, and the recovery and restoration of these items for use in a physical display. The virtual gallery is organized by the functions of the instruments (wave motion, optics, magnetism, and others). Each instrument is represented by a photograph and a brief description with the item's manufacturer, how it was used, and some references. There is also a gallery of "mystery objects," instruments whose function is no longer known.

447

Deriving group A Streptococcus typing information from short-read whole-genome sequencing data.  

PubMed

Typing of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is crucial for infection control and epidemiology. While whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is revolutionizing the way that bacterial organisms are typed, it is necessary to provide backward compatibility with currently used typing schemas to facilitate comparisons and understanding of epidemiological trends. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 191 GAS isolates representing 42 different emm types and used bioinformatics tools to derive commonly used GAS typing information directly from the short-read WGS data. We show that emm typing and multilocus sequence typing can be achieved rapidly and efficiently using this approach, which also permits the determination of the presence or absence of genes associated with GAS tissue tropism. We also report on how the WGS data analysis was instrumental in identifying ambiguities present in the commonly used emm type database hosted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:24648555

Athey, Taryn B T; Teatero, Sarah; Li, Aimin; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Beall, Bernard W; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

2014-06-01

448

Read Naturally. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Read Naturally" is a supplemental reading program designed to improve reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension of elementary and middle school students using a combination of books, audio CDs, and computer software. The program combines three main strategies: modeling of story reading, repeated reading of text for developing oral reading

What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

2013-01-01

449

Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor: Interactive Event Description  

E-print Network

's Reading Tutor, which listens to children read aloud, and helps them learn to read. 1. Brief General recognition to listen to children read aloud (Mostow et al., 1994), and helps them learn to read (Mostow et alProject LISTEN's Reading Tutor: Interactive Event Description Jack MOSTOW and Joseph E. BECK

Mostow, Jack

450

Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

2014-01-01

451

Replacement of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The DOE-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the replacement of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of this project is to replace the existing Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory (HPIL) with a new facility to provide a safe environment for maintaining and calibrating radiation detection instruments used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The existing HPIL facility provides portable health physics monitoring instrumentation and direct reading dosimetry procurement, maintenance and calibration of radiation detection instruments, and research and development support-services to the INEL and others. However, the existing facility was not originally designed for laboratory activities and does not provide an adequate, safe environment for calibration activities. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and evaluated reasonable alternatives, including the no action alternative in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508). Based on the environmental analysis in the attached EA, the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and 40 CFR Parts 1508.18 and 1508.27. The selected action (the proposed alternative) is composed of the following elements, each described or evaluated in the attached EA on the pages referenced. The proposed action is expected to begin in 1997 and will be completed within three years: design and construction of a new facility at the Central Facility Area of the INEL; operation of the facility, including instrument receipt, inspections and repairs, precision testing and calibration, and storage and issuance. The selected action will result in no significant environmental impacts.

NONE

1995-05-01

452

Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-06-01

453

Recommended Reading Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes information about the author, language, grade level equivalency, interest level, type of book, word count, ISBN number, book company, or publisher, and whether the book is available with a recorded voice on CD or cassette. 1.) This is a resource for children needing additional material to enhance their reading abilities. You will be able to find many resources outside of what may be available at the school or library. 2.) Parents, make sure that you are involved in the selection of each book chosen, and ...

Tutor, Barry T.

2007-10-18

454

John Milton Reading Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaborative project between Thomas Luxon, associate professor of English at Dartmouth College, and his students, the Milton Reading Room offers most of Milton's major poetry in English, including Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained, "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity," Samson Agonistes, and "Lycidas;" and selected major prose works, including Areopagitica, The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, Of Education, and The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates. The texts include framed annotations that link to reference materials, such as sources of literary allusions and historical background, as well as gloss archaic words or uses. Researchers in Milton studies will find the extensive bibliography of recent secondary literature especially helpful.

455

Reading habits and line bisection: a developmental approach.  

