Sample records for direct reading instrument

  1. An electronic instrument for direct-reading indication of thermocouple temperature

    E-print Network

    Hartung, Robert Leonard

    1954-01-01

    AN ELECTRONIC INSTRVNENT FOR DIRECT-READING INDICATION OF THERNOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE A Thesis Robert Leonard Hartung Approved as to style and content by: . ~c i4- a~rman o omaottee a ea o epartment o ectr ea ng neer ng August 3, 95/ LIST...!@ay ll AlN OOLLEGE OE TEXAS AN ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT FOR DIRECT-READING INDICATION OF THERNOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE A Thesis Robert Leonard Hartung Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agriculture and Xechanical College of Texas in partial...

  2. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L; Ogle, Burton R; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-07-01

    The calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters were examined to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. Both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Therefore, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. The bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring. PMID:25625686

  3. TANK VAPOR CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN & EXISTING DIRECT READING INSTRUMENTION & PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BUTLER, N.K.

    2004-11-01

    This document takes the newly released Industrial Hygiene Chemical Vapor Technical Basis (RPP-22491) and evaluates the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) identified for selected implementation actions by the industrial hygiene organization. This document is not intended as a hazard analysis with recommended controls for all tank farm activities. Not all of the chemicals listed are present in all tanks; therefore, hazard analyses can and should be tailored as appropriate. Detection of each chemical by current industrial hygiene non-specific instrumentation in use at the tank farms is evaluated. Information gaps are identified and recommendations are made to resolve these needs. Of the 52 COPC, 34 can be detected with existing instrumentation. Three additional chemicals could be detected with a photoionization detector (PID) equipped with a different lamp. Discussion with specific instrument manufacturers is warranted. Consideration should be given to having the SapphIRe XL customized for tank farm applications. Other instruments, sampling or modeling techniques should be evaluated to estimate concentrations of chemicals not detected by direct reading instruments. In addition, relative instrument response needs to be factored in to action levels used for direct reading instruments. These action levels should be correlated to exposures to the COPC and corresponding occupational exposure limits (OELs). The minimum respiratory protection for each of the COPC is evaluated against current options. Recommendations are made for respiratory protection based on each chemical. Until exposures are sufficiently quantified and analyzed, the current use of supplied air respiratory protection is appropriate and protective for the COPC. Use of supplied air respiratory protection should be evaluated once a detailed exposure assessment for the COPC is completed. The established tank farm OELs should be documented in the TFC-PLN-34. For chemicals without an established tank farm OEL, consideration should be given to adopting protective limits from NIOSH, AIHA, or developing OELs. Protective gloves and suits are evaluated for each chemical for which information is available. Information gaps are identified for some of the compounds and materials. Recommendations are made for resolving these needs. Based on available information, Silver Shield{reg_sign} gloves are promising for tank farm applications. However, permeation testing documentation is needed for the COPC and mixtures for Silver Shield{reg_sign} gloves to evaluate their protectiveness. North Safety Products is expected to provide the requested documentation. Multiple Tychem{reg_sign} products are available. There is overlap between chemicals and effective materials. Further hazard evaluation to determine actual hazards and permeation testing documentation is required to assess the efficacy of a single Tychem{reg_sign} product for tank farm applications. All of this chemical specific data is combined into a spreadsheet that will assist the industrial hygienist in the selection of monitoring instruments, respiratory protection selection and protective clothing for performing work at a specific tank(s).

  4. An electronic instrument for direct-reading indication of thermocouple temperature 

    E-print Network

    Hartung, Robert Leonard

    1954-01-01

    'equires regulated power supplies and additional components. The magnetic amplifier fails to meet the input, resistance requirement unless a vacuum tube amplifiez is placed before the magnetic amplifiez . The vacuum tube amplifier again in- troduces zero drift... types of diz'ect curz. ent ampli- fiers now used was undertaken to insuz'e a wise choice. Kandiah and Brown give a good discussion of' many types of amplifiers. Suitable types listed were the direct coupled amplifier, the magnetic amplifier...

  5. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  6. Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

  7. Direct reading fast microwave interferometer for EBT

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, T.

    1984-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive 4-mm direct reading fast (rise time approx. 100 ..mu..s) microwave interferometer is described. The system is particularly useful for density measurements on the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) during pulsed operation.

  8. A Modified Direct-Reading Azimuth Protractor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, William C.; Pugliese, Joseph M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the construction of a direct-reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) used for mapping fracture and joint-surface orientations in underground mines where magnetic disturbances affect typical geologic pocket transit. (SL)

  9. Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Mélanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

    2013-05-01

    Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and teachers new to material culture can readily use artefacts to reveal rich and complex networks of narratives. We illustrate this point by describing our own lay encounter with an artefact turned over for our analysis during a week-long workshop at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. The text explains how elements as disparate as the military appearance of the instrument, the crest stamped on its body, the manipulation of its telescopes, or a luggage tag revealed the object's scientific and political significance in different national contexts. In this way, the presence of the instrument in the classroom vividly conveyed the nature of geophysics as a field practice and an international science, and illuminated relationships between pure and applied science for early twentieth century geologists. We conclude that artefact study can be an unexpectedly powerful and accessible tool in the study of science, making visible the connections between past and present, laboratory and field, texts and instruments.

  10. Direct-reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  11. Developing Sight-Reading Skills on Mallet Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Sight-reading while playing a mallet instrument can present serious obstacles for the developing percussionist. Many young players who have solid snare drum technique usually cite fear of playing the wrong note as the number-one hurdle to overcome in order to begin making real progress. Greg Byrne, associate director of bands at the University of…

  12. 75 FR 64309 - Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors and Addendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH...for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH...direct-reading instrumentation and are compatible with the Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation...for Occupational Safety and Health,...

  13. A comparison of magnetic single-shot instruments with a directional MWD system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Mitrov; N. W. Buss; M. L. McCarter; F. A. Stone

    1983-01-01

    A measurement-while-drilling (MWD) directional survey tool and a set of magnetic single-shot instruments used while drilling a particular, highly deviated well were removed from the field and put in a controlled laboratory environment. Tests were conducted comparing directional survey azimuth readings obtained with the single-shots against azimuth readings taken with the MWD system. The authors found both measuring systems were

  14. Comparison of Magnetic Single-Shot Instruments With a Directional MWD System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Mitrou; F. A. Stone; M. L. McCarter; Bill Buss

    1986-01-01

    A measurement-while-drilling (MWD) directional survey tool and a set of magnetic single-shot instruments used while drilling a particular, highly deviated well were removed from the field and put in a controlled laboratory environment. Tests were conducted to compare directional-survey azimuth readings obtained with the single-shots against azimuth readings taken with the MWD system. The authors found both measuring systems were

  15. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, Teri

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether perceptual learning at early levels of visual processing would facilitate learning at higher levels of processing. This was examined by determining whether training the motion pathways by practicing leftright movement discrimination, as found previously, would improve the reading skills of inefficient readers significantly more than another computer game, a word discrimination game, or the reading program offered by the school. This controlled validation study found that practicing left-right movement discrimination 5-10 minutes twice a week (rapidly) for 15 weeks doubled reading fluency, and significantly improved all reading skills by more than one grade level, whereas inefficient readers in the control groups barely improved on these reading skills. In contrast to previous studies of perceptual learning, these experiments show that perceptual learning of direction discrimination significantly improved reading skills determined at higher levels of cognitive processing, thereby being generalized to a new task. The deficits in reading performance and attentional focus experienced by the person who struggles when reading are suggested to result from an information overload, resulting from timing deficits in the direction-selectivity network proposed by Russell De Valois et al. (2000), that following practice on direction discrimination goes away. This study found that practicing direction discrimination rapidly transitions the inefficient 7-year-old reader to an efficient reader.

  16. Direct Observation in Special Education Classrooms: Concurrent Use of Two Instruments and Their Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Parker, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Concurrent use of two direct observation instruments (momentary time sample of task engagement and event recording of discrete student responses) were evaluated in six middle school resource rooms using either of two reading programs. Findings tended to be program specific with differences lost or diluted when data were combined across programs.…

  17. Direct reading fast microwave interferometer for ELMO Bumpy Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, T.

    1984-11-01

    A simple and inexpensive 4-mm direct reading fast (rise timeapprox.100 ..mu..s) microwave interferometer is described. The system is particularly useful for density measurements on the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) during pulsed operation.

  18. Technical basis for implementation of remote reading capabilities for radiological control instruments at tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    PIERSON, R.M.

    1999-10-27

    This document provides the technical basis for use of remote reading capabilities with radiological control instruments at River Protection Project facilities. The purpose of this document is to evaluate applications of remote reading capabilities with Radiological Control instrumentation to allow continuous monitoring of radiation dose rates at River Protection Project (RPP) facilities. In addition this document provides a technical basis and implementing guidelines for remote monitoring of dose rates and their potential contribution to maintaining radiation exposures ALARA.

  19. Direction Counts: A Comparative Study of Spatially Directional Counting Biases in Cultures with Different Reading Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H.; Gobel, Silke M.

    2012-01-01

    Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear…

  20. Progress Monitoring Instrument Development: Silent Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension. Technical Report #1110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Anderson, Daniel; Hoelscher, Kyle; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is designed to measure students' academic status and growth so the effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated. In the most popular forms of reading CBM, the student's oral reading fluency is assessed. This behavior is difficult to sample in a computer-based format, a limitation that may be a function of the…

  1. Direct-reading group-delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.

  2. Development of Perceived Instrumentality for Mathematics, Reading and Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Steve L.

    2010-01-01

    Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort…

  3. Experiences with Flow-direction Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, B

    1941-01-01

    The method of recording the direction of flows on the basis of the hydrodynamic zero-point measurement has now reached a certain limit, in spite of the good results achieved. While the available flow-direction devices are accurate enough for many purposes, they are all insufficient for perfectly exact prediction of the flow direction. The next problem will be to achieve a point-by point flow-direction record, whereby the test procedure must be simplified, accelerated, and the degree of accuracy of the test data improved.

  4. Field evaluation of direct-reading continuous ethylene oxide monitors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.A.; Carpenter, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Central Processing Section (WHMC/SGLP) uses ethylene oxide (EtO) as a primary sterilizing agent. Because of their concern about the health effects of EtO, SGLP has searched for a continuous-monitoring EtO system. In their search, they found two units (AMSCO's Envirogard III and Baseline Industries, Inc.'s Model 5500 Gas Analyzer). The objective of this evaluation was to conduct a field study to compare the performances of the two direct-reading continuous EtO monitors against the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) acceptable charcoal-tube sampling method. In addition, the 3M EtO passive monitor sampling method was compared with the charcoal-tube method and direct-reading instrumental method as well. Neither the Baseline Industries, Inc. nor the AMSCO continuous monitors corresponded to OSHA acceptable charcoal tube method of air sampling. Both instruments reported EtO concentrations much higher than those detected by the charcoal tubes. There is no way of knowing which method, the direct-reading continuous monitor or the charcoal tube/passive monitor, is more correct. However, the OSHA standard for EtO is based on measuring EtO by the charcoal tube method.

  5. Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.

    2010-01-01

    Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension…

  6. Using Directed Reading Thinking Activity Strategies To Teach Students Reading Comprehension Skills in Middle Grades Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFoe, Marguerite Corbitt

    This practicum was designed to use directed reading thinking activity strategies to teach reading comprehension skills to middle grades language arts students who frequently failed to make passing scores in reading comprehension exercises. The program included three specific strategies. The first strategy was to teach the students higher-order…

  7. Attention Allocation and Performance in Goal-Directed Reading: Age Difference in Reading Flexibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dee Ramsel; Mark Grabe

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and seventeen fourth-grade, sixth-grade, and college-age students studied stories with two different sets of instructions. One set of instructions asked the students to read carefully (control condition); the other set of instructions directed the students to prepare to answer previously-memorized assigned questions (question-cued treatment condition). Viewing times were recorded for story segments both relevant and irrelevant to the

  8. Learning Indirect Acquisition of Instrumental Gestures using Direct Sensors

    E-print Network

    Tzanetakis, George

    Learning Indirect Acquisition of Instrumental Gestures using Direct Sensors (Invited Paper) George with sensors that directly detect gestures 2) Indirect Acquisition in which the only measurement sensors to train a machine learning model for indirect acquisition is explored. This approach has some

  9. Reading Performance of Elementary Students: Results of a Five-Year Longitudinal Study of Direct Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, Dana; Kazelskis, Richard; Kazelskis, Carolyn Reeves

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the impact of a direct reading instruction program, "Reading Mastery (RM)," on literacy performance of students over a five-year period. Initially, 700 students in grades K-3 were randomly selected from six elementary schools to participate in the study; an additional 100 randomly-selected…

  10. Help for the Reading Teacher: New Directions in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, William D., Ed.

    This book is designed to be a bridge between teachers and research in such topics as the cloze procedure, readability formulas, miscue analysis, reading strategies, informal reading inventories, and concepts and reading in the content areas. "Children's Behavior While Reading" by H. Robinson serves as a bridge between Huey's early beginning and…

  11. Directions in Reading: Research and Instruction. Thirtieth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamil, Michael L., Ed.; Boswick, Mary M., Ed.

    Reflecting the increasing complexity and sophistication in reading research, the papers in this collection represent a wide spectrum of approaches, philosophies, viewpoints, and techniques of scholarly endeavor in their treatment of reading research and instruction. Following an address, by the president of the organization, on reading

  12. An Inquiry into Children's Reading in One Urban School Using SRA Reading Mastery (Direct Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltz, Nancy; Wilson, G. Pat

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on 27 second graders in one urban school that used SRA Reading Mastery. Children's strategy use, comprehension, and perception of the reading process were appraised using samples of oral reading with retellings; classroom observations; interviews with the children, their teachers, and the principal; and a phonics test. Results…

  13. Evidence for direct control of eye movements during reading

    PubMed Central

    Dambacher, Michael; Slattery, Timothy J.; Yang, Jinmian; Kliegl, Reinhold; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that fixation durations during reading vary with processing difficulty, but there are different views on how oculomotor control, visual perception, shifts of attention, and lexical (and higher cognitive) processing are coordinated. Evidence for a one-to-one translation of input delay into saccadic latency would provide a much needed constraint for current theoretical proposals. Here, we tested predictions of such a direct-control perspective using the stimulus-onset delay (SOD) paradigm. Words in sentences were initially masked and, upon fixation, were individually unmasked with a delay (0-ms, 33-ms, 66-ms, 99-ms SODs). In Experiment 1, SODs were constant for all words in a sentence; in Experiment 2, SODs were manipulated on target words, while non-targets were unmasked without delay. In accordance with predictions of direct control, non-zero SODs entailed equivalent increases in fixation durations in both experiments. Yet, a population of short fixations pointed to rapid saccades as a consequence of low-level information at non-optimal viewing positions rather than of lexical processing. Implications of these results for theoretical accounts of oculomotor control are discussed. PMID:23421473

  14. The Neural Substrates for Letter String Readings in The Normal and Reverse Directions: An fMRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Sheng; Saito, Takashi; Wu, Jing-Long; Ogasawara, Jun-Ichi; Yamauchi, Shuichi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Iramina, Keiji

    In order to investigate the difference in cortical activations between reading letter strings in the normal direction and the reverse direction, an fMRI study was conducted. In this study, the cortical activations elicited by Japanese letter string reading and Chinese letter string reading were investigated. The subjects performed the normal direction reading task (read letter strings from left to right), and the reverse direction reading task (read letter strings from right to left). According to the experimental results, the activated brain regions during the normal and the reverse direction reading tasks were compared. It was found that visuospatial transformation was involved in the reverse direction reading task, while this function was not significant during the normal direction reading task. Furthermore, we found that there was no significant difference in cortical activation between Japanese and Chinese letter string readings.

  15. Could we Read Thoughts Directly from the Brain? Bordeaux -2014

    E-print Network

    . Attempts/successes? of "thought reading" (EEG, fMRI, Intracranial, single spikes) 1. Summary of present ("reading" the brain with fMRI) #12;I. Levy, Hebrew University & R. VISUAL STIMULUS Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Detecting blood flow to active brain regions #12;#12;Probing the brain with fMRI

  16. Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Role of Direct/Explicit Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Blair, Timothy R.; Nichols, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Struggling readers are more likely to learn essential reading skills and strategies if the direct or explicit model of instruction is part of the teacher's repertoire of teaching methods. Directly/explicitly teaching reading means imparting new information to students through meaningful teacher-student interactions and teacher guidance of student…

  17. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane – a cross-cultural comparison

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Silke M.

    2015-01-01

    Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. Participants were either from a left-to-right reading culture (UK) or from a mixed (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) reading culture (Hong Kong). In Experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical, and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In Experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left-to-right or in top-to-bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults started counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction. PMID:25852583

  18. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  19. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  20. Put Reading First: Positive Effects of Direct Instruction and Scaffolding for ESL Learners Struggling with Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Staden, Annalene

    2011-01-01

    The inability of many English second-language (ESL) learners to read at desirable levels is universal, but reasons for this and solutions have not yet been addressed. Within the South African teaching context especially there is a paucity of evidence-based research findings available on the literacy challenges faced by ESL learners and the…

  1. Assessment of personal direct-reading dust monitors for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The performances of five portable direct-reading dust monitors were investigated in a wind tunnel for a range of industrial dusts and three sizes of aluminium oxide test dust to mainly determine their suitability for measuring the inhalable fraction of airborne dust in workplaces. The instruments tested were Split 2 (SKC Ltd), Sidepak (TSI Inc.), Dataram (Thermo Electron Ltd), PDS-2 (Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd) and the Respicon TM (Hund Ltd). The instruments' responses were compared with reference dust samplers. These were the IOM sampler for the inhalable fraction and the Casella cyclone sampler for the respirable fraction. All instruments are predominantly responsive to and are designed to measure particles in the respirable size range, although two of the instruments, the Split 2 and Respicon TM, are claimed to be capable of measuring inhalable-sized particles. For the purpose of the tests, major modifications to an existing wind tunnel dust injection system were made to facilitate the generation of uniform concentrations of large inhalable-sized dust particles at low air velocities. Each monitor greatly underestimated the measurement of inhalable concentration for all the dusts tested, although the linearity was good over a wide range of concentrations for any particular size distribution of dust. However, their calibration factors, defined as the ratio of reference inhalable concentration to monitor concentration, were especially sensitive to changes in particle size as the response of the instruments decreased rapidly with increasing particle size. The monitors generally overestimated the measurement of respirable dust concentration by up to a factor of about 2, apart from the PDS-2, which underestimated it by a factor of up to 3. There was, however, a great deal more scatter in the reference respirable concentration measurements owing to the collection of small dust samples. Therefore, monitor linearity and effects of monitor response to changes in particle size could not be accurately investigated for the respirable fraction. The sampling head of the Split 2 monitor incorporates an IOM inlet and filter to gravimetrically collect the inhalable fraction of airborne dust. This can give a concurrent reference measure of inhalable airborne dust concentration. However, poor sealing within the sampling head resulted in some of the sampled dust not reaching the backup filter. This resulted in the Split 2 underestimating the reference inhalable dust concentration, which meant that it could not be accurately used as a calibration standard. Communications with the manufacturers have since revealed that the sampling head has recently been redesigned in order to improve the seal and eliminate leakage. The Respicon sampler gravimetrically underestimated the inhalable dust concentration, and did so increasingly as the particle size increased. PMID:16799158

  2. Direct Reading of Bona Fide Barcode Assays for Diagnostics with Smartphone Apps

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jessica X. H.; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Frank S. F.; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The desire to develop new point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools has led to the adaptation of smartphones to tackle limitations in state-of-the-art instrumentation and centralized laboratory facilities. Today’s smartphones possess the computer-like ability to image and process data using mobile apps; barcode scanners are one such type of apps. We demonstrate herein that a diagnostic assay can be performed by patterning immunoassay strips in a bona fide barcode format such that after target binding and signal enhancement, the linear barcode can be read directly with a standard smartphone app. Quantitative analysis can then be performed based on the grayscale intensities with a customized mobile app. This novel diagnostic concept has been validated for a real-world application, i.e., the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin, a pregnancy hormone. With the possibility of multiplex detection, the barcode assay protocol promises to boost POC diagnosis research by the direct adaptation of mobile devices and apps. PMID:26122608

  3. Direct Reading of Bona Fide Barcode Assays for Diagnostics with Smartphone Apps.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica X H; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Frank S F; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The desire to develop new point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools has led to the adaptation of smartphones to tackle limitations in state-of-the-art instrumentation and centralized laboratory facilities. Today's smartphones possess the computer-like ability to image and process data using mobile apps; barcode scanners are one such type of apps. We demonstrate herein that a diagnostic assay can be performed by patterning immunoassay strips in a bona fide barcode format such that after target binding and signal enhancement, the linear barcode can be read directly with a standard smartphone app. Quantitative analysis can then be performed based on the grayscale intensities with a customized mobile app. This novel diagnostic concept has been validated for a real-world application, i.e., the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin, a pregnancy hormone. With the possibility of multiplex detection, the barcode assay protocol promises to boost POC diagnosis research by the direct adaptation of mobile devices and apps. PMID:26122608

  4. Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Role of Direct\\/Explicit Teaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Rupley; Timothy R. Blair; William D. Nichols

    2009-01-01

    Struggling readers are more likely to learn essential reading skills and strategies if the direct or explicit model of instruction is part of the teacher's repertoire of teaching methods. Directly\\/explicitly teaching reading means imparting new information to students through meaningful teacher–student interactions and teacher guidance of student learning. In this approach, the teacher clearly leads the teaching–learning process. At the

  5. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Gruber; Martin Uffmann; Michael Weber; Mathias Prokop; Csilla Balassy; Cornelia Schaefer-Prokop

    2006-01-01

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a\\u000a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes,\\u000a one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a\\u000a flat panel direct detector

  6. Active and Passive Direct-Reading Ratio Sets for the Comparison of Audio-Frequency Admittances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Cutkosky

    1964-01-01

    Design considerations and constructional details for two audio-frequency direct-reading ratio sets are presented. These devices allow the comparison of admittances with accuracies up to one part in 109. The first direct-reading ratio set (DRRS) is based upon operational amplifier circuitry, and utilizes a two-stage amplifier system. With this technique, only a moderate voltage amplification per stage is required, and the

  7. Dealing with the size-of-source effect in the calibration of direct-reading radiation thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, P.

