These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Simultaneous multi-instrumental monitoring of vapors in sewer headspaces by several direct-reading instruments.  

PubMed

Simultaneous monitoring of the vapors in several sewer headspaces by three direct-reading instruments, the Century OVA flame ionization detector, a 10.2 eV H-Nu Photoionization Detector, and a Hydrogen Sulfide Ecolyzer revealed that the majority of condensable organic vapors in areas of the Metropolitan Sewer District of Cincinnati appeared to be saturated aliphatic organics, except during short, unpredictable episodes. The monitoring was performed in the wet well of a sewage treatment plant, in sewers near two chemical plants, and in three other different sewers. The approach outlined in this paper does not require the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PMID:3956460

Barsky, J B; Que Hee, S S; Clark, C S; Trapp, J H

1986-04-01

2

Analyzing workplace exposures using direct reading instruments and video exposure monitoring techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques for conducting video exposure monitoring were described along with the equipment required to monitor and record worker breathing zone concentrations, the analysis of the real time exposure data using video recordings, and the use of real time concentration data from a direct reading instrument to determine the effective ventilation rate and the mixing factor of a given room

M. G. Gressel; W. A. Heitbrink; P. A. Jensen; T. C. Cooper; D. M. OBrien

1992-01-01

3

Analyzing workplace exposures using direct reading instruments and video exposure monitoring techniques  

SciTech Connect

The techniques for conducting video exposure monitoring were described along with the equipment required to monitor and record worker breathing zone concentrations, the analysis of the real time exposure data using video recordings, and the use of real time concentration data from a direct reading instrument to determine the effective ventilation rate and the mixing factor of a given room at a specific time. Case studies which made use of video exposure monitoring techniques to provide information not available through integrated sampling were also discussed. The process being monitored and the methodology used to monitor the exposures were described for each of the case studies. The case studies included manual material weigh out, ceramic casting cleaning, dumping bags of powdered materials, furniture stripping, administration of nitrous-oxide during dental procedures, hand held sanding operation, methanol exposures in maintenance garages, brake servicing, bulk loading of railroad cars and trucks, and grinding operations.

Gressel, M.G.; Heitbrink, W.A.; Jensen, P.A.; Cooper, T.C.; O'Brien, D.M.

1992-08-01

4

A Direct Reading Thermometer Based on a Silicon Diode.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple circuit based on an inexpensive quad operational amplifier that permits a direct-reading temperature instrument to be constructed using silicon diodes. Encourages the use of this equipment in introductory thermal experiments. (DDR)

Kirkup, L.; Tonthat, C.

1998-01-01

5

RELIGION AND HOMOSEXUALITY Directed Reading Course  

E-print Network

RELIGION AND HOMOSEXUALITY Directed Reading Course Georgia State University Fall 2009 Instructor: Vincent Lloyd Preliminary Reading List: Oliver O'Donovan, Church in Crisis (Cascade Books, 2008) George

Doyle, Robert

6

Minimizing Reading Regression through a Direct Instruction Summer Reading Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Direct Instruction summer reading intervention program designed to minimize summer reading regression. The summer intervention program targeted the lowest quartile of readers in grades kindergarten through third grade from a suburban school district over a three-week period before…

Pechous, Donald J.

2012-01-01

7

Direct reading of electrocardiograms and respiration rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for reading heart and respiration rates is more accurate and direct than the previous method. Index of a plastic calibrated card is aligned with a point on the electrocardiogram. Complexes are counted as indicated on the card and heart or respiration rate is read directly from the appropriate scale.

Wise, J. P.

1969-01-01

8

Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and…

Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

2013-01-01

9

A Modified Direct-Reading Azimuth Protractor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction of a direct-reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) used for mapping fracture and joint-surface orientations in underground mines where magnetic disturbances affect typical geologic pocket transit. (SL)

Larson, William C.; Pugliese, Joseph M.

1977-01-01

10

Weston Direct-Reading Ammeter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Model #6367, believed to be manufactured December 15, 1898 by the Weston Electrical Instrument Company, Newark, New Jersey. Edward Weston introduced this type of meter in 1889 and was a serious competitor of Thomas Edison in the development of electricity. This ammeter was the first pivoted moving c...

2009-07-22

11

READING COMPREHENSION TEST (60 MINUTES-including the reading of the directions and examples)  

E-print Network

READING COMPREHENSION TEST (60 MINUTES-including the reading of the directions and examples) No dictionaries allowed DIRECTIONS AND EXAMPLES In this test you will read seven passages. Each one is followed

Vásquez, Carlos

12

Developing Sight-Reading Skills on Mallet Percussion Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sight-reading while playing a mallet instrument can present serious obstacles for the developing percussionist. Many young players who have solid snare drum technique usually cite fear of playing the wrong note as the number-one hurdle to overcome in order to begin making real progress. Greg Byrne, associate director of bands at the University of…

Fidyk, Steve

2009-01-01

13

New Directions in Reading Instruction--Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gains in knowledge about the nature of reading and how to most effectively teach it come from cognitive research. This booklet (in the form of a flipchart) synthesizes and summarizes much of the current research on effective instruction for improved literacy and greater student achievement. The booklet, a revised edition of "New Directions in…

Hinson, Bess, Ed.

14

Comparability of Group Television and Teacher Administration of a Florida Reading Assessment Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using instructional television as a means of standardizing countywide testing. Two reading assessment instruments were administered to second and fourth grade students through an oral instructional television reading of the items and through an oral reading by classroom teachers. Results showed…

Hegstrom, William J.; Phillips, William E.

15

Evaluation of portable, direct-reading hydrocarbon meters (flame ionization photoionization, and infrared detectors)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A market survey was conducted to determine the availability of portable, direct-reading flame ionization detectors for the measurement of organic vapors. Two prototypes, the Wilks Miran 101 infrared analyzer for toluene and the h.nu photoionization meter were included in this study along with four flame ionization instruments. Manufacturers of selected meters were requested to submit a meter for evaluation of

M. A. Willey; C. S. McCammon

1976-01-01

16

Guest Editors' Introduction: Research on Direct Instruction in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a special issue devoted to recent studies of the direct instruction reading program, providing a history of direct instruction, examining research on the effects and outcomes of direct instruction, and reviewing the studies contained in this special issue. (Contains references.) (SM)

Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Kemper, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

17

Progress Monitoring Instrument Development: Silent Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension. Technical Report #1110  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is designed to measure students' academic status and growth so the effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated. In the most popular forms of reading CBM, the student's oral reading fluency is assessed. This behavior is difficult to sample in a computer-based format, a limitation that may be a function of the…

Nese, Joseph F. T.; Anderson, Daniel; Hoelscher, Kyle; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

2011-01-01

18

Development of Perceived Instrumentality for Mathematics, Reading and Science Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort…

Garcia, Steve L.

2010-01-01

19

For the proper use of the instrument, be sure to read this instruction manual. Even after you  

E-print Network

For the proper use of the instrument, be sure to read this instruction manual. Even after you read medium or machine readable form without prior consent, in writing, from JEOL Ltd. · When this manual

Skemer, Philip

20

Queer Theory & Race Spring 2012 Directed Reading Course  

E-print Network

Queer Theory & Race Spring 2012 Directed Reading Course Syracuse University Week 1 · Monique Wittig Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Context (Routledge, 1995) · Ann Laura Stoler, "Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power" in Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule

Doyle, Robert

21

Field evaluation of direct-reading continuous ethylene oxide monitors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Central Processing Section (WHMC/SGLP) uses ethylene oxide (EtO) as a primary sterilizing agent. Because of their concern about the health effects of EtO, SGLP has searched for a continuous-monitoring EtO system. In their search, they found two units (AMSCO's Envirogard III and Baseline Industries, Inc.'s Model 5500 Gas Analyzer). The objective of this evaluation was to conduct a field study to compare the performances of the two direct-reading continuous EtO monitors against the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) acceptable charcoal-tube sampling method. In addition, the 3M EtO passive monitor sampling method was compared with the charcoal-tube method and direct-reading instrumental method as well. Neither the Baseline Industries, Inc. nor the AMSCO continuous monitors corresponded to OSHA acceptable charcoal tube method of air sampling. Both instruments reported EtO concentrations much higher than those detected by the charcoal tubes. There is no way of knowing which method, the direct-reading continuous monitor or the charcoal tube/passive monitor, is more correct. However, the OSHA standard for EtO is based on measuring EtO by the charcoal tube method.

Hossain, M.A.; Carpenter, D.R.

1989-05-01

22

Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension…

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.

2010-01-01

23

Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading comprehension is strongly associated with academic achievement, including science achievement. A better understanding of reading comprehension processes in science text might hold promise for improving science achievement in the long run. We tested the fit of the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model of reading comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) with 737 students in an introductory biology course required

Jennifer G. Cromley; Lindsey E. Snyder-Hogan; Ulana A. Luciw-Dubas

2010-01-01

24

RNAstrand: reading direction of structured RNAs in multiple sequence alignments  

PubMed Central

Motivation Genome-wide screens for structured ncRNA genes in mammals, urochordates, and nematodes have predicted thousands of putative ncRNA genes and other structured RNA motifs. A prerequisite for their functional annotation is to determine the reading direction with high precision. Results While folding energies of an RNA and its reverse complement are similar, the differences are sufficient at least in conjunction with substitution patterns to discriminate between structured RNAs and their complements. We present here a support vector machine that reliably classifies the reading direction of a structured RNA from a multiple sequence alignment and provides a considerable improvement in classification accuracy over previous approaches. Software RNAstrand is freely available as a stand-alone tool from and is also included in the latest release of RNAz, a part of the Vienna RNA Package. PMID:17540014

Reiche, Kristin; Stadler, Peter F

2007-01-01

25

Repeated Reading To Enhance Fluency: Old Approaches and New Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of the research on the reading fluency training using repeated reading training procedures offers theoretical explanations for nonfluent reading, descriptions of repeated reading methods, outcome data organized as answers to practical questions, efficacy data on single word and phrase fluency training, general principles of fluency training…

Meyer, Marianne S.; Felton, Rebecca H.

1999-01-01

26

Reading Performance of Elementary Students: Results of a Five-Year Longitudinal Study of Direct Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the impact of a direct reading instruction program, "Reading Mastery (RM)," on literacy performance of students over a five-year period. Initially, 700 students in grades K-3 were randomly selected from six elementary schools to participate in the study; an additional 100 randomly-selected…

Thames, Dana; Kazelskis, Richard; Kazelskis, Carolyn Reeves

2006-01-01

27

Effects of Direct Instruction on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Autism and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated effects of a Direct Instruction reading comprehension program implemented with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities (DD). There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students with ASD and no research as to the effectiveness of reading comprehension Direct

Flores, Margaret M.; Ganz, Jennifer B.

2009-01-01

28

New read-out electronics concept for visual and infrared detector arrays in astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the building of scientific camera systems for astronomical purposes in mind, the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPIA) has recently started developing new visual and infrared detector Read-out systems. Due to the modular design, the electronics components can be configured for a wide range of currently available IR-detectors and CCDs. The new Read-out Electronics are able to handle single or multiple detector systems with up to 144 input channels, feature high-speed data transfer and low power dissipation and additionally the system size is small and lightweight. The design is divided in four functional groups: controller board with variable Pattern Generator and fast fiber link, clock/bias board, analog to digital converter board and the PCI data receiver board which writes the incoming data into the computer memory. This design is highly versatile and allows for a wide variety of applications. The high data transfer rate, small size and low heat dissipation makes these Read-out Electronics ideal for relatively large focal plane arrays. The first instrument running with the new Read-out Electronics will be PANIC (Panoramic Near Infrared Camera) at the 2.20 m telescope on Calar Alto.

Wagner, Karl; Mall, Ulrich; Ramos, José; Klein, Ralf

2008-07-01

29

Testing and Refining the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of American high school students struggle with reading comprehension. Theoretical models of reading comprehension might help researchers understand these difficulties, because they can point to variables that make the largest contributions to comprehension. On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we created a new model of reading comprehension, the direct and inferential mediation (DIME)

Jennifer G. Cromley; Roger Azevedo

2007-01-01

30

Single-Word Reading: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the first title in the new series, "New Directions in Communication Disorders Research: Integrative Approaches", this volume discusses a unique phenomenon in cognitive science, single-word reading, which is an essential element in successful reading competence. Single-word reading is an interdisciplinary area of research that incorporates…

Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Naples, Adam J., Ed.

2007-01-01

31

Increasing Independent Reading Levels Using an Integrated Approach Emphasizing Direct Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for advancing reading skills in order to improve reading scores and individual achievement. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in a middle class community located in a Midwestern state. Standardized test scores and local assessment scores revealed that many elementary students were lacking the…

Hennenfent, Merris; Russell, Janet

32

Developing Comprehension: The Impact of the Directed Reading Lesson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following assumptions motivated this monograph's analysis of commercial based reading programs: (1) basals represent the state of the art in reading instruction; (2) to offer suggestions for improvement of instruction, existing practices must be understood in detail; and (3) information about instruction contained in the literature at large or…

Beck, Isabel L.

33

Curriculum Differences in Direct Repeated Measures of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 660 elementary school students from six school districts as subjects, a study examined student performance in reading aloud from four different reading curricula (Houghton Mifflin; Ginn 720; Holt, Rinehart & Winston; and Scott, Foresman), and the sensitivity of scores within each curriculum to growth across grade levels. Three different…

Tindal, Gerald; And Others

34

Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

2014-12-01

35

Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 7 studies on language development and reading efficiency (1914-1916). Most of the work in the area dealt with the measurement of reading efficiency. A number of tests have been devised for the purpose. A pedagogical book on reading presents a simple and clear exposition of its psychology. No correlations were observed between the ability to decipher and recognize illegible

E. H. Cameron

1916-01-01

36

A Critical Review of Randall Ryder's Report of Direct Instruction Reading in Two Wisconsin School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report by Dr. Randall Ryder evaluated the use of Direct Instruction (DI) reading programs in 2 school districts in Wisconsin. In the report, Ryder claimed that students in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade who received Direct Instruction scored significantly lower on several standardized tests of reading than students who received more traditional…

Adams, Gary L.; Slocum, Timothy A.

2004-01-01

37

Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Role of Direct/Explicit Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Struggling readers are more likely to learn essential reading skills and strategies if the direct or explicit model of instruction is part of the teacher's repertoire of teaching methods. Directly/explicitly teaching reading means imparting new information to students through meaningful teacher-student interactions and teacher guidance of student…

Rupley, William H.; Blair, Timothy R.; Nichols, William D.

2009-01-01

38

Put Reading First: Positive Effects of Direct Instruction and Scaffolding for ESL Learners Struggling with Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inability of many English second-language (ESL) learners to read at desirable levels is universal, but reasons for this and solutions have not yet been addressed. Within the South African teaching context especially there is a paucity of evidence-based research findings available on the literacy challenges faced by ESL learners and the…

Van Staden, Annalene

2011-01-01

39

Curriculum-Based Measurement: Developing a Computer-Based Assessment Instrument for Monitoring Student Reading Progress on Multiple Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the technical adequacy of a computer-based assessment instrument which is based on hierarchical models of text comprehension for monitoring student reading progress following the Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) approach. At intervals of two weeks, 120 third-grade students finished eight CBM tests. To…

Forster, Natalie; Souvignier, Elmar

2011-01-01

40

The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension: Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in four areas has the potential to dramatically improve how practitioners address the challenges of integrating digital texts and tasks into their literacy curriculum. Advances in defining and measuring key components of online reading comprehension are rapidly emerging. In addition, instructional models, such as Internet reciprocal…

Coiro, Julie

2012-01-01

41

The Development of Early Academic Success: The Impact of Direct Instruction's "Reading Mastery"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two different sites were used to examine how exposure to a highly academic curriculum is related to growth in beginning literacy and early reading skills from kindergarten through the end of third grade. In one site students in one school used the Direct Instruction (DI) program, "Reading Mastery (RM)", from kindergarten through grade 3,…

Stockard, Jean; Engelmann, Kurt

2010-01-01

42

The Effects of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity on EFL Students' Referential and Inferential Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity on Egyptian first-year secondary stage EFL students' referential and inferential reading comprehension. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. The subjects consisted of 72 first-year secondary students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

2006-01-01

43

Computer Assisted Instruction vs. Direct Teaching Model of Teaching Reading to Incarcerated Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the effectiveness of computer-assisted reading instruction to that of a direct teaching model. Nineteen adult male inmates from Windham School System's Ellis II Unit (located in Texas) special education classrooms served as subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups each of which spent one hour a day on reading. One group…

Spivey, Frances Jane

44

Measurements of a detector prototype with direct SiPM read-out  

E-print Network

.2.4 Temperature sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4 Measurement 20 4Measurements of a detector prototype with direct SiPM read-out and comparison with simulated data requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2.3 Temperature

Hebbeker, Thomas

45

Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

Stroud, Nathan Paul

46

Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction…

Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

2010-01-01

47

Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

48

Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.  

PubMed

In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading. PMID:21452944

Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

2011-10-01

49

Development of a Direct Observation Instrument to Measure Environmental Characteristics of Parks for Physical Activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study's purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity. A direct observation instrument ...

50

Instrument Development Procedures for Rapid Reading Rate Measures. Technical Report # 08-05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we describe the development of rapid reading measures, sentences presented to students in a nearly subliminal manner, with a literal comprehension question asked following their removal. After administering alternate forms of these measures to students, we present the results from three statistical analyses to ascertain their…

Liu, Kimy; Carling, Kristy; Geller, Leanne Ketterlin; Tindal, Gerald

2008-01-01

51

Reading direction shifts visuospatial attention: an Interactive Account of attentional biases.  

PubMed

A growing amount of evidence confirms the influence of reading and writing habits on visuospatial processing, although this phenomenon has been so far testified mainly as a lateralized shift of a single behavioral sign (e.g., line bisection), with lack of proof from pure right-to-left readers. The present study contributed to this issue by analyzing multiple attentional and motor indexes in monolingual Italian (i.e., reading from left-to-right), and monolingual (i.e., reading from right-to-left) and bilingual Israeli (i.e., reading from right-to-left in Hebrew but also from left-to-right in English) participants' visuospatial performance. Subjects were administered a computerized standard star cancellation task and a modified version in which English letters and words were replaced by Hebrew ones. Tasks were presented on a graphics tablet, allowing recording of both chronometric and spatial parameters (i.e., measured in (x, y) vector coordinates). Results showed that reading direction modulated the on-line visuomotor performance (i.e., left-to-right vs. right-to-left shifts) from the beginning (i.e., first mark) to the end of the task (i.e., spatial distribution of omissions and subjective epicenter). Additionally, the spatial bias observed in a computerized line bisection task was also related to the participants' habitual reading direction. Overall, the results favor the proposal of an Interactive Account of visuospatial asymmetries, according to which both cultural factors, such as the directional scanning associated with language processing, and biological factors, such as hemispheric specialization, modulate visuospatial processing. Results are discussed in light of recent behavioral and neuroanatomical findings. PMID:24968311

Rinaldi, Luca; Di Luca, Samuel; Henik, Avishai; Girelli, Luisa

2014-09-01

52

Direct Comparisons of Radiances Measured by Independent Contemporary ERB Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons of radiance measurements from overlapping independent Earth and cloud radiation budget (ERB) missions are an important contribution to the validation process of the these missions and are essential to the construction of a consistent long-term record of ERB observations. Measurements from the CERES instrument on TRMM are compared to ScaRaB on Resurs (Jan-Mar 1999) and CERES on Terra (Mar-Apr 2000).