PubMed

120 normal right-handed subjects, children and adults, with opposite reading habits (60 French, left-to-right readers, 60 Israeli, right-to-left readers) and 60 pre-school children (30 French and 30 Israeli), were submitted to a visuo-motor bisection task. Bisection is found to be dependent upon reading habits with a leftward deviation of the subjective middle for left-to-right readers, and a rightward bias for right-to-left readers. Even before formal reading learning, French and Israeli pre-school children differ significantly in bisecting a line. Results are discussed with respect to hemispheric activation theories and directional hypotheses. PMID:8719022

Chokron, S; De Agostini, M

1995-12-01

456

Evidence-Based Reading Instruction for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Legislation mandates that all children, including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) be taught to read in ways that are consistent with reading research, and target the five components of evidence-based reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, reading fluency, vocabulary and comprehension strategies. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the literature on reading instruction for children with ASD that encompasses one or more of the five components of reading. The review yielded 11 studies with 61 participants ages 4 to 17. Results indicate that children with ASD can benefit from reading instruction consistent with reading research. Research in this area is still preliminary, and more research is needed to guide practice. Possible directions for future research are provided. PMID:20161582

Whalon, Kelly J.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Delano, Monica E.

2009-01-01

457

Micrometer Instruments, Aviation Quality Control 1: 9225.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second in a series of five, the course consists of the history and principles of the micrometer. The student must have mastered the skills offered in Introduction to Measurement and the Use of Scaled Instruments--9225.01. Techniques in reading and using the micrometer, checking, adjusting, and calibrating the micrometer are topics covered.…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

458

Instrumental Techniques: Brass, Music: 5642.3-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quinmester course is designed for students who have completed a music level 2 course or demonstrated advanced musicianship and/or performance skill. Course objectives, focusing on musicianship and performance, employ a lab approach in which pupils develop skill in playing brass instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis…

Peel, Jerry

459

BACHELOR OF MUSIC IN STRING INSTRUMENTS Fall Semester Spring Semester  

E-print Network

Philharmonic 1 Music 2307 History of Western Music I 2 Music 2308 History of Western Music II 2 Music 1091 Philharmonic 1 Music 43xx History elective 3 Music 2631 Basic Conducting & Score Reading 2 Music 1091 RecitalBACHELOR OF MUSIC IN STRING INSTRUMENTS Fall Semester Spring Semester Freshman Year Music 1230

Taylor, Jerry

460

Movement Instruction to Facilitate Beat Competency in Instrumental Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers instrumental directors at all levels some suggestions for the use of movement to facilitate "beat competency". We use the term beat competency to refer to a musician's ability to play with a consistent sense of pulse and balanced subdivision, as well as the eventual ability to bring that sense of pulse to reading

Conway, Colleen; Marshall, Herbert; Hartz, Barry

2014-01-01

461

Kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) for the SAFARI instrument on SPICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) with frequency domain read-out are intrinsically very suitable to use as building blocks for very large arrays. KIDs therefore are an attractive detector option for the SAFARI instrument on SPICA, Millimetron and also for large scale ground based imaging arrays. To study the properties of large KID arrays we have fabricated 400 pixels array made from

L. Ferrari; A. M. Baryshev; J. J. A. Baselmans; G. de Lange; P. Diener; J. W. Kooi; J. J. Lankwarden; S. J. C. Yates

2010-01-01

462

Onboard instrument processing concepts for the HyspIRI mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future NASA missions will have instruments that generate enormous amounts of data. We describe an onboard processing mission concept for a possible Direct Broadcast capability for the HyspIRI mission - a mission under consideration for launch in the next decade carrying visible to short wave infrared (VSWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) instruments. The VSWIR and TIR instruments will produce over

Steve A. Chien; Dorothy Silverman; Ashley Gerard Davies; David Mclaren; Daniel Mandl; Jerry Hengemihle

2010-01-01

463

The impact of educational television on young children's reading in the context of family stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of educational media use on young children's (ages 2–5) reading and pre-reading skills in the context of various family stressors (lack of economic resources, family conflict, and maternal depression). We examined the utility of models positing that family stressors directly predict the quality of the home learning environment and educational media use, which then directly

Elizabeth A. Vandewater; David S. Bickham

2004-01-01

464

Optical distance measuring instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

1986-01-01

465

Intercomparison of aerosol instruments: number concentration  

SciTech Connect

An intercomparison of aerosol instruments conducted February 23-27, 1981, at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) focused on five instruments: the Pollak and TSI condensation nucleus counters; the Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer (ASAS-X); and two aerosol electrometers. Test aerosols of sodium chloride and ammonium fluorescein generated by nebulization/electrostatic classification were used to obtain 195 lines of comparison data. Concentrations measured by the ASAS-X and the TSI aerosol electrometer averaged respectively 1.388 and 1.581 times that measured by the Pollak. These ratios were very stable during the week and there was little effect of particle size or material. Most other comparisons were equally stable. However, a review of past work at EML and elsewhere led to the disturbing conclusion that these ratios may change from year to year, or from season to season. A filter sample was taken from microscopy, concurrent with readings from the ASAS-X and the TSI condensation nucleus counters. In this sample, the two instruments differed by 20%. Within its 20% uncertainty, the filter result matched both the TSI and ASAS-X readings.