    2013-09-01

    The majority of general-purpose low-temperature handheld radiation thermometers are severely affected by the size-of-source effect (SSE). Calibration of these instruments is pointless unless the SSE is accounted for in the calibration process. Traditional SSE measurement techniques, however, are costly and time consuming, and because the instruments are direct-reading in temperature, traditional SSE results are not easily interpretable, particularly by the general user. This paper describes a simplified method for measuring the SSE, suitable for second-tier calibration laboratories and requiring no additional equipment, and proposes a means of reporting SSE results on a calibration certificate that should be easily understood by the non-specialist user.

  8. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-03-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  9. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  10. Development of a drift-correction procedure for a direct-reading spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. B., II; Gordon, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure which provides automatic correction for drifts in the radiometric sensitivity of each detector channel in a direct-reading emission spectrometer is described. Such drifts are customarily controlled by the regular analyses of standards, which provide corrections for changes in the excitational, optical, and electronic components of the instrument. This standardization procedure, however, corrects for the optical and electronic drifts. It is a step that must be taken if the time, effort, and cost of processing standards is to be minimized. This method of radiometric drift correction uses a 1,000-W tungsten-halogen reference lamp to illuminate each detector through the same optical path as that traversed during sample analysis. The responses of the detector channels to this reference light are regularly compared with channel response to the same light intensity at the time of analytical calibration in order to determine and correct for drift. Except for placing the lamp in position, the procedure is fully automated and compensates for changes in spectral intensity due to variations in lamp current. A discussion of the implementation of this drift-correction system is included.

  11. Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction…

  12. Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms: Validating a Direct Observation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their study's…

  13. The Effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the Enhancement of Reading Comprehension Skills of Preparatory Stage Pupils with English Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Nifayee, Amani Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the enhancement of the reading comprehension skills of learners with English Language Learning Difficulties. It aims at identifying the reading comprehension skills required for preparatory stage English language learners, re-develop and teach sample materials…

  14. Matching is not Naming: A direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2014-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of “automatic activation” of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a non-reading task for studying “reading effects” by directly comparing BOLD activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in “reading-related” regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs naming) by string type (word vs pseudoword vs nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type by timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions, and is thus non-automatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. PMID:22711620

  15. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the…

  16. A non-contacting instrument for direct stress mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, David E.

    An instrument called SPATE (stress pattern analysis by measurement of thermal emission) developed for noncontact measurements of stress in structures and components under cyclic load or vibration is described. The method is based on the phenomenon called the thermoelastic or Kelvin effect, whereby cyclic changes in the volume or pressure in a material produce cyclic temperature changes that are proportional to stress. The temperature changes measured by SPATE are totally reversible and are independent of heating due to material hysteresis damping. Two instrument was used to test structural materials including steels, aluminum alloys, a magnesium alloy, titanium, Nimonic 90, copper, brass, silicon nitride, Hylox 961, plexiglass, epoxy, polyester, rubber, Kevlar, wood, brick, concrete, 'live' bone, glass, boron, and various composites. The results of SPATE test on a stage-one turbine blade (tested at 9224 Hz) and a notched aluminum plate loaded in tension at 20 Hz are presented together with a diagram of the SPATE equipment.

  17. An Application of Sard's Theorem to Electrostatics Directed Reading Program: Differential Topology

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    An Application of Sard's Theorem to Electrostatics Directed Reading Program: Differential Topology) An Application of Sard's Theorem to Electrostatics 9513 2 / 13 #12;Regular and Critical Values and Points in a logical statement, it means the set of values for which the statement is false has measure zero. Rahul

  18. The Fabric of Thought: Priming Tactile Properties during Reading Influences Direct Tactile Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Walters, Eliza K.; Ditman, Tali; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined whether implied tactile properties during language comprehension influence subsequent direct tactile perception, and the specificity of any such effects. Participants read sentences that implicitly conveyed information regarding tactile properties (e.g., "Grace tried on a pair of thick corduroy pants while shopping")…

  19. Reading direction shifts visuospatial attention: an Interactive Account of attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Luca; Di Luca, Samuel; Henik, Avishai; Girelli, Luisa

    2014-09-01

    A growing amount of evidence confirms the influence of reading and writing habits on visuospatial processing, although this phenomenon has been so far testified mainly as a lateralized shift of a single behavioral sign (e.g., line bisection), with lack of proof from pure right-to-left readers. The present study contributed to this issue by analyzing multiple attentional and motor indexes in monolingual Italian (i.e., reading from left-to-right), and monolingual (i.e., reading from right-to-left) and bilingual Israeli (i.e., reading from right-to-left in Hebrew but also from left-to-right in English) participants' visuospatial performance. Subjects were administered a computerized standard star cancellation task and a modified version in which English letters and words were replaced by Hebrew ones. Tasks were presented on a graphics tablet, allowing recording of both chronometric and spatial parameters (i.e., measured in (x, y) vector coordinates). Results showed that reading direction modulated the on-line visuomotor performance (i.e., left-to-right vs. right-to-left shifts) from the beginning (i.e., first mark) to the end of the task (i.e., spatial distribution of omissions and subjective epicenter). Additionally, the spatial bias observed in a computerized line bisection task was also related to the participants' habitual reading direction. Overall, the results favor the proposal of an Interactive Account of visuospatial asymmetries, according to which both cultural factors, such as the directional scanning associated with language processing, and biological factors, such as hemispheric specialization, modulate visuospatial processing. Results are discussed in light of recent behavioral and neuroanatomical findings. PMID:24968311

  20. The Controlled Instrument Procedure for Studying the Effect of Syntactic Sophistication on Reading: A Second Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. Smith

    1972-01-01

    Presents results from an experiment designed to extend the study of the relationship between the syntactic sophistication of the student and the material being read. A previous experiment had studied this relationship using passages based on actual students' writing. From the analysis of this writing, conversion tables were constructed to allow the preparation of new passages representing the same levels

  1. Instrument Development Procedures for Rapid Reading Rate Measures. Technical Report # 08-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kimy; Carling, Kristy; Geller, Leanne Ketterlin; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we describe the development of rapid reading measures, sentences presented to students in a nearly subliminal manner, with a literal comprehension question asked following their removal. After administering alternate forms of these measures to students, we present the results from three statistical analyses to ascertain their…

  2. Auralization of a virtual orchestra using directivities of measured symphonic instruments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Auralization of a virtual orchestra using directivities of measured symphonic instruments S. Pelzer. For a lively and natural virtual representation of real sound sources, it is important to include auralization of a full orchestra, the radiation patterns of symphonic instruments were captured using

  3. RESEARCH DIRECTION IN INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Instrumentation and automatic control, already common in oil, chemical and other industries, is making rapid strides in water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The report describes some of the capability now available and suggests directions for new research....

  4. Integration practice Directions Read the examples and use them to help you solve the exercises.

    E-print Network

    Yengulalp, Lynne

    Integration practice Name Date Directions Read the examples and use them to help you solve. by parts, +,- chart + u cos u - 1 sin u + 0 - cos u 3 #12;Example 4 Evaluate the integral e 1 x3 ln x dx. e the exercises. Integration by parts formula: u dv = uv - v du Example 1 Evaluate the integral ln x x2 dx. ln x x

  5. Augmenting paper-based reading activity with direct access to digital materials and scaffolded questioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nian-Shing Chen; Daniel Chia-En Teng; Cheng-Han Lee; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one’s reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating digital materials and reading strategy into paper-based reading activities may bring opportunities for learners

  6. Balance Calibration – A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Stears

    2010-07-01

    Paper Title: Balance Calibration – A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customer’s location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom spreadsheet. The spreadsheet uses measurement results, along with the manufacturer’s specifications, to assign a direct-read measurement uncertainty to the balance. The fact that the assigned uncertainty is a best-case uncertainty is discussed with the customer; the assigned uncertainty contains no allowance for contributions associated with the unknown weighing sample, such as density, static charges, magnetism, etc. The attendee will learn uncertainty considerations associated with balance calibrations along with one method for assigning an uncertainty to a balance used for non-comparison measurements.

  7. Direct and Indirect Teaching: Using E-Books for Supporting Vocabulary, Word Reading, and Story Comprehension for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of direct and indirect teaching of vocabulary and word reading on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children following use of an electronic storybook (e-book). The children in each age group were randomly assigned to an intervention group which read the e-book or to a control group which was afforded the regular school…

  8. READ THIS FIRST Directions for filling out and returning this form: Fill out this form online Print it out

    E-print Network

    READ THIS FIRST ­ Directions for filling out and returning this form: · Fill out this form online · Print it out Fax to 212-870-3109 OR Columbia University Gift Systems 475 Riverside Drive, 19th Floor, MC

  9. Developing the Self-Directed Learning Instructional Model to Enhance English Reading Ability and Self-Directed Learning of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop the instructional model for enhancing self-directed learning skills of Bangkok University students, study the impacts of the model on their English reading comprehension and self-directed learning ability as well as explore their opinion towards self-directed learning. The model development process…

  10. Cyclic fatigue resistance of newly manufactured rotary nickel titanium instruments used in different rotational directions.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, Gianlucca; Gergi, Richard; Grande, Nicola Maria; Osta, Nada; Plotino, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel titanium instruments manufactured with improved heating processes in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. The instruments compared were produced either using the R-phase heat treatment (K3XF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or the M-wire alloy (ProFile Vortex; DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments in curved artificial canals. Results indicated no significant difference in resistance to cyclic fatigue when rotary nickel titanium instruments are used in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. In both directions of rotation, size 04-25 K3XF showed a significant increase (P?

  11. Native reading direction influences lateral biases in the perception of shape from shading

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Austen K.; Szelest, Izabela; Friedrich, Trista E.; Elias, Lorin J.

    2015-01-01

    Although neurologically normal individuals often exhibit leftward biases of perception and attention, known as pseudoneglect, factors such as lighting, spatial location and native reading direction have been found to modulate these biases. To investigate lighting and spatial biases in left-to-right and right-to-left readers search times were measured in a target finding task where lighting and target locations were manipulated. Target search times under upper-left lighting were significantly shorter than lower-left, upper-right and lower-right lighting among left-to-right readers. Right-to-left readers did not display the same leftward bias, even displaying significantly shorter search times under upper-right lighting than those of left-to-right readers. Significantly shorter search times for targets located in the upper-left quadrant (compared to other quadrants) were observed for left-to-right readers, while search times for upper-right located targets were significantly shorter for right-to-left readers compared to those of left-to-right readers. Participant scan times of stimuli divided into equal quadrants were monitored by an eye-tracking camera. Both groups displayed greater scan times in upper quadrants. These findings suggest that native reading direction modulates spatial and light perception biases resulting in weaker leftward, or a lack of lateral biases among right-to-left readers. PMID:25537526

  12. Native reading direction influences lateral biases in the perception of shape from shading.

    PubMed

    Smith, Austen K; Szelest, Izabela; Friedrich, Trista E; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-07-01

    Although neurologically normal individuals often exhibit leftward biases of perception and attention, known as pseudoneglect, factors such as lighting, spatial location and native reading direction have been found to modulate these biases. To investigate lighting and spatial biases in left-to-right and right-to-left readers search times were measured in a target finding task where lighting and target locations were manipulated. Target search times under upper-left lighting were significantly shorter than lower-left, upper-right and lower-right lighting among left-to-right readers. Right-to-left readers did not display the same leftward bias, even displaying significantly shorter search times under upper-right lighting than those of left-to-right readers. Significantly shorter search times for targets located in the upper-left quadrant (compared to other quadrants) were observed for left-to-right readers, while search times for upper-right located targets were significantly shorter for right-to-left readers compared to those of left-to-right readers. Participant scan times of stimuli divided into equal quadrants were monitored by an eye-tracking camera. Both groups displayed greater scan times in upper quadrants. These findings suggest that native reading direction modulates spatial and light perception biases resulting in weaker leftward, or a lack of lateral biases among right-to-left readers. PMID:25537526

  13. Reading a GEM with a VLSI pixel ASIC used as a direct charge collecting anode

    E-print Network

    R. Bellazzini; F. Angelini; L. Baldini; F. Bitti; A. Brez; L. Latronico; M. M. Massai; M. Minuti; N. Omodei; M. Razzano; C. Sgro; G. Spandre; E. Costa; P. Soffitta

    2004-03-01

    In MicroPattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) when the pixel size is below 100 micron and the number of pixels is large (above 1000) it is virtually impossible to use the conventional PCB read-out approach to bring the signal charge from the individual pixel to the external electronics chain. For this reason a custom CMOS array of 2101 active pixels with 80 micron pitch, directly used as the charge collecting anode of a GEM amplifying structure, has been developed and built. Each charge collecting pad, hexagonally shaped, realized using the top metal layer of a deep submicron VLSI technology is individually connected to a full electronics chain (pre-amplifier, shaping-amplifier, sample and hold, multiplexer) which is built immediately below it by using the remaining five active layers. The GEM and the drift electrode window are assembled directly over the chip so the ASIC itself becomes the pixelized anode of a MicroPattern Gas Detector. With this approach, for the first time, gas detectors have reached the level of integration and resolution typical of solid state pixel detectors. Results from the first tests of this new read-out concept are presented. An Astronomical X-Ray Polarimetry application is also discussed.

  14. Direct lexical control of eye movements in reading: Evidence from a survival analysis of fixation durations

    PubMed Central

    Reingold, Eyal M.; Reichle, Erik D.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; Sheridan, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Participants’ eye movements were monitored in an experiment that manipulated the frequency of target words (high vs. low) as well as their availability for parafoveal processing during fixations on the pre-target word (valid vs. invalid preview). The influence of the word-frequency by preview validity manipulation on the distributions of first fixation duration was examined by using ex-Gaussian fitting as well as a novel survival analysis technique which provided precise estimates of the timing of the first discernible influence of word frequency on first fixation duration. Using this technique, we found a significant influence of word frequency on fixation duration in normal reading (valid preview) as early as 145 ms from the start of fixation. We also demonstrated an equally rapid non-lexical influence on first fixation duration as a function of initial landing position (location) on target words. The time-course of frequency effects, but not location effects was strongly influenced by preview validity, demonstrating the crucial role of parafoveal processing in enabling direct lexical control of reading fixation times. Implications for models of eye-movement control are discussed. PMID:22542804

  15. Passive, Direct-Read Monitoring System for Selective Detection and Quantification of Hydrogen Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, K. B.; Mihaylov, G. M.; Kirollos, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring the exposure of an employee to hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid in the presence of other acids has been a challenge to the industrial hygiene community. The capability of a device to differentiate the levels of acid vapors would allow for more accurate determinations of exposure and therefore improved occupational health. In this work, a selective direct-read colorimetric badge system was validated for Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) monitoring of hydrogen chloride. The passive colorimetric badge system consists of a direct reading badge and a color scale. The badge has a coated indicator layer with a diffusive resistance in the shape of an exclamation mark. An exclamation mark will appear if hydrogen chloride is present in the atmosphere at concentrations at or above 2.0 ppm. By using the color scale, the intensity of the color formed on the badge can be further quantified up to 25 ppm. The system was validated according to a protocol based on the NIOSH Protocol for the Evaluation of Passive Monitors. The badge was exposed to relative humidities ranging from 11% to 92%, temperatures ranging from 7 C to 400 C and air velocities ranging from 5 cm/sec to 170 cm/sec. All experiments were conducted in a laboratory vapor generation system. Hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and organic acids showed no effect on the performance of the hydrogen chloride monitoring system. The passive badge and color scale system exceeded the accuracy requirements as defined by NIOSH. At ambient conditions, the mean coefficient of variation was 10.86 and the mean bias was 1.3%. This data was presented previously at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition in Toronto, Canada in June 1999.

  16. Using Planned Enrichment Strategies with Direct Instruction to Improve Reading Fluency, Comprehension, and Attitude toward Reading: An Evidence-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Coyne, Michael; Schreiber, Frederic J.; Eckert, Rebecca D.; Gubbins, E. Jean

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we used a randomized design to investigate the effects of an enriched reading program on 226 urban elementary students' (third through sixth grade) reading comprehension, oral reading fluency, and attitude toward reading in 2 elementary schools. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Reading Framework (SEM-R) provides enriched reading

  17. Explaining Individual Differences in Reading: Theory and Evidence. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Susan A., Ed.; Braze, David, Ed.; Fowler, Carol A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Research into reading development and reading disabilities has been dominated by phonologically guided theories for several decades. In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections. The…

  18. An Instrument for Assessing Comprehension through the Ability to Recognize Verbatim Phrases from Previously Read Expository Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Petey

    Designed to be used along with a multiple-choice instrument for further assessment of the immediate and delayed comprehension of a 1,300 word expository passage on the Kalahari Desert, the instrument is a 35-item posttest, divided into five clusters, each composed of six to eight lettered phrases. Twenty verbatim phrases from the passage are…

  19. Rationale and Specifications for a Prototype, Group-Administered End-of-Unit Assessment Instrument for the SWRL Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masahito; Besel, Ronald

    This document describes the purposes, rationale, and specifications of a prototype group-administered criterion exercise to be used with blocks 1-8 of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Reading Program. A description of the sampling domains, sampling procedures, and the methods employed in the construction of test items is presented. Also…

  20. Lateral Biases and Reading Direction: A Dissociation between Aesthetic Preference and Line Bisection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yukiko; Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Imai, Hisato

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual asymmetries for tasks involving aesthetic preference or line bisection can be affected by asymmetrical neurological mechanisms or left/right reading habits. This study investigated the relative contribution of these mechanisms in 100 readers of Japanese and English. Participants made aesthetic judgments between pairs of mirror-reversed…

  1. Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literary Works. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Terry C., Ed.

    This sourcebook presents reading guides for 22 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

  2. Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literacy Works. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Terry C., Ed.

    This sourcebook presents reading guides for 39 literary works frequently used by scondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

  3. Direct Evidence for Two Different Neural Mechanisms for Reading Familiar and Unfamiliar Words: An Intra-Cerebral EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Juphard, Alexandra; Vidal, Juan R.; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    After intensive practice, unfamiliar letter strings become familiar words and reading speed increases strikingly from a slow processing to a fast and with more global recognition of words. While this effect has been well documented at the behavioral level, its neural underpinnings are still unclear. The question is how the brain modulates the activity of the reading network according to the novelty of the items. Several models have proposed that familiar and unfamiliar words are not processed by separate networks but rather by common regions operating differently according to familiarity. This hypothesis has proved difficult to test at the neural level because the effects of familiarity and length on reading occur (a) on a millisecond scale, shorter than the resolution of fMRI and (b) in regions which cannot be isolated with non-invasive EEG or MEG. We overcame these limitations by using invasive intra-cerebral EEG recording in epileptic patients. Neural activity (gamma-band responses, between 50 and 150?Hz) was measured in three major nodes of reading network – left inferior frontal, supramarginal, and inferior temporo-occipital cortices – while patients silently read familiar (words) and unfamiliar (pseudo-words) items of two lengths (short composed of one-syllable vs. long composed of three-syllables). While all items elicited strong neural responses in the three regions, we found that the duration of the neural response increases with length only for pseudo-words, in direct relation to orthographic-to-phonological conversion. Our results validate at the neural level the hypothesis that all words are processed by a common network operating more or less efficiently depending on words’ novelty. PMID:21960968

  4. Visual displays that directly interface and provide read-outs of molecular states via molecular graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Poje, Julia E; Kastratovic, Tamara; Macdonald, Andrew R; Guillermo, Ana C; Troetti, Steven E; Jabado, Omar J; Fanning, M Leigh; Stefanovic, Darko; Macdonald, Joanne

    2014-08-25

    The monitoring of molecular systems usually requires sophisticated technologies to interpret nanoscale events into electronic-decipherable signals. We demonstrate a new method for obtaining read-outs of molecular states that uses graphics processing units made from molecular circuits. Because they are made from molecules, the units are able to directly interact with molecular systems. We developed deoxyribozyme-based graphics processing units able to monitor nucleic acids and output alphanumerical read-outs via a fluorescent display. Using this design we created a molecular 7-segment display, a molecular calculator able to add and multiply small numbers, and a molecular automaton able to diagnose Ebola and Marburg virus sequences. These molecular graphics processing units provide insight for the construction of autonomous biosensing devices, and are essential components for the development of molecular computing platforms devoid of electronics. PMID:25044570

  5. Testing for Dual Brain Processing Routes in Reading: A Direct Contrast of Chinese Character and Pinyin Reading Using fMRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiping Chen; Shimin Fu; Susan D. Iversen; Steve M. Smith; Paul M. Matthews

    2002-01-01

    Chinese offers a unique tool for testing the effects of word form on language processing during reading. The processes of letter-mediated grapheme-to-phoneme translation and phonemic assembly (assembled phonology) critical for reading and spelling in any alphabetic orthography are largely absent when reading nonalphabetic Chinese characters. In contrast, script-to-sound translation based on the script as a whole (addressed phonology) is absent

  6. Atmospheric water vapor estimate by a differential absorption technique with the polarisation and directionality of the Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bouffičs; F. M. Bréon; D. Tanré; P. Dubuisson

    1997-01-01

    The polarization and directionality of the Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument, to be launched in 1996 on the Japanese ADEOS (advanced Earth observing satellite) platform includes a channel which covers the 910 nm water vapor absorption band (near IR), as well as a channel centered at 865 nm. An estimate of the total atmospheric water vapor content can be derived from

  7. Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery (WDRB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Janet

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery, an instrument designed to assess the abilities and achievements of individuals ages 4 through 90 in the areas of basic reading skills, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, oral language comprehension, and reading aptitude. Its administration, standardization, reliability,…

  8. SCExAO as a precursor to an ELT exoplanet direct imaging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; Singh, Garima; Vievard, Sebastien; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Garrel, Vincent; Norris, Barnaby; Tuthill, Peter; Stewart, Paul; Huby, Elsa; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2013-12-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 lambda/D and an ideal testbed for exploring coronagraphic techniques for ELTs. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss several exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks. In addition we will elucidate the unique role extreme AO systems will play in enabling high precision radial velocity spectroscopy for the detection of small companions.