Haeffelin, Martial; Wielicki, Bruce; Priestley, Kory; Duvel, Jean Philippe; Viollier, Michel

2001-01-01

53

An Evaluation of the Response of Some Portable, Direct-Reading 10.2?eV and 11.8?eV Photoionization Detectors, and a Flame Ionization Gas Chromatograph for Organic Vapors in High Humidity Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three portable, direct-reading instruments were tested to evaluate their ability to detect organic vapors in high humidity atmospheres. The instruments included two photoionization detectors (10.2?eV and 11.8?eV), and an organic vapor analyzer with a flame ionization detector. The organic vapors used were hexanes, 1,1-dichloroethane, chloroform, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, benzene, toluene and chloro-benzene. Relatively impervious gas bags were used to contain atmospheres

J. B. BARSKY; S. S. QUE HEE; C. S. CLARK

1985-01-01

54

Balance Calibration – A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.  

SciTech Connect

Paper Title: Balance Calibration – A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customer’s location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom spreadsheet. The spreadsheet uses measurement results, along with the manufacturer’s specifications, to assign a direct-read measurement uncertainty to the balance. The fact that the assigned uncertainty is a best-case uncertainty is discussed with the customer; the assigned uncertainty contains no allowance for contributions associated with the unknown weighing sample, such as density, static charges, magnetism, etc. The attendee will learn uncertainty considerations associated with balance calibrations along with one method for assigning an uncertainty to a balance used for non-comparison measurements.

Mike Stears

2010-07-01

55

Direct measurement of skin friction with a new instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a small belt-type skin-friction gage to measure wall shear-stress coefficients in wind-tunnel testing are described, summarizing the report of Vakili and Wu (1982). The sensor employs a flexible belt of variable surface characteristics; this belt, wrapped tightly around two cylinders mounted on frictionless flexures, is equipped with strain gages to estimate the deflection of the belt by the flow. An alternative approach uses IR illumination, optical fibers, and a photosensitive transistor, permitting direct measurement of the belt deflection. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of sample data are provided.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

56

Direct and Indirect Teaching: Using E-Books for Supporting Vocabulary, Word Reading, and Story Comprehension for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the effect of direct and indirect teaching of vocabulary and word reading on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children following use of an electronic storybook (e-book). The children in each age group were randomly assigned to an intervention group which read the e-book or to a control group which was afforded the regular school…

Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

2012-01-01

57

The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Field Independence on the Development of Rhythm Sight-Reading Skills of Middle School Instrumental Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach rhythm reading skills may be influenced by subjects' level of field dependence/independence. The subjects for the study consisted of 120 middle school instrumental music students divided into four groups based on scores from the Group Embedded Figures…

Smith, Kenneth H.

2009-01-01

58

Effectiveness of Direct Instruction for Teaching Statement Inference, Use of Facts, and Analogies to Students With Developmental Disabilities and Reading Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) reading comprehension program implemented With students Who had developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and reading delays. There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students With ASD and no research as to the effectiveness of reading comprehension DI. A multiple-probe-across-behaviors design Was employed. A functional

Margaret Munro Flores; Jennifer B. Ganz

2007-01-01

59

Developing the Self-Directed Learning Instructional Model to Enhance English Reading Ability and Self-Directed Learning of Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to develop the instructional model for enhancing self-directed learning skills of Bangkok University students, study the impacts of the model on their English reading comprehension and self-directed learning ability as well as explore their opinion towards self-directed learning. The model development process…

Wichadee, Saovapa

2011-01-01

60

Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…

Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

2011-01-01

61

Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsung heroes of today's faster prod- uct introductions might well be docu- mentation departments. They're tasked to document more products, with more fre- quent releases—often without more budget. Many documentation departments are meeting the challenge with advanced tools for document creation and distribution, as epitomized by the Texas Instruments (TI) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) product group. \\

TELEDYNE HASTINGS; JANE SAMPLE

2002-01-01

62

An electronic instrument for direct-reading indication of thermocouple temperature  

E-print Network

Amplifier. V. Design of the Cold-function Compensation and Range Expansion Bridge. VI. Tests VII. Conclusion. ~ - 5 22 3g 41 VIII. Acknowledgement l3 IX. Bibliography. X. Appendix I. XI. Appendix II 45 ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ - ~ ~ 52 LIST OF FIGURES 1... to Storage Time for N aiory Typ RN-A Nercury Cell. . . . . . . . 26 g Schematic Diagram of Cold-junction Compensation Bridge . ~ 10. Schematic Diagram of Cold-+motion Compensation Bridge as Altered for Range Expansion. v 3l ll. Schematic Diagram...

Hartung, Robert Leonard

2012-06-07

63

Three-axis attitude and direction reference instrument has only one moving part  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar vehicle instrument combines the functions of attitude reference, direction reference, and display in a unit having only one moving part. The device, using bubble levels and a calibrated dial, is used as a sextant prior to takeoff, and as a backup navigation system during flight.

Bossler, F. B.

1966-01-01

64

Passive, Direct-Read Monitoring System for Selective Detection and Quantification of Hydrogen Chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring the exposure of an employee to hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid in the presence of other acids has been a challenge to the industrial hygiene community. The capability of a device to differentiate the levels of acid vapors would allow for more accurate determinations of exposure and therefore improved occupational health. In this work, a selective direct-read colorimetric badge system was validated for Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) monitoring of hydrogen chloride. The passive colorimetric badge system consists of a direct reading badge and a color scale. The badge has a coated indicator layer with a diffusive resistance in the shape of an exclamation mark. An exclamation mark will appear if hydrogen chloride is present in the atmosphere at concentrations at or above 2.0 ppm. By using the color scale, the intensity of the color formed on the badge can be further quantified up to 25 ppm. The system was validated according to a protocol based on the NIOSH Protocol for the Evaluation of Passive Monitors. The badge was exposed to relative humidities ranging from 11% to 92%, temperatures ranging from 7 C to 400 C and air velocities ranging from 5 cm/sec to 170 cm/sec. All experiments were conducted in a laboratory vapor generation system. Hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and organic acids showed no effect on the performance of the hydrogen chloride monitoring system. The passive badge and color scale system exceeded the accuracy requirements as defined by NIOSH. At ambient conditions, the mean coefficient of variation was 10.86 and the mean bias was 1.3%. This data was presented previously at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition in Toronto, Canada in June 1999.

Chapman, K. B.; Mihaylov, G. M.; Kirollos, K. S.

2000-01-01

65

USING DIRECT INSTRUCTION TO INTEGRATE READING AND WRITING FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing interest in the connections between reading and writing has resulted in new research in the past decade. The research on effective strategies for teaching reading comprehension and written composition of narrative and expository text and on strategies for integrating reading and writing is reviewed. After each research review, a set of teaching guidelines is provided. An argument is

Mary M. Gleason

1995-01-01

66

Effectiveness of Guided Co-Construction versus Direct Instruction for Beginning Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a field experiment with 178 first-grade pupils, the effects of an experimental beginning reading programme were investigated. Both an experimental and a control group worked with the most frequently used Dutch beginning reading programme, "Learning to Read Safely." The instructional approach implemented in the experimental group was guided…

Snel, M. J.; Terwel, J.; Aarnoutse, C. A. J.; van Leeuwe, J. F. J.

2012-01-01

67

The Behavior Observation Instrument: a method of direct observation for program evaluation.  

PubMed Central

The background and development of a multicategory direct observation system, the Behavior Observation Instrument (BOI), is described. This time-sampling procedure for recording the behavior of persons is demonstrated in several treatment settings and the results applied to issues of program evaluation. Elements that have prevented direct observation from being widely adopted, such as costs, manpower, and training requirements, are systematically analyzed. A basic psychometric analysis of the instrument is used to determine optimum frequency and duration of observation intervals as well as observer agreement. The results imply that direct observation methods, once assumed by some to belong to the special province of the single-subject design, can be used to assess the effects of programs on groups of psychiatric clients in an efficient and economic manner. PMID:97258

Alevizos, P; DeRisi, W; Liberman, R; Eckman, T; Callahan, E

1978-01-01

68

Effectiveness of Direct Instruction for Teaching Statement Inference, Use of Facts, and Analogies to Students with Developmental Disabilities and Reading Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) reading comprehension program implemented with students who had developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and reading delays. There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students with ASD and no research as to the effectiveness of…

Flores, Margaret Munro; Ganz, Jennifer B.

2007-01-01

69

Direct and Indirect Roles of Morphological Awareness in the English Reading Comprehension of Native English, Spanish, Filipino, and Vietnamese Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested three hypotheses about the direct and indirect contributions of derivational morphological awareness to English reading comprehension in sixth-grade students from differing language backgrounds (n= 952). Students included Spanish-speaking, Filipino-speaking, and Vietnamese-speaking language minority learners as well as native…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

70

Determination of short-term exposure with a direct reading photoionization detector.  

PubMed

The use of a direct reading photoionization detector (PID) to determine short-term solvent exposures is described in the present paper. To assess the relevance of such a total exposure evaluation it was necessary to compare it with the real concentration of pollutants. This comparison was made by measuring in parallel with the PID determination the concentration of each pollutant using a standard technique, i.e. sampling on charcoal tubes and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. Laboratory tests showed that the linearity of the answer of the PID is good for many compounds and for a mixture of these compounds. Similar tests were carried out for painters in workplaces with the same good correlations (determination coefficient r2 close to 1) between the PID response and the real concentration of the pollutants measured on the sampling tubes. The use of PID also allowed determination of the exposure profile of the workers and comparison of the short-term exposure to the corresponding limit values. Many cases of the short-term limit values being exceeded were revealed by use of the PID, although very few cases of the long-term limit values have been found by the usual sampling (charcoal tube) and analytical (gas chromatography) methods. PMID:14718348

Poirot, P; Subra, I; Gérardin, F; Baudin, V; Grossmann, S; Héry, M

2004-01-01

71

Explaining Individual Differences in Reading: Theory and Evidence. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into reading development and reading disabilities has been dominated by phonologically guided theories for several decades. In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections. The…

Brady, Susan A., Ed.; Braze, David, Ed.; Fowler, Carol A., Ed.

2011-01-01

72

The Impact of Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions of Direct Instruction on Student Achievement in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Education Statistics (2004), 37% of America's fourth graders are not reading at grade level. This statistic has remained unchanged for over a decade (NCES, 2004). Findings from multiple studies indicate more research on successfully implementing reading interventions is needed (Begeny & Silber, 2006;…

Collum, Sharon P.

2012-01-01

73

Offline Improvement in Learning to Read a Novel Orthography Depends on Direct Letter Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improvement in performance after the end of the training session, termed "Offline improvement," has been shown in procedural learning tasks. We examined whether Offline improvement in learning a novel orthography depends on the type of reading instruction. Forty-eight adults received multisession training in reading nonsense words, written in an…

Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

2012-01-01

74

Lab-on-a-bubble: direct and indirect assays with portable Raman instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-Bubble (LoB) is a new method for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) assays that combines separationand concentration of the assay results. A direct LoB assay is comprised of gold nanoparticles coupled directly to the ~30 ?m diameter buoyant silica bubble. The direct LoB method was evaluated with cyanide and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). An indirect assay uses the same ~ 30 ?m diameter buoyant silica bubble and a silica coated SERS reporter. Both the bubble and SERS reporter are coated with a coupling agent for the analyte. The assay measures the amount of SERS reporter coupled to the bubble through a sandwich created by the analyte. The couling agent could consist of an immunological coupling agent (antibody) or a nucleic acid coupling agent (single strand DNA). The indirect LoB method was examined with Cholera toxin (CT) and antibodies against the ? subunit. An LOD of ~ 170 pptrillion was measured for cyanide and a limit of detection of 1100 ng was found for CT. Instrumentation for the assay and a novel technique of dynamic SERS (DSERS) will also be discussed. The instrument is a small hand-held Raman device called the CBEx (Chemical Biological Explosive) with a novel raster system to detect heterogeneous or light sensitive materials. DSERS is a mathematical algorithm which eliminates background interference in SERS measurements with colloidal nanoparticles.

Carron, Keith; Schmit, Virginia; Scott, Brandon; Martoglio, Richard

2012-10-01

75

An Electronic Self-Balancing Instrument Transformer Testing Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-balancing instrument transformer testing device is described by which the voltage and current errors and phase displacements of instrument transformers can be read off or recorded directly with a printer or digital instrument. The circuitry correr sponds to the usual difference circuit in which the test transforme- is compared with a standard transformer. The voltage difference between the secondary

Erich Zinn

1971-01-01

76

Sourcebook for English Teachers: Directed Reading/Teaching Guides for Selected Literary Works. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook presents reading guides for 22 literary works frequently used by secondary school English teachers. The guides contain an overview of the work, a pool of instructional objectives for each work, a variety of activities, a series of discussion options, suggestions for evaluation, and annotated lists of related works. Included are:…

Ley, Terry C., Ed.

77

Direct Instruction in Reading in Special Education: Evaluation of an Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All children can learn. Each child learns in numerous ways and at a different pace. When children are given opportunity, appropriate foundation, support, and precise instruction, learning is enhanced and encouraged. This study investigated an instructional approach for teaching reading to elementary students who were determined to have a learning…

Jackson, Sherry D.

2010-01-01

78

Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

1990-01-01

79

Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

1938-01-01

80

High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument.  

PubMed

The detection of extrasolar planets implies an extremely high-contrast, long-exposure imaging capability at near infrared and probably visible wavelengths. We present here the core of any Planet Finder instrument, that is, the extreme adaptive optics (XAO) subsystem. The level of AO correction directly impacts the exposure time required for planet detection. In addition, the capacity of the AO system to calibrate all the instrument static defects ultimately limits detectivity. Hence, the extreme AO system has to adjust for the perturbations induced by the atmospheric turbulence, as well as for the internal aberrations of the instrument itself. We propose a feasibility study for an extreme AO system in the frame of the SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument, which is currently under design and should equip one of the four VLT 8-m telescopes in 2010. PMID:19529118

Fusco, T; Rousset, G; Sauvage, J-F; Petit, C; Beuzit, J-L; Dohlen, K; Mouillet, D; Charton, J; Nicolle, M; Kasper, M; Baudoz, P; Puget, P

2006-08-21

81

Rapid DNA Sequencing by Direct Nanoscale Reading of Nucleotide Bases on Individual DNA Chains  

SciTech Connect

Since the independent invention of DNA sequencing by Sanger and by Gilbert 30 years ago, it has grown from a small scale technique capable of reading several kilobase-pair of sequence per day into today's multibillion dollar industry. This growth has spurred the development of new sequencing technologies that do not involve either electrophoresis or Sanger sequencing chemistries. Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) involves multiple parallel micro-sequencing addition events occurring on a surface, where data from each round is detected by imaging. New High Throughput Technologies for DNA Sequencing and Genomics is the second volume in the Perspectives in Bioanalysis series, which looks at the electroanalytical chemistry of nucleic acids and proteins, development of electrochemical sensors and their application in biomedicine and in the new fields of genomics and proteomics. The authors have expertly formatted the information for a wide variety of readers, including new developments that will inspire students and young scientists to create new tools for science and medicine in the 21st century. Reviews of complementary developments in Sanger and SBS sequencing chemistries, capillary electrophoresis and microdevice integration, MS sequencing and applications set the framework for the book.

Lee, James Weifu [ORNL; Meller, Amit [Harvard University

2007-01-01

82

A rationale for direct instruction to teach summary writing following expository text reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a review of the literature, the premise is developed that summary writing is an extremely complex task that is not appreciably enhanced through trial and error methods. Rather, the position is taken that some direct instruction is necessary to enable students to develop summaries that are brief, but yet contain a significant amount of meaningful information. A specific

Beverly Guido; Clyde G. Colwell

1987-01-01

83

New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Matthew Sigelman on Reading the Labor Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Matthew Sigelman, CEO of Burning Glass Technologies, a Boston-based labor market…

DiSalvio, Philip

2014-01-01

84

Promoting Reading Achievement and Countering the "Fourth-Grade Slump": The Impact of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement in Fifth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has documented a substantial decline of standardized test scores of children from low-income backgrounds, relative to more advantaged peers, in later elementary grades, the so-called "fourth-grade slump." This article examines changes in reading achievement from first to fifth grade for students in a large urban school system…

Stockard, Jean

2010-01-01

85

Spectral overlay of direct-sequence spread spectrum in the instrument landing system glidescope band for airborne Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the effects of intentional spectral overlay between a direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS) code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system and the glide scope signal of the Instrument Landing System (ILS) currently employed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The purpose of the overlay system is to enable increased spectral efficiency (higher data throughput), for future potential aeronautical datalink

D. W. Matolak; Joshua T. Neville

2003-01-01

86

Direct-sequence spread spectrum spectral overlay in the instrument landing system glideslope and microwave landing system bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the performance of direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS) code-division multiple access (CDMA) systems used in spectral overlay mode in two different aeronautical bands: the instrument landing system glideslope (ILS-GS) band, from 329-335 MHz, and the microwave landing system (MLS) band, from 5091-5150 MHz. The purpose of the overlay system is to enable increased spectral efficiency (higher data throughput), for

Joshua T. Neville; David K Matolak

2004-01-01

87

Teaching Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

Day, Richard R.

2013-01-01

88

SCExAO as a precursor to an ELT exoplanet direct imaging instrument  

E-print Network

The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios >90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1lambda/D and an ideal testbed for exploring coronagraphic techniques for ELTs. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss several exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which i...

Jovanovic, Nemanja; martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; Singh, Garima; Vievard, Sebastien; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Garrel, Vincent; Norris, Barnaby; Tuthill, Peter; Stewart, Paul; huby, Elsa; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre

2013-01-01

89

Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

2012-01-01

90

Effects of Teacher-Directed and Student-Interactive Summarization Instruction on Reading Comprehension and Written Summarization of Korean Fourth Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean fourth graders' performance on reading comprehension and written summarization changes as a function of instruction in summarization across test times. Seventy five Korean fourth graders from three classes were randomly assigned to the collaborative summarization, direct instruction, and…

Jeong, Jongseong

2009-01-01

91

Direct Instruction and the Teaching of Early Reading: Wisconsin's Teacher-Led Insurgency. Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, Volume 14, Number 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses the teaching of early reading in Wisconsin, focusing on the Direct Instruction approach and the methods or lack thereof for informing teachers of the approach and of the possibilities and applications for their classrooms. A sample of new Wisconsin teachers were surveyed and six Wisconsin schools were visited to observe…

Schug, Mark C.; Tarver, Sara G.; Western, Richard D.

92

Direct-reading design charts for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct-reading design charts are presented for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners. These charts, which cover a wide range of proportions, make possible the direct determination of the stress and all panel dimensions required to carry a given intensity of loading with a given skin thickness and effective length of panel.

Hickman, William A; Dow, Norris F

1951-01-01

93

What Do Diagnostic Reading Tests Really Diagnose?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of nine reading tests, including both group and individually-administered measures, which are claimed to be chiefly diagnostic. Instruments analyzed were the following: Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests (Bond, Balow, and Hoyt), Botel Reading Inventory, Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, Gates-McKillop Reading Diagnostic Tests,…

Winkley, Carol K.