Knutson, E O; Sinclair, D; Tu, K W; Hinchliffe, L; Franklin, H

1982-05-01

466

Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

2009-01-01

467

Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration  

SciTech Connect

Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [{approx}1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of {approx}9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is {approx}1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to {approx}1%. Spectrometer read noise is {approx}2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to {approx}10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of {approx}2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to {approx}0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 306-392, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Ipatov, Sergei; Li Jianyang; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Wellnitz, Dennis [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2421 (United States); Baca, Michael [Science Applications International Corporation, 5180 Parkstone Drive, Suite 100, Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States); Delamere, Alan [Delamere Support Services, 525 Mapleton Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80304 (United States); Desnoyer, Mark; Thomas, Peter [Cornell University, Space Science Building, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Hampton, Donald [Ball Aerospace and Technologies, 1600 Commerce St., Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Lisse, Carey [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, SD/SRE, MP3/W-155, 7707 Montpelier Road, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States)

2008-09-15

468

Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.  

PubMed

Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers. PMID:19044397

Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

2008-09-01

469

Read.gov  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Book, in the Library of Congress, was established in the late 1970s to promote reading, literacy and libraries. Their website offers a great many "Resources" on the menu on the left side of any page, including "Author Webcasts", "Booklists", and "Local/Community Resources". The "Author Webcasts" include videos of such authors as Tom Gjelten, Stephenie Meyer, Chinua Achebe, and Sara Paretsky. The "Books and Related Info For" menu on the left side of any page, has sections for "Kids", "Teens", "Adults", and "Educators and Parents". Within the "Kids" and "Teens" sections are classic books that have been digitized and put online to be read in all their original glory. Classics such as "A Apple Pie", "Baseball ABC", and "The Secret Garden" are beautifully captured. In the "Educators and Parents" section visitors can find wonderful lesson plans, exhibitions, and online activities. Visitors should not miss checking out "Contests: Letters About Literature" on the left hand menu to learn about several writing contests for young children and teens.

470

Glutamate and choline levels predict individual differences in reading ability in emergent readers.  

PubMed

Reading disability is a brain-based difficulty in acquiring fluent reading skills that affects significant numbers of children. Although neuroanatomical and neurofunctional networks involved in typical and atypical reading are increasingly well characterized, the underlying neurochemical bases of individual differences in reading development are virtually unknown. The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators range on a continuum from impaired to superior, we examined the relationship between individual differences in reading and reading-related skills and concentrations of neurometabolites measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentrations were negatively correlated with reading and related linguistic measures in phonology and vocabulary (such that higher concentrations were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance. Implications for neurodevelopmental models of reading and reading disability are discussed, including possible links of choline and glutamate to white matter anomalies and hyperexcitability. These findings point to new directions for research on gene-brain-behavior pathways in human studies of reading disability. PMID:24623786

Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Stephen J; Rothman, Douglas L; Hoeft, Fumiko; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Mason, Graeme F; Molfese, Peter J; Mencl, W Einar; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L; Jacobsen, Leslie; Seidenberg, Mark S; Fulbright, Robert K

2014-03-12

471

The distracting effects of vocal and instrumental music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of vocal and instrumental music upon the performance of introverts and extraverts on three cognitive tasks. In the presence of either vocal or instrumental music, or in silence, introverts and extraverts sixth form pupils (N=144) completed a reading comprehension, a logic problem and a coding task. An interaction was predicted such that instrumental music would

Adrian Furnham; Sarah Trew; Ian Sneade

1999-01-01

472

Direct marketing attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines empirically consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing using a sample of 354 consumers. The sample was randomly drawn from a large southern metropolitan area. The study instrument comprised items developed from literature sources. Respondents' evaluations of the items were obtained through in-home personal interviews. Underlying the study is the hypothesis that consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing are a

Daulatram Lund; Pradeep K. Korgaonkar

1995-01-01

473

aladdin nulling instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALADDIN project aims at detecting warm dust populations around nearby main sequence stars. In order to achieve the significantly improved sensitivity with respect to existing instruments, the architecture of the system is focused and optimised for the mission: ALADDIN implements the nulling interferometry technique at the focal plane of a 2-telescope interferometer mounted on a rotating structural beam. Concerning the beam combining nulling instrument, the ALADDIN design is inherited from a Definition Study of the VLTI/GENIE instrument. In this paper, we demonstrate how the ALADDIN instrument preliminary definition can be made simpler and more representative of a space instrument than GENIE thanks to both the outstanding atmospheric properties of Dome C and the dedicated architecture of the system. Finally, we discuss the compatibility of the instrument with the Antarctic environment and constraints, and underline the experimental and industrial know-how learnt from the MAII and PERSEE nulling breadboards in which our Team is also involved.