  9. The measurement of the local electron density by means of direct reading microwave interferometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Zakrzewski; M. Šícha; M. Lubanski; T. Kopiczynski

    1972-01-01

    The present paper describes a microwave X-band interferometer in which a Lecher-wire system has been applied. The interferometer is suitable for dynamic and local measurements of the electron density in plasma. The sensitivity of the interferometer for 50 mm path of microwaves in plasma is about 4×109 cm?3. The spatial resolutions in two directions perpendicular to the Lecher line axis

  10. Direct Intracranial, fMRI, and Lesion Evidence for the Causal Role of Left Inferotemporal Cortex in Reading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaël Gaillard; Lionel Naccache; Philippe Pinel; Stéphane Clémenceau; Emmanuelle Volle; Dominique Hasboun; Sophie Dupont; Michel Baulac; Stanislas Dehaene; Claude Adam; Laurent Cohen

    2006-01-01

    Summary Models of the ''visual word form system'' postulate that a left occipitotemporal region implements the au- tomatic visual word recognition required for efficient reading. This theory was assessed in a patient in whom reading was explored with behavioral measures, fMRI, and intracranial local field potentials. Prior to surgery, when reading was normal, fMRI revealed a normal mosaic of ventral

  11. Rapid analysis of plating baths by a direct-reading thermometric method.

    PubMed

    Sajó, I; Sipos, B

    1967-02-01

    Methods are described for the rapid analysis of plating baths by measurement of the heat evolved in a reaction between the reagent and the component to be determined. The novel feature of the method is the use of reagents which have zero heat of mixing, so that the temperature scale can be directly calibrated in concentration units for a particular determination. A determination takes only 5 min and the precision is equal to that of the classical methods. Procedures are given for the analysis of nickel and chromium plating baths. PMID:18960087

  12. A Comparison of Two Self-Directed Career Guidance Instruments: Occu-Sort and Self-Directed Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lawrence K.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the Occu-Sort, and the Self-Directed Search, focusing on six areas of interest to school counselors, e.g., proportion of nontraditional occupations suggested and later considered, number suggested and later considered, understanding and recall of the letter codes, and reliability of the self-scored occupational code for the O-S. (PAS)

  13. Direct Instruction and the Teaching of Early Reading: Wisconsin's Teacher-Led Insurgency. Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, Volume 14, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Tarver, Sara G.; Western, Richard D.

    This report addresses the teaching of early reading in Wisconsin, focusing on the Direct Instruction approach and the methods or lack thereof for informing teachers of the approach and of the possibilities and applications for their classrooms. A sample of new Wisconsin teachers were surveyed and six Wisconsin schools were visited to observe…

  14. The Effects of Reading Racetrack with Direct Instruction Flashcards and a Token System on Sight Word Acquisition for Two Primary Students with Severe Conduct Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopewell, Kim; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reading racetracks and direct instruction flashcards with two students with behavior disorders. A token economy with a response cost component was also implemented to increase on-task behavior during data collection. Method: The participants were two eight-year-old males.…

  15. The validity and reliability of the self-directed learning instrument (SDLI) in mainland Chinese nursing students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-directed learning is crucial to the professional development of nursing students, and which enables them to expand the knowledge and enhance the quality of their practice. A validated self-directed learning instrument is important not only in assessing the individual’s self-directed learning level, but also in evaluating the effectiveness of teaching or learning methods. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the SDLI in mainland Chinese nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional design with convenience sampling was used to recruit participants from three nursing schools. The mainland Chinese version of SDLI was tested with respect to validity and reliability in 1,499 nursing students, and another 30 nursing students were invited to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the scale in 7?days interval. Results Explorary factor analysis identified a four-factor structure, accounting for 56.101% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a good overall fit of this four-factor model. Convergent validity was supported by the highly positive Pearson’s correlation between SDLI score and SRSSDL score (r?=?.876, p?=?.000). Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency of overall scale was .916, and 4 dimensions were between .755-.825.The test-retest reliability of overall scale was .850, and 4 dimensions were between .708-.821. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of overall scale was .916, and 4 dimensions were .822-.889. Conclusions This study indicates that the SDLI is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing self-directed learning in mainland Chinese nursing students. Nurse educators could use such knowledge to develop their roles and plan to support nursing students in becoming self-directed learners and lifelong learner. PMID:24885557

  16. ScienceDirect -Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Researc... 1 of 2 3/16/05 4:36 PM

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    ScienceDirect - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Researc... 1 of 2 3/16/05 4:36 PM: Quick Search: within All Full-text SourcesAll Full-text Sources 2 of 2 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment Volume 407

  17. Direct-reading design charts for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, William A; Dow, Norris F

    1951-01-01

    Direct-reading design charts are presented for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners. These charts, which cover a wide range of proportions, make possible the direct determination of the stress and all panel dimensions required to carry a given intensity of loading with a given skin thickness and effective length of panel.

  18. Teaching Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  19. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and less than 2 meters per second velocity accuracy. The instrument design, technologies and predicted performance will be presented.

  20. The Helical Screw Rheometer: An advance in instrumentation for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.N.; Kraynik, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Sandia has developed and tested the novel Helical Screw Rheometer to study gelling and vacuum bottoms in direct liquefaction processes. This device, which is essentially an extruder, has inherent advantages over conventional rheometers because it eliminates flow rate and torque measurements. Theory and representative data are presented.

  1. Content Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belk, Elizabeth Joann; Seed, Allen H.; Abdi, Wali

    2005-01-01

    Reading comprehension skills promote achievement in science, so how can teachers help students to develop these skills? Research indicates that students who read well are more likely to be successful in school and in life (Belk 1999). Furthermore, there is a direct link between science skills and reading skills (Carter and Simpson 1978). There are…

  2. Direct vision in minimally invasive epicardial procedures: preliminary tests of prototype instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Hack, B J; Ramon, S G; Hagen, Z A; Theran, M E; Burkhardt, J D; Gillies, G T

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the use of direct visualization to enhance minimally invasive epicardial procedures. A commercially available miniature camera was placed in a prototype subxiphoid introducer needle and bench top, in vitro and in vivo tests of system performance were made during simulated and actual attempts at pericardial access and cardio-endoscopy. This system had an unshielded field of view of 100° and a resolution of 220?×?224 pixels. When a sleeve used to maintain depth of field was slid past the distal tip of the camera probe, the field of view would decrease by ?15° per millimetre of sleeve extension, but without loss of image quality. While tests during in vivo subxiphoid access in a porcine model revealed that the pericardial membrane was difficult to localize, the results also showed excellent resolution of the coronary arteries on the epicardial surface. These findings and potential improvements are discussed in detail. PMID:26005103

  3. Top down viewing of the inductively coupled plasma using a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and an all mirror optical system

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, C.T.; Duchane, D.V.; Palmer, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Using an all-mirror optical system, an inductively coupled plasma is viewed top down and the light is directed to a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph. Top down viewing of the plasma, with masking of the image of the argon plasma torus at the spectrograph entrance slit, significantly reduces background signal from the source and permits the use of the depth of field of the optical system to achieve compromise conditions for viewing the plasma. Light from the plasma source is introduced to the optical system by means of a mirror situated directly over the plasma. The system is exhausted in such a way that cool air flowing past the mirror forms a thermal barrier between the mirror and the plasma. Elements such as copper and lead have atomic and ionic lines which tend to exhibit self absorption when viewed top down through the cooler ground state atoms in the plume of the plasma. One of the approaches to this problem is to shear off the plume of the plasma with a jet of air directed across the tip of the plasma. A second approach is to make use of the dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and real-time computer system which easily permits the setting of alternate lines for each element so that self absorption and matrix effects are minimized. The design of the dual-grating, direct-reading spectrograph allows for the mounting of more than 200 13-mm-dia photomultiplier tubes along the focal curves. In an effort to demonstrate the use of fiber optics as a viable technique for the closer placement of exit slits, a red sensitive photomultiplier tube was coupled with a 30-cm fiber-optic ribbon to detect light from the Li 670.784 nm line on the focal curve. It was successful and had the added advantages of absorbing second-order ultraviolet light.

  4. Preliminary investigation of pilot scanning techniques of dial pointing instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Two pilots' methods of looking at instruments with needle pointers in a fixed base helicopter simulation were observed. A total of 45 runs were analyzed for each pilot. The data indicated that two apparently different techniques were being used; one looking at the needle point, the other looking at a fixed spot on the instrument and reading the needle direction parafoveally. The latter technique is found to be somewhat faster with both pilots accomplishing the flying task.

  5. Active Reading Read and Understand

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    Active Reading Read and Understand Power Hour for Active Reading! 1. Preview/Skim (5 minutes) Read the table of contents to find out how information is organized. Read/think about the chapter title ­ how can it guide you to look for information while you read? Flip to the summary at the end of chapter

  6. There Is More to Mind Reading than Having Theory of Mind Concepts: New Directions in Theory of Mind Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Dana; Apperly, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    For more than 30 years, researchers have focused on the important transition that children undergo between the ages of 3 and 5, when they start to solve mind-reading problems that require reasoning about complex mental states, such as beliefs. The main question for debate has been whether, during that transition, children acquire new concepts…

  7. Intonational Interference in the Speech of Puerto Rican Bilinguals, an Instrumental Study Based on Oral Readings of a Juan Bobo Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Rose

    This paper examines three aspects of phonological interference observable in the speech of Puerto Rican bilinguals: (1) segmentation patterns, (2) accentual patterns, and (3) pitch patterns. Ten representative speakers, including nine students and one faculty member, were selected to read a story in the original Spanish and in English translation.…

  8. Exploration of the Consortium on Reading Excellence Phonics Survey: An Instrument for Assessing Primary-Grade Students' Phonics Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Brandt, Lorilynn; Fawson, Parker C.; Jones, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the Consortium on Reading Excellence-Phonics Survey (CORE-PS), an informal, inexpensive, and widely disseminated assessment tool that is used to determine primary-grade students' knowledge of and abilities to apply key alphabetic and phonics understandings to decode a mix of real and pseudo-words. Evidence is reported of…

  9. Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    On April 13, 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released the results of "the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading." Established in response to a 1997 congressional directive, the NRP is composed of "leading scientists in reading research, representatives of colleges of education, reading teachers, educational administrators, and parents." The report, which is available in .pdf format along with the reports of the subgroups, concludes that the best way to teach children to read is through a combination of methods, including phonemic awareness, phonics, guided oral reading, and the application of reading comprehension strategies.

  10. Directions: Read carefully the specific requirements for the doctoral degree as set forth in the Graduate Catalog. Complete this form and have it endorsed by your advisor and the Director of the Graduate Program in which the

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Joseph B.

    : _____________________ __ __ ______________________________________________ Student ID Number Print Full Name (Last, First, MiddleDirections: Read carefully the specific requirements for the doctoral degree as set forth ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Email Address (Area Code) Telephone ________________________________________ Date Comprehensive

  11. Reading: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presented are descriptions of six reading programs for the reluctant adolescent reader: "Attention Span Stories"; "Crosswinds"; "Reading the Content Fields"; "Hip Reader's Reader"; "Rally a Reading Program"; "A Better Reading Workshop". Content emphasis, reading level, rationale, objectives, organization, instructional method, student evaluation,…

  12. Space science instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1989-03-01

    This grant was intended to be used for the purchase of high quality laboratory and data analysis instrumentation for the pursuit of space plasma physics research. Two of the first purchases were a 6250 BPI magnetic tape drive and a large, fast disk drive. These improved the satellite data analysis capability greatly and reduced the system backup time. With the big disk drive it became possible to dump entire magnetic tapes to disk for faster, more efficient processing. Several microcomputers improve both personnel computing as well as general connectivity within the group and on campus in general. Other microcomputers function in the laboratory setting by acting as hosts for several instrument interfaces for communication with satellite and balloon payloads as well as laboratory VLF signal processing equipment. Perhaps the single most expensive item purchased was an analog tape drive for reading and writing 16 in. analog magnetic tapes. This analog tape drive is used for the direct processing of FM and directly recorded telemetry data from the balloon and rocket payloads.

  13. READ 180. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "READ 180" is a reading program designed for students in elementary through high school whose reading achievement is below the proficient level. The goal of "READ 180" is to address gaps in students' skills through the use of a computer program, literature, and direct instruction in reading skills. The software component of the program aims to…

  14. Read Aloud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egawa, Kathy; Katahira, Jenifer

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that reading aloud: incorporates into any language program, is cost effective, requires little preparation, develops listening habits, builds language skills, aids reading comprehension, and impacts students' attitudes toward reading. Lists 15 books that are good to read aloud for K-1, 14 books for grades 2-3, and 13 books good for…

  15. Reading Aloud

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Emily Morgan

    2007-01-01

    This chapter addresses some of the research supporting the importance of reading aloud, tips to make your read-aloud time more valuable, descriptions of Harvey and Goudvis's six key reading strategies (2000), and tools you can use to enhance students' comprehension during read-aloud time.

  16. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  17. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

  18. Assessing Attitudes to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, J. M.

    Many measurement techniques have been developed to assess elements related to attitudes toward reading, which encompass an individual's views, feelings, values, and beliefs. Instruments developed by British teachers include Likert-type scales, a repertory grid technique, and an approach assessing reactions to screened photographs of different…

  19. A direct correlation among indoor Rn, soil gas Rn and geology in the Reading Prong near Boyertown, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Gundersen, L.C.S.

    1989-01-01

    We feel that this study suggests a relationship among geology, soil gas Rn and the potential for indoor Rn accumulation in this portion of the Reading Prong. There are deviations from a perfect correlation but these are related to inhomogeneities in the geologic environment and perhaps variations in construction techniques of homes in the area. This study also demonstrates that several analyses in a small area may be necessary to adequately determine the Rn distribution for a particular geologic unit. That scale would be determined by the complexity of the local geology. Where no discrete source of elevated Rn supply is found for dwellings having a significant Rn accumulation, the implication is that overall gross permeability may be sufficient to supply Rn from a larger volume of soil and rock.

  20. Sustained Silent Reading: Making Adaptations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBenedictis, Deb

    2007-01-01

    Packaged programs for direct instructional reading are becoming the norm, even as research supports SSR as a successful way to enhance student reading achievement "and student attitudes" toward reading. DeBenedictis shows us how she has achieved goals set by NCLB while using SSR in her classroom, adaptations of SSR and the research that supports…

  1. Instrument for automation of large diameter testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1963-01-01

    1.Instruments based on the decimal system of readings have certain advantages as compared with other instruments: their design is simpler, they have a longer life, are economical and provide a simple transition to 0.01 mm readings.2.An instrument based on a decimal system of reading provides the most efficient and effective measurement of dimensions owing to the possibility of switching the

  2. Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Christopher G.; Chadwick, William W.; Embley, Robert W.

    2001-08-01

    Our understanding of submarine volcanic eruptions has improved substantially in the past decade owing to the recent ability to remotely detect such events and to then respond rapidly with synoptic surveys and sampling at the eruption site. But these data are necessarily limited to observations after the event. In contrast, the 1998 eruption of Axial volcano on the Juan de Fuca ridge was monitored by in situ sea-floor instruments. One of these instruments, which measured bottom pressure as a proxy for vertical deformation of the sea floor, was overrun and entrapped by the 1998 lava flow. The instrument survived-being insulated from the molten lava by the solidified crust-and was later recovered. The data serendipitously recorded by this instrument reveal the duration, character and effusion rate of a sheet flow eruption on a mid-ocean ridge, and document over three metres of lava-flow inflation and subsequent drain-back. After the brief two-hour eruption, the instrument also measured gradual subsidence of 1.4metres over the next several days, reflecting deflation of the entire volcano summit as magma moved into the adjacent rift zone. These findings are consistent with our understanding of submarine lava effusion, as previously inferred from seafloor observations, terrestrial analogues, and laboratory simulations.

  3. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  4. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 MK3 open reading frame.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather M; Brierley, Ian; Stevenson, Philip G

    2003-12-01

    The gammaherpesviruses characteristically drive the proliferation of latently infected lymphocytes. The murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) MK3 protein contributes to this process in vivo by evading CD8(+)-T-cell recognition during latency, as well as during lytic infection. We analyzed some of the molecular mechanisms that control MK3 expression. No dedicated MK3 mRNA was detected. Instead, the MK3 open reading frame (ORF) was transcribed as part of a bicistronic mRNA, downstream of a previously unidentified ORF, 13M. The 13M/MK3 promoter appeared to extend approximately 1 kb 5' of the transcription start site and included elements both dependent on and independent of the ORF50 lytic transactivator. MK3 was translated from the bicistronic transcript by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. RNA structure mapping identified two stem-loops between 13M and MK3 that were sufficient for IRES activity in a bicistronic reporter plasmid and a third stem-loop just within the MK3 coding sequence, with a subtler, perhaps regulatory role. Overall, translation of the MHV-68 MK3 bore a striking resemblance to that of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vFLIP, suggesting that IRES elements are a common theme of latent gammaherpesvirus immune evasion in proliferating cells. PMID:14645566

  5. Reading Aloud

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lynda Delo

    2008-07-01

    Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful because most students have higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension (Trelease 2006)--low-reading level students, English language learners, and auditory learners in particular, tend to understand what they hear better than what they read. This article provides suggestions for including the practice of reading aloud in the high school science classroom.

  6. Staged Reads : Mitigating the Impact of DRAM Writes on DRAM Reads Niladrish Chatterjee

    E-print Network

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev

    is amortized by carrying out a burst of writes or reads every time the bus direction is switched. As a resultStaged Reads : Mitigating the Impact of DRAM Writes on DRAM Reads Niladrish Chatterjee University. Given that reads are on the criti- cal path for CPU progress, reads must be prioritized over writes

  7. [Study on the method for the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current arc full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES)].

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhi-hong; Yao, Jian-zhen; Tang, Rui-ling; Zhang, Xue-mei; Li, Wen-ge; Zhang, Qin

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determmation of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES) was established. Direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectrometer with a large area of solid-state detectors has functions of full spectrum direct reading and real-time background correction. The new electrodes and new buffer recipe were proposed in this paper, and have applied for national patent. Suitable analytical line pairs, back ground correcting points of elements and the internal standard method were selected, and Ge was used as internal standard. Multistage currents were selected in the research on current program, and each current set different holding time to ensure that each element has a good signal to noise ratio. Continuous rising current mode selected can effectively eliminate the splash of the sample. Argon as shielding gas can eliminate CN band generating and reduce spectral background, also plays a role in stabilizing the are, and argon flow 3.5 L x min(-1) was selected. Evaporation curve of each element was made, and it was concluded that the evaporation behavior of each element is consistent, and combined with the effects of different spectrographic times on the intensity and background, the spectrographic time of 35s was selected. In this paper, national standards substances were selected as a standard series, and the standard series includes different nature and different content of standard substances which meet the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples. In the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limits for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 1.1, 0.09, 0.01, 0.41, and 0.56 microg x g(-1) respectively, and the precisions (RSD, n=12) for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 4.57%-7.63%, 5.14%-7.75%, 5.48%-12.30%, 3.97%-10.46%, and 4.26%-9.21% respectively. The analytical accuracy was validated by national standards and the results are in agreement with certified values. The method is simple, rapid, is an advanced analytical method for the determination of trace amounts of geochemical samples' boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead, and has a certain practicality. PMID:25970926

  8. ReadOut: structure-based calculation of direct and indirect readout energies and specificities for protein-DNA recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shandar Ahmad; Hidetoshi Kono; Marcos J. Araúzo-bravo; Akinori Sarai

    2006-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions play a central role in regu- latory processes at the genetic level. DNA-binding proteinsrecognizetheir targetsbydirect base-amino acid interactions and indirect conformational energy contribution from DNA deformations and elasticity. Knowledge-based approach based on the statistical analysis of protein-DNA complex structures has been successfully used to calculate interaction ener- gies and specificities of direct and indirect readouts inprotein-DNArecognition.Here,wehaveimplemen- ted the

  9. Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance program (now called Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices) is a guided reading intervention in which teachers direct student reading of text. It involves two components. Reading Renaissance, the first component, is a set of recommended principles on guided reading (or teachers' direction of…

  10. Mappability and read length

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 ? 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

  11. Nonword Response Form circle one: reading writing

    E-print Network

    Nonword Response Form circle one: reading writing Directions: Writing: I'm going to say a made-up word. Repeat it, then write it. Reading: Provide typed list to read from. Item # Nonword *Repeat (waip, wayp) 19 trad (tradd) 20 squate (skwate, skwait) Repetition Score: /20 Reading/Writing Score /20

  12. Site-directed chemical modification of archaeal Thermococcus litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase: Acquired ability to read through template-strand uracils.

    PubMed

    Gaidamaviciute, Edita; Tauraite, Daiva; Gagilas, Julius; Lagunavicius, Arunas

    2010-06-01

    We present site-directed chemical modification (SDCM), a tool for engineering U-resistant archaeal DNA polymerases of family B. The Thermococcus litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase (GenBank: GQ891548) was chosen as the object of the study. Similar to D.Tok, Kod1, Pfu, Tgo and other archaeal members of this family, the T. litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase is a domain structured, proofreading-proficient enzyme that has the polymerization and 3'-->5' DNA exonucleolytic activities and contains N-terminally located highly conserved template-strand U-binding pocket. The tight binding of template uracil in the enzyme pocket during polymerization blocks the replication of DNA containing uracils. This effect can be alleviated by mutations in key amino acids of the U-binding pocket. We altered T. litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase's ability to read through the template-strand uracils by applying SDCM. Specific modification of individual cysteine residues in U-binding pocket - targets introduced into certain positions by site-directed mutagenesis - enables the enzyme to effectively replicate DNA containing uracils. We demonstrate that the acquired resistance of chemically modified T. litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase to DNA uracil correlates with its decreased affinity for template-strand uracil. PMID:20152943

  13. Aeronautic Instruments. Section IV : Direction Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, W S; Stillman, M H; Sanford, R L; Warner, John A C; Sylvander, R C; Rounds, E W

    1923-01-01

    Part one points out the adequacy of a consideration of the steady state gyroscopic motion as a basis for the discussion of displacements of the gyroscope mounted on an airplane, and develops a simple theory on this basis. Principal types of gyroscopic inclinometers are described and requirements stated. Part two describes a new type of stabilizing gyro mounted on top of a spindle by means of a universal joint, the spindle being kept in a vertical position by supporting it as a pendulum of which the bob is the driving motor. Methods of tests and the difficulties in designing a satisfactory and reliable compass for aircraft use in considered in part three. Part four contains a brief general treatment of the important features of construction of aircraft compasses and description of the principal types used.