94

Reading(s).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

95

Direct Sun Measurements of NO2 Column Abundances With FTUVS From Table Mountain, California: Retrieval Method, Instrument Intercomparison, and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO2 total column abundances have been measured with a high resolution Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) instrument continuously during clear and lightly cloudy days at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California since 2005. The NO2 total column is retrieved after removing the solar background using Doppler shifted spectra from the east and west limbs of the rotating sun. The major advantage of this method over other direct Sun techniques is that it provides an absolute NO2 measurement technique and thus requires no calibration. An instrument intercomparison campaign was conducted at TMF during July, 2007, which involved the MF- DOAS and PANDORA from Washington State University and GSFC, respectively. Because the latter two instruments use a high-sun reference spectrum which contains an unknown NO2 column, the simultaneous measurements from FTUVS was shown to be useful as an independent calibration for the two grating spectrometers. The NO2 retrieval method and the intercomparison results are presented. Furthermore, the NO2 columns measured by FTUVS are compared to OMI measurements, after a terrain adjustment, for a period of near three years. While the linear correlation of the two datasets shows reasonable agreement, the comparison shows variability due to the distance between TMF and the center of OMI footprints. The interannual and seasonal behavior of NO2 abundances and their implications on atmospheric chemistry are discussed.

Wang, S.; Pongetti, T. J.; Spinei, E.; Mount, G.; Cede, A.; Herman, J.; Sander, S. P.

2008-12-01

96

ScienceDirect -Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Researc... 1 of 2 3/16/05 4:36 PM  

E-print Network

ScienceDirect - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Researc... 1 of 2 3/16/05 4:36 PM: Quick Search: within All Full-text SourcesAll Full-text Sources 2 of 2 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment Volume 407

Ng, Chung-Sang

97

POLVSM (Polarized Volume Scattering Meter) instrument: an innovative device to measure the directional and polarized scattering properties of hydrosols.  

PubMed

An innovative instrument dedicated to the multispectral measurements of the directional and polarized scattering properties of the hydrosols, so-called POLVSM, is described. The instrument could be used onboard a ship, as a benchtop instrument, or at laboratory. The originality of the POLVSM concept relies on the use of a double periscopic optical system whose role is (i) to separate the plane containing the light source from the scattering plane containing the sample and the receiver and (ii) to prevent from any specularly reflected light within the sample chamber. As a result, a wide range of scattering angle, namely from 1° to 179°, is covered by the detector. Another originality of the instrument is to measure the Mueller scattering matrix elements, including the degree of polarization. A relevant calibration procedure, which could be of great interest as well for other instruments, is proposed to convert the raw data into physical units. The relative uncertainty in POLVSM data was determined at ± 4.3%. The analysis of measurements of the volume scattering function and degree of polarization performed under controlled conditions for samples dominated either by inorganic hydrosols or phytoplankton monospecific species showed a good consistency with literature, thus confirming the good performance of the POLVSM device. Comparisons of POLVSM data with theoretical calculations showed that Mie theory could reproduce efficiently the measurements of the VSF and degree of polarization for the case of inorganic hydrosols sample, despite the likely non sphericity of these particles as revealed by one of the element of the Mueller matrix. Our results suggested as well that a sophisticated modeling of the heterogeneous internal structure of living cells, or at least, the use of layered sphere models, is needed to correctly predict the directional and polarized effects of phytoplankton on the oceanic radiation. The relevance of performing angularly resolved measurements of the Mueller scattering elements to gain understanding on the mechanisms processes involved in the scattering of light by marine particles, which has important implications for ocean color remote sensing studies, is demonstrated. PMID:25401673

Chami, Malik; Thirouard, Alexandre; Harmel, Tristan

2014-10-20

98

EFFECTS OF A DIRECT INSTRUCTION MAIN IDEA SUMMARIZATION PROGRAM AND SELF?MONITORING ON READING COMPREHENSION OF MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of a direct instruction main idea summarization program and a self?monitoring technique on the reading comprehension of 4 sixth?grade students with learning disabilities (3 boys, 1 girl). A multiple?probe design across students was used. One student in the study served as a control subject and did not receive instruction. Student performance was assessed after the main

Asha K. Jitendra; Christine L. Cole; Mary K. Hoppes; Barbara Wilson

1998-01-01

99

Rate of Reading and Auding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of literature related to rate of reading and auding, primarily in non-remedial high school and adult readers, is provided in this paper. After offering a definition of reading, a discussion of those studies which examine rates of reading and auding separately is provided with a summary of studies which directly relate rates of reading and…

Fulmer, Robert

100

Reading Practices in Singapore Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted a pilot questionnaire study on Singaporean family reading practices. Found that in the majority of homes, the mother initiated reading of mostly fictional material borrowed from public libraries. Reading aloud to children occurred in about one-third of homes, with direct reading instruction occurring in over two-thirds of families. Found…

Mee, Cheah Yin; Gan, Linda

1998-01-01

101

An evaluation of the response of some portable, direct-reading 10.2 eV and 11.8 eV photoionization detectors, and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for organic vapors in high humidity atmospheres.  

PubMed

Three portable, direct-reading instruments were tested to evaluate their ability to detect organic vapors in high humidity atmospheres. The instruments included two photoionization detectors (10.2 eV and 11.8 eV), and an organic vapor analyzer with a flame ionization detector. The organic vapors used were hexanes, 1,1-dichloroethane, chloroform, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene. Relatively impervious gas bags were used to contain atmospheres of low (zero) and high (90 percent) relative humidities for comparisons. The response of the organic vapor analyzer was practically independent of humidity. The responses of the photoionization detectors were influenced by high humidity even though the 10.2 eV lamp did not detect water vapor itself. The photoionization detectors were adjudged to be unsuitable for quantitative sampling of humid confined spaces since the 11.8 eV lamp was sensitive to water vapor and the 10.2 eV lamp showed unpredictable response factors in high humidity. PMID:4025151

Barsky, J B; Que Hee, S S; Clark, C S

1985-01-01

102

An Instrument for the Direct , Simultaneous Measurement of Radionuclides in Various Matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the radionuclide content of samples acquired by customs officials, law enforcement officers, or treaty verification personnel almost always needs to be done in a timely and efficient manner. Traditionally, high sensitivities to radionuclides in a sample were achieved by first carrying-out complicated and lengthy chemical separation procedures. Recent advancements in solid-state radiation detectors and coincidence electronics now make efficient, high-resolution, large-area, multi-detector coincidence counting systems a practical reality for use in industrial and mobile laboratories. Such systems allow for a single, direct measurement of many radionuclides in various matrices: filtered air samples, thin soil samples, small liquid samples, and charcoal samples. This is accomplished by detecting alphas, betas, photons, and internal conversion electrons simultaneously in a multicoincidence detector system comprised of several layers of large-area silicon detectors placed in between two high-efficiency, high-purity germanium detectors. We will report on the achieved sensitivities to date.

Bowyer, Sonya M.

1998-10-01

103

There Is More to Mind Reading than Having Theory of Mind Concepts: New Directions in Theory of Mind Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than 30 years, researchers have focused on the important transition that children undergo between the ages of 3 and 5, when they start to solve mind-reading problems that require reasoning about complex mental states, such as beliefs. The main question for debate has been whether, during that transition, children acquire new concepts…

Samson, Dana; Apperly, Ian A.

2010-01-01

104

Reading Faster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

Nation, Paul

2009-01-01

105

Reading Recovery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

1992-01-01

106

Exploration of the Consortium on Reading Excellence Phonics Survey: An Instrument for Assessing Primary-Grade Students' Phonics Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Consortium on Reading Excellence-Phonics Survey (CORE-PS), an informal, inexpensive, and widely disseminated assessment tool that is used to determine primary-grade students' knowledge of and abilities to apply key alphabetic and phonics understandings to decode a mix of real and pseudo-words. Evidence is reported of…

Reutzel, D. Ray; Brandt, Lorilynn; Fawson, Parker C.; Jones, Cindy D.

2014-01-01

107

Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 13, 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released the results of "the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading." Established in response to a 1997 congressional directive, the NRP is composed of "leading scientists in reading research, representatives of colleges of education, reading teachers, educational administrators, and parents." The report, which is available in .pdf format along with the reports of the subgroups, concludes that the best way to teach children to read is through a combination of methods, including phonemic awareness, phonics, guided oral reading, and the application of reading comprehension strategies.

2000-01-01

108

Preliminary investigation of pilot scanning techniques of dial pointing instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two pilots' methods of looking at instruments with needle pointers in a fixed base helicopter simulation were observed. A total of 45 runs were analyzed for each pilot. The data indicated that two apparently different techniques were being used; one looking at the needle point, the other looking at a fixed spot on the instrument and reading the needle direction parafoveally. The latter technique is found to be somewhat faster with both pilots accomplishing the flying task.

Harris, R. L., Sr.

1979-01-01

109

Pedicle Screw Instrumentation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: The Insertion Technique, the Fusion Levels and Direct Vertebral Rotation  

PubMed Central

The pedicle is a power nucleus of the vertebra and offers a secure grip of all 3 columns. Pedicle screw instrumentation has advantages of rigid fixation with improved three-dimensional (3D) correction and it is accepted as a reliable method with a high margin of safety. Accurate placement of the pedicle screws is important to reduce possible irreversible complications. Many methods of screw insertion have been reported. The author has been using the K-wire method coupled with the intraoperative single posteroanterior and lateral radiographs, which is the most safe, accurate and fast method. Identification of the curve patterns and determining the fusion levels are very important. The ideal classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis should address the all patterns, predict the extent of accurate fusion and have good inter/intraobserver reliability. My classification system matches with the ideal classification system, and it is simple and easy to learn; and my classification system has only 4 structural curve patterns and each curve has 2 types. Scoliosis is a 3D deformity; the coronal and sagittal curves can be corrected with rod rotation, and rotational deformity has to be corrected with direct vertebral rotation (DVR). Rod derotation and DVR are true methods of 3D deformity correction with shorter fusion and improved correction of both the fused and unfused curves, and this is accomplished using pedicle screw fixation. The direction of DVR is very important and it should be opposite to the direction of the rotational deformity of the vertebra. A rigid rod has to be used to prevent rod bend-out during the derotation and DVR. PMID:21629468

2011-01-01

110

Reading Comics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

Tilley, Carol L.

2008-01-01

111

Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct imaging instruments with a Zernike phase mask sensor  

E-print Network

Context. Several exoplanet direct imaging instruments will soon be in operation. They use an extreme adaptive optics (XAO) system to correct the atmospheric turbulence and provide a highly-corrected beam to a near-infrared (IR) coronagraph for starlight suppression. The performance of the coronagraph is however limited by the non-common path aberrations (NCPA) due to the differential wavefront errors existing between the visible XAO sensing path and the near-IR science path, leading to residual speckles in the coronagraphic image. Aims. Several approaches have been developed in the past few years to accurately calibrate the NCPA, correct the quasi-static speckles and allow the observation of exoplanets at least 1e6 fainter than their host star. We here propose an approach based on the Zernike phase-contrast method for the measurements of the NCPA between the optical path seen by the visible XAO wavefront sensor and that seen by the near-IR coronagraph. Methods. This approach uses a focal plane phase mask of s...

N'Diaye, M; Fusco, T; Paul, B

2013-01-01

112

Read: What Kathmandu is Reading?  

E-print Network

and tolerant, and at the same time reading gives pleasure and is informative. One can read Y.S. Naipaul and realise the beauty of simple language. One can read lames loyce and learn the art of prose writing. One can read Noam Chomsky, Arundhati Ray...

Fineprint Bookclub

2011-01-05

113

Assessing Adolescents' Motivation to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A team of researchers revised the Motivation to Read Profile for use with adolescents. Instruments to assess adolescents' in- and out-of-school reading motivations were administered. A survey adapted for adolescents was administered to 384 teens at eight sites throughout the United States and Trinidad, and 100 students were interviewed using a…

Pitcher, Sharon M.; Albright, Lettie K.; DeLaney, Carol J.; Walker, Nancy T.; Seunarinesingh, Krishna; Mogge, Stephen; Headley, Kathy N.; Ridgeway, Victoria Gentry; Peck, Sharon; Hunt, Rebecca; Dunston, Pamela J.

2007-01-01

114

A direct correlation among indoor Rn, soil gas Rn and geology in the Reading Prong near Boyertown, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We feel that this study suggests a relationship among geology, soil gas Rn and the potential for indoor Rn accumulation in this portion of the Reading Prong. There are deviations from a perfect correlation but these are related to inhomogeneities in the geologic environment and perhaps variations in construction techniques of homes in the area. This study also demonstrates that several analyses in a small area may be necessary to adequately determine the Rn distribution for a particular geologic unit. That scale would be determined by the complexity of the local geology. Where no discrete source of elevated Rn supply is found for dwellings having a significant Rn accumulation, the implication is that overall gross permeability may be sufficient to supply Rn from a larger volume of soil and rock.

Reimer, G.M.; Gundersen, L.C.S.

1989-01-01

115

Reading Aloud  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful because most students have higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension (Trelease 2006)--low-reading level students, English language learners, and auditory learners in particular, tend to understand what they hear better than what they read. This article provides suggestions for including the practice of reading aloud in the high school science classroom.

Lynda Delo

2008-07-01

116

Summer Reading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer, a great time for leisure reading, a great time to try something different! Dick Pagni, Cheryl Frech, Brian Coppola, Jeffrey Kovac, and Hal Harris provide plenty of suggestions to keep you reading!

Pagni, Dick; Frech, Cheryl; Coppola, Brian; Kovac, Jeffrey; Harris, Hal

2007-06-01

117

Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits ...

Christodoulou, Joanna

118

Reading Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a review of past research in reading education, Science Research Associates arrived at reading objectives which were then reviewed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress staff, educators, and laymen. The six major reading objectives, appropriate for age-groups 9, 13, 17, and young adults, are the abilities to comprehend, analyze,…

Norris, Eleanor L., Ed.; Bowes, John E., Ed.

119

Changes in Reading Habits by Low Literate Adults through Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the effect of two reading interventions on reading habits by 181 low literate adults who read at the 3-5.9 grade levels. One intervention implemented extensive reading (ER group) and the other one had direct instruction (no-ER group). A Reading Pattern survey was administered at the beginning, at the end, and 6 months after the…

Rodrigo, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne; Segal, Don

2014-01-01

120

Interrupted Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interrupted reading is a close reading technique that consists of dividing a passage of text into short chunks and pausing the reading after each section in order for the student to consider possible responses. This type of reading helps students connect with the text by requiring that they summarize, look for devices, make predictions, etc., as they are reading. This technique helps students to build confidence as they are forced to slow down and notice detail, and it is a tool to help build analysis and commentary skills. Passages from Annie Dillard, The Things They Carried and Cold Mountain are utilized in this lesson.

Edwins, Cathy

2012-09-01

121

Measuring ESL Students' Awareness of Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument, which is intended to measure adolescent and adult ESL students' metacognitive awareness and perceived use of reading strategies while reading academic materials such as textbooks. Discusses the development of SORS and offers guidance for using it as a means of raising learner awareness…

Mokharti, Kouider; Sheorey, Ravi

2002-01-01

122

Learning to Read through Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the twelve exemplary programs summarized in the Introduction to Right to Read's "Effective Reading Programs: Summaries of 222 Selected Programs" (CS001934), this program attempts to raise the reading skills of inmates of the Sierra Conservation Center to the level needed for training in conservation work while in prison, or for outside jobs…

Sierra Conservation Center, Jamestown, CA.

123

Mappability and read length  

PubMed Central

Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 ? 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

2014-01-01

124

Reading Reflections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reading reflections are designed to encourage students to complete readings before coming to class, to reflect more deeply on the content of the reading, to make personal meaning from the meaning, and to develop their metacognitive skills for lifelong learning. The reflections consist of three questions: (1) What is the main point of the reading?, (2) What information did you find surprising? Why?, and (3) What did you find confusing? Why? Students submit short responses to two of three questions prior to coming to class. Metacognitive components of the activity Reading reflections address many elements of metacognition, including knowledge, control, and reflection. Reading reflections are designed to help students develop knowledge about themselves as learners, learning tasks (reading), prior knowledge, content, self-monitoring, self-assessment, and reflection. Metacognitive goals The primary goals of this activity are to help students develop their skills of self-assessment, and to reflect more deeply on the content of their reading assignments. Reflective thinking is an essential element of expert learners, so this activity helps students develop skills as intentional learners for lifelong learning. Assessing students' metacognition Reading reflections (n = 35 in a typical semester) count for approximately 10% of the course grade. I do not grade these reflections, but give students credit if they are turned in on time (before class) and if they clearly demonstrate significant reflection.

Wirth, Karl

125

Fun with Reading Comprehension Pranav Anand Harvard  

E-print Network

Fun with Reading Comprehension Pranav Anand Harvard Eric Breck MITRE Brianne Brown Bryn Mawr Marc;1 Introduction The reading comprehension project focused on building a system that can read text passages build systems to take reading comprehension exams? To start with, there are both direct and indirect

Breck, Eric

126

Increasing Active Strategic Reading in Beginning Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading skills in a Midwestern suburban school are poorly developed. Evidence of the problem includes test scores, students' inability to read directions in text as reported by the teachers of the school, and oral reading performances by the students. This action research study describes methods for increasing active strategic reading as an…

Davidson, Christy; Davis, Tracey

127

Reconstructing mitochondrial genomes directly from genomic next-generation sequencing reads--a baiting and iterative mapping approach.  

PubMed

We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of non-model organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data-mitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are available as starting-reference sequences or seeds, respectively. We demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in case studies using real NGS data sets of the two monogenean ectoparasites species Gyrodactylus thymalli and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides including their respective teleost hosts European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). MITObim appeared superior to existing tools in terms of accuracy, runtime and memory requirements and fully automatically recovered mitochondrial genomes exceeding 99.5% accuracy from total genomic DNA derived NGS data sets in <24 h using a standard desktop computer. The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR. We furthermore demonstrate the applicability of MITObim for metagenomic/pooled data sets using simulated data. MITObim is an easy to use tool even for biologists with modest bioinformatics experience. The software is made available as open source pipeline under the MIT license at https://github.com/chrishah/MITObim. PMID:23661685

Hahn, Christoph; Bachmann, Lutz; Chevreux, Bastien

2013-07-01

128

Bilingual Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

129

Reading Remixed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

2012-01-01

130

An instrumental cigarette smoke monitor designed for the direct measurement of smoke particulate matter generated in human smoking studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumental cigarette smoke monitor (CSM) system designed for human smoking studies has been developed and validated using\\u000a a smoking machine as a human surrogate. The cigarette holder contains both smoke-mixing and flow-measurement orifices and\\u000a a smoke-concentration sensor. Smoke flow through the holder and smoke concentration in the holder are determined simultaneously.\\u000a The two signals are multiplied electronically and the

Roger A. Jenkins; Thomas M. Gayle

1984-01-01

131

Reading Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Department of Atmospheric Sciences comes the Reading Weather Maps Web site. Visitors learn how to convert their local time to the standard used by all meteorologists; to tell the difference between Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperatures; and how to read maps with weather data collected on and above the Earth's surface. For example, wind bards, which are flag-like symbols that indicate wind direction and wind speed, always point in the direction the wind is blowing "from." Other interesting facts, descriptions, and illustrations are available on the site.

1969-12-31

132

Always read and follow label directions before buying or using a pesticide. Follow all appropriate federal, state, tribal, and local regulations concerning the use of pesticides and personal protective equipment.  

E-print Network

will appear on the pesticide product label and is based on the acute (single exposure) toxicity and irritationAlways read and follow label directions before buying or using a pesticide. Follow all appropriate federal, state, tribal, and local regulations concerning the use of pesticides and personal protective

133

A simple technique for photographing theodolite circle readings  

Microsoft Academic Search

When teaching basic instrument skills in surveying subjects, a set of slides showing the instrument's components and the views through the telescope and circle reading eyepiece is invaluable. This paper describes a simple technique by which theodolite circle readings may be photographed by any type of camera. It also mentions a method of simulating views through an instrument telescope.