Barillot, M.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Surdej, J.; Absil, O.; Jamar, C.; di Folco, E.

474

Ethnomusicology Musical Instrument Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Washington Ethnomusicology Division houses over 400 musical instruments from around the world. Over the past six decades, the collection has grown substantially as musicians and collectors have donated all manner of instruments. First-time visitors should dive right in by clicking on the Idiophones section offered under Sample Searches. In case you are wondering, an idiophone happens to be any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating. Dozens of these instruments, including a dril-bu, a ghungru, and a range of gongs, are presented in this section of the collection. Visitors can also Browse Sound Files and Browse Video Files to hear and listen to some of these remarkable instruments.

475

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

476

Using Enrichment Reading Practices to Increase Reading Fluency, Comprehension, and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a randomized design to investigate the effects of an enriched reading program, Schoolwide Enrichment Reading Model (SEM-R), with blocks of independent reading on oral reading fluency (ORF), reading comprehension, and attitudes toward reading for students in Grades 3-5. The authors used SEM-R in comparison with basal reading

Reis, Sally M.; Eckert, Rebecca D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Jacobs, Joan K.; Coyne, Michael

2008-01-01

477

Biological development of reading circuits.  

PubMed

Human neuroimaging is expanding our understanding of the biological processes that are essential for healthy brain function. Methods such as diffusion weighted imaging provide insights into white matter fascicles, growth and pruning of dendritic arbors and axons, and properties of glia. This review focuses on what we have learned from diffusion imaging about these processes and the development of reading circuitry in the human brain. Understanding reading circuitry development may suggest ways to improve how we teach children to read. PMID:23312307

Wandell, Brian A; Yeatman, Jason D

2013-04-01

478

Biological development of reading circuits  

PubMed Central

Human neuroimaging is expanding our understanding of the biological processes that are essential for healthy brain function. Methods such as diffusion weighted imaging provide insights into white matter fascicles, growth and pruning of dendritic arbors and axons, and properties of glia. This review focuses on what we have learned from diffusion imaging about these processes and the development of reading circuitry in the human brain. Understanding reading circuitry development may suggest ways to improve how we teach children to read. PMID:23312307

Wandell, Brian A.; Yeatman, Jason D.

2013-01-01

479

The Worldwide Right to Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address by the director of the Right to Read program presents a brief history of the effort, a discussion of the major goals, and a description of the means being used to reach these goals. The Right to Read program is an effort to insure that by 1980 no student will leave our schools without the skills of reading and writing. It is founded…

Holloway, Ruth Love

480

Space applications instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1972-01-01

481

Instrument validation project  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

1996-06-01

482

Instrument performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program.

Swinth, K.L.

1993-03-01

483

Reading Like a Historian: Loyalists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this brief lesson, students study the writings of Loyalists during the American Revolution in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did some colonists support England and oppose independence? After a brief teacher introduction establishing historical context, students will read read 2 primary source documents: 1) a pamphlet by Charles Inglis, Anglican minister, explaining the many drawbacks to American independence, and 2) an anonymous newspaper letter urging reconciliation with Britain. While reading, students complete a graphic organizer that applies sourcing, contextualization, corroboration, and close reading to each passage. A final class discussion asks students to draw a conclusion as to whether the Loyalists or Patriots were more reasonable.

Group, Stanford H.

2012-09-25

484

Means for Positioning and Repositioning Scanning Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for positioning a scanning instrument to point toward the center of the desired scan wherein the scan is achieved by rotating unbalanced masses (RUMs) rotating about fixed axes of rotation relative to and associated with the instrument, the RUMs being supported on drive shafts spaced from the center of the mass of the instrument and rotating 180 degrees out-of-phase with each other and in planes parallel to each other to achieve the scan. The elevation and cross-elevation angles of the instrument are sensed to determine any offset and offset time rate-of-change, and the magnitude and direction are converted to a RUM cycle angular velocity component to be superimposed on the nominal velocity of the RUMs. This RUM angular velocity component modulates the RUM angular velocity to cause the speed of the RUMs to increase and decrease during each revolution to drive the instrument toward the desired center of the scan.