  14. Reconstructing mitochondrial genomes directly from genomic next-generation sequencing reads—a baiting and iterative mapping approach

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Christoph; Bachmann, Lutz; Chevreux, Bastien

    2013-01-01

    We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of non-model organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data—mitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are available as starting-reference sequences or seeds, respectively. We demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in case studies using real NGS data sets of the two monogenean ectoparasites species Gyrodactylus thymalli and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides including their respective teleost hosts European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). MITObim appeared superior to existing tools in terms of accuracy, runtime and memory requirements and fully automatically recovered mitochondrial genomes exceeding 99.5% accuracy from total genomic DNA derived NGS data sets in <24 h using a standard desktop computer. The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR. We furthermore demonstrate the applicability of MITObim for metagenomic/pooled data sets using simulated data. MITObim is an easy to use tool even for biologists with modest bioinformatics experience. The software is made available as open source pipeline under the MIT license at https://github.com/chrishah/MITObim. PMID:23661685

  15. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  16. ZEPLIN-III direct dark matter search : final results and measurements in support of next generation instruments 

    E-print Network

    Reichhart, Lea

    2013-11-28

    Astrophysical observations give convincing evidence for a vast non-baryonic component, the so-called dark matter, accounting for over 20% of the overall content of our Universe. Direct dark matter search experiments ...

  17. The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud scenes. The cloud reflectance spectra are read from

    E-print Network

    Graaf, Martin de

    The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud scenes. The cloud reflectance spectra are read from LookUp Tables (LUTs), using cloud parameters

  18. Reading Strategies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students utilize two reading strategies that can be used to understand the Cosmic Times materials, and other readings that may be challenging to them. The first strategy, called Talking to the Text, is an independent strategy in which the students write down their thoughts as they are reading the material. In the second strategy, the students pair up and help each other read and understand concepts through reciprocal teaching. This activity is from the Cosmic Times teacher's guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times poster, however, these strategies can be used with any of the Cosmic Times articles.

  19. New Year's Reading Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Activities to enhance reading with listening, thinking, writing, and fun are suggested. Topics include celebrate Reading Week, superbowl reading, book buddies, biography binge, laughing and learning, oral reading, reading sweepstakes, idea lists, fairy tale showdown, and parent reading tips. (MT)

  20. Read: What Kathmandu is Reading?

    E-print Network

    Fineprint Bookclub

    2011-01-05

    some of the movers and shakers Of Kathmandu what they are reading. Here Is what they said they are reading: > > • I haven't read a book since the last three weeks. The last book that I read was ·Shanghai Baby· by Wei Hui. It's an excellent book... something In the cover. I picked the book up because of its cover which looked Interesting and then pored over a page and kind of liked it. That'S how I came to buy it. I USually piCk a book randomly, flip over a page and if it holds my attention, I...

  1. Reading Remixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  2. Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delo, Lynda

    2008-01-01

    Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful…

  3. The role of the amygdala-striatal pathway in the acquisition and performance of goal-directed instrumental actions.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Leung, Beatrice K; Balleine, Bernard W

    2013-11-01

    The posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS) is essential for the acquisition and expression of the specific response-outcome (R-O) associations that underlie goal-directed action. Here we examined the role of a pathway linking the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and pDMS in such goal-directed learning. In Experiment 1, rats received unilateral lesions of the BLA and were implanted with cannula targeting the pDMS in either the ipsilateral (control) or contralateral (disconnection) hemisphere. After initial training, rats received infusions of muscimol to inactivate the pDMS immediately before sessions in which novel R-O associations were introduced. Sensitivity to devaluation by specific satiety was then assessed. Whereas rats in the ipsilateral group used the recently acquired associations to direct performance following devaluation, those in the contralateral group could not, indicating that BLA-pDMS disconnection prevented the acquisition of the new R-O associations. Indeed, evidence suggested that these rats relied instead on learning acquired during prior training to direct performance following devaluation. In Experiment 2, rats underwent similar surgery and training except they received muscimol infusions immediately before devaluation testing. Those in the ipsilateral group showed a selective devaluation effect, again based on the most recently introduced R-O associations. In contrast, rats in the contralateral group showed nonselective performance after devaluation indicating that the BLA-DMS pathway is also required for the expression of selective R-O associations. Together these results suggest that input from the BLA is essential for specific R-O learning by the pDMS. PMID:24198361

  4. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  5. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    PubMed Central

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental support, emotional support, and conflict management) and on/off task behavior was evaluated. Children who chose their own partners showed greater social cooperation than those children whose teacher selected their partner. However, when the positive interdependence requirements of the task were not met within the pair (neither child had the skills to provide reading support or no one needed support), lower levels of on-task behavior were observed. Providing basic partner reading script instruction at the beginning of the year was associated with better social cooperation during partner reading, but providing elaborated instruction or no instruction was associated with poorer social cooperation. It is recommended that teachers provide basic script instruction and allow children to choose their own partners. Additionally, pairings of low ability children with other low ability children and high ability children with other high ability children should be avoided. Teachers may want to suggest alternate partners for children who inadvertently choose such pairings or adjust the text difficulty to the pair. Overall, partner reading seems to be an enjoyable pedagogical strategy for teaching reading fluency. PMID:19830259

  6. Examining the Impact of Feedback and Repeated Readings on Oral Reading Fluency: Let's Not Forget Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Morena, Laura S.; Binder, Katherine S.; Foster, Tori E.

    2013-01-01

    Although extensive research supports repeated readings (RR) as an intervention for improving reading fluency, it largely ignores reading prosody, which is a key component of reading fluency. The current study extends the RR literature by examining the impact of RR on prosody and whether the content of directions and feedback might impact what…

  7. Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for NMR/MRI Instruments at Low-Field

    PubMed Central

    Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to “enjoy” from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed. PMID:24287540

  8. Developmental Changes in Reading Attitudes during the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dorotha H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A Survey of Reading Attitudes was administered to 431 intermediate-grade students, providing measures for eight different dimensions of reading attitude. Significant patterns of change were shown for the following dimensions: Expressed Reading Difficulty, Reading as Direct Reinforcement, Silent v Oral Reading, and Comics. (Author/GDC)

  9. Repeated Reading: Research into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowhower, Sarah L.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research findings on repeated readings (RR), noting that rereading is a proven instructional tool. Suggests three ways to incorporate RR into a reading program: direct instruction; use of learning centers; and cooperative learning strategies. Includes procedural guidelines for implementing RR activities. (MM)

  10. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  11. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    PubMed Central

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  12. Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised/Normative Update (WRMT-R/NU).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Joe P.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests Revised/Normative Update, an instrument designed to assess reading ability in students in grades K-12, undergraduate college students, and adults. The tests evaluate basic reading skills, reading comprehension, and reading readiness. Its administration, standardization, reliability, and…

  13. How Do I Read a Seismogram?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial introduces novice users to reading the lines on a seismograph. Topics include how to distinguish a real earthquake from background vibrations (microseisms) recorded by the instrument, how to read the minute marks that record the passage of time, and how to distinguish the types of earthquake waves that appear on the chart.

  14. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  15. A Kindergartner Learns to Read for Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bonnie L.

    Six weeks were spent working with a five-year-old kindergarten child who had an excellent understanding of sound/symbol relationships but did not know how to read for meaning. A variety of techniques was used to help the child develop reading strategies and increase confidence: directed reading-thinking activity in week one; student retelling of a…

  16. Let Animals Teach Your Students to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1986-01-01

    Offers a plan for organizing and implementing a schoolwide reading week entitled, "Drop Everything Else, Read" (DEER). Presents explanations and directions for eight reading activities which focus on animals. Includes materials that can be duplicated and used by students as bookmarks and certificates. (ML)

  17. Reading Satellite Images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on satellite images and how they are made by active, passive, and remote-sensing instruments. Students analyze satellite images and answer questions about them. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  18. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  19. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  20. Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

  1. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  2. Reading Habits of Elderly Adults: Implications for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Biggs, Shirley A.

    1987-01-01

    Elderly adults responded to the Survey of Elderly Reading Attitudes instrument. Most felt they had time to read, more married than single subjects reported buying magazines and daily newspapers, and more females than males reported reading advertisements without difficulty. (Author/KS)

  3. Improving Reading and Language Arts Skills of At-Risk First Graders through Direct Instruction of Print Awareness, Phoneme Awareness, and Phonological Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Sandra K.; Swedberg, Trina L.; Yates, Carol R.

    This report describes a program to improve reading and language arts skills. The targeted population consisted of students in 2 first grade classrooms (average class size 25) from a midwestern elementary school in a predominantly white, middle to upper-middle class neighborhood. Data documenting the problem was obtained from the previous year's…

  4. Effect of air-scattered. beta. particles on instrument and dosimeter response

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Air-scattered ..beta.. particles are responsible for many of the inaccuracies encountered when readings are obtained with many types of ..beta.. survey instrument and personnel dosimeters. The ratio of ..beta.. particles scattered at various angles to ..beta..'s coming directly from the source increases as the distance from the source increases. This ratio, at a given distance from the source, is also a function of the ..beta.. energy, becoming larger for lower-energy ..beta.. sources. Changes in this ratio cause the response of ..beta.. instruments to have an apparent change in the directional response. Air-scattered ..beta..'s also cause personnel dosimeters, which are not properly designed to detect them, to have responses that are low. The authors give experimental results to confirm the above effects. Design changes to survey instruments and dosimeters are suggested that would eliminate the errors created by the failure of the instruments to detect these air-scattered ..beta.. particles.

  5. Exertion instruments

    E-print Network

    Vawter, Noah (Noah Theodore)

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes the research, development and reasoning behind a family of musical instruments called Exertion Instruments. They use inline electrical generators to run a synthesizer and an amplifier while ...

  6. Exploring Dispositions toward Online Reading: Analyzing the Survey of Online Reading Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, S. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on the literacy practices of today's students. Acknowledging the complex processes associated with reading online, the Survey of Online Reading Attitudes and Behaviors (SORAB) was created to further our understandings in this area. A factor analysis revealed the instrument included five factors that…

  7. Special Project in Urban Reading Tests, Component I: Pre-Reading Skills Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Urban Education, New York, NY.

    A number of criticisms have been made of currently available standardized pre-reading test materials in terms of their appropriateness for administration to urban children, their standardization, their content, and their required testing procedures. This new pre-reading skills battery has been designed as an urban oriented testing instrument to…

  8. Academic English Reading for International College Students: The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language…

  9. Reading Mastery/SRA/McGraw-Hill. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Reading Mastery" is a direct instruction program designed to provide explicit, systematic instruction in English language reading. Reading Mastery is available in two versions, "Reading Mastery Classic" levels I and II (for use in grades K-3) and "Reading Mastery Plus," an integrated reading-language program for grades K-6. The program begins by…

  10. The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9–12. Students were paired within classes and pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: repeated reading (N = 33), wide reading (N = 34), or typical instruction (N = 29). Intervention was provided daily for approximately 15–20 minutes for 10 weeks. Results indicated no overall statistically significant differences for any condition, with effect sizes ranging from ?.31 to .27. Findings do not support either approach for severely impaired readers at the high school level. We hypothesize that these students require more intensive interventions that include direct and explicit instruction in word- and text-level skills as well as engaged reading practice with effective feedback. PMID:21076693

  11. Direct measurement of the field from a magnetic recording head using an InAs Hall sensor on a contact write\\/read tester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Gokemeijer; T. W. Clinton; T. M. Crawford; Mark Johnson

    2005-01-01

    At 1Tbit\\/in2 areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read\\/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300nm track width

  12. Reading Rates Attained by First-Year LISTEN LOOK LEARN Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickner, Ann; Senter, Donald R.

    The reading rates achieved by first graders taught reading by the Listen Look Learn (LLL) materials and procedures were compared to available norms of children who have had no instrument use as a part of their reading instruction. In the LLL program the Aud-X, Tach-X, and Controlled Reader Instruments were used to increase sight vocabulary,…

  13. Learning to Read Words in Albanian: A Skill Easily Acquired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoxhallari, Lorenc; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of orthographic transparency were examined by comparing children learning to read in Albanian, Welsh, and English. Twenty Year 1 Albanian children were given a reading test consisting of a 100-word stratified sample of decreasing written frequency. They were able to read accurately 80% of the words; reading latency was a direct effect of…

  14. Reading for Pleasure: A Reading Resource Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battles, Jane; Tambuscio, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    A reading resource room was developed for 59 deaf and hard-of-hearing secondary-level students, to improve vocabulary and reading skills and encourage reading for pleasure. Books of interest to teenagers with limited reading levels were located from several publishing companies and were arranged in a space with shelves and comfortable seating.…

  15. Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading

  16. Reading for Meaning: A Guided Reading Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Stephanie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a whole-language approach to teaching guided reading to deaf students. Each morning, a written letter, using vocabulary and syntax in accordance with students' reading ability, previews the day's events. With teacher guidance, students explore their reading skills in groups to encourage application of reading strategies in a natural…

  17. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  18. Second Language Reading: Reading, Language, and Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Patricia L.

    A study investigated the role of metacognitive skills and the conception of reading in the reading comprehension of adult native speakers of Spanish and English. The study differed from others in its examination of reading conceptions and comprehension in both the first and second languages. Results suggest that both first language reading ability…

  19. Reading To Learn: Study Reading for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia

    This paper discusses the concept of "study reading" as used at a learning disabilities clinic at the University of Southampton, England. Study reading is defined as attentive reading to learn and remember, as different from reading that is performed simply to follow a narrative or browsing for one's own, self-set purposes. Results obtained with…

  20. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  1. Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

  2. Experimental strain analysis for polyethylene pipes installed by horizontal directional drilling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Anna Polak; Glenn Duyvestyn; Mark Knight

    2004-01-01

    The results of five field tests on instrumented polyethylene (PE) pipes installed using horizontal directional drilling (HDD) are presented in the paper. The focus is on mechanical behavior of pipes, their stiffness, strength and deformations. The testing methodology is presented and correlation between different readings is discussed. The test results are presented in a form of pipe strains along the

  3. METEOROLOGY 163: Meteorological Instrumentation Course Description

    E-print Network

    Clements, Craig

    with upper-air sounding techniques, remote sensing instruments such as SODAR and Radar, air-quality gas 2001. 2. CR1000 datalogger manual (PDF version, www.campbellsci.com) 3. Supplemental readings Lectures that is not included in the text book, i.e., instrument manuals, etc. San José State University Spring 2013 DH 614/ DH

  4. Parents Teach Reading, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Linda Mixon

    Parents and teachers need to be involved in teaching children to read and to enjoy reading. There are three planks in a platform that will help all parents become involved in their children's learning to read. First, parents must set the example. If they want their children to read, parents must read around them and to them. Secondly, they must…

  5. "Why are Your Kids Writing during Reading Time?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Bill

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hypothetical situation of an elementary school principal's concern at students writing during reading time, and offers a possible teacher's response with information about the direct tie between writing and reading improvement. (JC)

  6. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of functions. The sensor data is processed in a distributed fashion across the network, providing a large pool of resources in real time to meet stringent latency requirements.

  7. survey and certification of ships. Together the Convention and Protocol are to be read as one instrument and is usually referred to as MARPOL 73/78. MARPOL prevents pollution by

    E-print Network

    instrument and is usually referred to as MARPOL 73/78. MARPOL prevents pollution by governing the design mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution by oil, noxious liquid substances, or garbage of pollution from ships, except the disposal of waste into the sea by dumping; it applies to all ships of all

  8. Reading Through Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional data matrix symbols, which contain encoded letters and numbers, are permanently etched on items for identification. They can store up to 100 times more information than traditional bar codes. While the symbols provide several advantages over bar codes, once they are covered by paint they can no longer be read by optical scanners. Since most products are painted eventually, this presents a problem for industries relying on the symbols for identification and tracking. In 1987, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center began studying direct parts marking with matrix symbols in order to track millions of Space Shuttle parts. Advances in the technology proved that by incorporating magnetic properties into the paints, inks, and pastes used to apply the matrix symbols, the codes could be read by a magnetic scanner even after being covered with paint or other coatings. NASA received a patent for such a scanner in 1998, but the system it used for development was not portable and was too costly. A prototype was needed as a lead-in to a production model. In the summer of 2000, NASA began seeking companies to build a hand-held scanner that would detect the Read Through Paint data matrix identification marks containing magnetic materials through coatings.

  9. Read the Label First

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fact Sheets Health & Safety Read the Label First Read the Label First Need help with product labels? ... effectively. It contains pertinent information that you should read and understand before you use a pesticide product. ...

  10. ABLE: An Instrument for Assessing Elementary Students' Perceptions of Access to Books, Beliefs, and Literacy Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Maria H.; Moorefield-Lang, Heather; Barksdale, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote voluntary reading in elementary school, students need to have access to books they want to read, to believe they can read, and to be in an environment conducive to reading. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument intended to measure students' perceptions in these areas. An exploratory factor analysis…

  11. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2014-10-24

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures of language ability in kindergarten significantly added to the prediction of reading comprehension difficulties over and above kindergarten word reading predictors and direct measures of word reading in second grade. Response to language intervention also proved to be a unique predictor of reading comprehension outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the early identification of reading disabilities. PMID:25344060

  12. Reading(s) in the Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David

    1997-01-01

    Interrogates the reading/writing connection by evaluating how three essays by published writers affected the attitude and writing practices of university students in a course on the personal essay. Describes the course. Suggests what findings imply for current rationales about the reading/writing connection and for the use of anthology readings in…

  13. Celebrations in Reading and Writing: Reading Refresher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Maryann

    2005-01-01

    Revising reading program can breathe new life into the classroom and increase students' confidence. This paper describes how one teacher decided to refine her reading curriculum. She had five non-negotiables for the curriculum: the need for self-selection of quality literature; volume of reading; peer interaction; individual conferences; and…

  14. A conserved structure within the HIV gag open reading frame that controls translation initiation directly recruits the 40S subunit and eIF3

    PubMed Central

    Locker, Nicolas; Chamond, Nathalie; Sargueil, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Translation initiation on HIV genomic RNA relies on both cap and Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) dependant mechanisms that are regulated throughout the cell cycle. During a unique phenomenon, the virus recruits initiation complexes through RNA structures located within Gag coding sequence, downstream of the initiation codon. We analyzed initiation complexes paused on the HIV-2 gag IRES and revealed that they contain all the canonical initiation factors except eIF4E and eIF1. We report that eIF3 and the small ribosomal subunit bind HIV RNA within gag open reading frame. We thus propose a novel two step model whereby the initial event is the formation of a ternary eIF3/40S/IRES complex. In a second step, dependent on most of the canonical initiation factors, the complex is rearranged to transfer the ribosome on the initiation codons. The absolute requirement of this large structure for HIV translation defines a new function for a coding region. Moreover, the level of information compaction within this viral genome reveals an additional level of evolutionary constraint on the coding sequence. The conservation of this IRES and its properties in rapidly evolving viruses suggest an important role in the virus life cycle and highlight an attractive new therapeutic target. PMID:21071421

  15. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  16. The importance of direct readout satellite data in sub-synoptic scale data assimilation and numerical weather prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Le Marshall; L. M. Leslie; N. Pescod; C. Spinoso; R. Morison

    1997-01-01

    Observations, directly read out from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites are vital to sub-synoptic scale analysis and forecasting over the Australian Region. Physically based methods are used for determining temperature, moisture and total ozone from NOAA satellite radiance observations from the High Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV\\/2) instruments. Physical methods have

  17. EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF VARIABILITY IN READING RATE IN GRADES FOUR, FIVE AND SIX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRIS, THEODORE L.; AND OTHERS

    METHODS OF TESTING, EVALUATING, AND TEACHING READING IN THE FOURTH, FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES ARE DESCRIBED. CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF VARIABILITY IN READING SPEED ARE DISCUSSED. DESIGN WAS BASED ON THE RATIONALE THAT A MEANINGFUL READING-TIME SCORE DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE SUBJECT'S PURPOSE FOR READING. WHILE READING SPEED MAY…

  18. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition"[R] ("CIRC") is a comprehensive reading and writing program for students in grades 2 through 8. It includes story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated reading and language arts activities. Pairs of students (grouped either by or across ability levels) read

  19. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  20. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  1. Treating Reading Disabilities: The Specialist's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B.; And Others

    One of four books directed to reading specialists, the text provides information on methods for identifying problems that can be efficiently treated in a remedial reading group and on methods for handling these problems. Consideration is given to the scope of the problem and to three categories of disabilities. Levels of diagnosis, types of tests,…

  2. A Never-Get-Lost Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a reading support technique for Arabic students of English. These students must overcome the L1 interference "reversal of reading direction." PowerPoint presentations, utilizing a simple fade effect with adjustable delay between words such that the text appears nicely in a left-to-right manner, line by line with voice roughly…

  3. Oral Language and Reading: Reply to Bracken

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developmental Psychology, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Early language competence in preschool relates both directly and indirectly to elementary school reading in both 1st and 3rd grades. Further, comprehensive language skills are more strongly related to early reading than are vocabulary scores alone. In response to a challenge by S. A. Bracken (2005), the current article reaffirms the National…

  4. Weather Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

  5. Site-directed chemical modification of archaeal Thermococcus litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase: Acquired ability to read through template-strand uracils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edita Gaidamaviciute; Daiva Tauraite; Julius Gagilas; Arunas Lagunavicius

    2010-01-01

    We present site-directed chemical modification (SDCM), a tool for engineering U-resistant archaeal DNA polymerases of family B. The Thermococcus litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase (GenBank: GQ891548) was chosen as the object of the study. Similar to D.Tok, Kod1, Pfu, Tgo and other archaeal members of this family, the T. litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase is a domain structured, proofreading-proficient enzyme that has

  6. UPGRADING ELEMENTARY READING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHIPPLE, GERTRUDE

    TO IMPROVE READING INSTRUCTION IN MANY SCHOLS, THE AMOUNT, QUALITY, AND VARIETY OF READING MATERIALS AND OTHER AIDS TO LEARNING MUST BE INCREASED. IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT STUDENTS HAVE ACCESS TO WELL EQUIPPED LIBRARIES. "THE HARVARD REPORT ON READING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS" OFFERS EXCELLENT GUIDANCE FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF READING INSTRUCTION AND…

  7. Improving Reading Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Roger, Ed.; And Others

    This book includes papers related to reading research from the International Reading Association's 1974 preconvention institute on research held in New Orleans. The introduction by Samuel Weintraub and Roger Farr discusses such questions as: Where does reading research need to be improved? What is research? What areas of reading research demand…

  8. Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A. Crowe); (3) "Reading

  9. Big Read, Big ROI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

  10. Reading with Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linderholm, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    In college-level courses, the vast majority of students read expository textbooks with a primary purpose in mind: to memorize and, hopefully, understand enough information to receive a particular grade on a course exam. Intuitively, this kind of reading is different than the kind of reading that these same students do when reading a novel while…

  11. What Should Students Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The reading students are required to do for school bears little semblance to the reading they do outside of school. Students today are reading the same texts in school that students read a generation ago, but the varieties of text used outside of school are much different. One result is that many students are unmotivated to become readers.…

  12. Relationship of reading achievement to verbal processing abilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet L. de Soto; Clinton B. de Soto

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between reading achievement and ability to process verbal information in 67 achieving and 67 nonachieving readers drawn from 4th-grade classes. Verbal processing abilities were evaluated with 10 instruments, which included measures of memory span, associative learning, semantic association, automatic word processing, and time taken to name pictures, read words, and recode (pronounce) pseudowords. Achieving readers performed better

  13. Aligning short sequencing reads with Bowtie

    PubMed Central

    Langmead, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This unit shows how to use the Bowtie package to align short sequencing reads, such as those output by second-generation sequencing instruments. It also includes protocols for building a genome index and calling consensus sequences from Bowtie alignments using SAMtools. PMID:21154709

  14. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  15. Simple Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students work with partners to create four different instruments to investigate the frequency of the sounds they make. Teams may choose to make a shoebox guitar, water-glass xylophone, straw panpipe or a soda bottle organ (or all four!). Conduct this activity in conjunction with Lesson 3 of the Sound and Light unit.