E. A. Brady

1978-01-01

134

Aeronautic Instruments. Section IV : Direction Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part one points out the adequacy of a consideration of the steady state gyroscopic motion as a basis for the discussion of displacements of the gyroscope mounted on an airplane, and develops a simple theory on this basis. Principal types of gyroscopic inclinometers are described and requirements stated. Part two describes a new type of stabilizing gyro mounted on top of a spindle by means of a universal joint, the spindle being kept in a vertical position by supporting it as a pendulum of which the bob is the driving motor. Methods of tests and the difficulties in designing a satisfactory and reliable compass for aircraft use in considered in part three. Part four contains a brief general treatment of the important features of construction of aircraft compasses and description of the principal types used.

Franklin, W S; Stillman, M H; Sanford, R L; Warner, John A C; Sylvander, R C; Rounds, E W

1923-01-01

135

Reading Improvement through SITDOWN: Simultaneous Individualized Teacher-Directed with Students Correcting Their OWN Mistakes. AVKO "Great Idea" Reprint Series No. 634.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that only the combination of ingredients could be said to be unique, this booklet describes the SITDOWN technique for reading improvement. The booklet begins with background information, noting that students' reading difficulties can be approached through the "back door" of spelling. The booklet presents a week-long schedule for sequencing…

McCabe, Don

136

Interaction Quality during Partner Reading  

PubMed Central

The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental support, emotional support, and conflict management) and on/off task behavior was evaluated. Children who chose their own partners showed greater social cooperation than those children whose teacher selected their partner. However, when the positive interdependence requirements of the task were not met within the pair (neither child had the skills to provide reading support or no one needed support), lower levels of on-task behavior were observed. Providing basic partner reading script instruction at the beginning of the year was associated with better social cooperation during partner reading, but providing elaborated instruction or no instruction was associated with poorer social cooperation. It is recommended that teachers provide basic script instruction and allow children to choose their own partners. Additionally, pairings of low ability children with other low ability children and high ability children with other high ability children should be avoided. Teachers may want to suggest alternate partners for children who inadvertently choose such pairings or adjust the text difficulty to the pair. Overall, partner reading seems to be an enjoyable pedagogical strategy for teaching reading fluency. PMID:19830259

Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

2009-01-01

137

Summer Reading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer, a great time for leisure reading, a great time to try something different! Cheryl Baldwin Frech joins regulars Dick Pagni, Brian Coppola, Hal Harris, and Jeff Kovac in providing plenty of suggestions to tempt you.

Pagni, Richard M.; Baldwin Frech, Cheryl; Coppola, Brian P.; Harris, Harold H.; Kovac, Jeffrey

2005-06-01

138

Ways of reading: How knowledge and use of strategies are related to reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether there is a direct relation between children' s reading comprehension, their knowledge about the goals and processes of reading, and their skill in applying such knowledge. An interview revealed that less skilled comprehen- ders differed from same-age skilled comprehenders in their knowledge about reading and reading strategies, but they did not differ signié cantly from a

Kate Cain

1999-01-01

139

Direct measurement of reactor pressure vessel steels fracture toughness: Master Curve concept and instrumented Charpy-V test  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key issues concerning the structural integrity of reactor pressure vessel is the effect of neutron irradiation on the material fracture toughness. At present, this is achieved indirectly by means of correlation between Charpy and fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation. The uncertainties associated with this indirect determination have increased the need for a direct measurement of the

M. Serrano; F. J. Perosanz; J. Lapeña

2000-01-01

140

Reading Research in Hungary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that most recent reading research conducted in Hungary has focused on the formation of readers' attitudes and value judgments. Discusses studies conducted in the areas of reading psychology, children's reading, reading habits, reading motivation, and readers' responses. (FL)

Kamaras, Istvan; Nagy, Attila

1981-01-01

141

Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

2012-01-01

142

The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandesburgi 1598, Nuremberg 1602). One of Tycho's instruments in original size was reconstructed in Oldenburg University and in the Steno Museum in Aarhus, Denmark. In Munich, in the Deutsches Museum's permanent astronomy exhibition (opened in 1992), the Uraniborg observatory and its instruments are shown at a scale of 1:10. A similar but larger model (scale 1:5) from the workshop of the Deutsches Museum was given to the Technical Museum in Malmø, Sweden. Tycho's later observatory Stjerneborg can be seen as a reconstruction on the island Hven (Ven/Sweden) with the original foundations for the instruments.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

143

Signals and reading comprehension — theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of the effects of logical connectives and paragraph headings on reading comprehension among 577 Hong Kong Secondary 6 students who learn English as a second language. An English reading comprehension test was used to allocate subjects into one of the three performance groups: High, Medium and Low. The test instruments used to discriminate between the

Jenny S. L Chung

2000-01-01

144

How Do I Read a Seismogram?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces novice users to reading the lines on a seismograph. Topics include how to distinguish a real earthquake from background vibrations (microseisms) recorded by the instrument, how to read the minute marks that record the passage of time, and how to distinguish the types of earthquake waves that appear on the chart.

145

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

2002-01-01

146

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over the Tropical Oceans from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Satellite Instrument.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine months of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) broadband fluxes combined with the TRMM visible infrared scanner (VIRS) high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the Tropics of 4.6 ± 1 W m-2. The magnitude is 2 W m-2 smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth () retrievals inferred from 0.63-m VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is 32 W m-2 -1 over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches 25 to 30 W m-2. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g., sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g., due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is 1 W m-2 (20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and CERES `ERBE-like' products are a factor of 3-5 times larger.

Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji

2002-06-01

147

Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for NMR/MRI Instruments at Low-Field  

PubMed Central

A proof-of-concept of the use of a fully digital radiofrequency (RF) electronics for the design of dedicated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems at low-field (0.1 T) is presented. This digital electronics is based on the use of three key elements: a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for pulse generation, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for a digital receiving of NMR signals and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for system control and for the generation of the gradient signals (pulse programmer). The SDR includes a direct analog-to-digital conversion and a Digital Down Conversion (digital quadrature demodulation, decimation filtering, processing gain…). The various aspects of the concept and of the realization are addressed with some details. These include both hardware design and software considerations. One of the underlying ideas is to enable such NMR systems to “enjoy” from existing advanced technology that have been realized in other research areas, especially in telecommunication domain. Another goal is to make these systems easy to build and replicate so as to help research groups in realizing dedicated NMR desktops for a large palette of new applications. We also would like to give readers an idea of the current trends in this field. The performances of the developed electronics are discussed throughout the paper. First FID (Free Induction Decay) signals are also presented. Some development perspectives of our work in the area of low-field NMR/MRI will be finally addressed. PMID:24287540

Asfour, Aktham; Raoof, Kosai; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

148

Reading Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

Shannon, Patrick

149

Motivational Aspects of Reading and Its Measurement in Community College Students. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to measure motivational aspects of reading and the use of reading strategies. The 28-item reading survey measured three factors: value, self-concept, and reading strategies. Factor analyses were run to confirm the existence of the three factors. The reading survey was administered to all…

Crane, Laura R.; Gustafson, Jean-Louise; Poziemski, Christine

150

Locating and Correcting Reading Difficulties. Seventh Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seventh edition of this book, like previous editions, is designed to give busy reading specialists, teachers, and students in reading education specific, concrete methods for locating and correcting reading difficulties. The book stresses the importance of direct instruction, motivational learning activities, and abundant practice in the act…

Shanker, James L.; Ekwall, Eldon E.

151

Course: Chapter: Pages: Active Reading Handout  

E-print Network

Course: Chapter: Pages: Active Reading Handout Directions: Complete the following based on the reading selection. Make sure you explain your ideas clearly by describing them in detail, providing justification, or revealing relevant facts. Complete the first side while you are reading. Complete the back

Barrash, Warren

152

A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System  

PubMed Central

This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

2013-01-01

153

Geometric-Optical Modeling of Directional Thermal Radiance for Improvement of Land Surface Temperature Retrievals from MODIS, ASTER, and Landsat-7 Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objectives of this project were to improve understanding of the directional emittance properties of land surfaces in the thermal infrared (TIR) region of the electro-magnetic spectrum. To accomplish these objectives our research emphasized a combination of theoretical model development and empirical studies designed to improve land surface temperature (LST) retrievals from space-borne remote sensing instruments. Following the proposal, the main tasks for this project were to: (1) Participate in field campaigns; (2) Acquire and process field, aircraft, and ancillary data; (3) Develop and refine models of LST emission; (4) Develop algorithms for LST retrieval; and (5) Explore LST retrieval methods for use in energy balance models. In general all of these objectives were addressed, and for the most part achieved. The main results from this project are described in the publications arising from this effort. We summarize our efforts related to each of the objectives.

Li, Xiaowen; Friedl, Mark; Strahler, Alan

2002-01-01

154

Summer Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summer is a great time to kick back with a good book. Try The Bailey School Kids Series... it\\'s Great! Bailey School Kids Jan Brett is my favorite artist. It takes longer to look at the pictures than it does to read the book. But it\\'s worth it. Jan Brett I love Bunnicula, almost as much as I love Harold. Find out ...

Roner, Mrs.

2005-03-31

155

Improving Reading and Language Arts Skills of At-Risk First Graders through Direct Instruction of Print Awareness, Phoneme Awareness, and Phonological Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program to improve reading and language arts skills. The targeted population consisted of students in 2 first grade classrooms (average class size 25) from a midwestern elementary school in a predominantly white, middle to upper-middle class neighborhood. Data documenting the problem was obtained from the previous year's…

Bump, Sandra K.; Swedberg, Trina L.; Yates, Carol R.

156

Effects of Fluency Training on Second Graders' Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years researchers have posited a strong relationship between developing students' reading fluency and concurrent improvements in reading comprehension. Although moderate-to-strong correlations between developing reading fluency and improved reading comprehension have recently been reported, no study has shown that direct training of students' reading fluency would result in improved reading comprehension ability. This study assessed the effects of developing second-grade

D. Ray Reutzel; Paul M. Hollingsworth

1993-01-01

157

Interacting in Instrumented Environments Lucia Terrenghi  

E-print Network

Interacting in Instrumented Environments Lucia Terrenghi University of Munich, Media Informatics with such environments. 2 Direct Manipulation for Instrumented Environments Direct manipulation is the basis. Although talking about direct manipulation, in the desktop environment we mostly need indirect input

158

The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities  

PubMed Central

This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9–12. Students were paired within classes and pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: repeated reading (N = 33), wide reading (N = 34), or typical instruction (N = 29). Intervention was provided daily for approximately 15–20 minutes for 10 weeks. Results indicated no overall statistically significant differences for any condition, with effect sizes ranging from ?.31 to .27. Findings do not support either approach for severely impaired readers at the high school level. We hypothesize that these students require more intensive interventions that include direct and explicit instruction in word- and text-level skills as well as engaged reading practice with effective feedback. PMID:21076693

Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A.

2010-01-01

159

Direct determination of Hg in polymers by solid sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A comparison of the performance of line source and continuum source instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work explores the potential of solid sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GFAAS) for the fast and direct determination of Hg in polymers. Eight certified reference materials with different composition (polyethylene-PE-, polystyrene-PS-, poly vinyl chloride-PVC- and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-ABS-) were selected for the study, covering a wide Hg content range (from 20 to 1100 ?g g - 1 ). The difficulties found in achieving a selective atomization of the analyte from these samples were partially mitigated by the maintenance of the Ar flow during the atomization step, leading to an improved signal-to-background ratio. Even then, when a line source (LS) GFAAS instrument was employed for analysis, it was only possible to develop truly accurate procedures relying on the use of aqueous standards for calibration for PE and PVC samples, and different atomization conditions (1200 °C and 1300 °C, respectively) were needed for the two types of samples. The use of high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) GFAAS instrumentation permitted to improve this situation significantly thanks to its higher potential for the correction of high and fast changing background. With such an instrument, satisfactory results could be obtained for all the samples under study using the same atomization conditions (1200 °C) and aqueous standard solutions for calibration. Additionally, the HR-CS GFAAS technique presented a lower limit of detection (0.6 ?g g - 1 for CS and 2.2 ?g g - 1 for LS), a broader linear range (10 to 320 Hg ng for CS, and 20 to 200 ng for LS), and a somewhat improved sensitivity (approximately 0.0030 s ng - 1 for CS using the three central pixels for quantification, and approximately 0.0025 s ng - 1 for LS). Overall, the use of HR-CS GFAAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in plastics, such as straightforward calibration with aqueous standards, a high sample throughput (15 min per sample), sufficient precision (4-9% RSD), a suitable limit of detection, and reduced risk of analyte loss and contamination.

Resano, M.; Briceño, J.; Belarra, M. A.

2009-06-01

160

The Effects of Family Cultural Capital and Reading Motivation on Reading Behaviour in Elementary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed and tested a structural model of the effects of family cultural capital and reading motivation on reading behaviour in elementary school students. Participants were 467 fifth and sixth graders from elementary schools in Changhua County, Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study included the Family Cultural Capital Scale,…

Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Hsiu-yuan

2015-01-01

161

Reading for Meaning: A Guided Reading Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a whole-language approach to teaching guided reading to deaf students. Each morning, a written letter, using vocabulary and syntax in accordance with students' reading ability, previews the day's events. With teacher guidance, students explore their reading skills in groups to encourage application of reading strategies in a natural…

Malik, Stephanie

1996-01-01

162

Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

2015-01-01

163

Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading

Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

2012-01-01

164

Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

2014-01-01

165

Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

1923-01-01

166

Additivity of detector responses of a portable direct-reading 10.2 eV photoionization detector and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for atmospheres of multicomponent organics: use of PID/FID ratios.  

PubMed

The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2 eV and the Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixture of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was accounted for with the PID. The PI-101 was not as precise as the Century OVA-128 for 90% RH atmospheres. PID/FID ratios did not change in the presence of 90% RH as long as the effect of RH also was accounted for in the PID reading. PMID:3591664

Lee, I N; Que Hee, S S; Clark, C S

1987-05-01

167

Additivity of detector responses of a portable direct-reading 10. 2 eV photoionization detector and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for atmospheres of multicomponent organics: use of PID/FID ratios  

SciTech Connect

The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2 eV and Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixtures of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was accounted for the PID. The PI-101 was not as precise as the Century OVA-128 for 90% RH atmospheres. PID/FID ratios did not change in the presence of 90% RH as long as the effect of RH also was accounted for in the PID reading. The compounds investigated included: toluene, benzaldehyde; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, methyl chloroform, methylene dichloride, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol and acetonitrile.

Lee, I.N.; Hee, S.S.Q.; Clark, C.S.

1987-05-01

168

SAW Temperature Sensor and Remote Reading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for remotely reading a SAW temperature sensor has been adapted from an existing, commercially available personnelherchandise detector system. The SAW sensor is a Lithium Niobate wafer with an inter-digital transducer (IDT) which is directly connected to a small transducer which is directly connected to a small microwave antenna and two reflectors. The reading system is a special Fhl

X. Q. Bao; W. Burkhard; V. V. Varadan; V. K. Varadan

1987-01-01

169

A review of research and theory on the relation between oral reading rate and reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the conceptual and empirical literature on the relation between oral reading rate and reading comprehension. Three lines of conceptual analysis converge on this relation: (a) application of basic behavior analytic principles suggests that fluent decoding should produce better reading comprehension through direct and indirect relations, (b) behavior analytic understanding of the importance of the rate of behavior as

Timothy A. Slocum; Guy Gilberts

1995-01-01

170

Reading Rates Attained by First-Year LISTEN LOOK LEARN Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading rates achieved by first graders taught reading by the Listen Look Learn (LLL) materials and procedures were compared to available norms of children who have had no instrument use as a part of their reading instruction. In the LLL program the Aud-X, Tach-X, and Controlled Reader Instruments were used to increase sight vocabulary,…

Brickner, Ann; Senter, Donald R.

171

Exertion instruments  

E-print Network

This dissertation describes the research, development and reasoning behind a family of musical instruments called Exertion Instruments. They use inline electrical generators to run a synthesizer and an amplifier while ...

Vawter, Noah (Noah Theodore)

2011-01-01

172

Corrective Reading. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is primarily for the in-service teacher and discusses specific practices required in corrective reading. Some of the chapters and topics include: "Appraising Reading Problems in the Classroom," which discusses steps in remedial reading, the teacher's role, causes of reading failure, characteristics of a good reading program, and the…

Zintz, Miles V.

173

Reading Consultant's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains brief essays concerning aspects of reading and reading skills, activities designed to promote those skills, and biographies of reading specialists. The first section of the handbook discusses reading readiness, word recognition, word analysis, word meaning, comprehension, and content area reading. After discussion of each…

Bourgeois, Penny, Comp.; And Others

174

Deep Impact instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [~1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of ~9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is ~1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to ~1%. Spectrometer read noise is ~2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to ~10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of ~2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to ~0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

Klaasen, K.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Baca, M.; Delamere, A.; Desnoyer, M.; Farnham, T.; Groussin, O.; Hampton, D.; Ipatov, S.; Li, J.-Y.; Lisse, C.; Mastrodemos, N.; McLaughlin, S.; Sunshine, J.; Thomas, P.; Wellnitz, D.

2008-09-01

175

Reading: The Human Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading programs must be reassessed, and fragmented, isolated, and repetitive exercises must be eliminated. The goal of any reading program is to get the child to experience the joys of reading and learning. (Author/WI)

Roswell, Florence G.

1978-01-01

176

Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

Bisset, K.R.

1998-09-01

177

Cordless Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

1981-01-01

178

Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties.  

PubMed

Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures of language ability in kindergarten significantly added to the prediction of reading comprehension difficulties over and above kindergarten word reading predictors and direct measures of word reading in second grade. Response to language intervention also proved to be a unique predictor of reading comprehension outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the early identification of reading disabilities. PMID:25344060

Catts, Hugh W; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

2014-10-24

179

Means of Improving Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading comprehension is an important skill that every student needs in order to be successful. It is directly influenced by how readers construct a representation of the information that they are taking in. Overwhelmingly, the processing strategies found in research can appropriately fit into the Into, Through, Beyond strategies used in the…

Bondanza, Amy; Kelly, Katie; Treewater, Adam

180

RBIs: Reading/Baseball Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a wide variety of reading activities based on a baseball theme. Included are ideas for teaching library skills, organizing skills, sequence, visual skills, listening comprehension, direction following, vocabulary, word analysis, the five w's, context clues, and finding the main idea. (KC)

Skriloff, Naomi K.

1980-01-01

181

Raising the Bar in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to present strategies and discussion about how teachers can adapt the curriculum in order to provide authentic needs-based programmes. Identifying students' strengths and needs gave us clear directions as to what we needed to teach. In this article, the research team discuss how they successfully raised the reading achievement of…

Naidoo, Taryn; Naicker, Roshilla

2006-01-01

182

Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

Child, Angela R.

2012-01-01

183

A Never-Get-Lost Reading Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a reading support technique for Arabic students of English. These students must overcome the L1 interference "reversal of reading direction." PowerPoint presentations, utilizing a simple fade effect with adjustable delay between words such that the text appears nicely in a left-to-right manner, line by line with voice roughly…

Moore, William

2010-01-01

184

Hooked on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although learning to read well is essential for future success, many children are neither proficient nor avid readers. There is no single "right" approach to reading instruction; teachers should abandon the phonics/whole-language debate and adapt strategies to children's preferred reading styles. Principals should model reading behavior and make…

Carbo, Marie; Cole, Robert W.