Polites, Michael E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

485

Propulsion Instruments for Small Hall Thruster Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and development are underway for the propulsion instrumentation necessary for the next AFRL electric propulsion flight project, which includes both a small Hall thruster and a micro-PPT. These instruments characterize the environment induced by the thruster and the associated data constitute part of a 'user's manual' for these thrusters. Several instruments probe the back-flow region of the thruster plume, and the data are intended for comparison with detailed numerical models in this region. Specifically, an ion probe is under development to determine the energy and species distributions, and a Langmuir probe will be employed to characterize the electron density and temperature. Other instruments directly measure the effects of thruster operation on spacecraft thermal control surfaces, optical surfaces, and solar arrays. Specifically, radiometric, photometric, and solar-cell-based sensors are under development. Prototype test data for most sensors should be available, together with details of the instrumentation subsystem and spacecraft interface.

Johnson, Lee K.; Conroy, David G.; Spanjers, Greg G.; Bromaghim, Daron R.

2001-01-01

486

Intact reading in patients with profound early visual dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial neuroscientific evidence for a region of visual cortex dedicated to the processing of written words, many studies continue to reject explanations of letter-by-letter (LBL) reading in terms of impaired word form representations or parallel letter processing in favour of more general deficits of visual function. In the current paper, we demonstrate that whilst LBL reading is often associated with general visual deficits, these deficits are not necessarily sufficient to cause reading impairment and have led to accounts of LBL reading which are based largely on evidence of association rather than causation. We describe two patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) who exhibit remarkably preserved whole word and letter reading despite profound visual dysfunction. Relative to controls, both patients demonstrated impaired performance on tests of early visual, visuoperceptual and visuospatial processing; visual acuity was the only skill preserved in both individuals. By contrast, both patients were able to read aloud words with perfect to near-perfect accuracy. Reading performance was also rapid with no overall significant difference in response latencies relative to age- and education-matched controls. Furthermore, the patients violated a key prediction of general visual accounts of LBL reading – that pre-lexical impairments should result in prominent word length effects; in the two reported patients, evidence for abnormal word length effects was equivocal or absent, and certainly an order of magnitude different to that reported for LBL readers. We argue that general visual accounts cannot explain the pattern of reading data reported, and attribute the preserved reading performance to preserved direct access to intact word form representations and/or parallel letter processing mechanisms. The current data emphasise the need for much clearer evidence of causality when attempting to draw connections between specific aspects of visual processing and different types of acquired peripheral dyslexia. PMID:23578749

Yong, Keir X.X.; Warren, Jason D.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

2013-01-01

487

Intact reading in patients with profound early visual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Despite substantial neuroscientific evidence for a region of visual cortex dedicated to the processing of written words, many studies continue to reject explanations of letter-by-letter (LBL) reading in terms of impaired word form representations or parallel letter processing in favour of more general deficits of visual function. In the current paper, we demonstrate that whilst LBL reading is often associated with general visual deficits, these deficits are not necessarily sufficient to cause reading impairment and have led to accounts of LBL reading which are based largely on evidence of association rather than causation. We describe two patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) who exhibit remarkably preserved whole word and letter reading despite profound visual dysfunction. Relative to controls, both patients demonstrated impaired performance on tests of early visual, visuoperceptual and visuospatial processing; visual acuity was the only skill preserved in both individuals. By contrast, both patients were able to read aloud words with perfect to near-perfect accuracy. Reading performance was also rapid with no overall significant difference in response latencies relative to age- and education-matched controls. Furthermore, the patients violated a key prediction of general visual accounts of LBL reading - that pre-lexical impairments should result in prominent word length effects; in the two reported patients, evidence for abnormal word length effects was equivocal or absent, and certainly an order of magnitude different to that reported for LBL readers. We argue that general visual accounts cannot explain the pattern of reading data reported, and attribute the preserved reading performance to preserved direct access to intact word form representations and/or parallel letter processing mechanisms. The current data emphasise the need for much clearer evidence of causality when attempting to draw connections between specific aspects of visual processing and different types of acquired peripheral dyslexia. PMID:23578749

Yong, Keir X X; Warren, Jason D; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Crutch, Sebastian J

2013-10-01

488

Management Manual: High School Reading Laboratories Funded Reading Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook includes assorted checklists, calendars, guides, and forms to help in managing a high school reading laboratory. The program is based on a diagnostic-prescriptive, skill-centered approach to the teaching of reading. Procedures related to the philosophy of the program, organization and storage of materials, record keeping, and testing…

Kantrowitz, Leonard

489

Human Read/Machine Read Information Processor System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Read/Machine Read (HRMR) Microfilm Memory System was developed. The equipment is intended to be an initial step toward a mass memory microfilm data storage and retrieval system. The HRMR System is composed of functional modules. Basic modules ar...