  16. The Dynamics of Language Learning: Research in Reading and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James R., Ed.

    Focusing on future directions for English and reading research, the papers presented in this book examine the complex interplay of skills, processes, and classroom conditions that influence the development of children's competence in reading, writing, and the language arts. The titles and authors of the essays are as follows: (1) "Reading and…

  17. Read-Alouds in Preschool--A Matter of Discipline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damber, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The enquiries in this study were directed towards the reading of children's literature in preschool with the aim of describing and analysing how read-alouds were carried out in 39 preschools in the northern and southern parts of Sweden. How often were read-alouds performed? How long were they? How was literature chosen? Who initiated the…

  18. Reading Mastery. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Reading Mastery," one of several curriculum components that constitute the "Direct Instruction" program from SRA/McGraw-Hill, is designed to provide systematic instruction in reading to students in grades K-6. "Reading Mastery," which can be used as an intervention program for struggling readers, as a supplement to a…

  19. Wilson Reading System[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Wilson Reading System"[R] is a reading and writing program developed by Barbara Wilson and distributed by Wilson Language Training. It provides a curriculum for teaching reading and spelling to individuals of any age who have difficulty with written language. The program directly teaches the structure of words in the English language, aiming…

  20. Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

  1. QuaMeter: Multivendor Performance Metrics for LC–MS/MS Proteomics Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ze-Qiang; Polzin, Kenneth O.; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W.; Tran, Bao Q.; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo; Liebler, Daniel C.; Tabb, David L.

    2013-01-01

    LC-MS/MS-based proteomics studies rely on stable analytical system performance that can be evaluated by objective criteria. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) introduced the MSQC software to compute diverse metrics from experimental LC-MS/MS data, enabling quality analysis and quality control (QA/QC) of proteomics instrumentation. In practice, however, several attributes of the MSQC software prevent its use for routine instrument monitoring. Here, we present QuaMeter, an open-source tool that improves MSQC in several aspects. QuaMeter can directly read raw data from instruments manufactured by different vendors. The software can work with a wide variety of peptide identification software for improved reliability and flexibility. Finally, QC metrics implemented in QuaMeter are rigorously defined and tested. The source code and binary versions of QuaMeter are available under Apache 2.0 License at http://fenchurch.mc.vanderbilt.edu. PMID:22697456

  2. Reading: Putting the Pieces Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The papers in this yearbook focus on the strategies, practices, and research related to elementary reading, secondary reading, adult reading, literature, philosophy of reading, psychology of reading, affective issues, administration, supervision, research, teacher training, assessment that affect reading and reading instruction. Papers in the book…

  3. Program Reads Weather-Data Tapes From Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Mike; Friehe, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Computer program developed to help read and analyze data gathered by airborne instruments for atmospheric research. By employing remote-sensing techniques, measurements of wind and wind stress obtained from airborne instruments in various locations and weather conditions. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  4. Direct reading of charge multipliers with a self-triggering CMOS analog chip with 105k pixels at 50 micron pitch

    E-print Network

    R. Bellazzini; G. Spandre; M. Minuti; L. Baldini; A. Brez; F. Cavalca; L. Latronico; N. Omodei; M. M. Massai; C. Sgro; E. Costa; P. Soffitta F. Krummenacher; R. DeOliveira

    2006-04-26

    We report on a large active area (15x15mm2), high channel density (470 pixels/mm2), self-triggering CMOS analog chip that we have developed as pixelized charge collecting electrode of a Micropattern Gas Detector. This device, which represents a big step forward both in terms of size and performance, is the last version of three generations of custom ASICs of increasing complexity. The CMOS pixel array has the top metal layer patterned in a matrix of 105600 hexagonal pixels at 50 micron pitch. Each pixel is directly connected to the underneath full electronics chain which has been realized in the remaining five metal and two poly-silicon layers of a 0.18 micron VLSI technology. The chip has customizable self-triggering capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way it is possible to reduce significantly the readout time and the data volume by limiting the signal output only to those pixels belonging to the region of interest. The very small pixel area and the use of a deep sub-micron CMOS technology has brought the noise down to 50 electrons ENC. Results from in depth tests of this device when coupled to a fine pitch (50 micron on a triangular pattern) Gas Electron Multiplier are presented. The matching of readout and gas amplification pitch allows to get optimal results. The application of this detector for Astronomical X-Ray Polarimetry is discussed. The experimental detector response to polarized and unpolarized X-ray radiation when working with two gas mixtures and two different photon energies is shown. Results from a full MonteCarlo simulation for several galactic and extragalactic atronomical sources are also reported.

  5. Test Reviews: Flynn, J. (2001). "The Predictive Reading Profile." East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudge, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The Predictive Reading Profile (PRP) is an individual or group-administered instrument designed to examine precursors to reading difficulties by identifying children at risk for reading failure in later grades and special instructional needs for children in late kindergarten and first grade. The purpose of the PRP "is to develop a profile of a…

  6. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  7. The SRA Reading Laboratory and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boey, Lim Kiat

    1975-01-01

    Although the medium of instruction in many universities in Southeast Asia is the respective national language, many sources of information are in English. This article reports on an experiment at the University of Malaya to develop reading comprehension in English by means of the SRA (Scientific Research Associates) Reading Laboratory. (CLK)

  8. Teaching Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Read: An Experimental Examination of a Comprehensive Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allor, Jill H.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Jones, Francesca G.; Champlin, Tammi M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of our research was to determine if a comprehensive, phonics-based, direct instruction reading program would be effective in teaching early reading and language skills to students with moderate intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 28 elementary students from 10 public schools in an urban school district and one…

  9. The Impact of a Reading Initiative on Students' Early Reading Development K-3: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Iline P.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the relationship of the Reading First Initiative (RFI) in terms of its impact on students' early reading development K-3 and teachers' delivery of instruction. Extant test data were used to establish quantitative data. Direct observation utilizing a checklist consisting of five categories--management, environment, setting…

  10. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Word Meaning Acquisition during Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the influence of reading comprehension on the acquisition of word meanings from context and compares it to the effects of local context characteristics, such as proximity and directness of context clues. Indicates that reading-comprehension level and prior main-concept knowledge facilitate vocabulary learning from context. (DSK)

  11. Reading 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the further back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicate that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks.

    In figure 1, the layer labeled 'A' in this picture contains broken-up rocks that most closely resemble those of 'Eagle Crater.' Layers 'B,C and D' appear less broken up and more finely laminated. Layer 'E,' on the other hand, looks more like 'A.' At present, the rover is examining layer 'D.'

    So far, data from the rover indicates that the first four layers consist of sulfate-rich, jarosite-containing rocks like those observed in Eagle Crater. This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks, though the materials themselves may have been laid down by wind.

    This image was taken by Opportunity's navigation camera on sol 134 (June 9, 2004).

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading

  13. Reading Room Research Room

    E-print Network

    Tchumper, Gregory S.

    Reading Room Research Room 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 Tech Services Stairs Assistant Library DirectorSeminar Room John Grisham Law Library First Floor #12;(Reading Room - Glassed-in) Study Carrels Rare Books 2017

  14. Reading with the ears.

    PubMed

    Maier, J; Hartvig, N Vaever; Green, A C; Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H

    2004-07-01

    We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian language areas, prefrontal cortex, and premotor cortex. In a within-subject comparison between reading Morse code and reading print, the activation pattern in the left temporoparietal association cortex was similar for both forms of reading, suggesting that reading Morse code shares part of its cortical networks with reading print. PMID:15196672

  15. Improving Science Reading Comprehension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jill Caton Johnson

    2005-03-01

    Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.

  16. Can Reading Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  17. Balancing Instrumental and Identity Goals in Relationships: The Role of Request Directness and Request Persistence in the Selection of Sexual Resistance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Walid A.; Lee, Josephine W.

    2000-01-01

    Applies the general frameworks of Politeness Theory and Planning Theory to explain the selection of sexual resistance strategies among undergraduates following both initial and persisting requests. Investigates contingent effects of request directness on characteristics of the resistance message. Tests influence of resister sex on strategy choice.…

  18. Processes in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    This examination of the processes in reading comprehension is divided into seven categories. "Theoretical Foundations" reviews some of the research conducted by Bruner, Piaget, and Bloom in the areas of cognition or comprehension processes of young children. "Development of a Spiraling Reading Curriculum" examines a spiraling taxonomy of reading

  19. Motivating Students To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Patricia; Kandyba, Christine; McDonald, Colleen; Stevens, Tricia

    This report describes a research study in which motivational strategies were used to increase student enjoyment of reading and to foster a life-long love of reading. The targeted populations consisted of primary and middle grade students in three different urban midwestern settings. The problem of motivating students to read was documented through…

  20. READING & LANGUAGE ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    for the helpful faculty and sta in Reading & Language Arts who have groomed me into the teacher I am today! LaurenREADING & LANGUAGE ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS Learn more at http://soe.syr.edu Margaret J. Early Graduate in English Education, Literacy Education, Reading Education, or Teaching English Language Learners

  1. Pennsylvania Jumps into Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Barbara A.; Strain, Richard L.

    The Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce addressed family literacy through the promotion of a "Jump into Reading" videotape and its accompanying brochure in local businesses and schools as well as throughout Pennsylvania. Jump into Reading was designed to teach parents the importance of reading aloud to their children and offer techniques to do so.…

  2. Read to Your Bunny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin.

    This packet of materials consists of reproducible flyers to promote parents' reading aloud to children. Included are five benefits of reading aloud for children and parents; tips for reading to babies and children and for exposing them to books; suggestions for selecting books for infants; toddlers and preschoolers; a descriptive list of selected…

  3. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  4. Reading Effects of IBM's \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Slavin

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews evaluations of IBM's Writing to Read program in kindergartens and first grades. In Writing to Read (WTR), students rotate through five learning stations to learn and practice phonics, to write stories, and to listen to recorded books. Two of these stations involve computers. Twenty-one studies of Writing to Read in kindergartens found a median effect size of

  5. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  6. Reading and the Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    For each student to achieve optimally, a quality reading program must provide for individual differences. To guide students to learn as much as possible individually, selected philosophies of reading instruction may be used. These include: (1) experimentalism with its stress placed upon students reading to solve problems; (2) measurably stated…

  7. Reading/Writing Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Melanie

    In the past, students and teachers alike viewed reading and writing instruction as two separate entities. Reading and writing instruction was often characterized by linear and behaviorist theories and methods, with students rarely coming away from their schooling experience with confidence in and respect for their own writing. To both read and…

  8. Indicators of Reading Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.

    Monitoring the effectiveness of reading education is central to the appraisal of the productivity of schooling, yet most measures currently being used do not take into account the full range of processes which lead to successful reading education. A model of indicators relevant to reading education (outcome, process, and input) can be used to…

  9. Reading about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Grubb, P F

    A study was conducted to access the importance of reading about experiences on homosexuality for adolescents and post-adolescents. Although no conclusive evidence could be found to link their reading experience to later experiences as a means of instigating change or providing role models, the author suggests that reading materials can be influential. PMID:3611741

  10. The CTD Reading Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadar-Fulop, Judit

    1985-01-01

    Reading ability of fourth- and eighth-grade Hungarians was assessed as part of the national CTD-80 (Curriculum Theory Department) survey. The texts used in the reading tests are analyzed, as are the reading tasks involved. Resulting achievement test results are presented and described in terms of the text characteristics. (GDC)

  11. SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS Margaret J. Early Graduate Scholarship This scholarship in the Reading & Language Arts Department with preference given to a minority student, a student from a rural, rather than paying for my tuition. I'm so thankful for the helpful faculty and sta in Reading & Language

  12. Reading with the ears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Maier; N. Vaever Hartvig; A. C Green; H Stodkilde-Jorgensen

    2004-01-01

    We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian

  13. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jana M., Ed.

    This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

  14. The Future of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

  15. Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

  16. Robotic-surgical instrument wrist pose estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Fabel; Kyungim Baek; Peter Berkelman

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Lightweight Surgery Robot from the University of Hawaii includes two teleoperated instruments and one endoscope manipulator which act in accord to perform assisted interventional medicine. The relative positions and orientations of the robotic instruments and endoscope must be known to the teleoperation system so that the directions of the instrument motions can be controlled to correspond closely to

  17. PREX Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Luis; Happex Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The Lead Radius Experiment (PREx) took place in the Spring of 2010 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Its goal was to obtain a clean measurement of the root mean square neutron radius of 208Pb to 1% accuracy. This was done by measuring the parity violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from a Lead target. In order to obtain such a precise measurement, numerous improvements and upgrades were made to the instrumentation and electronics of Hall A. This talk will discuss developments related to the PREx main detectors, Data Acquisition system and Luminosity Monitor.

  18. Laboratory Investigation of Direct Measurement of Ice Water Content, Ice Surface Area, and Effective Radius of Ice Crystals Using a Laser-Diffraction Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, H.; DeMott, P. J.; Rogers, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    The aircraft microphysics probe, PVM-100A, was tested in the Colorado State University dynamic cloud chamber to establish its ability to measure ice water content (IWC), PSA, and Re in ice clouds. Its response was compared to other means of measuring those ice-cloud parameters that included using FSSP-100 and 230-X 1-D optical probes for ice-crystal concentrations, a film-loop microscope for ice-crystal habits and dimensions, and an in-situ microscope for determining ice-crystal orientation. Intercomparisons were made in ice clouds containing ice crystals ranging in size from about 10 microns to 150 microns diameter, and ice crystals with plate, columnar, dendritic, and spherical shapes. It was not possible to determine conclusively that the PVM accurately measures IWC, PSA, and Re of ice crystals, because heat from the PVM evaporated in part the crystals in its vicinity in the chamber thus affecting its measurements. Similarities in the operating principle of the FSSP and PVM, and a comparison between Re measured by both instruments, suggest, however, that the PVM can make those measurements. The resolution limit of the PVM for IWC measurements was found to be on the order of 0.001 g/cubic m. Algorithms for correcting IWC measured by FSSP and PVM were developed.

  19. Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyutaya, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

  20. Introducing a digital library reading appliance into a reading group

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Cathy

    Introducing a digital library reading appliance into a reading group Catherine C. Marshall, Morgan will we read digital library materials? This paper describes the reading practices of an on-going reading group, and how these practices changed when we introduced XLibris, a digital library reading appliance

  1. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version How to Read Drug ... read drug labels How to read a prescription drug label View a text version of this picture. ...

  2. Instruments for use in occupational hygiene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C N Davies

    1957-01-01

    Eight papers were read at the Conference reported in this article. The subject-matter included the planning of sampling programmes for maintaining a healthy working environment in industry and the assessment of incompletely defined atmospheric pollution from observations on human subjects. Instrumentation for safety in mining was described with special reference to gas and dust explosions, pneumoconiosis and non-destructive testing. Details

  3. METEOROLOGY 163: Meteorological Instrumentation Course Description

    E-print Network

    Clements, Craig

    with upper-air sounding techniques, remote sensing instruments such as SODAR and Radar, air-quality gas datalogger manual (PDF version, www.campbellsci.com) 3. Supplemental readings Lectures notes The format manuals, etc. San José State University Spring 2010 DH 614/ DH801 Web page: http

  4. METEOROLOGY 163: Meteorological Instrumentation Course Description

    E-print Network

    Clements, Craig

    with upper-air sounding techniques, remote sensing instruments such as SODAR and Radar, air-quality gas datalogger manual (PDF version, www.campbellsci.com) 3. Supplemental readings Lectures notes The format manuals, etc. San José State University Spring 2011 DH 614/ DH801 Web page: http

  5. Reading Assignment 1 This assignment is about reading strategies. There are six steps. Read about the steps before reading the

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    Reading Assignment 1 This assignment is about reading strategies. There are six steps. Read about the steps before reading the paper: 1. Select for how long you will read this paper: five, ten, twenty, or thirty minutes. (Any choice is valid, but stick to your choice.) 2. Read the paper during the selected

  6. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  7. Two Approaches to Reading Instruction for Children with Disabilities: Does Program Design Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.; And Others

    This study tested the hypothesis that Distar Reading's demonstrated effects with disadvantaged children can be generalized to children with disabilities. The study compared the effects of two synthetic phonics reading programs, Direct Instruction "Reading Mastery" (which incorporated features of Distar Reading) and Addison Wesley's "Superkids."…

  8. The Prepared Practitioner: Getting Students to Read

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan Colburn

    2008-03-01

    As the teacher, you need to respond to students with very low-reading abilities, help all students learn how to learn from text, structure class to encourage student reading, and hold students accountable for assignments. Some effective, research-based strategies that are beneficial to all students are featured in this month's column. The payback comes later when you spend a little less time lecturing and a little more time directly helping students learn.

  9. Effect of Color-Coded Notation on Music Achievement of Elementary Instrumental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a study of color-coded notation to teach music reading to instrumental students. Finds no clear evidence that color-coded notation enhances achievement on performing by memory, sight-reading, or note naming. Suggests that some students depended on the color-coding and were unable to read uncolored notation well. (DK)

  10. 47 CFR 73.1215 - Specifications for indicating instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...instruments used by broadcast stations: (a) Linear scale instruments: (1) Length of scale shall not be less than 2.3 inches (5.8 cm...Accuracy shall be at least 2 percent of the full scale reading. (3) The maximum rating of the...

  11. Determination of the single scattering albedo and direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosol with data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li

    Biomass burning aerosols absorb and scatter solar radiation and therefore affect the energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. The single scattering albedo (SSA), the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the extinction coefficient, is an important parameter to describe the optical properties of aerosols and to determine the effect of aerosols on the energy balance of the planet and climate. Aerosol effects on radiation also depend strongly on surface albedo. Large uncertainties remain in current estimates of radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols, due largely to the lack of reliable measurements of aerosol and surface properties. In this work we investigate how satellite measurements can be used to estimate the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols. We developed a method using the critical reflectance technique to retrieve SSA from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed reflectance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). We evaluated MODIS retrieved SSAs with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) retrievals and found good agreements within the published uncertainty of the AERONET retrievals. We then developed an algorithm, the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA), to improve the representations of spectral variations of vegetation surface albedo based on MODIS observations at the discrete 0.67, 0.86, 0.47, 0.55, 1.24, 1.64, and 2.12 mu-m channels. This algorithm is validated using laboratory measurements of the different vegetation types from the Amazon region, data from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) spectral library, and data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital spectral library. We show that the MEVA method can improve the accuracy of flux and aerosol forcing calculations at the TOA compared to more traditional interpolated approaches. Lastly, we combine the MODIS retrieved biomass burning aerosol SSA and the surface albedo spectrum determined from the MEVA technique to calculate TOA flux and aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Amazon region and compare it with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite results. The results show that MODIS based forcing calculations present similar averaged results compared to CERES, but MODIS shows greater spatial variation of aerosol forcing than CERES. Possible reasons for these differences are explored and discussed in this work. Potential future research based on these results is discussed as well.

  12. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  13. Optical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  14. Can Read, Can Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking…

  15. Direct interaction, instrumental for signaling processes, between LacCer and Lyn in the lipid rafts of neutrophil-like cells.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, Elena; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Brasile, Giuseppina; Compostella, Federica; Prinetti, Alessandro; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Ekyalongo, Roudy C; Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa; Sonnino, Sandro; Mauri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Lactosylceramide [LacCer; ?-Gal-(1-4)-?-Glc-(1-1)-Cer] has been shown to contain very long fatty acids that specifically modulate neutrophil properties. The interactions between LacCer and proteins and their role in cell signaling processes were assessed by synthesizing two molecular species of azide-photoactivable tritium-labeled LacCer having acyl chains of different lengths. The lengths of the two acyl chains corresponded to those of a short/medium and very long fatty acid, comparable to the lengths of stearic and lignoceric acids, respectively. These derivatives, designated C18-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3) and C24-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3), were incorporated into the lipid rafts of plasma membranes of neutrophilic differentiated HL-60 (D-HL-60) cells. C24-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3), but not C18-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3), induced the phosphorylation of Lyn and promoted phagocytosis. Incorporation of C24-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3) into plasma membranes, followed by illumination, resulted in the formation of several tritium-labeled LacCer-protein complexes, including the LacCer-Lyn complex, into plasma membrane lipid rafts. Administration of C18-[(3)H]LacCer-(N3) to cells, however, did not result in the formation of the LacCer-Lyn complex. These results suggest that LacCer derivatives mimic the biological properties of natural LacCer species and can be utilized as tools to study LacCer-protein interactions, and confirm a specific direct interaction between LacCer species containing very long fatty acids, and Lyn protein, associated with the cytoplasmic layer via myristic/palmitic chains. PMID:25418321

  16. Simulating a Direction-Finder Search for an ELT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A computer program simulates the operation of direction-finding equipment engaged in a search for an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) aboard an aircraft that has crashed. The simulated equipment is patterned after the equipment used by the Civil Air Patrol to search for missing aircraft. The program is designed to be used for training in radio direction-finding and/or searching for missing aircraft without incurring the expense and risk of using real aircraft and ground search resources. The program places a hidden ELT on a map and enables the user to search for the location of the ELT by moving a 14 NASA Tech Briefs, March 2005 small aircraft image around the map while observing signal-strength and direction readings on a simulated direction- finding locator instrument. As the simulated aircraft is turned and moved on the map, the program updates the readings on the direction-finding instrument to reflect the current position and heading of the aircraft relative to the location of the ELT. The software is distributed in a zip file that contains an installation program. The software runs on the Microsoft Windows 9x, NT, and XP operating systems.