1995-01-01

185

Improving Reading Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book includes papers related to reading research from the International Reading Association's 1974 preconvention institute on research held in New Orleans. The introduction by Samuel Weintraub and Roger Farr discusses such questions as: Where does reading research need to be improved? What is research? What areas of reading research demand…

Farr, Roger, Ed.; And Others

186

Reading to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading

Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

2012-01-01

187

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was designed to explore relations among reading skills; metareading, or knowledge about reading; memory; and metamemory, or knowledge about memory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability (good vs. poor readers), operativity, and grade level (second and fourth). Significant but low correlations were obtained between metareading and reading, metamemory and memory, metareading and

Diana M. Byrd; Barry Gholson

1985-01-01

188

5 Readers Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines how personality, in the sense of character development and identity, affects the way in which we read and interpret information. The first chapter deals with the question of who reads what and how they read it. The second chapter uses "A Rose for Emily" as an example of what people read. The third chapter discusses the…

Holland, Norman N.

189

UPGRADING ELEMENTARY READING PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO IMPROVE READING INSTRUCTION IN MANY SCHOLS, THE AMOUNT, QUALITY, AND VARIETY OF READING MATERIALS AND OTHER AIDS TO LEARNING MUST BE INCREASED. IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT STUDENTS HAVE ACCESS TO WELL EQUIPPED LIBRARIES. "THE HARVARD REPORT ON READING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS" OFFERS EXCELLENT GUIDANCE FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF READING INSTRUCTION AND…

WHIPPLE, GERTRUDE

190

From Speaking to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions are offered here for effecting a smooth transition in Spanish FLES classes from the audiolingual skills level to a level of reading competence which allows for proper pronunciation and both oral and silent reading comprehension. The discussion centers on creating reading readiness at the pre-reading level and considered such aspects as…

Arellano, Sonya I.

1968-01-01

191

Measuring Reading Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide solutions to some of the problems related to measuring reading behavior, this publication explores some of the problems of test selection and usage which confront educators. Contents include "Reading Testing for Reading Evaluation" by Walter R. Hill, "Reading Tests and the Disadvantaged" by Thomas J. Fitzgibbon, "What Is…

Blanton, William E., Ed.; And Others

192

Big Read, Big ROI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

Dempsey, Beth

2008-01-01

193

Focus on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of literature and reading is explored in the four articles in this issue. Titles and authors of these articles are as follows: "Utopia and the Social Relevance of Reading Literature" by Patrick Brantlinger; "Free Reading in the High School English Class" by R. Baird Shuman; "Word Finds as a Reading 'Find'" by Barbara S. Ballirano; and…

Mullican, James S., Ed.

1975-01-01

194

De Agostini, M., Kazandjian, S., Cavzian, C., Lellouch, J. and Chokron, S. Visual Aesthetic Preference: Effects of Handedness, Sex and Age-related Reading/Writing Directional Scanning  

E-print Network

-handers prefer pictorial arrangements possessing left-to-right directionality and/or containing the region a controversial. Most studies have reported that right-handers but not left-handers prefer pictorial arrangements) induced by pictorial viewing (Levy, 1976; Goldstein, 2001). In contrast, other authors have suggested

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Development of a Single DoD Reading Grade Level (RGL) Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on military reading abilities has shown a direct relationship between reading ability and training and job performance. The objectives of this study of the development of a reading scale were to: (1) measure the reading ability of military applicants using six commonly used reading tests; (2) use the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude…

Waters, Brian K.

196

Parafoveal perception during sentence reading? An ERP paradigm using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)  

E-print Network

reading, which we tested in two groups of participants reading sentences with opposite reading directions an increasingly popular tool in the study of language comprehension in general and in reading in particular (forParafoveal perception during sentence reading? An ERP paradigm using rapid serial visual

Kutas, Marta

197

Atmospheric instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Atmospheric Sciences is now accepting proposals requesting only specialized research equipment or instrumentation. The division, within the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO), aims to echo the theme of increased support for instrumentation of the NSF fiscal 1984 budget request to Congress.Guidelines for proposals for specialized research equipment and instrumentation are the same as those for research proposals. Each potential major user should describe the research projects for which the equipment will be used. Some institutional contribution is encouraged for the equipment proposals. For additional information on the submission of instrumentation proposals, contact the specific program director in the grant programs section (see list below) or in the new Upper Atmospheric Facilities program in NSF's Centers and Facilities section (see related news item this issue). Guidelines for proposal preparation can be found in NSF publication 81-79, Grants for Scientific and Engineering Research.

198

Astronomical instruments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

Rai, R. N.

199

On Linguistic Structure and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stella Center's belief in the basic importance of grammatical structure as a factor in reading comprehension substantiated the author's theory that the ability to comprehend syntactic structure is positively correlated with the ability to comprehend meaning. Original instruments devised to test this hypothesis included a test which utilized…

O'Donnell, Roy C.

200

Reading Charts & Tables. E & I. Pipefitter. Millwright.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the areas of electrical and instrumentation (E&I), pipefitter, and millwright contain a lesson that deals with reading charts and tables. The lesson consists of these components: objective, instruction, 10 exercises for E&I, 5 for pipefitting,…

Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

201

Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

1923-01-01

202

The Prediction of Reading Achievement in Grade One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to devise a simple instrument that could be helpful in predicting reading success by classroom teachers and school administrators who are not experts in the field of reading. The subjects, 190 randomly selected first graders, were given "Alphabet" and "Numbers" of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests and "Information" and…

Morrison, James B., Jr.

203

Impaired phonological reading in primary degenerative dementia.  

PubMed

This case study reports the profile of preserved and impaired capacities in a left-handed patient suffering from primary degenerative dementia of unknown aetiology. She was remarkable because her relatively preserved object naming and semantic categorization abilities contrasted with severe deficits in speech fluency, oral reading, inability to execute spoken and written commands, and severely impaired auditory-verbal short-term memory. Her reading disorder could be characterized as a disturbance of assembled phonology. She had great difficulty reading pronounceable nonwords, but she could correctly read irregular words. She showed effects of word imageability or concreteness (more than word frequency). She also showed effects of part-of-speech, where nouns and adjectives were read more easily than inflected verbs. She had difficulty reading function words. The syntactic category effects could be proven (by hierarchical log-linear analysis) not to be an artefact of imageability differences between verbs, adjectives and nouns. In reading aloud she made visual and morphological errors, but no semantic errors. This interesting pattern of preserved semantic information and disrupted phonological processing is unusual in dementia and contrasts with the severe dysnomia of patients with surface dyslexia who are able to read by the indirect, assembly-of-phonology route and show better reading of nonwords than irregular words. Her reading by a direct visual-semantic route appeared to be associated with relatively intact object naming, concrete word reading, and irregular word reading. This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. PMID:1884170

Diesfeldt, H F

1991-08-01

204

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

205

Deep Read: a reading comprehension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes initial work on Deep Read , an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 to 6th grade material; each story is followed by short - answer questions (an answer key was also provided)

Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01

206

Automated global land cover classifications using satellite-based data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and multi-directional data from the Polarized and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER) instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and repeatable global land cover classifications are an integral component for many studies of global change. Data acquired from polar-orbiting satellites provide the synoptic and consistent information needed to perform these classifications. Current global land cover classifications derived from satellite data have achieved accuracies between 70% and 90% for 12 to 17 land cover types. These products, however, have up to date required the intervention of human analysts at some point in the production of the final results. Parallel to this, much research aimed at understanding the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of terrestrial surfaces has indicated that the BRDF may contain additional surface information that could be used to improve land cover classifications. The benefits of this added information for classifications has not been fully explored, particularly at the global scale. The research presented here extends the decision tree classification methods developed with global data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to make them fully automated. The research also explores the potential contribution of global BRDF data from the POLarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER) instrument for global land cover applications. Automated procedures for global land cover classifications are developed using the C5.0 decision tree classifier and evaluated on 8km AVHRR data. The performances of automated pruning procedures with C5.0 are analyzed, as well as any improvements to the classifications when using new machine learning techniques such as boosting and cross-validation filtering of training data. The success of these automated procedures is also evaluated against two current 1km global land cover classifications from AVHRR. Finally, the same procedure is used to examine the benefits of using BRDF data from POLDER in the classification process. The research culminates in the production of the first fully-automated global land cover products using AVHRR and POLDER data. Results indicate that is feasible to automate the global land cover classification process without compromising the accuracy and/or stability of the products. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Brown de Colstoun, Eric Clayton

2001-07-01

207

University Students' Reading of Their First-Year Mathematics Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the observed behaviors and difficulties that 11 precalculus and calculus students exhibited in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. To gauge the "effectiveness" of these students' reading, we asked them to attempt straightforward mathematical tasks, based directly on what they had just read. The students had…

Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

2012-01-01

208

Conservation and Reading Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conservation is positively correlated with reading readiness and intelligence. Suggests that conservation is worthy of attention by primary teachers as a predictor of the child's readiness for learning to read. (ST)

Brekke, Beverly W.; And Others

1973-01-01

209

Improving Science Reading Comprehension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.

Johnson, Jill C.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2005-03-01

210

Reading with the ears.  

PubMed

We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian language areas, prefrontal cortex, and premotor cortex. In a within-subject comparison between reading Morse code and reading print, the activation pattern in the left temporoparietal association cortex was similar for both forms of reading, suggesting that reading Morse code shares part of its cortical networks with reading print. PMID:15196672

Maier, J; Hartvig, N Vaever; Green, A C; Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H

2004-07-01

211

Binocularity and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 162 fifth grade students were grouped as good, average, and poor readers on the basis of a standardized reading test to determine whether a relationship existed between binocularity and reading performance. (Author/MC)

Brod, Nathan; Hamilton, David

1973-01-01

212

Research Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

1992-01-01

213

Psycholinguistics and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psycholinguistics has offered many new insights into the development of reading, e.g., only a small part of the information necessary for reading comprehension comes from the printed page, comprehension must precede the identification of individual words, and reading is not decoding to spoken language. These views are elaborated in this collection…

Smith, Frank, (Ed.)

214

Reading with the ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the cortical networks of Morse code reading with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four expert radio telegraphists performed two closely matched reading experiments, one in binaurally presented high speed Morse code and one in print. Performance was equal for both conditions. Reading single nouns in Morse code resulted in predominantly left-sided activation of the frontal and temporal perisylvian

J Maier; N. Vaever Hartvig; A. C Green; H Stodkilde-Jorgensen

2004-01-01

215

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

1985-01-01

216

Early Bilingual Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion reviews literature on early bilingualism and early reading in two languages and summarizes a research project aimed at developing the experimental conditions for teaching early bilingual reading in institutional settings. The review notes positive effects of early reading generally and of early bilingual literacy on intellectual…

Titone, Renzo

1985-01-01

217

Teaching Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Read: An Experimental Examination of a Comprehensive Reading Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of our research was to determine if a comprehensive, phonics-based, direct instruction reading program would be effective in teaching early reading and language skills to students with moderate intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 28 elementary students from 10 public schools in an urban school district and one…

Allor, Jill H.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Jones, Francesca G.; Champlin, Tammi M.

2010-01-01

218

Assessing Reading. Using Cloze Procedure To Assess Reading Skills. [Packet] and Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…

Vaughan, Judy

219

Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

Ness, Molly

2011-01-01

220

Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first- through fifth-grade classrooms, a total of 751 minutes (or 25% of instructional time) was

Molly Ness

2011-01-01

221

Critical Reading: Using Reading Prompts to Promote Active Engagement with Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assignment of pre-class reading is a common practice in higher education. Typically, the purpose of this reading assignment is to expose students to background knowledge that will be useful in an upcoming class discussion or to introduce a topic that will be presented more directly by the instructor. However, numbers of undergraduates actually…

Tomasek, Terry

2009-01-01

222

Simple Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work with partners to create four different instruments to investigate the frequency of the sounds they make. Teams may choose to make a shoebox guitar, water-glass xylophone, straw panpipe or a soda bottle organ (or all four!). Conduct this activity in conjunction with Lesson 3 of the Sound and Light unit.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

223

Coaxial curved instrumentation for minimal access surgery.  

PubMed

New coaxial curved and bayonet instruments have been designed which permit controlled dissection and directional change of the functional tip, blunt dissection and lift retraction. The instruments are introduced into the peritoneal and thoracic cavities through flexible re-usable metal cannulae. The excellent ergonomic properties of the new instruments have been confirmed by their use in major laparoscopic and thoracoscopic operations. Coaxial instruments enhance the scope of minimal access surgery and have distinct advantages over the traditional straight instruments. PMID:8081901

Cuschieri, A; Shimi, S; Banting, S; Van Velpen, G; Dunkley, P

1993-01-01

224

RHIC instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

1998-12-01

225

RHIC instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1998-12-10

226

RHIC instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Shea, T.J.; Witkover, R.L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1998-12-01

227

Sources of Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the common and distinct contributions of context-free and context reading skill to reading comprehension and the contributions of context-free reading skill and reading comprehension to context fluency. The 113 4th-grade participants were measured in reading comprehension, read aloud a folktale, and read aloud the folktale's words in a random list. Fluency was scaled as speed (words read

Joseph R. Jenkins; Lynn S. Fuchs; Paul van den Broek; Christine Espin; Stanley L. Deno

2003-01-01

228

Reading Attitudes of Middle School Students: Results of a U.S. Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the current state of reading attitudes among middle school students in the United States, a survey was developed and administered to 4,491 students in 23 states plus the District of Columbia. The instrument comprised four subscales measuring attitudes toward: recreational reading in print settings, recreational reading in digital…

McKenna, Michael C.; Conradi, Kristin; Lawrence, Camille; Jang, Bong Gee; Meyer, J. Patrick

2012-01-01

229

Test Reviews: Flynn, J. (2001). "The Predictive Reading Profile." East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Predictive Reading Profile (PRP) is an individual or group-administered instrument designed to examine precursors to reading difficulties by identifying children at risk for reading failure in later grades and special instructional needs for children in late kindergarten and first grade. The purpose of the PRP "is to develop a profile of a…

Fudge, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

230

Metagenomics: Read length matters  

E-print Network

Obtaining an unbiased view of the phylogenetic composition and functional diversity within a microbial community is one central objective of metagenomic analysis. New technologies, such as 454 pyrosequencing, have dramatically reduced sequencing costs, to a level where metagenomic analysis may become a viable alternative to more-focused assessments of the phylogenetic (e.g., 16S rRNA genes) and functional diversity of microbial communities. To determine whether the short (?100 to 200 bp) sequence reads obtained from pyrosequencing are appropriate for the phylogenetic and functional characterization of microbial communities, the results of BLAST and COG analyses were compared for long (?750 bp) and randomly derived short reads from each of two microbial and one virioplankton metagenome libraries. Overall, BLASTX searches against the GenBank nr database found far fewer homologs within the short-sequence libraries. This was especially pronounced for a Chesapeake Bay virioplankton metagenome library. Increasing the short-read sampling depth or the length of derived short reads (up to 400 bp) did not completely resolve the discrepancy in BLASTX homolog detection. Only in cases where the long-read sequence had a close homolog (low BLAST E-score) did the derived short-read sequence also find a significant homolog. Thus, more-distant homologs of microbial and viral genes are not detected by short-read sequences. Among COG hits, derived short reads sampled at a depth of two short reads per long read missed up to 72 % of the COG hits found using long reads.

K. Eric Wommack; Jaysheel Bhavsar; Jacques Ravel

2008-01-01

231

CLIP: Bridging Pipelines to Instrument Control Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO develops in collaboration with the instrument consortia the instrument control software and data processing pipelines for the VLT and VLTI instruments. As astronomical instruments become more complex, there is a growing need for more comprehensive data processing to be performed directly by the instrument control software. The Common Library for Image Processing (CLIP) has been developed as a flexible and scalable framework to provide an interface to pipeline data processing capabilities for the instrument acquisition process. This paper gives an overview of the design of the CLIP and how it copes with the constraints and requirements of the 2nd Generation Instruments at the ESO Very Large Telescope.

Ballester, P.; Biereichel, P.; Kaufer, A.; Kiekebusch, M.; Lorch, H.

2008-08-01

232

Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

2008-01-01

233

Assessing Reading Performance with Curriculum-Based Reading Inventories: The Case of Korea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of a study that explored the validity of curriculum-based measures of reading in order to develop a valid and practical instrument for regular education teachers as well as special education teachers in Korea. Participants in the study were 213 students from 7 elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. Of the total, 183…

Kim, Dong-il; Hwang, Mae-hyang; Lim, Ji-hyun; Lim, Hyo-jin; Kim, Kwang-seon

234

Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

Hartley, D.S. III

1998-01-01

235

The Prepared Practitioner: Getting Students to Read  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the teacher, you need to respond to students with very low-reading abilities, help all students learn how to learn from text, structure class to encourage student reading, and hold students accountable for assignments. Some effective, research-based strategies that are beneficial to all students are featured in this month's column. The payback comes later when you spend a little less time lecturing and a little more time directly helping students learn.

Colburn, Alan

2008-03-01

236

Balancing Instrumental and Identity Goals in Relationships: The Role of Request Directness and Request Persistence in the Selection of Sexual Resistance Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies the general frameworks of Politeness Theory and Planning Theory to explain the selection of sexual resistance strategies among undergraduates following both initial and persisting requests. Investigates contingent effects of request directness on characteristics of the resistance message. Tests influence of resister sex on strategy choice.…

Afifi, Walid A.; Lee, Josephine W.

2000-01-01

237

Can Read, Can Write  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking…

Melia, Ed

2008-01-01

238

Metagenomics: read length matters.  

PubMed

Obtaining an unbiased view of the phylogenetic composition and functional diversity within a microbial community is one central objective of metagenomic analysis. New technologies, such as 454 pyrosequencing, have dramatically reduced sequencing costs, to a level where metagenomic analysis may become a viable alternative to more-focused assessments of the phylogenetic (e.g., 16S rRNA genes) and functional diversity of microbial communities. To determine whether the short (approximately 100 to 200 bp) sequence reads obtained from pyrosequencing are appropriate for the phylogenetic and functional characterization of microbial communities, the results of BLAST and COG analyses were compared for long (approximately 750 bp) and randomly derived short reads from each of two microbial and one virioplankton metagenome libraries. Overall, BLASTX searches against the GenBank nr database found far fewer homologs within the short-sequence libraries. This was especially pronounced for a Chesapeake Bay virioplankton metagenome library. Increasing the short-read sampling depth or the length of derived short reads (up to 400 bp) did not completely resolve the discrepancy in BLASTX homolog detection. Only in cases where the long-read sequence had a close homolog (low BLAST E-score) did the derived short-read sequence also find a significant homolog. Thus, more-distant homologs of microbial and viral genes are not detected by short-read sequences. Among COG hits, derived short reads sampled at a depth of two short reads per long read missed up to 72% of the COG hits found using long reads. Noting the current limitation in computational approaches for the analysis of short sequences, the use of short-read-length libraries does not appear to be an appropriate tool for the metagenomic characterization of microbial communities. PMID:18192407

Wommack, K Eric; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Ravel, Jacques

2008-03-01

239

Metagenomics: Read Length Matters? †  

PubMed Central

Obtaining an unbiased view of the phylogenetic composition and functional diversity within a microbial community is one central objective of metagenomic analysis. New technologies, such as 454 pyrosequencing, have dramatically reduced sequencing costs, to a level where metagenomic analysis may become a viable alternative to more-focused assessments of the phylogenetic (e.g., 16S rRNA genes) and functional diversity of microbial communities. To determine whether the short (?100 to 200 bp) sequence reads obtained from pyrosequencing are appropriate for the phylogenetic and functional characterization of microbial communities, the results of BLAST and COG analyses were compared for long (?750 bp) and randomly derived short reads from each of two microbial and one virioplankton metagenome libraries. Overall, BLASTX searches against the GenBank nr database found far fewer homologs within the short-sequence libraries. This was especially pronounced for a Chesapeake Bay virioplankton metagenome library. Increasing the short-read sampling depth or the length of derived short reads (up to 400 bp) did not completely resolve the discrepancy in BLASTX homolog detection. Only in cases where the long-read sequence had a close homolog (low BLAST E-score) did the derived short-read sequence also find a significant homolog. Thus, more-distant homologs of microbial and viral genes are not detected by short-read sequences. Among COG hits, derived short reads sampled at a depth of two short reads per long read missed up to 72% of the COG hits found using long reads. Noting the current limitation in computational approaches for the analysis of short sequences, the use of short-read-length libraries does not appear to be an appropriate tool for the metagenomic characterization of microbial communities. PMID:18192407

Wommack, K. Eric; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Ravel, Jacques

2008-01-01

240

Developmental reading disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... other causes of learning disabilities, especially reading disability. Emotional disorders, intellectual disability, brain diseases, and certain cultural and education factors can cause learning disabilities. Before diagnosing DRD, ...