A. K. Gillis

1974-01-01

490

The Reading Journal: A Bridge between Reading and Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading journals can help college readers successfully meet the demands of complex and sophisticated texts when students use them as a strategy for making meaning rather than simply extracting information. There are three primary reasons for using reading journals at the college level: (1) writing is a way of discovering when students are free to…

Kirby, Kate; And Others

1986-01-01

491

Children's Summer Reading Program, 1999. Read around the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for the 1999 Virginia Summer Reading Program for public libraries, based on the theme "Read around the World...Book a Trip," includes the following chapters: (1) "Getting Ready," including bibliographies, display and decorating ideas, equipment resources, a list of useful things to collect, sources for promotional materials, and maps;…

Virginia State Library, Richmond.

492

Parents Reading with Their Children: Effects on Reading Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the literature on how parents reading with their children affects children's interest and ability in reading was informative. Especially useful were 3 articles--those of Scarbrorough, Dorbrich, and Hager (1991); Ridout (1992); and Martin (1993). The first article states that not all children follow in their parents' desire for…

Chesney, Mailisha

493

Low-vision reading aids: reading as a pleasurable experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video magnifiers provide people with low vision a means to maintain a degree of independence by helping them to read and write. The design of these machines has remained essentially unchanged for 20 years, despite advances in computer technology. Designing reading aids with increased technological complexity and added functionality requires an understanding of the specific needs of this user group. The

Chandra M. Harrison

2004-01-01

494

Dialogic Reading: A Shared Picture Book Reading Intervention for Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

tehurst,1992) and narrative skills (Harkins, Koch, & Michel, 1994; Zevenbergen & Wilson, 1996)resulting from shared picture book reading experiences. Studies also suggest a link betweenearly experiences with shared picture book reading and later language and literacy skills (e.g.,Dickinson & Smith, 1994; Stevenson & Fredman, 1990; Wells, 1985). For example, Wells(1985) showed that the amount of time children listened to stories

Andrea A. Zevenbergen; Grover J. Whitehurst

495

Which Reading Lesson Instruction Characteristics Matter for Early Reading Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five reading lesson instruction characteristics were examined in relation to first and second graders' end-of-year instructional reading level: (a) teacher's preferred interaction style (indicated by extent of teacher telling and coaching); (b) teacher's preferred grouping (indicated by extent of whole class and small group instruction); (c)…

Amendum, Steven J.; Li, Yongmei; Hall, Leigh A.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Creamer, Kimberly H.; Head-Reeves, Darlene M.; Hollingsworth, Heidi L.

2009-01-01

496

Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between fourth grade primary school students' reading habits/conditions/ situations and their comprehension regarding what they read. For this purpose, a correlational survey method was used in the study. 90 fourth-grade students who were attending a state primary school in the center of Ku¨tahya…

Basaran, Mustafa

2013-01-01

497

Reading Problems of Children: The Perspectives of Reading Specialists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of reading specialists, factors contributing to reading difficulties include visual and auditory limitations, instructional and environmental problems, and emotional difficulties. A hierarchy of word recognition skills is presented. The usefulness of diagnosing children learning disabled or dyslexic is examined in the context…

Poostay, Edward; Aaron, Ira E.

1982-01-01

498

Project Read: Reading for Educational Achievement and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Reading for Educational Achievement and Development (READ) uses community resource people to motivate at-risk minority group high school females to persist in their academic endeavors and develop their abilities. First conducted in the Santa Monica (California) Unified School District, this lunchtime program focuses on improving student…

Hudley-Paul, Cynthia

499

A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

2014-01-01

500

Reading Strategies Revealed in Chinese Children's Oral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the character identification strategies of Chinese children during their oral reading of a continuous text. Eighteen second graders' oral reading of a story, as well as an interview about their decoding strategies, were audiotaped and transcribed. The results generally converged with those of previous oral…

Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.

2007-01-01