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of Strategy Based Reading Instruction for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Katherine D.

    2009-01-01

    Strategy based reading instruction helps teachers differentiate the teaching of reading. It also supports many types of readers by explicitly teaching and modeling reading comprehension strategies. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of strategy based reading instruction for improving student reading comprehension. …

  18. Binocular Coordination during Reading and Non-Reading Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkby, Julie A.; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Blythe, Hazel I.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature on binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks in adult, child, and dyslexic populations. The review begins with a description of the basic characteristics of eye movements during reading. Then, reading and non-reading studies investigating binocular coordination are evaluated.…

  19. Reading for University Seven Principles of Reading & Learning

    E-print Network

    Reading for University Workshop #12;2 Seven Principles of Reading & Learning We read and learn best: 1. When we are interested in what we are reading. 2. When we are actively engaged with what we are reading. 3. When we practice Elaboration by associating new material with material we already know

  20. Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.; Wigfield, Allan, Ed.; Perencevich, Kathleen C., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a…

  1. Ultrasensitive visual read-out of nucleic acids using electrocatalytic fluid displacement

    PubMed Central

    Besant, Justin D.; Das, Jagotamoy; Burgess, Ian B.; Liu, Wenhan; Sargent, Edward H.; Kelley, Shana O.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of disease outside of sophisticated laboratories urgently requires low-cost, user-friendly devices. Disposable, instrument-free testing devices are used for home and physician office testing, but are limited in applicability to a small class of highly abundant analytes. Direct, unambiguous visual read-out is an ideal way to deliver a result on a disposable device; however, existing strategies that deliver appropriate sensitivity produce only subtle colour changes. Here we report a new approach, which we term electrocatalytic fluid displacement, where a molecular binding event is transduced into an electrochemical current, which drives the electrodeposition of a metal catalyst. The catalyst promotes bubble formation that displaces a fluid to reveal a high contrast change. We couple the read-out system to a nanostructured microelectrode and demonstrate direct visual detection of 100?fM DNA in 10?min. This represents the lowest limit of detection of nucleic acids reported using high contrast visual read-out. PMID:25901450

  2. Creating a line-shaped weakening in a polymer skin/foam bilaminate sheet while minimizing read-through

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Kevin R.

    When a line shaped weakening in a polymer skin/foam bilaminate is created by mechanically scoring the backside of the skin, where it is bonded to the foam, the weakness of the bilaminate is determined by the depth of the score groove. The deeper the groove, the weaker the bilaminate and the easier it is to achieve a location-controlled fragmentation-free failure. But also, the deeper the groove, the greater the tendency for read-through. Read-through is seeing on the front surface of the skin the location of the groove that was created on the back surface. This is why it is often important to minimize the groove depth required to achieve a location-controlled fragmentation-free failure and to minimize read-through for a given groove depth. The immediate application of this technology is found in the weakening of a car instrument panel to allow the passenger-side airbag to deploy through it. This work has focused on understanding how the skin fails, how the foam fails, and what leads to a location-controlled fragmentation-free failure of the bilaminate. Quasi-shear and tensile tests were conducted to achieve this. The knowledge acquired was used to develop tests to predict how a bilaminate will fail and to make general bilaminate design recommendations to minimize the groove depth required to achieve a location-controlled fragmentation-free failure. This work has also focused on understanding what topographical feature on the skin's surface constitutes read-through, what strains are induced by mechanical scoring, and how these strains lead to read-through. Scored and mounted skins were viewed with an optical interferometer and measured with a profilometer to better understand what topographical features constitute read-through. Skins of different color and gloss level were viewed with incident light directed in various directions to better understand the affect of incident light direction, color, and gloss on read-through. Several model systems were used to determine what strains are induced by mechanical scoring. This knowledge was used to identify factors that may affect read-through. The factors were then varied to verify their effect. It may be possible to use this increased knowledge to minimize read-through at a given score groove depth.

  3. Reading with a Special Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Mary

    Disadvantaged secondary school students with special reading needs can be motivated in the reading room. The school year can start with "popcorn" reading involving materials that are funny, interesting, and exciting. The teacher reads to the students or the students read silently, using materials on the students' independent rather than…

  4. Improving Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anhalt, Mary Emily; And Others

    An action research study described and evaluated a program for improving the reading comprehension of targeted first, second, and third grade students, in a progressive suburban community in northern Illinois. The problem was noted by the researchers, who in recent years had observed a need for improvement in reading comprehension as indicated by…

  5. CRITICAL READING DEVELOPS EARLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, DORRIS; AND OTHERS

    THIS ISSUE OF THE READING AIDS SERIES PRESENTS A DISCUSSION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CRITICAL READING AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN AND HOW IT CAN BE DEVELOPED. IT OFFERS SUGGESTIONS FOR THE MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF INQUIRY AND EVALUATION. SOME OF THE TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE -- (1) THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTS, CONCEPTS, AND COMMON…

  6. Functional Reading for Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves all students, kindergarten through grade twelve, in Maryland's public schools. The prime objective of the program is to ensure that all Maryland students can meet society's reading demands. The following three major considerations determine the goals: the reader as a person, the…

  7. [Reading Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Epistle," the publication forum of Professors of Reading Teacher Educators, contains three papers as well as the regular features on job openings and on miscellaneous facts. Titles and authors of the articles are: "Doctoral Education in Reading: The State of the Art," by Richard Allington; "The Virtues of Being a Toad and What That…

  8. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

  9. Get That Brain Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Gloria

    Noting the National Reading Panel's suggestions on assessing and improving children's phonemic awareness, this paper discusses how reading can be improved through think-alouds and visualizations. Comprehension strategies that teachers can model during think-alouds are: activating prior knowledge; building vocabulary; determining importance;…

  10. Television and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

  11. Adult Reading, Rated G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests books for summer reading for Department of Education officials involved in closing all 16 ERIC Clearinghouses or touting the superiority of a Christian education, standardized test-makers, planners of the Gates Foundation, and the creator of the Algebra Project. For example, suggests that standardized test-makers read William Bennett's…

  12. Anything but Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

  13. Reading Where It Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teachers are reminded that their content subject areas require acquainting children with special words or symbols related to that subject area (e.g. mathematics or social studies). Because children can read well does not mean they would be understanding of any special reading skill required in a content subject area; that the…

  14. Motivation for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anmarkrud, Oistein; Braten, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 104 Norwegian ninth-grade students, we examined whether perceived reading efficacy and reading task value uniquely predicted the comprehension of a social studies text after variance associated with gender, achievement in the domain, topic knowledge, deeper strategies, and surface strategies had been removed through forced-order…

  15. Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Rick

    A study investigated the effect Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) has had on literacy at Estancia High School in California which recently implemented an SSR program. It also examined the role SSR has on language development, comprehension, vocabulary, student attitudes, and its corollary consequence on the development of reading habits. A survey of…

  16. Education: Is Reading Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes arguments in favor of teaching people to read. Arguments include that television and radio cannot help individuals adapt and retrain quickly in their jobs; promotion in the armed services and elsewhere depends upon a certain degree of reading expertise; and people are unable to fill out income tax and other forms if they do not possess…

  17. Reading Rate and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the most important signs of language proficiency both for native and foreign language speakers (Grabe, 2010; Macalister, 2010; Winston, 2010; Hasbrouck, 2008; Rasinski, 2004; Oakley, 2003; Waldman, 1985; Cited in: Sayenko, 2010, Introduction Para 1). This paper is in the area of reading fluency and tries to investigate…

  18. Concurrent reading and writing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Lamport

    1977-01-01

    The problem of sharing data among asynchronous processes is considered. It is assumed that only one process at a time can modify the data, but concurrent reading and writing is permitted. Two general theorems are proved, and some algorithms are presented to illustrate their use. These include a solution to the general problem in which a read is repeated if

  19. Concurrent Reading While Writing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Peterson

    1983-01-01

    The problem of asynchronous processes reading shared data while the data are being modified by another process is considered. This problem differs from the standard readers\\/writers problem in that concurrent reading while writing is allowed. The model used here strongly limits the use and size of the shared variables. If multiple copies of the shared data are allowed, then simple,

  20. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  1. Reading and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anna; And Others

    This publication contains materials used in the three phases of the reading and mathematics components of work-specific classes. Each section begins with an overview of developments in that phase. Section 1 focuses on Phase 1 during which math and reading were taught as separate components. It contains a math placement appraisal, worksheets and…

  2. Reading and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikov, Sergei N.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a short historical and sociological analysis of reading in the Soviet Union from the beginning of the twentieth century to perestroika. Discusses some sociocultural problems associated with reading, including the prevailing social, economic and political crises in all spheres of life, particularly the cultural. (RS)

  3. A Beginning Reading Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry T.; Rust, Debra

    1987-01-01

    First-graders (identified as high-risk for reading difficulties) were taught to read examples of "environmental print" (words on candy wrappers, grocery bags, newspaper advertisements) and were able to identify and write words when logos and supporting detail were removed, indicating that activities using environmental print can effectively…

  4. Reading, Mathematics, and Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Mathematics has its own unique vocabulary as well as words which cut across all academic disciplines. It also has abstract symbols which belong to mathematics solely. Words and symbols need to be read meaningfully by students. Along with reading, mathematics teaching stresses the use of a variety of learning opportunities to guide students to…

  5. Making Textbook Reading Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2012-01-01

    When students enter middle school, they are confronted with the necessity of learning from complex content-area textbooks. Many students find these texts boring, and they may lack the higher-order reading comprehension skills they need to tackle complex text. Yet the ability to read informational text is essential to success in middle school and…

  6. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  7. The Carrot To Read: Computerized Reading Incentive Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engvall, Barb

    1999-01-01

    Describes and compares four computerized reading incentive programs that quiz students on their reading comprehension of self-selected books and award points for their efforts. Topics include price, hardware requirements, reading level, training, and recommendations. (LRW)

  8. Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Attitudes toward Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.; Reed, Valda

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effect of sustained silent reading (SSR) on reading attitudes of boys and girls. Finds that boys have a substantially poorer attitude toward reading than girls and that SSR has no demonstrable effect on either sex. (RS)

  9. Instruments in Grid: the Instrument Element

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vuerli; G. Taffoni; I. Coretti; F. Pasian; P. Santin; M. Pucillov

    This work is focused on the interoperability aspects between the Grid and the scientific instrumentation. The IE (Instrument\\u000a Element) makes possible the monitoring and the remote control of any kind of scientific instrumentation, although the test-bed\\u000a of this first implementation is constituted of telescopes and related astronomical instrumentation. The first implementation\\u000a of the IE deals with monitoring aspects; astronomers can

  10. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  11. The Effects of Listening While Reading and Repeated Reading on the Reading Fluency of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Beth D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Oliver, Renee; Hale, Andrea D.; Ziegler, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Much research has validated procedures to enhance reading fluency in children and adolescents, but more is needed to determine whether such procedures work with adults who have deficits in reading skills. A within-subjects design was used to evaluate and compare the effects of listening while reading (LWR) and repeated readings (RR) on reading

  12. Effects of Differentiated Reading on Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Evans, Linda; Ferron, John; Lindo, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the effects of a differentiated reading approach on fourth grade students' reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. Eight Title I schools within one urban district were randomly assigned to treatment (Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading [SEM-R]) or control (district reading curriculum) conditions.…

  13. Formal verification of concurrent programs with read-write locks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Fu; Yu Zhang; Yong Li

    2010-01-01

    Read-write locking is an important mechanism to improve concurrent granularity, but it is difficult to reason about the safety\\u000a of concurrent programs with read-write locks. Concurrent separation logic (CSL) provides a simple but powerful technique for\\u000a locally reasoning about concurrent programs with mutual exclusive locks. Unfortunately, CSL cannot be directly applied to\\u000a reasoning about concurrent programs with read-write locks due

  14. A pilot study of reading to improve self-esteem 

    E-print Network

    Bagnall, Norma Hayes

    1977-01-01

    , and they do not achieve as well as their peers. It is assumed, from studies of child behaviorists, that these children have low self-esteem. We know reading is directly related to achievement in the early grades, and we know reading can be an enriching... experience. This study proposes to determine whether a child's self- esteem can improve through individualized reading. To evaluate self-esteem, a teaoher-answered questionnaire was developed taking into account work done by earlier child behaviorists...

  15. Science Sampler : Content Reading Strategies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Allen H. Seed

    2005-01-01

    Since effective reading and comprehension skills impact achievement in science, this collection of reading content strategies will be useful in helping students improve reading skills before, during, and after an exercise.

  16. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867225

  17. Unique Instruments' Origins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Smith

    2012-09-11

    The purpose of this activity is to help you find unique instruments from a specific country. For whatever country you have chosen, the following resources should help you locate some unique instruments from that country. For starters, check out this link: Instruments By Country You will find a list of musical instruments for many countries in the world. Once you find an instrument from your country you want to explore, look here: Unique World Instruments Here ...

  18. Evaluating musical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  19. The Gravity Probe B Science Instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turneaure, John

    2007-04-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment employs a unique state-of-the-art science instrument to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity for gyroscopes orbiting a massive spinning body, in this case the Earth. The GP-B instrument comprises four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, each of which is independently subject to both the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions, and a telescope that tracks the guide star, IM Pegasi. Each gyroscope is read out with a dc SQUID system utilizing the London magnetic moment of the spinning gyroscope. The two axes of the telescope are read out with an image divider assembly, solid-state photo detectors and JFET preamplifiers. The telescope and gyroscopes are mechanically and thermally linked by a fused quartz block, which forms the metrology bench for the experiment. The instrument is located in a probe/helium dewar system, which provides a low-temperature environment of about 2.7 K for the instrument, as well as the ultra-low magnetic field, the ultrahigh magnetic shielding of the on-orbit ambient magnetic field, and the ultrahigh vacuum environments. The instrument was designed to allow a measurement of the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions to an accuracy of better than 0.5 mill-arc second/year for one year of science data collection. The instrument also provides the signals needed for drag-free and attitude control of the space vehicle. This presentation will include a description of the instrument and its principal on-orbit performance characteristics. Many persons at various institutions contributed to the development of the instrument. Numerous contributed presentations in a poster session will provide more detail.

  20. Roles of Morphological Awareness in the Reading Comprehension of Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: Exploring Partial Mediation by Vocabulary and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Biancarosa, Gina; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect roles of morphological awareness reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking language minority learners reading in English. Multivariate path analysis was used to investigate the unique contribution of derivational morphological awareness to reading comprehension as well as its indirect contributions…

  1. Affective Variables and Japanese L2 Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates how 17 affective factors are related to Japanese second language (L2) reading comprehension and "kanji" knowledge test scores of 43 university students in advanced Japanese courses. Major findings are that: a) reading comprehension ability and "kanji" knowledge have direct associations with self-perception of Japanese…

  2. Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

    2004-01-01

    The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

  3. On the Nonsmooth, Nonconstant Velocity of Braille Reading and Reversals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Barry; McClelland, Amber; Henare, Dion

    2014-01-01

    Relative to print reading, braille-reading finger movements are held to be of more constant speed, with continuous and exhaustive contact with all words. However, the continuity of movements is intermittent in two distinct ways: (a) readers reverse direction and reread material already encountered and (b) the continual fluctuations of velocity…

  4. Reading and Learning-Disabled Children: Understanding the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Carvalho, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors assess the evidence related to various instructional styles for teaching reading to children with learning disabilities. Results of the literature review indicate that whole language and direct instruction are the two major approaches to teaching reading. Whole language has proven successful for many students with…

  5. The Wilson Manual for Implementing Individually Guided Reading, Janesville, Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graper, Norman; And Others

    This working paper discusses the utilization of the Prototypic System for Reading Instruction (PSRI) in the Wilson School at Janesville, Wisconsin. The core of the PSRI is a scope and sequence statement which outlines the skills normally taught in kindergarten to grade six: word attack, comprehension, study skills, self-directed reading,…

  6. Evidence for Multiple Routes in Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Lete, Bernard; Bertand, Daisy; Dufau, Stephane; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multiple-route model of reading development in which coarse-grained orthographic processing plays a key role in optimizing access to semantics via whole-word orthographic representations. This forms part of the direct orthographic route that gradually replaces phonological recoding during the initial phases of reading acquisition.…

  7. What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident of bullying or violence directed toward youth in our communities or neighborhood schools.

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    What's happening to our kids? Almost all of us have read about or experienced an incident Zimmerman Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids and the Arts Youth Violence Prevention: From Bullying to Broken Windows - What's Happening to our Kids

  8. Do Reading Habits Influence Aesthetic Preferences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Allaith, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    We tested the idea that the directionality of a person's primary writing system has influences outside the domain of reading and writing, specifically influences on aesthetic preferences. The results of several previous studies suggest that people whose primary writing system goes from left to right prefer pictures of moving and static…

  9. File System Implementation -Reading: Tanenbaum ch 5

    E-print Network

    Hamey, Len

    Super block Inode bit map Zone bit map Inodes Data blocks MINIX code: read_super p950-952; alloc_bit pp Direct 5 Attributes Data Zones Single indirect Double indirect (Triple indirect) Each data and indirect or current dir 26382-26407: Component at a time pp 996-997 (advance) 26476-26484: Normal directory lookup

  10. What Are Reading Disorders?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and they are not a sign of lower intelligence or unwillingness to learn. People with reading disorders ... levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, ...

  11. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Apr 28,2015 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ... blood). What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined ...

  12. Reading Sunscreen Labels

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sun Exposure About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  13. Speed- Reading Made Easy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, W. S.

    1970-01-01

    Illustrates a compromise between vertical and horizontal typographies which should make speed reading faster and more reliable, and suggests that computers could prepare text according to this arrangement. (MB)

  14. Reading-Boxing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin

    1969-01-01

    The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)

  15. FORTRAN read package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diekelman, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Flexible input schemes for digital programs are described. No card format or special order of cards is required. Read package is controlled by small set of parameters which can be changed to account for differences in computers and digital programs.

  16. Read Without Seeing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

    2012-01-01

    Learners write a message in Braille using beans to form the patterns of dots. Learners glue beans in place, and then challenge another learner to read the message. This resource includes a Braille chart.

  17. Language differences in the brain network for reading in naturalistic story reading and lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension. PMID:26017384

  18. Language Differences in the Brain Network for Reading in Naturalistic Story Reading and Lexical Decision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W. Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension. PMID:26017384

  19. Parents' Reading-Related Knowledge and Children's Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related…

  20. Reconsidering Children's Readings: Insights Into The Reading Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poonam Arya; Karen M. Feathers

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the complex reading processes of two primary grade struggling readers. It provides a more complete picture of the readers’ use of all parts of a text, verbal and visual, to construct meaning during reading. The oral reading data show that students used various linguistic strategies to read words, and the eye-tracking data illuminate not only when, where,

  1. Reading Specialist: Key to a Systematic Schoolwide Reading Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helf, Shawnna; Cooke, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of elementary reading specialists in schools has increased, and their role in improving schoolwide efforts for prevention and intervention of reading risk has received increased emphasis. The purpose of this article is to describe the components of a multitier schoolwide reading model in the early grades in which the reading

  2. Improving EFL Learners' Reading Levels through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2014-01-01

    Today there is an increasing amount of research promoting the effectiveness of extensive reading (ER) towards increasing learners' vocabulary, comprehension, reading speed, and motivation towards reading. However, little has been done to measure the effects of ER on learners' reading levels. This quantitative study examined the effects…

  3. The Potency of "READS" to Inform Students' Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik

    2012-01-01

    This paper shares an initiative conducted in Malaysia in terms of knowledge to gauge students' Reading Age and to inform teachers of their students' reading progress and learning. Ensuring teachers understand the needs of students' reading ability and preparing students to read and comprehend texts are the two most fundamental parallel tasks in…

  4. Summer Reading Summer Not: How Project READS Can Advance Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has three goals. First, it describes the broader research on summer reading loss. Second, it discusses how research and development efforts informed the key components of Project READS (Reading Enhances Achievement During Summer), a scaffolded voluntary summer reading intervention for children in grades 3 to 5. The second part of the…

  5. Improving Reading Rates and Comprehension through Timed Repeated Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen English as a foreign language students read 26 passages during a 13-week period. Each passage was read five times, and students answered comprehension questions after the first and the fifth reading. Another 13 students read the same number of passages but without repetition and only answered the comprehension questions once. All students…

  6. Underlying Reading Problems? 1 Running Head: UNDERLYING READING PROBLEMS?

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Underlying Reading Problems? 1 Running Head: UNDERLYING READING PROBLEMS? Can LASSI Score Profiles Help Identify Postsecondary Students with Underlying Reading Problems? Maureen G. Hewlett Jacqui;Underlying Reading Problems? 2 Abstract This study investigated whether scores on the Learning and Study

  7. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  8. Experiences in Reading Instruction as the Road to Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corlett, Donna Jean

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model self-improvement reading course for teachers incorporating the communications model, the skills model, and the sustained silent reading model. Concludes that basic reading skills instruction led to improvement in reading skills and that lesson plans incorporating course objectives were produced. (RS)

  9. Have You Read MASH?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter F. Mahoney

    \\u000a “Have you read MASH?”1 “Seen the film- not read the book.” We’re sitting on a concrete ledge- part of a blast wall- at the front of the hospital\\u000a in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. Just in front of us a group of about 15 people are conducting a high spirited, impromptu game\\u000a of “almost American football.” The players wear odd combinations of

  10. Celebrate Summer with Reading

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliana Texley

    2007-07-01

    School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of NSTA Recommends --ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach chairs, flags, and fireworks schedules; collect some reading material for a summer of personal enrichment.