241

Laboratory Investigation of Direct Measurement of Ice Water Content, Ice Surface Area, and Effective Radius of Ice Crystals Using a Laser-Diffraction Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft microphysics probe, PVM-100A, was tested in the Colorado State University dynamic cloud chamber to establish its ability to measure ice water content (IWC), PSA, and Re in ice clouds. Its response was compared to other means of measuring those ice-cloud parameters that included using FSSP-100 and 230-X 1-D optical probes for ice-crystal concentrations, a film-loop microscope for ice-crystal habits and dimensions, and an in-situ microscope for determining ice-crystal orientation. Intercomparisons were made in ice clouds containing ice crystals ranging in size from about 10 microns to 150 microns diameter, and ice crystals with plate, columnar, dendritic, and spherical shapes. It was not possible to determine conclusively that the PVM accurately measures IWC, PSA, and Re of ice crystals, because heat from the PVM evaporated in part the crystals in its vicinity in the chamber thus affecting its measurements. Similarities in the operating principle of the FSSP and PVM, and a comparison between Re measured by both instruments, suggest, however, that the PVM can make those measurements. The resolution limit of the PVM for IWC measurements was found to be on the order of 0.001 g/cubic m. Algorithms for correcting IWC measured by FSSP and PVM were developed.

Gerber, H.; DeMott, P. J.; Rogers, D. C.

1995-01-01

242

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over the Tropical Oceans from the Clouds and the Earth?s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Satellite Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine months of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)\\/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) broadband fluxes combined with the TRMM visible infrared scanner (VIRS) high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the Tropics of 4.6

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato

2002-01-01

243

Reading grade level and completeness of freely available materials on thyroid nodules: There is work to be done.  

PubMed

Background: Patient education is one of the key components required for patients to participate in decision making for their care. Sources of information should be complete, and understandable. The objective of this study was to assess the quality and reading grade level of freely available materials pertaining to the evaluation and treatment of thyroid nodules. Methods: All available materials were gathered through a comprehensive internet search or direct contact with each identified organization associated with thyroid care. Materials meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for completeness of content and reading grade level using the SMOG readability formula. Then, the DISCERN instrument was utilized to assess the quality of the five materials which had the best (lowest) and the five materials that had the worst (highest) SMOG reading grade levels. Results: A total of 63 materials on thyroid nodule evaluation and management were identified. A minority of materials presented readers with a complete picture of the topic: describing both benefits and cautions of thyroid nodule evaluation, benefits and cautions of fine needle thyroid nodule biopsy; or risks, benefits, and long-term effects of thyroidectomy. The SMOG reading grade level assessment was well above recommended levels: the range was 8th grade to college level, the mean and median reading grade level were 13. Lastly, the DISCERN instrument revealed that most of the materials with both the best and the worst reading grade levels assessed had 'extensive or serious shortcomings' that would impede their usefulness as high quality sources of information regarding management options. Conclusions: Existing thyroid nodule evaluation and management materials have serious shortcomings. Future work should focus on the development of patient materials that are both grade level appropriate and meet the DISCERN criteria for topic completeness and accuracy. PMID:25384093

Barnes, Jonathan Aaron; Davies, Louise

2014-11-10

244

NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Reading Disorders,  

E-print Network

continues to be stagnant 37% of fourth graders read below "Basic" level and much higher in minority groups to maximize their reading comprehension. ­ Can apply decoding and word recognition skills accuratelyNICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Reading Disorders, and Reading Instruction

Rau, Don C.

245

PLATO Elementary Reading Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PLATO Elementary Reading Curriculum (PERC), a computer based instructional program, is presented in this report. The aims of the PERC staff were to: (1) build a complete computer based reading curriculum designed to bring students from illiteracy to literacy; (2) design into the curriculum structure the possibility for use in a wide range of…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Computer-Based Education Research Lab.

246

Children's Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "Journal of Children and Youth" focuses on children's strategies for decoding and comprehending written language and teacher's strategies for facilitating this process. The issue includes eleven papers by members of the Indiana Reading Professors division of the Indiana State Reading Council and several invited guests. Peggy…

Brown, Rexel E., Ed.

1980-01-01

247

The Reading Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests an augmented role for reading and comprehension in the expansion of students' knowledge base and the development of ethical values. Suggests that one class hour each day be spent reading works of high literary quality reflecting the mores and moral standards of civilized society. (DMM)

Manning, John C.

1988-01-01

248

CALIPSO Data Read Software  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

  CALIPSO Data Read Software Callable routines in Interactive Data Language ... read access to CALIPSO science data files. Routines and documentation are available in both tar and zipped file bundles. The tar file ... Solutions .   CALIPSO_READERS_3.4v1 Software (IDL) tar  (612.9 KB) zip  (261.4 KB) ...

2014-07-17

249

Visual Search and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect on reading speed of the number of target items being searched for and the number of target occurrences in the text was examined. The subjects, 24 college undergraduate volunteers, were presented with a list of target words, and then they read a passage for comprehension which contained occurrences of the target words (Experiment1) or…

Calfee, Robert C.; Jameson, Penny

250

Speed Listening and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compressed speech (speed listening), in which audiotapes are speeded up, is examined in this paper along with its relationship to the reading process. Among the topics discussed first are the close relationship between reading and listening, the rationale behind compressed speech, and the use of compressed speech in business communication, special…

Bradtmueller, Weldon G.

251

Reading, Writing, and Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educators guide blends space exploration with reading and writing. The materials are divided into two units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.

2004-01-01

252

Read With Your Fingers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in partners to create and exchange messages written in Braille. Learners use a Braille key and thumbtacks to write their messages in Braille. This activity will demonstrate to learners how kids who are blind read. It also demonstrates that human brains are "plastic" and can be re-trained to read by touch.

American Museum of Natural History

2012-06-26

253

CRITICAL READING DEVELOPS EARLY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS ISSUE OF THE READING AIDS SERIES PRESENTS A DISCUSSION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CRITICAL READING AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN AND HOW IT CAN BE DEVELOPED. IT OFFERS SUGGESTIONS FOR THE MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF INQUIRY AND EVALUATION. SOME OF THE TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE -- (1) THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTS, CONCEPTS, AND COMMON…

LEE, DORRIS; AND OTHERS

254

Get Real 'n' Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program called Get Real 'n' Read developed by Perth (Australia) public librarians to offer adolescents a greater incentive to use the library and to improve the image of reading. Topics include demographic characteristics of the area; planning; and advertising, including donations appealing to the target audience. (LRW)

Ledger, Michelle

1997-01-01

255

Reading: Process and Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad and major concerns dealing with reading are set forth in this monograph to provoke discussion and examination by both researchers and practitioners. In Part 1, Kenneth S. Goodman presents a psycholinguistic view of language and reading (within a transformational-generative framework) as essentially a set of processes of recoding, decoding,…

Goodman, Kenneth S.; Niles, Olive S.

256

Read the Label First  

MedlinePLUS

... EPA This Area You are here: EPA Home Pesticides Fact Sheets Health & Safety Read the Label First Read the Label First Need help with product labels? Click and explore the generic label. It will help you understand the ... By their nature, many pesticides may pose some risk to humans, animals, or ...

257

Reading fun at home!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weekends, summers, and holidays are better spent reading and participating in fun activities with one's child. Time at home can be spent doing something creative by creating thematic book bags that children and parents can check out of the class. In this way, children are able to see their parents making reading and school a priority, while…

Kieff, Judith

2005-01-01

258

Can India's "Literate" Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-01-01

259

[Reading Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Epistle," the publication forum of Professors of Reading Teacher Educators, contains three papers as well as the regular features on job openings and on miscellaneous facts. Titles and authors of the articles are: "Doctoral Education in Reading: The State of the Art," by Richard Allington; "The Virtues of Being a Toad and What That…

Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

1976-01-01

260

Improving Attitudes Toward Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving students' attitudes toward reading. The targeted population consisted of second and third grade students in a growing middle class community. The problem of the lack of interest in reading and the poor quality of classroom work were evident in parent and student surveys, and teacher observations.…

Dean, Stephanie J.; Trent, Jane A.

261

Dimensions of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how many students expect reading to be about answering literal-level questions, taking true-false tests, and figuring out what a teacher wants to know. Explains the Six Traits of Reading from Northwest Regional Educational Labs: decoding; building context; comprehending; interpreting; synthesizing; and evaluating. Notes that these sorts…

Lain, Sheryl

2003-01-01

262

Reading and Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To make literature meaningful to children and youth, the teacher needs to do more than make books available and blow the bellows of motivation. Teachers can gain more insight into reading by analyzing their own behaviors as they read adult literature, and they can use their insight in helping the student discover the way to extract meaning from…

McCullough, Constance M.

263

VISION AND READING ABILITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

264

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

1996-01-01

265

Reading to Learn Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog entry discusses the importance of strong reading comprehension in the mathematics classroom. It gives examples of problems that require careful attention when reading and cites paraphrasing problems as a crucial skill for students. It contains links to related articles.

Denise

2007-09-07

266

The Reading Wars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article's fundamental argument is that the reading instruction and reading research have been shaped by political forces desiring to privilege particular approaches to instruction or particular combinations of methodological and epistemological perspectives on research. The swings in both dominant pedagogies and dominant research paradigms…

Pearson, P. David

2004-01-01

267

Rain radar instrument definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

1996-12-01

268

SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

269

Reading Ability and Reading Engagement in Older Adults With Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We evaluated the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on reading ability and reading engagement in 10 reading activities. Methods. A total of 63 glaucoma patients and 59 glaucoma suspect controls self-rated their level of reading difficulty for 10 reading items, and responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine reading ability. Reading engagement was assessed by asking subjects to report the number of days per week they engaged in each reading activity. Reading restriction was determined as a decrement in engagement. Results. Glaucoma subjects more often described greater reading difficulty than controls for all tasks except puzzles (P < 0.05). The most difficult reading tasks involved puzzles, books, and finances, while the least difficult reading tasks involved notes, bills, and mail. In multivariable weighted least squares regression models of Rasch-estimated person measures of reading ability, less reading ability was found for glaucoma patients compared to controls (? = ?1.60 logits, P < 0.001). Among glaucoma patients, less reading ability was associated with more severe visual field (VF) loss (? = ?0.68 logits per 5-dB decrement in better-eye VF mean deviation [MD], P < 0.001) and contrast sensitivity (? = ?0.76 logits per 0.1-unit lower log CS, P < 0.001). Each 5-dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD was associated with book reading on 18% fewer days (P = 0.003) and newspaper reading on 10% fewer days (P = 0.008). No statistically significant reading restriction was observed for other reading activities (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Glaucoma patients have less reading ability and engage less in a variety of different reading activities, particularly those requiring sustained reading. Future work should evaluate the mechanisms underlying reading disability in glaucoma to determine how patients can maintain reading ability and engagement. PMID:25052992

Nguyen, Angeline M.; van Landingham, Suzanne W.; Massof, Robert W.; Rubin, Gary S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

2014-01-01

270

Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

2008-01-01

271

The Effects of Extensive Reading and Reading Strategies on Reading Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation into the role that extensive reading and reading strategies play in the cultivation of reading self-efficacy. Conducted over the course of one academic year, how changes in reading self-efficacy translate into changes in reading comprehension was examined. In addition, the…

Burrows, Lance

2012-01-01

272

Determination of the single scattering albedo and direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosol with data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning aerosols absorb and scatter solar radiation and therefore affect the energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. The single scattering albedo (SSA), the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the extinction coefficient, is an important parameter to describe the optical properties of aerosols and to determine the effect of aerosols on the energy balance of the planet and climate. Aerosol effects on radiation also depend strongly on surface albedo. Large uncertainties remain in current estimates of radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols, due largely to the lack of reliable measurements of aerosol and surface properties. In this work we investigate how satellite measurements can be used to estimate the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols. We developed a method using the critical reflectance technique to retrieve SSA from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed reflectance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). We evaluated MODIS retrieved SSAs with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) retrievals and found good agreements within the published uncertainty of the AERONET retrievals. We then developed an algorithm, the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA), to improve the representations of spectral variations of vegetation surface albedo based on MODIS observations at the discrete 0.67, 0.86, 0.47, 0.55, 1.24, 1.64, and 2.12 mu-m channels. This algorithm is validated using laboratory measurements of the different vegetation types from the Amazon region, data from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) spectral library, and data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital spectral library. We show that the MEVA method can improve the accuracy of flux and aerosol forcing calculations at the TOA compared to more traditional interpolated approaches. Lastly, we combine the MODIS retrieved biomass burning aerosol SSA and the surface albedo spectrum determined from the MEVA technique to calculate TOA flux and aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Amazon region and compare it with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite results. The results show that MODIS based forcing calculations present similar averaged results compared to CERES, but MODIS shows greater spatial variation of aerosol forcing than CERES. Possible reasons for these differences are explored and discussed in this work. Potential future research based on these results is discussed as well.

Zhu, Li

273

How to Read Drug Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Aging > Drugs and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version How to ... More information on how to read drug labels How to read a prescription drug label View a text ...

274

Optical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

1990-01-01

275

The Reading Matrix  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the fall of 2000, a group of concerned educators came together to form The Reading Matrix, which was designed to create a place where both teachers and other interested persons could come together to find resources about reading and writing. Most of the resources are geared towards the language needs of ESL and international students, but given the cornucopia of materials here, there is really something for everyone. Scrolling down from the site’s homepage, visitors will come across areas that include a job database, the Reading Matrix Archives, interactive reading exercises, and a list of germane online journals. The Archives are a good place to start, as users will have the opportunity to look through subject-oriented resources for English-language learners that range from dictionaries, grammar quizzes, and speaking and listening practice.

276

What Are Reading Disorders?  

MedlinePLUS

... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...

277

Reading Comprehension Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. Do your middle school students not complete reading assignments or not comprehend them when they do? Is student motivation an issue you struggle with? Do you feel that your students need assistance comprehending the textbook? Students are faced with increasingly difficult text and many situations in which they must learn content by reading. This cross-curricular emphasis on reading comprehension is not just an effort to teach to the high-stakes tests that are so ubiquitous in our education system today. Instead, it is a way to teach students how to interact with text. This Wiki page can be used to help teachers prepare students for a lifetime of reading, comprehension, and reflection.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-07-01

278

Can India's ``literate'' read?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-12-01

279

SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS  

E-print Network

SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS Margaret J. Early Graduate Scholarship This scholarship. Peter B. Mosenthal Graduate Scholarship This scholarship provides support for graduate students area, or a student dedicated to working with such populations. Blumin Family Scholarship

Mather, Patrick T.

280

Reading with an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrative medicine, designed to develop empathic listening skills in healthcare professionals, also helps literature teachers discuss ethics without sacrificing critical rigor. Reading the distasteful narrator of Dostoevsky's challenging story as the notorious \\

Sayantani DasGupta; Shannon R. Wooden; Maura Spiegel

2010-01-01

281

Reading with an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Narrative medicine, designed to develop empathic listening skills in healthcare professionals, also helps literature teachers discuss ethics without sacrificing critical rigor. Reading the distasteful narrator of Dostoevsky's challenging story as the notorious \\

Sayantani DasGupta; Shannon R. Wooden; Maura Spiegel

2010-01-01

282

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Nov 17,2014 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ratio like ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined by ...

283

Reading: Ave Atque Vale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although basic literacy will continue to be necessary for survival, mass communications and information technology are bringing about an inevitable and lamentable decline in reading for pleasure and in the love of literature for its own sake. (TE)

Donovan, Ann

1984-01-01

284

Examining NAEP: The Effect of Item Format on Struggling 4th Graders' Reading Comprehension  

E-print Network

group membership negatively affects latent ability on the reading comprehensiongroup membership negatively affects latent ability on the reading comprehensionreading comprehension, directionality of DIF items were fairly evenly distributed across groups

Griffo, Vicki

2011-01-01

285

Celebrate Summer with Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of NSTA Recommends --ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach chairs, flags, and fireworks schedules; collect some reading material for a summer of personal enrichment.

Texley, Juliana

2007-07-01

286

Reading Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bar graphs are simple ways to display data. Taking numbers and creating a bar graph makes it easier to read and draw conclusions. From bar graphs, you can easily compare data from more than one source. In this lesson, students will read two temperature bar graphs of data from Africa using authentic NASA data. They will identify major parts of bar graphs and make a generalization statement based on graphed data.

287

GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

2004-01-01

288

Teen Summer Reading Program, 1999. Read around the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for the 1999 Virginia teen summer reading program for public libraries, "Read around the World," includes the following chapters: (1) "Reading and Teens," including serving the underserved, tips for teens, and a recipe for choosing a book to read for fun; (2) "Programming and Teens," including "The Why of YA [Youth Adult] Programming"…

Virginia State Library, Richmond.

289

Reading Motivation and Reading Engagement: Clarifying Commingled Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The constructs of motivation for reading and reading engagement have frequently become blurred and ambiguous in both research and discussions of practice. To address this commingling of constructs, the authors provide a concise review of the literature on motivation for reading and reading engagement and illustrate the blurring of those concepts…

Unrau, Norman J.; Quirk, Matthew

2014-01-01

290

The Potency of "READS" to Inform Students' Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shares an initiative conducted in Malaysia in terms of knowledge to gauge students' Reading Age and to inform teachers of their students' reading progress and learning. Ensuring teachers understand the needs of students' reading ability and preparing students to read and comprehend texts are the two most fundamental parallel tasks in…

Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik

2012-01-01

291

Reading Acts: An Inquiry into Reading and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text performs reading for teaching in an audit culture. Two teachers, myself and Steven, read the memoir "Hole in My Life" by Jack Gantos and, while reading, recorded our experiences as readers and planned to teach the book to Steven's English class. This study is an inquiry into the phenomenon of "reading to teach,"…

Sams, Brandon L.

2012-01-01

292

Every Student Reads: Collaboration and Reading to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide features reading strategies geared for elementary and secondary students as well as recommendations for reading programs supported by school library programs. Leading reading experts who were presenters at the 2004 American Association of School Librarians (AASL) Fall Forum contribute their thoughts on the current state of reading

Bush, Gail

2005-01-01

293

Summer Reading Summer Not: How Project READS Can Advance Equity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has three goals. First, it describes the broader research on summer reading loss. Second, it discusses how research and development efforts informed the key components of Project READS (Reading Enhances Achievement During Summer), a scaffolded voluntary summer reading intervention for children in grades 3 to 5. The second part of the…

Kim, James S.