  11. INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

    2001-05-04

    Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

  12. Binocular advantages in reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-01

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

  13. What is virtual instrumentation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Goldberg

    2000-01-01

    A virtual instrument is composed of some specialized subunits, some general-purpose computers, some software, and a little know-how. The instrument no longer has to be in one box. Virtual instruments can be simple or very complex. Understanding the real field of virtual instrumentation is just beginning. Over the next few years, there will be a rash of subunits specifically designed

  14. DEVELOPING HIGH SCHOOL READING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAWSON, MILDRED A.

    FORTY-FOUR REPRINTS CONCERNING HIGH SCHOOL READING PROGRAMS SELECTED FROM "THE READING TEACHER" AND THE "JOURNAL OF READING" AND THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL READING ASSOCIATION ARE PRESENTED. THE CRITERIA FOR SELECTION WERE CONSISTENCY WITH ACCEPTED CURRICULAR AND INSTRUCTIONAL PRINCIPLES, CURRENT APPROPRIATENESS, DUPLICATION, AND…

  15. Reading Recovery and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Sherrie Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a skill, which is essential for a child's school success. The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to investigate the effects of the Reading Recovery (RR) Program. The data utilized were from two groups of students at-risk in the area of reading, first-grade students involved in at least 12 weeks of Reading

  16. Remediating Reading Difficulties. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sharon J.; Merritt, King

    Designed as a concise, easy-to-read, easy-to-use guide, this book provides suggestions for remediating aspects of a student's reading disability as diagnosed through an experienced teacher's observations and through the use of an Informal Reading Inventory. The book contains teaching ideas specifically designed for handling a wide range of reading

  17. Reading for Kicks, Not Kickbacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassell, Danny

    2003-01-01

    Second-graders and a new teacher came up with an approach that showed him how much fun reading can be. The students voted on reading privileges; peer pressure maintained discipline; students shared books that their parents had read to them and invited "guest readers" to read with their class. (MLF)

  18. The Philosophical Arena and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Each plan for guiding pupils to read emphasizes an inherent philosophy or philosophies of education. Existentialism encourages reading by promoting free choice of reading material and relating decisions to results. A reading curriculum based on the tenets of realism would give the learner a view of the world as it actually exists. Experimentalism…

  19. Success in the Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper explores what a reading teacher might do to guide students to achieve and be successful in reading. The paper first points out that there are selected programs of reading instruction which are individualized for optimal student success, and then discusses some of these programs, such as: individualized reading; the experience chart;…

  20. Reading in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching English, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The topic of discussion of this issue of the journal "Teaching English" is reading instruction in the secondary school. Articles include "Reading in the Primary School" (Alastair Hendry), "Patterns of Progress" (Fergus McBride), "Teaching Reading--Whose Business?" (James Maxwell), "A Reading Policy for the Secondary School" (Iain McGillivray),…

  1. In Defense of Reading Quizzes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Many students fail to read the assigned material before class. A failure to read is detrimental to both student learning and course engagement. This paper considers the often-neglected teaching technique of giving frequent quizzes on the reading. Drawing on the author's experiences assigning reading quizzes, together with student opinions…

  2. Reading and the Slow Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Advocates of high standards and expectations usually believe that gaps in reading achievement can be eliminated with good teaching, but slow readers need a specially designed reading curriculum. The teacher first needs to use an informal reading inventory to determine the student's reading level. Functioning generally on a higher level than…

  3. The Many Fibers of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leloup, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    How can library media specialists encourage kids to read outside the curriculum and maintain this reading beyond elementary school? What does it take to get children involved in recreational reading and turn their focus to books? At Sycamore Elementary School in Avon, Indiana, library media specialists have organized reading programs which have…

  4. Genes for reading and spelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy C. Bates

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and molecular genetics of reading and, where available, spelling. Recent research is summarized, suggesting that reading and spelling appear to share a common genetic basis, and that dyslexia lies on a genetic continuum with normal variance in reading skill. Research also suggests that while many of the genes involved in reading disorder affect

  5. Reading Strategies: What are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Reading is an integral part of academic affairs and it is equally important outside academic contexts. Apart from the essential linguistic requirements of the reading process (e.g. vocabulary and grammar), there are some so-called reading strategies that are attested to improve reading. Many articles and, indeed, whole books have been devoted to…

  6. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  7. Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates. PMID:25058010

  8. A Comparison of the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Used by EFL and ESL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between EFL and ESL readers in metacognitive reading strategies when they are reading academic texts in English. One hundred and ninety undergraduate students (96 Iranians and 93 Indians) completed an instrument designed to measure the students' metacognitive awareness of…

  9. Proficient Readers' Reading Behavior in Taiwan: The Study of Young Chinese Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reading behavior of young proficient Chinese readers at preschool age. Especially, the roles of phonetic skill and Chinese Character recognition in reading comprehension were explored. 10 kindergartens were recruited to participate in the study. Subjects were 72-98 kindergarten children. Instruments

  10. AAMD-Becker Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory Manual [and Male and Female Inventories].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Ralph L.

    The AAMD-Becker Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory is a non-reading vocational preference test for use with mentally retarded persons, particularly the educable mentally retarded at the high school level. Illustrations having occupational significance are presented in forced-choice format for selections. The instrument helps to identify…

  11. A monolithic image sensor for a reading aid for the blind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILLIP J. SALSBURY; JAMES D. MEINDL

    1970-01-01

    A compact optical-tactile reading aid that allows a blind person immediate access to virtually all printed reading material used by sighted people has been developed. A singular feature of this instrument is a silicon monolithic image-sensing array that serves as the \\

  12. Word reading practice reduces Stroop interference in children.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Vlahou, Eleni L; Moirou, Despoina; Ziaka, Laoura

    2014-05-01

    Stroop interference is thought to index reading automaticity and is expected to increase with reading practice and to decrease with improved color naming. We investigated the effects of practice in word reading and color naming on interference in 92 adults and 109 children in Grades 4-5. For children, interference was reduced after reading practice with color words. In neither group was interference affected by practice in color naming of neutral stimuli. These findings are consistent with a direct negative relationship between reading ability and interference and challenge the automaticity account in favor of a blocking mechanism whereby interference is determined by the delay to inhibit the reading response rather than by the efficiency of color naming. PMID:24607439

  13. Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT).

    PubMed

    Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin

    2011-08-01

    Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers' comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect ("What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?") or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a "proof of concept" and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332

  14. An Evaluation of a Summer Reading Institute, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Michael

    This document describes part of the evaluation of a six-week reading institute for 69 K-3 teachers from the Raymond School, Model School Division (MSD), Washington, D.C. and thereby provides an evaluation model for schools to use in their own inservice training programs. Two evaluation instruments developed by an MSD innovation team in cooperation…

  15. The Reliability of Informal Reading Inventories: What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Nina L.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, criticisms related to the technical rigor of informal reading inventories (IRIs) have led many to question using these assessment instruments for high- or low-stakes purposes. In this article, I examine reliability evidence reported in 11 new and updated IRIs and make comparisons with Spector's earlier analysis that revealed fewer…

  16. Improvement of Reading Speed and Change of Eye Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Kenji; Tomita, Tsuyoshi; Saida, Shinya

    Although many studies have examined eye movements in reading, it is unclear what factors separate fast readers from slow readers. Some studies suggest that effective visual field size should be a dominant factor. However, a direct link between reading speed and effective visual field is under controversial. To clarify this issue, we investigated eye movements in reading in conjunction with speed reading training. Four participants (approx. 600 letters per minute in Japanese) improved thier reading speed through training for half an hour per day for 30 days. Reading performance of Japanese editorial articles was recorded every five days of training by the gaze-contingent window method. In three participants, effective visual field size did not increase in the same manner as reading speed which increased up to 1000 lpm. Instead, we found that in those three participants mean saccadic length became longer due to the reduction of short and unsystematic saccades. On the contrary, one participant showed high correlation between effective visual field and reading speed. Our results suggest that not only the size of the effective visual field but also efficiency of comprehension at a single gaze may be important factors for reading speed. The qualitative discrepancy among individuals suggests the existence of multiple strategies for fast reading.

  17. Reading Improvement in English- and Hebrew-Speaking Children with Reading Difficulties after Reading Acceleration Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…

  18. Improving Reading Rate Activities for EFL Students: Timed Reading and Repeated Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C. -S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of timed reading (TR) and repeated oral reading (RR) on 35 adult students of English as a foreign language. Students in the TR (n =18) and RR (n =17) groups read 52 and 26 passages respectively over a 13-week period. Reading rates and comprehension levels were measured at three occasions: pre-intervention,…

  19. Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

  20. Students' Self-Perception of Reading Ability, Enjoyment of Reading and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.; Gilmore, Alison; Jameson, Madgerie

    2012-01-01

    Using data from New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project, a light sampling, low stakes performance based national school assessment program, reading self-efficacy, reading enjoyment, and reading achievement were examined in samples of 8 and 12 year old children. Sample sizes were n = 480 for each group. While reading achievement…

  1. The psychophysiology of reading.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe A; Di Pietro, Sara F; Casarotto, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Early identification of dyslexia would be fundamental to prevent the negative consequences of delayed treatment in the social, psychological and occupational domains. Movement-related potentials of dyslexic children are characterized by inadequate ability to program movements and reduced capacity to evaluate their performance and to correct their errors. Reading-related potentials recorded during different reading conditions elicit a series of positive and negative components with specific functional meaning and with a characteristic spatial-temporal pattern. These reading-related potentials, when analyzed with sLORETA, show significantly different patterns of activation when comparing self-paced reading aloud to passive viewing of single letters. Comparison of fMRI and sLORETA during both tasks showed that the cortical region with the widest inter-modality similarities is the middle-superior temporal lobe during self-paced reading aloud. Neuropsychological studies have shown the existence of clinical subtypes of dyslexia; these studies have been confirmed by the results of ICA applied to the EEG. Dyslexia can be defined as a disorder of programming and integrating ideokinetic elements, associated with a deficiency in the fast processing and integration of sensory information, with reduced efficiency of error systems analysis. Each of these phenomena occurs at different levels of the central nervous system and at different times. PMID:25193560

  2. Book Reading Styles in Dual-Parent and Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Background: Whereas many studies have investigated quantitative aspects of book reading (frequency), few have examined qualitative aspects, especially in very young children and through direct observations of shared reading. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in book-reading styles between mothers and fathers and …

  3. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition"[R] is a reading and writing program for students in grades 2 through 6. It has three principal elements: story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated language arts/writing. Daily lessons provide students with an opportunity to practice comprehension and…

  4. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition"[R] ("CIRC"[R]) is a reading and writing program for students in grades 2-6. It has three principal elements: story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated language arts/writing. Daily lessons provide students with an opportunity to practice comprehension and…

  5. SEA applications to wind instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekje, Peter L.

    2003-04-01

    The behavior of wind instruments, including brass instruments, is primarily determined by the shapes of their air columns, and their interaction with the sound generation mechanism. However, the influence of the surrounding body of the instrument has been a matter of some debate, and papers exploring this question have been published since the early years of the J. Acoust Soc. Am. An apparent correlation between instrument material and playing behavior is disputed by arguments that the structure is stiff and massive compared to the air inside, and that many of the apparent effects are linked to machining differences among materials. The complexity of the instrument body makes this problem well suited for Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA), which treats the air column and the external structure as coupled statistical subsystems that share energy. For trumpets and trombones, the power radiated from the structural vibrations is about 40 dB lower than the energy radiated directly from the air column, with an enhancement at high frequencies due in part to the increasing modal density of the three dimensional structure. The coupling to the structural vibrations themselves from the player's lips and from the air vibrations are similar to each other in magnitude.

  6. Baboons Learn to Read

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jonathan Grainger (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive; Brain and Language Research Institute; )

    2012-04-13

    The ability to recognize strings of letters as words, also known as orthographic processing, is a key component of reading. The ability to develop this skill has commonly been attributed to prior acquisition of a spoken language, but Grainger et al. argue that linguistic ability may instead be related to simple object recognition. To test this, Grainger and colleagues studied orthographic processing in a group of captive but freely ranging baboons, who learned to read and distinguish real English words from non-words with remarkable accuracy. These results suggest that a basic ability to recognize words does not require complex linguistic understanding.

  7. Drugstore Reading Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    2006-03-01

    The occasion for this paper was my reading of a paper in the February 2005 issue of TPT. As one gets older the near point of the eye begins to recede.2 This is called presbyopia.3 An alternative to purchasing glasses from an optometrist is to purchase an inexpensive pair of reading glasses in a pharmacy. The pharmacy has these glasses ordered by diopters corresponding to the strength of the lens needed for a particular presbyopic eye. The glasses are, of course, not available for myopic eyes.

  8. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  9. Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperl, Gary

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

  10. Improved PHIP Instrumentation

    E-print Network

    Agraz, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Submitted LabVIEW Instrumentation control software for RFuse of LabVIEW to control PHIP instrumentation has stronginstrumentation relies on four factors to hyperpolarize endogenous substances externally, a static magnetic field (B o ), temperature, pressure, and software sample control.

  11. Replacement of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The DOE-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the replacement of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of this project is to replace the existing Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory (HPIL) with a new facility to provide a safe environment for maintaining and calibrating radiation detection instruments used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The existing HPIL facility provides portable health physics monitoring instrumentation and direct reading dosimetry procurement, maintenance and calibration of radiation detection instruments, and research and development support-services to the INEL and others. However, the existing facility was not originally designed for laboratory activities and does not provide an adequate, safe environment for calibration activities. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and evaluated reasonable alternatives, including the no action alternative in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508). Based on the environmental analysis in the attached EA, the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and 40 CFR Parts 1508.18 and 1508.27. The selected action (the proposed alternative) is composed of the following elements, each described or evaluated in the attached EA on the pages referenced. The proposed action is expected to begin in 1997 and will be completed within three years: design and construction of a new facility at the Central Facility Area of the INEL; operation of the facility, including instrument receipt, inspections and repairs, precision testing and calibration, and storage and issuance. The selected action will result in no significant environmental impacts.

  12. Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

  13. Teaching Reading Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

  14. Reading between the lines.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Charlotte; Adams, Jo; Ballinger, Claire

    2015-06-25

    HEALTH LITERACY is the ability to 'gain access to, understand and use information' for health ( Nutbeam 2008 ). Developing sound health literacy skills can be complex and being health literate is not simply the ability to read and write; it requires many different skills, including navigation though healthcare systems, comprehension, listening and interacting, analytical and decision-making abilities. PMID:26108935

  15. Reading the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Keith

    Given the strong sense of passing time which seems to be wired into human beings, it is only natural that the Year 2000, or Y2K in contemporary jargon, should lead to serious speculation about the future. Reading and literacy, old skills relatively speaking, continue rightly to figure in those predictions (along with the technologically advanced…

  16. Promoting Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, James, Ed.

    Designed to present a historical account of instructional approaches to the teaching of comprehension as well as insights into effective approaches for the present and the future, this collection of papers is divided into three parts, concerned respectively with: (1) instructional research in reading comprehension, (2) the reader and the text, and…

  17. Use of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob; Leckie, Linda

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of historical and philosophical readings to outdoor education settings serves many purposes: inspiration to share personal stories, a sense of continued tradition, links across time to current practices, a way to frame complex notions of being, and opportunities for new understandings of outdoor experiences and clarification of…

  18. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

  19. Training and Reading Level 

    E-print Network

    Bishop, D. l.

    1982-01-01

    not be able to read what we are presenting, let alone know what we expected they would. Finding out what they do know so that we know where to start is a difficult enough task. But knowing how to write materials in such a manner that we can help them to learn...

  20. Reading's Next Chapter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellman, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

  1. Medication and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Laurie L.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical syndrome which relates most frequently to the reading-disabled child is the attention deficity disorder. The child psychiatrist will generally resort to medication only when behavioral management techniques have failed. The two most frequently used medications are Ritalin and Dexedrine, central nervous system stimulants. (JN)

  2. Reading a Map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Park Service

    2011-08-21

    In this online interactive, learners investigate how Earth’s three-dimensional, physical environment is represented on a two-dimensional topographic map. Learners explore the essential parts of a map including legend, scale, and slope indicators. Map reading skills are then tested by learners choosing the best trail to take in different scenarios.

  3. Evaluation in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Huberta V., Ed.

    Evaluation in reading must be a continuous process. The assessment of readiness, progress, and mastery in the development of skills, concepts, and behaviors must be an ongoing process if the best decisions are to be made for each learner. The articles included in this yearbook offer a variety of assessment techniques, using both objective and…

  4. Why Paraprofessionals in Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauser, August J.

    Although reading paraprofessionals are not to be considered as teacher substitutes, (they are frequently used in routine and mechanical matters, freeing the regular teacher for more individualized instruction and lesson planning), they can make significant contributions in classroom instruction, student motivation, and public relations. Research…

  5. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  6. Reading on Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark W.; And Others

    The portrayal of reading, writing, and other selected behaviors on prime-time network television was examined in this two-part study. First, an interest inventory was administered to a sample of 301 elementary students (i.e., grades 1-5) in South Carolina, Virginia, and Pennsylvania to determine their favorite television shows, books, and school…

  7. Celebrate Summer with Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of "NSTA Recommends"--ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach…

  8. Speaking of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Nadine

    Written in the tradition of Studs Terkel, this book presents oral histories of 77 diverse readers (from avid to infrequent readers) about how reading affects their lives. Sprinkled throughout the book are narratives of nationally recognized personalities, such as Maxine Hong-Kingston, Robert MacNeil, Gloria Steinem, Linus Pauling, Julie Harris,…

  9. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  10. Risking Aesthetic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderwood, Patricia E.

    2005-01-01

    This reflective article explores a tension between private and public expression of deep aesthetic response to reading, with specific reference to the play of this tension in the public space of the classroom. Implications for teaching are included, most specifically the need to understand the sensitivities and emotional vulnerability of students,…

  11. Charles Reade's Sensational Realism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Fantina

    2007-01-01

    Sensation fiction, which flourished in England from the 1850s to the 1880s, was viewed by Victorian establishment figures as a threat to prevailing social values. This dissertation focuses on the work of Charles Reade, who along with Wilkie Collins and Mary Elizabeth Braddon, was among the most well-known sensation novelists. While several novels by Collins and Braddon have been rediscovered

  12. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  13. Reading and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Examines how television viewing alters the way children learn and relate to their world. Describes Montessori's view of the learning process and the importance of the carefully arranged environment. Presents evidence that television interferes with learning and that reading assists the learning process. Differentiates the development of…

  14. Reading and Analyzing Nanotechnology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers nanotechnology in literature and culture. The purpose of the lesson is for students to "read and analyze science outside of their textbooks." At the end of the lesson, students discuss nanotechnology's implications and significance for the future. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, and Next Generation Science Standards are included. 

  15. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  16. Paraprofessional Reading Tutors: Assessment of the Edmark Reading Program and Flexible Teaching1

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Licht, Barbara G.; Ullmann, Rina K.; Buck, Sylvia T.; Redd, William H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of two strategies for using undergraduate paraprofessionals as tutors for first-grade children with reading difficulties. The two groups of undergraduates taught first graders the same 150 words, and both reinforced (socially and materially) correct performances. However, one group employed a programmed method of word presentation (i.e., the Edmark Reading Program), while the other group of tutors was allowed flexibility in the pacing and methods for presenting words. The performance of each reading group was compared to that of a control group who engaged in educational activities not directly related to reading. Thirty-six poor readers were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Subjects were tutored after school by university undergraduates for an average of twenty-three 40-minute sessions. Children in both reading groups showed significantly more improvement than controls on an oral reading posttest of the 150 criterion words. Treatment effects did not emerge on a test composed mainly of noncriterion words. PMID:19668353

  17. ICESat Instrument Support Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jester; D. W. Hancock; S. Rowton; J. E. Golder

    2003-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission main instrument is Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The interface between the ICESat Mission Operation Center (I-MOC) and the GLAS Science and Instrument teams is the ICESat Instrument Support Facility (ISF). The ISF monitors the GLAS performance and provides specific GLAS command request to I-MOC. Standard displays are available in realtime

  18. Graphical Programming National Instruments

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    needs change, LabVIEW virtual instrumentation systems have the flexibility to be modified easily withoutLabVIEW Graphical Programming LabVIEW LabVIEW National Instruments Phone: (512) 794-0100 · Fax libraries for: GPIB/VXI/PXI/Computer-based instruments RS-232/485 protocol Plug-in data acquisition Analog

  19. Reading for Real: Our Year with Reading Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    When Patricia Ross' high school students at the Phoenix Day School for the Deaf buddied up with elementary school students to improve their reading skills, amazing things happened. As they read to them, Ross' students, who were part of the 2012-2013 Integrated Language Arts and Social Studies program, increased their reading scores and…

  20. In Support of Reading: Reading Outreach Programs at Academic Libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mardi Mahaffy

    2009-01-01

    Encouraging pleasure reading is not traditionally seen as the role of academic libraries. Those students who take time for reading, however, are better poised to succeed in college. Declining rates in reading among young people are cause for alarm, and many libraries at academic institutions are developing programs to promote this pastime. This article will examine statistics on the state

  1. Problems in Identifying Reading Levels with Informal Reading Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowell, Robert E.

    Several factors which often invalidate the obtaining of independent, instruction, and frustration reading levels with informal reading inventories are discussed. The classroom teacher's inability to note and evaluate errors in performance was noted in research studies by Kender, Millsop, Ladd, and others. The oral reading at sight which is…

  2. Reading Research Anthology: The Why? of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc., Emeryville, CA.

    This collection of articles provides background information about reading and includes the research base that has defined best practices in teaching reading. Section 1 of the collection, "The Big Picture," contains the following articles: "Reading the Right Way" (Bill Honig); "Statement of Dr. G. Reid Lyon, April 28, 1998"; "Romance and Reality"…

  3. Predicting FCAT Reading Scores Using the Reading-Level Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel

    2011-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis indicates that the Reading-Level Indicator, a paper-and-pencil test, is a moderately strong predictor for the high-stakes standardized test, the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test in Reading. Classroom teachers can administer the inexpensive Reading-Level Indicator in a short period of time and use the results as a…

  4. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  5. Reading across the Region. Topics in Early Reading Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Leslie

    Across the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's five-state region, state departments of education and state legislators are working to strengthen reading programs, raise student reading achievement, and help struggling readers. People now realize that reading proficiency is the key to high student achievement. This report summarizes the…

  6. Medical Assisting Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Medical Assisting Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to medical assisting…

  7. Clarifying Differences between Reading Skills and Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter; Pearson, P. David; Paris, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    The terms "reading skill" and "reading strategy" are central to how we conceptualize and teach reading. Despite their importance and widespread use, the terms are not consistently used or understood. This article examines the current and historical uses of the terms, defines them, and describes their differences, similarities, and relationships.…

  8. Tutoring Reading--Valued Youth as Reading Helpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Juanita C.

    2004-01-01

    The teacher wondered how her group of middle school tutors would react to reading predictable children's books to their elementary "tutees." Would they enjoy the books or would they think they were too mature to do the activities in the lesson? She wondered if the tutors would enjoy being read to as she modeled the dramatic reading of a children's…

  9. Fluency Interventions for Developmental Readers: Repeated Readings and Wide Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent findings that show fluency deficits in developmental readers, the field of developmental reading remains remiss in fluency instruction. This article provides a summary intended to increase college reading teachers' understanding of reading fluency and fluency instruction. In addition, included are the step-by-step procedures of…

  10. Reading Teacher Education. Fourth Yearbook of the American Reading Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNinch, George H., Ed.