2010-01-01

294

Improving Reading by...Reading: Ideas from Two Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a home reading intervention program for students with real reading difficulties, which has turned many students on to reading, by giving students book bags with three books (at different levels) in each bag for home reading. Discusses developing parent support, outlines contents of 30 book bags, and notes challenges and successes of the…

Davis, Mary; Lyons, Shirley

2001-01-01

295

Improving EFL Learners' Reading Levels through Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there is an increasing amount of research promoting the effectiveness of extensive reading (ER) towards increasing learners' vocabulary, comprehension, reading speed, and motivation towards reading. However, little has been done to measure the effects of ER on learners' reading levels. This quantitative study examined the effects…

Mermelstein, Aaron David

2014-01-01

296

History of Reading: A Bible Corpus for Reading Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify and make available reading-related Bible references for reading teachers, a computerized text of the 1611 King James Bible was generated, using reading-related terms extracted from Bible concordances and student papers. Such words as "read," book,""word,""study," and "language" generated about 4,800 references. Thirteen annotated…

Cranney, A. Garr; Holladay, Valerie

297

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

298

Simulating Responses of Gravitational-Wave Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic LISA is a computer program for simulating the responses of the instrumentation of the NASA/ESA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, the purpose of which is to detect and study gravitational waves. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the time-delay-interferometry (TDI) observables. (TDI is a method of canceling phase noise in temporally varying unequal-arm interferometers.) Synthetic LISA provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves, according to a full model of TDI (including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the arm lengths). Synthetic LISA is written in the C++ programming language as a modular package that accommodates the addition of code for specific gravitational wave sources or for new noise models. In addition, time series for waves and noises can be easily loaded from disk storage or electronic memory. The package includes a Python-language interface for easy, interactive steering and scripting. Through Python, Synthetic LISA can read and write data files in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), which is a commonly used astronomical data format.

Armstrong, John; Edlund, Jeffrey; Vallisneri. Michele

2006-01-01

299

Automobile Maintenance. Reading and Language Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed primarily for special needs students in a vocational program in automobile maintenance, this book was written to refine the basic skills of following directions, reading comprehension, vocabulary building, spelling, word usage, and word recognition, while relating these skills to some of the tasks a beginning student in the program must…

Kessman, William A.

300

Reading and Learning-Disabled Children: Understanding the Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors assess the evidence related to various instructional styles for teaching reading to children with learning disabilities. Results of the literature review indicate that whole language and direct instruction are the two major approaches to teaching reading. Whole language has proven successful for many students with…

Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Carvalho, Kathleen

2008-01-01

301

Rethinking Middle School Reading Instruction: A Basic Literacy Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on subject matter instruction across the 20th century (e.g., Stevens, 1912; Bellack, 1966; Hoetker & Ahlbrand; 1969; Gall, 1970; Langer, 1999; Mehan, 1979; Nystrand, 1997;) reveals a preponderance of teacher-directed lecture, recitation, and round-robin reading of text in place of instruction that focuses on reading-to-learn, thinking,…

Blanton, William E.; Wood, Karen D.; Taylor, D. Bruce

2007-01-01

302

A Systematic Approach to the Establishment of a Reading Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes steps for a systematic, logical method of moving from a nonexistent or limited reading program at the secondary or junior college level to a highly effective one which better meets the needs of the students. The first step suggested is to survey general reading ability within a school in order to formulate the direction the…

Babcock, Natalie; Bartin, Norma

303

Roles of Morphological Awareness in the Reading Comprehension of Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: Exploring Partial Mediation by Vocabulary and Reading Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the direct and indirect roles of morphological awareness reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking language minority learners reading in English. Multivariate path analysis was used to investigate the unique contribution of derivational morphological awareness to reading comprehension as well as its indirect contributions…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Biancarosa, Gina; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette

2013-01-01

304

The Effects of the "Language Arts" Strand of the "Reading Mastery Signature Series" on the Reading and Language Skills of English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on research showing the interdependence of language skills and reading proficiency, this study examined the effects of using the "Language Arts" strand of the "Reading Mastery Signature" 2008 series program as a supplement to non-Direct Instruction reading programs with English Language Learner (ELL) students. Seventy-six kindergarten…

Ralston, Nicole C.; Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Caniglia, Cyndi

2009-01-01

305

Reading and the Special Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…

Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.

306

Focus on Reading. New Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook is designed as an introductory text on reading instruction for teachers of English as a Second Language. The first chapter explores the nature of reading through a series of activities that help identify the kind of knowledge one draws on and the strategies one uses in reading. Chapter 2 reviews key theories of reading that have…

Hood, Susan; Solomon, Nicky; Burns, Anne

307

Peer Tutors Improve Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…

LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

2011-01-01

308

In Defense of Reading Quizzes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students fail to read the assigned material before class. A failure to read is detrimental to both student learning and course engagement. This paper considers the often-neglected teaching technique of giving frequent quizzes on the reading. Drawing on the author's experiences assigning reading quizzes, together with student opinions…

Tropman, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

309

Improving Reading to Improve Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading provides information across the curriculum. Thus, to the extent that fundamental (i.e., generalizable) reading comprehension strategies can be taught, the benefits should be found in multiple domains. To test this claim, children in the third and fourth grades read by simulating text content using the two-part, embodied "Moved by Reading"…

Glenberg, Arthur; Willford, Jonathan; Gibson, Bryan; Goldberg, Andrew; Zhu, Xiaojin

2012-01-01

310

High and Low Reading Comprehension Achievers' Strategic Behaviors and Their Relation to Performance in a Reading Comprehension Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at investigating the actual strategic behaviors of high and low achievers in reading comprehension and their relation with respective performance. The participants were 45 individually examined third graders, 20 high and 25 low reading comprehension achievers. Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of the participants' strategic behaviors during text comprehension was directly recorded by two observers by means

Irini Dermitzaki; Georgia Andreou; Violetta Paraskeva

2008-01-01

311

Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary Content Area Classrooms: Teacher Use of and Attitudes towards Reading Comprehension Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed methodology study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in middle and high school social studies and science classrooms. An additional purpose was to explore teachers' perceptions of and beliefs about the need for reading comprehension instruction. In 2,400 minutes of direct classroom…

Ness, Molly K.

2009-01-01

312

The psychophysiology of reading.  

PubMed

Early identification of dyslexia would be fundamental to prevent the negative consequences of delayed treatment in the social, psychological and occupational domains. Movement-related potentials of dyslexic children are characterized by inadequate ability to program movements and reduced capacity to evaluate their performance and to correct their errors. Reading-related potentials recorded during different reading conditions elicit a series of positive and negative components with specific functional meaning and with a characteristic spatial-temporal pattern. These reading-related potentials, when analyzed with sLORETA, show significantly different patterns of activation when comparing self-paced reading aloud to passive viewing of single letters. Comparison of fMRI and sLORETA during both tasks showed that the cortical region with the widest inter-modality similarities is the middle-superior temporal lobe during self-paced reading aloud. Neuropsychological studies have shown the existence of clinical subtypes of dyslexia; these studies have been confirmed by the results of ICA applied to the EEG. Dyslexia can be defined as a disorder of programming and integrating ideokinetic elements, associated with a deficiency in the fast processing and integration of sensory information, with reduced efficiency of error systems analysis. Each of these phenomena occurs at different levels of the central nervous system and at different times. PMID:25193560

Chiarenza, Giuseppe A; Di Pietro, Sara F; Casarotto, Silvia

2014-11-01

313

Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.  

PubMed

Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates. PMID:25058010

Christodoulou, Joanna A; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

2014-01-01

314

Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates. PMID:25058010

Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

2014-01-01

315

Reading Improvement in English- and Hebrew-Speaking Children with Reading Difficulties after Reading Acceleration Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia

2014-01-01

316

Low activated incore instrument  

DOEpatents

Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

Ekeroth, D.E.

1994-04-19

317

Low activated incore instrument  

DOEpatents

Instrumentation for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials.

Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA)

1994-01-01

318

Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT).  

PubMed

Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers' comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect ("What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?") or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a "proof of concept" and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332

Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin

2011-08-01

319

Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT)  

PubMed Central

Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect (“What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?”) or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a “proof of concept” and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332

Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin

2011-01-01

320

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was launched aboard the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite on 14 Feb. 1990. Both the spacecraft and the UVPI were sponsored by the Directed Energy Office of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The mission of the UVPI was to obtain radiometrically calibrated images of rocket plumes at high altitude and background image data of

D. M. Horan

1993-01-01

321

Evaluating musical instruments  

SciTech Connect

Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

Campbell, D. Murray

2014-04-01

322

Read all about it.  

PubMed

Some people with HIV and AIDS may face reading challenges. They may have impaired eyesight or other physical problems that make it difficult to use traditional books or get to the library. Several services are described that help with their reading needs. Programs described include BookAIDS, which supplies 5,000 books every month to 13 AIDS service organizations across the United States; the Heiskell Library of the New York Public Library system, which provides a collection designed for the blind and physically disabled; and the New York Public Library's various services providing HIV/AIDS information. HIV/AIDS Internet sites are also highlighted. PMID:11366309

Engle, L

1999-05-01

323

Drugstore Reading Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occasion for this paper was my reading of a paper in the February 2005 issue of TPT. As one gets older the near point of the eye begins to recede.2 This is called presbyopia.3 An alternative to purchasing glasses from an optometrist is to purchase an inexpensive pair of reading glasses in a pharmacy. The pharmacy has these glasses ordered by diopters corresponding to the strength of the lens needed for a particular presbyopic eye. The glasses are, of course, not available for myopic eyes.

Erlichson, Herman

2006-03-01

324

Read, Sing, Play, and Create a Musical Storm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dayle Ann Dodds and Rosanne Litzinger's children's book, "Sing, Sophie!" provides the elementary general music teacher with an opportunity to read a captivating children's story, sing the main character's song and play her guitar, and create a song as well as instrumental music. Lessons outlined in this article may culminate in a veritable musical…

Cardany, Audrey Berger

2012-01-01

325

An Evaluation of a Summer Reading Institute, 1968.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes part of the evaluation of a six-week reading institute for 69 K-3 teachers from the Raymond School, Model School Division (MSD), Washington, D.C. and thereby provides an evaluation model for schools to use in their own inservice training programs. Two evaluation instruments developed by an MSD innovation team in cooperation…

Rosenfeld, Michael

326

The impact of public library use on reading, television, and academic outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do individuals engage in beneficial activities, like recreational reading, if the necessary materials are easily accessible and relatively inexpensive? I investigate this issue by estimating how much reading time increases as a result of public library use. To address the endogeneity of library use I use an IV approach where the instrument is a household’s distance to their closest public

Rachana Bhatt

2010-01-01

327

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

328

SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

329

Reading a Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners investigate how Earth’s three-dimensional, physical environment is represented on a two-dimensional topographic map. Learners explore the essential parts of a map including legend, scale, and slope indicators. Map reading skills are then tested by learners choosing the best trail to take in different scenarios.

National Park Service

2011-08-21

330

Meaning Levels in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the six levels of meaning in reading and discusses them in relation to the subskills which the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) reader must acquire in order to fully understand the author's message. The contents include: "Meaning," which presents the six levels of meaning--knowing, comprehending, applying, analyzing,…

Motta, Janice; And Others

331

Celebrate Summer with Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of "NSTA Recommends"--ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach…

Texley, Juliana

2007-01-01

332

Books Still Worth Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 10 major articles in this special journal issue deal with literary works designated by individual educators as "still worth reading." The works discussed are (1) "Madeline" by L. Bemelmans; (2) "The Assistant" by B. Malamud; (3) "The Pitfalls for Readers of Fiction" by H. Sample, the first of the pamphlet publications by the National Council…

McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

1983-01-01

333

Speaking of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in the tradition of Studs Terkel, this book presents oral histories of 77 diverse readers (from avid to infrequent readers) about how reading affects their lives. Sprinkled throughout the book are narratives of nationally recognized personalities, such as Maxine Hong-Kingston, Robert MacNeil, Gloria Steinem, Linus Pauling, Julie Harris,…

Rosenthal, Nadine

334

What's Worth Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the standards described in the U.S. book "National Standards for World History." Summarizes the book's content and gives examples of specific topics for different grade levels. Believes that world history teachers in Canada should read this book even though it excludes information on the South Pacific, Australia, and Canada. (CMK)

Wright, Ian

1998-01-01

335

Lennie Learns To Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Lennie," labelled early in life with an IQ number below 70, at age 25 and awaiting trial for murder took on the challenge of learning to read a complex, sophisticated language. He joined a class filled with people who were curious about the way words worked and who used the handbook "Crashing the Language Barrier: The English Language--The Way It…

Murray, Dorothy S.

336

Model Reading Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1978 Summer Reading Institute, which served 58 Washington, D.C., elementary school children, is described in this paper. Major characteristics of the program model are first identified, along with elements that were added to the model in the preplanning stage. Numerous aspects of the program are then described, including the make-up of the…

Dworkin, Nancy; Dworkin, Yehoash

337

Reading, Writing and Relevance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents classroom activities that were designed to encourage children to read and write in a self-reliant and responsible manner. The activities were chosen for their relevance to the children involved and because the vocabulary involved was interesting, familiar, and worth remembering and using again. The topics are arranged in…

Hoffman, Mary

338

Rules or Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…

Ruefle, Anne E.

2011-01-01

339

Time for Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

Waters, Lindsay

2007-01-01

340

Children, Television, and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author summarizes a research review conducted at William Paterson College. Information is presented on the amount of time spent watching television, types of programs preferred by different age groups, and the impact of television on reading habits and achievement. No consistent relationship between TV viewing and achievement was found. (SJL)

Feeley, Joan T.

1980-01-01

341

Reading Recovery: Early Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined a reading recovery program in Great Bend, Kansas. Subjects were 70 first-grade students divided into a treatment group and a control group. In the treatment group, 19 were Caucasian, 6 were Hispanic, and 6 were Vietnamese or Afro-American. In the control group, 31 were Caucasian and 8 were Hispanic. Independent variables were:…

Johnson, Judy A.

342

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen Place, the Timeless People," and numerous…

Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

1992-01-01

343

Reading context in design  

E-print Network

This study explores how, in the process of design, the reading of an existing order in the organizing features of a setting potentiates form. For this purpose, a design exercise on a site in the city of Jaipur in India has ...

Agrawal, Vivek

1993-01-01

344

READING & LANGUAGE ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS  

E-print Network

READING & LANGUAGE ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS Learn more at http://soe.syr.edu Margaret J. Early Graduate Scholarship This scholarship provides financial assistance to a deserving graduate student or students honor to have the support of SU and the Education department. Receiving scholarship money allowed my

Mather, Patrick T.

345

Reading about Real Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

Cummins, Sunday

2015-01-01

346

Reading in Place  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…

Price, Leah

2012-01-01

347

Leisure Reading for Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography was developed for use by librarians, curriculum specialists, learning center directors, and teachers to help them find interesting non-instructional materials for adults with limited reading ability (including young adults). Following a brief introductory discussion on simplified literature, the nearly 450 abstracts of fiction…

Jacques, Joseph W., Comp; Schwartz, Beverly, Comp.

348

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)

Phi Delta Kappan, 2000

2000-01-01

349

ECRI--Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mastery learning methods developed by Ethna Reid at the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI) in Utah have been adopted by a fifth grade class in Allentown, New Jersey. This article briefly explains some of the techniques used in ECRI instruction. (SJL)

Girandola, Valeria B.

1980-01-01

350

Reading Current Events Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

Ediger, Marlow

351

Reading: Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research and Development Interpretation Service (RDIS) has been collecting reading research to identify items that will be most useful to the regional exchanges and their clients. This bibliography, the result of that work, lists the items in alphabetical order by author. The items are also indexed according to major topic areas, including…

CEMREL, Inc., St. Louis, MO. R&D Interpretation Service.

352

Reading Diagrams. Pipefitter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of pipefitting contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it," and "go…

Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

353

Critical Reading: A Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Lye, a professor in the Departments of English and Communication Studies at Brock University (Canada), offers this resource designed for beginning literature students. Critical Guide contains sections on poetry, fiction, prose in fiction, and writing analytical essays. Though not exhaustive, this guide forms a useful framework to help beginning students think critically about the literature they are reading.

Lye, John.

354

Reading Mathematics is Different  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication will discuss why reading mathematics is challenging for many students and what teachers can do. We will examine how mathematics symbols, vocabulary, and content presentation can create roadblocks to students’ mathematics understanding. Learn how to address students’ difficulties by approaching mathematics as a language and to use specific strategies to improve mathematics learning.

2009-01-01

355

Reading Angles in Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2014-01-01

356

Reading, Writing, and Rings!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Reading, Writing, and Rings!" was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have…

Aschbacher, Pamela; Li, Erika; Hammon, Art

2008-01-01

357

Reading's Next Chapter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

Kellman, Steven G.

2008-01-01

358

BOYS, FUN, AND READING  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HELPS TO GET THOSE BOY BOOKS OFF THE SHELVES Teachers for many years have known that boys reading interest and doing has lagged way behind girls. Luckily for the boys, much interest and research has been going on to understand this phenomenon. There are many web sites of research findings that are available for the teacher and ...

Carol, Miss

2006-11-14

359

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and education professors suggest various nonfiction and fiction books for summer reading enjoyment, from Robert Putnam's "Bowling Alone," C.A. Bowers's "Let Them Eat Data," and Larry McMurtry's "Roads: Driving America's Great Highways" to Kent Hauf's "Plainsong, J.M. Coetzee's "Disgrace," and Michael Cunningham's "The Hours." (MLH)

[Editors

2001-01-01

360

Integrating Reading and Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that reading and writing are closely related. Suggests techniques for integrating these studies in the classroom by writing on open and closed topics, such as readers writing ghost chapters, constructing possible worlds, keeping a reader-response journal, and students teaching punctuation, grammar, and syntax to each other. (RAE)

Holladay, Sylvia

1988-01-01

361

A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

1996-01-01

362

A Whole-School "Read" Creates a Reading Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A whole-school read solved a potentially disruptive problem by providing a common reading experience that addressed student diversity through a school-wide, interdisciplinary, year-long event at Hand Middle School.

Wilson, Jennifer; Jewett, Pamela; Vanderburg, Michelle

2008-09-01

363

Reading improvement in English- and Hebrew-speaking children with reading difficulties after reading acceleration training.  

PubMed

A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training. Results of pre- and post-testing of reading abilities point to a significant main effect of the test, demonstrating improvements in silent contextual reading speed, reading comprehension, and speed of processing in both Hebrew and English training groups as compared to their performance before the intervention. This study indicates that the Reading Acceleration Program might be an effective program for improving reading abilities in children, independent of language. PMID:24919641

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K; Breznitz, Zvia

2014-10-01

364

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners design and create musical instruments from common objects; their challenge is to create an instrument that can make three different tones. They investigate how energy is transferred from their hands to their instrument to create sound. Learners also compare the different instruments to understand how the different designs produce different sounds. Resource contains investigating questions to assess and extend learning.