    Issues in reading teacher education as well as other aspects of reading instruction are the focus of this yearbook. Titles of some of the articles and their authors are as follows: "Sampling Bias Limitations in Generalizations in Reporting Scores on Standardized and Criterion Referenced Reading Tests" (L. Carswell and W. White); "A Comparison of…

  11. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading

  12. Reasoning in a reading context: Deductive inferences in basal reading series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridget A. Franks; Sharon L. Mulhern; Susan M. Schillinger

    1997-01-01

    This study examined three basal reading programs published by Heath (1989), Silver Burdett Ginn (1993) and Houghton Mifflin (1993), to determine how frequently logically necessary relationships are expressed in text used by basal readers, and whether direct instruction in making logically necessary inferences accompanies such expressions in basal reader series. The complete contents of the basal readers, from grades one

  13. The Effectiveness and Critical Success Factors of Extensive Reading Lessons, Which We Have Learned during Our Three Years of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Takayoshi; Itoh, Kazuaki

    Three years of extensive reading lessons have improved engineering students? reading and listening skills in English. The average TOEIC score has increased to 441 points, and the relative numbers of students of lower scores than 350 points have decreased to 14% in the third year when the median reading amount of easy-to-read English texts is about a half million words. The critical success factors are the reading amount and the easiness of English texts read especially in the first term. When students read extremely easy English texts with the help of pictures, they can finally avoid the translation into Japanese and grasp the meaning of the texts directly in English

  14. "Capture Silk": Reading Aloud Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Considers the benefits and impact that come from reading texts aloud with other persons. Provides a plan by which partners can read books together aloud. Claims that this is a vital and habit-forming activity. (HB)

  15. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Oxygen Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, F L

    1923-01-01

    This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report.

  16. Deriving Group A Streptococcus Typing Information from Short-Read Whole-Genome Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Athey, Taryn B. T.; Teatero, Sarah; Li, Aimin; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Beall, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Typing of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is crucial for infection control and epidemiology. While whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is revolutionizing the way that bacterial organisms are typed, it is necessary to provide backward compatibility with currently used typing schemas to facilitate comparisons and understanding of epidemiological trends. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 191 GAS isolates representing 42 different emm types and used bioinformatics tools to derive commonly used GAS typing information directly from the short-read WGS data. We show that emm typing and multilocus sequence typing can be achieved rapidly and efficiently using this approach, which also permits the determination of the presence or absence of genes associated with GAS tissue tropism. We also report on how the WGS data analysis was instrumental in identifying ambiguities present in the commonly used emm type database hosted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:24648555

  17. [Instrumental variable analysis].

    PubMed

    Boef, Anna G C; le Cessie, Saskia; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental variable analysis is a recently propagated method to deal with confounding and to estimate therapeutic effects in observational studies. An instrumental variable is a factor which affects treatment but is not related to patient prognosis. A theoretical advantage of a well-chosen instrumental variable is that both measured and unmeasured confounders do not influence the effect estimator. Examples of instrumental variables previously used are regional differences in treatment and physician prescribing preference. Application of instrumental variable analysis seems most suited to large patient registries with considerable expected residual confounding in case standard analytical methods are applied. PMID:23343737

  18. Present status of aircraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.

  19. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  20. Reading Rainbow Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NFO Research, Inc.

    A study was conducted to determine the reading habits and attitudes of parents and their children and to determine parents' familiarity with Reading Rainbow (a television program intended to stimulate young children's interest in reading for pleasure) and their attitudes toward the program. A total of 707 questionnaires were completed by parents…

  1. Some Perceptual Prerequisites for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Uta; Vogel, Juliet M.

    The two chapters of this monograph deal with the issue of the existence of a perceptual grammar that influences reading proficiency, particularly initial reading proficiency. The first chapter indicates the importance of studying reading and writing in terms of readers' and writers' knowledge of visuo-spatial processing rules. It discusses…

  2. Teaching Reading: Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2014-01-01

    In pre-service and in-service language teacher education, and in curriculum-related projects in second and foreign language settings, a recurrent issue is the failure to relate the teaching of reading to reading as a meaning-making activity. In this paper, I will consider what current research on second language (L2) reading has actually succeeded…

  3. Awareness Development for Online Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenotz, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which online reading is becoming increasingly common and, as a consequence, online literacy more and more necessary, this paper focuses on possibility of training L2 (second language) readers to bridge the gap between paper reading and online reading. Many researchers believe metacognitive awareness to be the most important ability…

  4. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

  5. The Unexplained Nature of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Marquis, Suzanne J.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Estes, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    The effects of properties of words on their reading aloud response times (RTs) are 1 major source of evidence about the reading process. The precision with which such RTs could potentially be predicted by word properties is critical to evaluate our understanding of reading but is often underestimated due to contamination from individual…

  6. Stop the Summer Reading Slide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, Meg

    2005-01-01

    When teachers wave goodbye to their students as they head off for summer vacation, they might just be bidding farewell to some of their hard-won gains in reading skills. The "summer slide" is well-documented by research: Unless students read regularly during the break, they fall behind about three months in their reading achievement. This article…

  7. Extensive Reading: Speed and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Timothy I.

    2001-01-01

    Measured both reading speeds and comprehension in two groups of learners exposed to intensive and extensive reading programs. The extensive group was exposed to a regime of graded readers, while the intensive group studied short texts followed by comprehension questions. Results indicate that subjects exposed to extensive reading achieved both…

  8. Genes for Reading and Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and molecular genetics of reading and, where available, spelling. Recent research is summarized, suggesting that reading and spelling appear to share a common genetic basis, and that dyslexia lies on a genetic continuum with normal variance in reading skill. Research also suggests that while many of…

  9. Book Clubs: Reading for Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    The reading program described in this lesson plan outlines a "just for fun" book club that was a student-organized, student-driven reading experience that built community in the classroom and encouraged students to read independently, taking responsibility for their literacy learning. During 5 to 15 minute lessons every other day, students will:…

  10. Approaching Reading through Invented Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Carol

    Children are ready to write before they are ready to read; thus reading instruction should be an outgrowth of abilities children develop through inventing their own words. This gives children practice with the more concrete activities of word composition before they undertake the relatively abstract task of reading. Writing exercises may be given…

  11. Neurological Aspects of Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Louis R.

    The author, a neurologist, looks at the nature of reading disabilities. He suggests that many reading disabilities are the result of normal constitutional differences and that the term "minimal brain dysfunction" is rarely appropriate and does not help the remediation process. Noted are various theories which relate neurology and reading ability.…

  12. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  13. Rekindle the Love of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isero, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This author describes a reading project using Kindles that was designed to increase the reading habits of 9th graders. With a selection of 500 titles for classroom usage, students were encouraged to read any book they chose--in addition to those required for their school term. Isero states that, in the past, many of his students would not risk…

  14. Encouraging Students to Read Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mary D.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the ability to read mathematics is an important skill--one that few of our students possess. A number of people have published some suggestions for helping students learn to read their mathematics textbooks. What these have in common is suggestions for getting students more active while reading. Using these resources as…

  15. Closing in on Close Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    "A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text--whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced--to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness" (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7). When the author…

  16. Confirming the Newspaper Reading Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Gerald C.; Wetherington, Roger V., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Data from a study of the newspaper reading habits of 18- to 34-year-olds suggest that reading a daily newspaper is a habitual practice involving certain repetitive actions and that the newspaper habit is dependent on the tradition of newspaper reading in the home when the individual was growing up. (GT)

  17. Economic Shocks and Civil Conflict: An Instrumental Variables Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Miguel; Shanker Satyanath; Ernest Sergenti

    2006-01-01

    Determining the impact of poverty on the likelihood of civil conflict in less developed countries is difficult because of omitted variable bias and endogeneity. We use exogenous weather variation - as measured in satellite vegetation readings - as an instrumental variable for economic growth in 40 Sub-Saharan African countries during 1983-1999, and estimate that economic growth is strongly negatively related

  18. Challenge '89: Interfacing of Chemical Instruments to Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Jim; Lamarre, Colin

    This project involved interfacing of microcomputers with three chemical instruments--Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), and the spectrophotometer. A Pascal program called "Spectrum" allows data from the NMR to be read and graphed, a specific area of the graph zoomed, ratios of specified areas of the graph measured, the…

  19. Computer-assisted reading of mammograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Karssemeijer; J. H. C. L. Hendriks

    1997-01-01

    Techniques developed in computer vision and automated pattern recognition can be applied to assist radiologists in reading\\u000a mammograms. With the introduction of direct digital mammography this will become a feasible approach. A radiologist in breast\\u000a cancer screening can use findings of the computer as a second opinion, or as a pointer to suspicious regions. This may increase\\u000a the sensitivity and

  20. Brown Baby Reads

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    Based in Chicago, Brown Baby Reads is a not-for-profit organization with a mission "to celebrate, encourage, and promote literacy in African-American children." On the website, visitors can learn about their initiatives and find out about age-appropriate books for children. In the "Database" area, visitors can peruse information on over 1,500 books that feature African American children as main characters and books written by African American authors. Visitors can also search the books by author, title, illustrator, age group, category, or themes. The site is rounded out by a number of links to free online resources from around the web related to reading, literacy, and cultural diversity.

  1. Moby Dick Big Read

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melville, Herman, 1819-1891

    2012-01-01

    The Great White Whale truly comes alive in this creative and thoughtful website created by artist Angela Cockayne and writer Philip Hoare. While collaborating in Spring 2011 for Peninsula Arts at Plymouth University to curate the ââ?¬Ĺ?Dominionââ?¬Âť whale symposium and exhibition, they came to believe that there was something more to their ââ?¬Ĺ?Moby Dickââ?¬Âť obsession. Thus, in September 2012, they launched an online version of Herman Melville's classic work featuring all 135 chapters read on audio by a mixture of "the celebrated and the unknown" for free download to the public. The project is chronicled via a podcast on the main site, Facebook, SoundCloud, and iTunes. Chapters to watch for include readings by Neil Tennant, Nigel Williams, and noted actress Tilda Swinton.

  2. Real-World Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bafumo, Mary Ellen

    2005-01-01

    For a head start on getting great reading and writing materials this summer--just look in your mailbox. As the school year winds down and the end-of-year testing and report card frenzy nears, summer looms large. If you have the good fortune to be in a school that isn't year-round, and you aren't working on college credit or at a second job, just…

  3. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

  4. Science Teaching and Literacy, Part 2: Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselden, Russ; Staples, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of reading in science lessons, and offers practical solutions to the problems of structuring shared reading, making reading active, encouraging note-taking, and locating potential sources of reading material. (Author/MM)

  5. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers. PMID:19044397

  6. Astrometric instrument model software tool for Gaia real-time instrument health monitoring and diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busonero, D.; Licata, E.; Gai, M.

    2014-12-01

    The goals of micro-arcsecond space mission rely on the limiting performance associated to the selected instrumental configuration and observing conditions. In particular, variation of the instrumental response over the field, with wavelength and in time, are potentially critical. We discuss the impact on the data quality and how the science data can be used to trace directly and in real time the astrometric instrument response of Gaia. This is one of the driver philosophies behind the Astrometric Instrument Model (AIM) concept. We show results from the test campaigns carried on throughout the 2013.

  7. Means for Positioning and Repositioning Scanning Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented for positioning a scanning instrument to point toward the center of the desired scan wherein the scan is achieved by rotating unbalanced masses (RUMs) rotating about fixed axes of rotation relative to and associated with the instrument, the RUMs being supported on drive shafts spaced from the center of the mass of the instrument and rotating 180 degrees out-of-phase with each other and in planes parallel to each other to achieve the scan. The elevation and cross-elevation angles of the instrument are sensed to determine any offset and offset time rate-of-change, and the magnitude and direction are converted to a RUM cycle angular velocity component to be superimposed on the nominal velocity of the RUMs. This RUM angular velocity component modulates the RUM angular velocity to cause the speed of the RUMs to increase and decrease during each revolution to drive the instrument toward the desired center of the scan.

  8. Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

  9. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  10. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  11. Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

  12. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  13. Reading Efficiency Strategies for Better Comprehension

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    Reading Speed You CAN read faster-- you just have to train your brain to do this. Try varying your you read the more your brain is forced to pay attention to what you are reading, so don't just sitReading Efficiency Strategies for Better Comprehension Try these techniques if you want to... Read

  14. The SeaWinds Scatterometer Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.; Graf, J.; Freilich, M.; Long, D.; Spencer, M.; Tsai, W.; Lisman, D.; Winn, C.

    1994-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer instrument is currently being developed by NASA/JPL, as part of the NASA EOS Program, for flight on the Hapanese ADEOS II mission in 1999. This Ku-band radar scatterometer will infer surface wind speed and direction by measuring the radar normalized backscatter cross-section over several different azimuth angles. This paper presents the design characteristics of and operational approach to the instrument itself.

  15. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E; Poole, L; Cherdak, A; Houghton, W

    1980-05-15

    An instrument has been developed that directly measures the multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. The design incorporates methods for compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in background light level. When used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques. PMID:20221099

  16. Pluto integrated camera spectrometer (PICS) instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Sandel; R. V. Yelle; C. F. Bruce; G. S. Chen; M. P. Chrisp; G. A. Fraschetti; T. N. Krabach; S. W. Petrick; D. H. Rodgers; J. Rodriguez; S. L. Soll; A. H. Vaughan; L. A. Soderblom

    1995-01-01

    We describe an integrated instrument that will perform the functions of three optical instruments required by a Pluto Fast Flyby mission: a near-IR spectrometer (256 spectral channels, 1300–2600 nm), a two-channel imaging camera (300–500 nm, 500–1000 nm), and a UV spectrometer (80 spectral channels, 70–150 nm). A separate port, aligned in a direction compatible with radio occultation experiments, is provided

  17. The TMT instrumentation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Luc; Crampton, David; Ellerbroek, Brent; Boyer, Corinne

    2010-07-01

    An overview of the current status of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) instrumentation program is presented. Conceptual designs for the three first light instruments (IRIS, WFOS and IRMS) are in progress, as well as feasibility studies of MIRES. Considerable effort is underway to understand the end-to-end performance of the complete telescopeadaptive optics-instrument system under realistic conditions on Mauna Kea. Highly efficient operation is being designed into the TMT system, based on a detailed investigation of the observation workflow to ensure very fast target acquisition and set up of all subsystems. Future TMT instruments will almost certainly involve contributions from institutions in many different locations in North America and partner nations. Coordinating and optimizing the design and construction of the instruments to ensure delivery of the best possible scientific capabilities is an interesting challenge. TMT welcomes involvement from all interested instrument teams.

  18. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  19. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  20. Teaching LD Students Critical Reading Skills: A Systematic Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darch, Craig; Kameenui, Edward J.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of two approaches (direct instruction and discussion/workbook) to teaching 25 elementary level learning disabled students three critical reading skills (argument analysis, embedded argument analysis, skill classification) was evaluated. Subjects in the direct instruction group were found to significantly outperform subjects in…

  1. Critical Reading: Visual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis M.

    The computer controlled visual media, particularly television, are becoming an increasingly powerful instrument for the manipulation of thought. Powerful visual images increasingly reflect and shape personal and external reality--politics being one such example--and it is crucial that the viewing public understand the nature of these media…

  2. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  3. Turning Ideas into Instruments

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Turning Ideas into Instruments Design & fabrication services Cost-effective prototypes Precision enterprises - Science, technology, medicine, research, manufacturing, product development, and engineering Our

  4. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  5. Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences in Reading Ability in Emergent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Stephen J.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Mason, Graeme F.; Molfese, Peter J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Fulbright, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability is a brain-based difficulty in acquiring fluent reading skills that affects significant numbers of children. Although neuroanatomical and neurofunctional networks involved in typical and atypical reading are increasingly well characterized, the underlying neurochemical bases of individual differences in reading development are virtually unknown. The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators range on a continuum from impaired to superior, we examined the relationship between individual differences in reading and reading-related skills and concentrations of neurometabolites measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentrations were negatively correlated with reading and related linguistic measures in phonology and vocabulary (such that higher concentrations were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance. Implications for neurodevelopmental models of reading and reading disability are discussed, including possible links of choline and glutamate to white matter anomalies and hyperexcitability. These findings point to new directions for research on gene-brain-behavior pathways in human studies of reading disability. PMID:24623786

  6. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-10-16

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ? .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ? .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed. PMID:25350926

  7. Reading and Readability Affect on E-Learning Success in a Fortune 100 Company: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Denis Michael Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between employees' reading skills, E-learning readability, student learning, and student satisfaction. The Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE) form 10 Level A instrument evaluated student-reading skills. The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Index course assessed…

  8. Report of Evaluation: Reading and Mathematics Lab Program. Chapter II, E.C.I.A., 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, John F.

    This report evaluates the reading and mathematics lab programs for elementary and secondary students in the Des Moines (Iowa) Independent Community School District. The reading program served 510 students in 13 schools and mathematics program served 240 students in 7 schools. A variety of assessment instruments were used to pinpoint students'…

  9. John Milton Reading Room

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A collaborative project between Thomas Luxon, associate professor of English at Dartmouth College, and his students, the Milton Reading Room offers most of Milton's major poetry in English, including Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained, "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity," Samson Agonistes, and "Lycidas;" and selected major prose works, including Areopagitica, The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, Of Education, and The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates. The texts include framed annotations that link to reference materials, such as sources of literary allusions and historical background, as well as gloss archaic words or uses. Researchers in Milton studies will find the extensive bibliography of recent secondary literature especially helpful.

  10. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  11. Becoming a Fluent Reader: Reading Skill and Prosodic Features in the Oral Reading of Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Anne Marie; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    Prosodic reading, or reading with expression, is considered one of the hallmarks of fluent reading. The major purpose of the study was to learn how reading prosody is related to decoding and reading comprehension skills. Suprasegmental features of oral reading were measured in 2nd- and 3rd-grade children (N = 123) and 24 adults. Reading

  12. Using Enrichment Reading Practices to Increase Reading Fluency, Comprehension, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; Eckert, Rebecca D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Jacobs, Joan K.; Coyne, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a randomized design to investigate the effects of an enriched reading program, Schoolwide Enrichment Reading Model (SEM-R), with blocks of independent reading on oral reading fluency (ORF), reading comprehension, and attitudes toward reading for students in Grades 3-5. The authors used SEM-R in comparison with basal reading

  13. REACTOR SAFETY INSTRUMENTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schultz

    1963-01-01

    A review is presented of the development of reactor safety ; instrumentation. The reliability of multiple-channel instrumentation is ; discussed, and various checking systems for extending reliability are reviewed. ; The influence of transistorization on circuit design and the future trends in ; safety system design (particularly digitalization) are discussed. (D.L.C.);

  14. Contaminated dental instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Smith; M. Dickson; J. Aitken; J. Bagg

    2002-01-01

    There is current concern in the UK over the possible transmission of prions via contaminated surgical instruments. Some dental instruments (endodontic files) raise particular concerns by virtue of their intimate contact with terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve. A visual assessment using a dissecting light microscope and scanning electron microscopy of endodontic files after clinical use and subsequent decontamination was

  15. Johannes Kepler's astronomical instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Chenakal

    1975-01-01

    The life and activity of Kepler coincided with an important period in the history of astronomy, when every decade new instruments were being invented, bringing about many great discoveries. At this time many scientists and artisans participated in the construction of astronomical instruments. The contribution made by them is fairly well known, but Kepler's work in this field has been

  16. Instrument Landing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sanders

    1973-01-01

    A historical background of instrumental approach and landing equipment for aircraft is given beginning with post-World War I efforts of J. D. Doolittle and emphasizing military-civil standardization efforts that began in 1948 and are continuing. The inadequacies of the current Instrument Landing System (ILS) are detailed and the various efforts of special committees to define an eventual replacement system are

  17. Micromachining inertial instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc S. Weinberg; Jonathan Bernstein; Jeffrey T. Borenstein; J. Campbell; J. Cousens; Robert K. Cunningham; R. Fields; Paul Greiff; B. Hugh; Les Niles; Jerome B. Sohn

    1996-01-01

    Draper Laboratory, using silicon microfabrication techniques to achieve high yields by batch processing, has been developing miniature microelectromechanical instruments for over 10 years. During this time, considerable progress has been made in the development and fabrication of micromechanical gyroscopes, accelerometers, and acoustic sensors. Inertial instruments have become a worldwide research and commercial topic. Draper gyroscopes and accelerometers have been fabricated

  18. LMFBR Instrumentation and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Pflasterer

    1973-01-01

    Reactor control and core surveillance instrumentation are important to the safety and economics of LMFBR design and operation. Considerable world wide effort has been expended during the past 10 years on such instrumentation. The results of these efforts in France will be tested in Phenix and the U.K. will test theirs in the PFR reactor when these reactors start up

  19. Better Instrument Springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Carson

    1933-01-01

    Electrical measuring instruments play an important part in the generation, distribution, and sale of electrical power, and in the development and testing of electrical machinery. The accuracy of electrical measuring instruments depends as much on the quality of the control springs as on the design of the torque producing elements. Unstable effects found in the application of spiral springs to

  20. TIRGO and its instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baffa, Carlo; Gennari, Sandro; Hunt, Leslie K.; Lisi, Franco; Tofani, Gianni; Vanzi, Leonardo

    1995-09-01

    We describe the general characteristics of the TIRGO infrared telescope, located on Gornergrat (Switzerland), and its most recent instrumentation. This telescope is specifically designed for infrared astronomical observations. Two newly designed instruments are presented: the imaging camera Arnica and the long-slit spectrometer LonGSp, both based on two-dimensional array detectors.