Kempton, Adam

2013-01-01

365

Matching Literacy Profiles with Instruction for Students on the Spectrum: Making Reading Instruction Meaningful  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "literacy" is often used synonymously with reading and writing. However, literacy entails more than reading and writing. Literacy involves communicating with others and includes listening, viewing, following, and reading directions and interacting with friends and colleagues. The literacy skills and abilities are essential for all…

Carnahan, Christina R.; Williamson, Pamela; Haydon, Todd

2009-01-01

366

Turning input into intake: autonomous reading and its impact on writing  

E-print Network

. The results are described and followed by a discussion of the impact of reading on self-directed languageTurning input into intake: autonomous reading and its impact on writing Luc Geiller Lycée Fabert, Metz, France Luc.Geiller@ac-nancy-metz.fr This paper shows the importance of reading in autonomous

Boyer, Edmond

367

Exploring a new technique for comparing bilinguals’ L1 and L2 reading speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it possible to tell whether bilinguals are able to read simple text in their two languages equally fluently? Is it thus possible to distinguish balanced bilinguals from unbalanced bilinguals with respect to reading fluency in their first language (L1) and second language (L2)? In this study, we avoided making direct comparisons between L1 and L2 reading speeds, comparing, instead,

H. S. Gauvin; J. H. Hulstijn

2010-01-01

368

Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

2009-01-01

369

Instrument Construction, Site Selection and Set-Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides guidance on site selection for the GLOBE Atmosphere data collection protocols. Instructions for building an instrument shelter, a snowboard, an ozone measurement station, and a wind direction instrument are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

370

Queen production and instrumental insemination of Apis florea queens  

E-print Network

Queen production and instrumental insemination of Apis florea queens Mananya PHIANCHAROEN 1 for new studies in genetics and selective breeding. Apis florea / queen production / instrumental of instru- mental insemination of honeybees have been directed at Apis mellifera. And, indeed, major

371

Astronomical Instruments in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

372

Instrument Control Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Instruments Instrument Control Fundamentals Series, your FREE resource for instrument control knowledge on the Web, presents technical content through theory, real-world examples, and interactive audiovisual tutorials. This series, organized into four general categories, is designed for a broad range of audiences, from experts who want to review a specific topic to new users who need easy-to-understand documentation for their projects. Subtopics include "What is instrument control?" "Instrument Control Hardware and Bus Technologies" "Instrument Control Software" and "Instrument Control System Architectures."

2013-06-21

373

Instrument myopia conceptions, misconceptions, and influencing factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on instrument myopia is reviewed, with the review organized around three principal objectives. One is to describe and discuss various factors that may influence the degree to which instrument myopia is manifested, including monocular vs. binocular viewing, age, direction of focus, illumination level, fatigue, magnification, astigmatic variations, optical decentration, perceived proximity of the target and peripheral surround, and

M. F. Wesner; R. J. Miller

1986-01-01

374

Read Me a Song: Teaching Reading Using Picture Book Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about the beginnings of literacy in young children and the skills they need for reading readiness. The paper also describes what is meant by a "quality early literacy instruction" and reading skill development in early childhood settings. It outlines early reading behaviors, including phonemic awareness, concept of…

Routier, Wanda J.

375

Is Reading Fluency a Key for Successful High School Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the publication of the report of the National Reading Panel (National Institute for Child Health and Human Development [NICHD], 2000), reading fluency has become more recognized as a key element in successful reading programs in the primary grades. This article describes a study that assessed the decoding accuracy and fluency levels of a…

Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy D.; McKeon, Christine A.; Wilfong, Lori G.; Friedauer, Julie A.; Heim, Patricia

2005-01-01

376

Reading by Design: Two Case Studies of Digital Reading Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital reading practices of two middle school students in US and Canadian contexts are examined. Using a multimodal discourse framework, the authors contemplate what digital reading practice is and distinctive practices of reading texts online compared with printed, school-based literacy practices. By focusing on two different genres of…

Rowsell, Jennifer; Burke, Anne

2009-01-01

377

Tutoring Reading--Valued Youth as Reading Helpers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher wondered how her group of middle school tutors would react to reading predictable children's books to their elementary "tutees." Would they enjoy the books or would they think they were too mature to do the activities in the lesson? She wondered if the tutors would enjoy being read to as she modeled the dramatic reading of a children's…

Garcia, Juanita C.

2004-01-01

378

Reading Research Anthology: The Why? of Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles provides background information about reading and includes the research base that has defined best practices in teaching reading. Section 1 of the collection, "The Big Picture," contains the following articles: "Reading the Right Way" (Bill Honig); "Statement of Dr. G. Reid Lyon, April 28, 1998"; "Romance and Reality"…

Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc., Emeryville, CA.

379

Reading for Real: Our Year with Reading Buddies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Patricia Ross' high school students at the Phoenix Day School for the Deaf buddied up with elementary school students to improve their reading skills, amazing things happened. As they read to them, Ross' students, who were part of the 2012-2013 Integrated Language Arts and Social Studies program, increased their reading scores and…

Ross, Patricia

2014-01-01

380

Reading Fluency Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

381

The Relationship between Reading Comprehension Strategies and Reading Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between levels of reading comprehension strategy use, reading attitudes, and the amount of reading per year among elementary school students. The study was conducted with 1316 students (649 girls and 667 boys) attending the fourth and fifth grades of 15 elementary schools in Denizli, Turkey.…

Kirmizi, Fatma Susar

2011-01-01

382

Reading Teacher Education. Fourth Yearbook of the American Reading Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues in reading teacher education as well as other aspects of reading instruction are the focus of this yearbook. Titles of some of the articles and their authors are as follows: "Sampling Bias Limitations in Generalizations in Reporting Scores on Standardized and Criterion Referenced Reading Tests" (L. Carswell and W. White); "A Comparison of…

McNinch, George H., Ed.

383

Neurocognitive Predictors of Reading Outcomes for Children with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on several specific neurocognitive process predictors of reading outcomes for a sample of 278 children with reading disabilities. Three categories of response (i.e., poor, average, and good) were formed via growth curve models of six reading outcomes. Two nested discriminant function analyses were conducted to evaluate the…

Frijters, Jan C.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Steinbach, Karen A.; Wolf, Maryanne; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.

2011-01-01

384

Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: a five-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences. PMID:11949902

Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

2002-01-01

385

Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

1973-01-01

386

Oral Reading: Considerations Before Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates oral reading in the classroom for diagnostic purposes, skill development, and recreation; presents seven specific situations children should not be required to read before a peer audience. (MAI)

Briggs, L. D.

1978-01-01

387

Intergenerational Reading: Encouraging the Grandlap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the benefits of intergenerational reading to children, seniors, parents, and libraries, and surveys library programs in Arizona, California, and New Mexico that mix generations with books and reading. The programs described vary from scheduled to spontaneous. (EAM)

Strickland, Charlene

1990-01-01

388

Electronic Instrumentation in A-Level Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) the light beam galvanometer; (2) the electrometer/direct current amplifier; and (3) digital multimeters. Focuses on the uses or potential uses of these instruments in teaching A-level physics. (JN)

Ellse, Mark

1986-01-01

389

Endoscopes integrated into instruments for spinal surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With minimally invasive approaches the visual path to guide instruments becomes constricted. Often one is unable to visualize adequately interaction of the instrument with tissue. We have incorporated 1.2-mm diameter 10,000 pixel fiberoptic endoscopes into instruments for spinal surgery. With these instruments one has a direct view of the instrument's interaction with the surgical anatomy. We have studied a variety of endoscopic instruments including malleable forceps, retractors and punches in over 40 cases of lateral disc herniations, migrated disc fragments and spinal stenosis. The instruments provided excellent visualization of spinal structures. The size and effect of the pathologic process could be readily evaluated, as could neural decompression. Operative times were not significantly increased and there were no complications attributable to the instruments. This preliminary work documents that 'seeing instruments' can be safely used and add to our appreciation of operative anatomy. It is suggested that these instruments may provide more complete decompression through a more limited, less invasive, access. Further study of these instruments may provide better understanding of their overall utility.

Frank, E.; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.; Winn, Shelley R.

2000-06-01

390

Mars Miniature Science Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

2006-01-01

391

Investigating Gender Differences in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

2010-01-01

392

Early Reading and Preprimary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "back to basics" movement raises questions regarding the nature of reading that is assumed in instruction and testing. Of the three definitions of reading (decoding, meaning-from-page, and intellectual processes) the latter view, which sees reading as a broad range of perceptual, associative, and cognitive elements, is preferred. The three…

Spodek, Bernard

393

Rekindle the Love of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This author describes a reading project using Kindles that was designed to increase the reading habits of 9th graders. With a selection of 500 titles for classroom usage, students were encouraged to read any book they chose--in addition to those required for their school term. Isero states that, in the past, many of his students would not risk…

Isero, Mark

2014-01-01

394

Strategic Processes in Beginning Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A presentation is given of a strategic-process perspective on the development of reading skills. The approach integrates reading research with developmental findings in cognitive psychology (Brown, 1975). An explication of the main concepts of the system is provided along with re-interpretation of a variety of reading research. Analysis of strategic demands and the factors affecting strategic behavior yield a framework

Robert M. Schwartz

1977-01-01

395

Reading and the English Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue, articles deal with various aspects of the relationship between reading and the English teacher. Titles include "Literary Humor" by Wilmer Lamar and "200 Adolescent Novels Worth Reading" by Ken Donelson; both suggest reading materials. Practical teaching tips are provided in "Comprehension Is Comprehension, Is . . ." by Jerry Walker,…

Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

1977-01-01

396

Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition" is a comprehensive reference about reading instruction. Organized according to the elements of explicit instruction (what? why? when? and how?), the "Sourcebook" includes both a research-informed knowledge base and practical sample lesson models. It teaches the key elements of an effective reading

Honig, Bill; Diamond, Linda; Gutlohn, Linda

2008-01-01

397

Reading Rainbow Study. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the reading habits and attitudes of parents and their children and to determine parents' familiarity with Reading Rainbow (a television program intended to stimulate young children's interest in reading for pleasure) and their attitudes toward the program. A total of 707 questionnaires were completed by parents…

NFO Research, Inc.

398

Teaching Content Is Teaching Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every two years the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), "the Nation's Report Card," reports the nation's average reading and math scores in grades 4 and 8. Despite the strong focus on reading under the 2001 No Child Left Behind law, the recent 2009 reading scores were not statistically different from those of 2007, which had not…

Hirsch, E. D., Jr.

2010-01-01

399

Special Reading Project (Mishawaka, Indiana).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mishawaka special reading program, now in its sixth year of operation, is supported primarily with Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I funds. The program is designed to enable reading handicapped children to achieve and maintain a reading skill higher than a year below their grade placement; interpret the child's strengths and…

Gordon, Edmund W.; And Others

400

Investigating the causes of reading comprehension failure: The comprehension-age match design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reading-level (or reading-age) match design has become a widely-used tool for investigating the possible direction of the relation between particular skills and word reading ability: Cause or consequence. This paper outlines an analogous method for identifying can- didate causes of reading comprehension failure, the 'comprehension-age match design' and discusses the strengths and limitations of this design.

KATE CAIN; JANE OAKHILL; PETER BRYANT

2000-01-01

401

Reading and Generalist Genes  

PubMed Central

Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called generalist genes. This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading ability in a study of 4,258 7-year-old children that screened 100,000 SNPs. Using the same sample, we show that this early reading SNP set also correlates with other aspects of literacy, components of mathematics, and more general cognitive abilities. These results provide support for the generalist genes hypothesis. Although the effect size of the current SNP set is small, such SNP sets could eventually be used to predict genetic risk for learning disabilities as well as to prescribe genetically tailored intervention and prevention programs. PMID:20383260

Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

2007-01-01

402

Electronic Thermometer Readings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Stennis' adaptive predictive algorithm for electronic thermometers uses sample readings during the initial rise in temperature and applies an algorithm that accurately and rapidly predicts the steady state temperature. The final steady state temperature of an object can be calculated based on the second-order logarithm of the temperature signals acquired by the sensor and predetermined variables from the sensor characteristics. These variables are calculated during tests of the sensor. Once the variables are determined, relatively little data acquisition and data processing time by the algorithm is required to provide a near-accurate approximation of the final temperature. This reduces the delay in the steady state response time of a temperature sensor. This advanced algorithm can be implemented in existing software or hardware with an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The capability for easy integration eliminates the expense of developing a whole new system that offers the benefits provided by NASA Stennis' technology.

2001-01-01

403

A comparison of multiple methods for the identification of children with reading disabilities.  

PubMed

There has been considerable discussion of the methods used for the identification of children with reading disabilities. This study examined three different methods that could be used in the identification of children with reading disabilities and their consistency with teacher ratings of behaviors believed to be associated with reading disabilities. Standardized, norm-referenced measures of achievement, phonological processing measures, and curriculum-based measures of reading fluency were used with 40 children in Grades 1 and 2. Comparisons were made to determine which measures, if any, differentiated between children referred for reading disabilities (n = 20) and children who were progressing typically in reading in their general education classroom settings (n = 20). The results indicated significant between-group differences on standardized, norm-referenced measures of reading recognition, word attack, and comprehension; phonological measures of blending nonwords and elision; and reading fluency. Teacher ratings on the Dyslexia Screening Instrument were consistent with teacher beliefs regarding children's progress in reading. All measures were found to correlate significantly with each other. However, correlations were generally in the moderate range, suggesting that the measures used did not measure the same reading skills or, in the case of phonological processing, the underlying abilities believed to be necessary for reading. Given the differences in tasks and the moderate correlations, it is likely that the choice of measures may affect the conclusions reached regarding a student's reading ability. PMID:15493320

Sofie, Cecilia A; Riccio, Cynthia A

2002-01-01

404

Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview  

SciTech Connect

The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.

Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.

1992-10-01

405

The use and calibration of read-out streaks to increase the dynamic range of the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic range of photon counting micro-channel-plate (MCP) intensified charged-coupled device (CCD) instruments such as the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) is limited at the bright end by coincidence loss, the superposition of multiple photons in the individual frames recorded by the CCD. Photons which arrive during the brief period in which the image frame is transferred for read out of the CCD are displaced in the transfer direction in the recorded images. For sufficiently bright sources, these displaced counts form read-out streaks. Using UVOT observations of Tycho-2 stars, we investigate the use of these read-out streaks to obtain photometry for sources which are too bright (and hence have too much coincidence loss) for normal aperture photometry to be reliable. For read-out-streak photometry, the bright-source limiting factor is coincidence loss within the MCPs rather than the CCD. We find that photometric measurements can be obtained for stars up to 2.4 mag brighter than the usual full-frame coincidence-loss limit by using the read-out streaks. The resulting bright-limit Vega magnitudes in the UVOT passbands are UVW2 = 8.80, UVM2 = 8.27, UVW1 = 8.86, u = 9.76, b = 10.53, v = 9.31 and White = 11.71; these limits are independent of the windowing mode of the camera. We find that a photometric precision of 0.1 mag can be achieved through read-out streak measurements. A suitable method for the measurement of read-out streaks is described and all necessary calibration factors are given.

Page, M. J.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Breeveld, A. A.; Hancock, B.; Holland, S. T.; Marshall, F. E.; Oates, S.; Roming, P. W. A.; Siegel, M. H.; Smith, P. J.; Carter, M.; De Pasquale, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Yershov, V.; Beardmore, A. P.

2013-12-01

406

Additivity of Detector Responses of a Portable Direct-Reading 10.2 eV Photoionization Detector and a Flame Ionization Gas Chromatograph for Atmospheres of Multicomponent Organics: Use of PID\\/FID Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2?eV and the Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixture of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was

I. N. LEE; S. S. QUE HEE; C. S. CLARK

1987-01-01

407

A Special Education Research Test for the Assessment of Critical Reading Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument, the Special Education Research Test (SERT) to assess the critical reading ability of Utah State University Special Education graduate students. Five steps were taken in the development of the instrument. Content validity was determined using a group of regionally and nationally…

Nash, Robert Terry

408

Improving Reading Fluency: A Case Study Using the "Great Leaps Reading" Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral reading fluency is defined as the combination of accuracy (i.e., words read correctly) and rate (i.e., number of words read in a specified time). One strategy that addresses oral reading fluency is repeated reading of passages. Repeated reading can improve students' reading skills by building reading fluency linked to specific performance…

Walker, Laura L.; Jolivette, Kristine; Lingo, Amy S.

2005-01-01

409

Reading Visual Braille with a Retinal Prosthesis  

PubMed Central

Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10?×?6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10?×?6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2–4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients. PMID:23189036

Lauritzen, Thomas Z.; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A.; Dorn, Jessy D.; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J.

2012-01-01

410

Rewriting the Reading Lesson: Developing Reading Proficiency Through Pre-Reading Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of pre-reading exercises in second language reading instruction looks at the theoretical justification for advance organizers in particular, examines the types of background knowledge that fluid reading requires, and gives models for exercises designed to activate this knowledge. Examples are from French texts. (MSE)

Siskin, H. Jay

1987-01-01

411

Study of Relationships of Reading Mastery Level to General Reading Achievement to Validate Diagnostic Reading Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the word attack skill tests of the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development is studied at six grade levels by an investigation of the relationship of these to several widely known reading achievement tests. The basic notion is that reading mastery scores derived from the diagnostic tests should be positively related to the…

Fischbach, Thomas J.

412

Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

2012-01-01

413

Repeated Reading for Developing Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: The Case of EFL Learners in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…

Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

2008-01-01

414

JORDAN HALL Directions from San Francisco  

E-print Network

JORDAN HALL Directions from San Francisco · Take Highway 101 South. · Exit at Embarcadero Rd, underneath the placard that reads "Jordan Hall". Directions from San Jose · Take Highway 101 North. · Exit at the end of Palm Drive, underneath the placard that reads "Jordan Hall". Directions from Oakland/East Bay

Wagner, Anthony

415

Response to Intervention With Secondary School Students With Reading Difficulties  

PubMed Central

The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities with older students with intractable reading disabilities, (c) the reliability, validity, and use of screening and progress monitoring measures with middle school students, and (d) the implications of implementing response to intervention (RTI) practices at the middle school level. The authors provide guidance about prevailing questions about remediating reading difficulties with secondary students and discuss future directions for research using RTI frameworks for students at the secondary level. PMID:22491811

Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

2012-01-01

416

Deriving Group A Streptococcus Typing Information from Short-Read Whole-Genome Sequencing Data  

PubMed Central

Typing of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is crucial for infection control and epidemiology. While whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is revolutionizing the way that bacterial organisms are typed, it is necessary to provide backward compatibility with currently used typing schemas to facilitate comparisons and understanding of epidemiological trends. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 191 GAS isolates representing 42 different emm types and used bioinformatics tools to derive commonly used GAS typing information directly from the short-read WGS data. We show that emm typing and multilocus sequence typing can be achieved rapidly and efficiently using this approach, which also permits the determination of the presence or absence of genes associated with GAS tissue tropism. We also report on how the WGS data analysis was instrumental in identifying ambiguities present in the commonly used emm type database hosted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:24648555

Athey, Taryn B. T.; Teatero, Sarah; Li, Aimin; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Beall, Bernard W.

2014-01-01

417

Deriving group A Streptococcus typing information from short-read whole-genome sequencing data.  

PubMed

Typing of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is crucial for infection control and epidemiology. While whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is revolutionizing the way that bacterial organisms are typed, it is necessary to provide backward compatibility with currently used typing schemas to facilitate comparisons and understanding of epidemiological trends. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 191 GAS isolates representing 42 different emm types and used bioinformatics tools to derive commonly used GAS typing information directly from the short-read WGS data. We show that emm typing and multilocus sequence typing can be achieved rapidly and efficiently using this approach, which also permits the determination of the presence or absence of genes associated with GAS tissue tropism. We also report on how the WGS data analysis was instrumental in identifying ambiguities present in the commonly used emm type database hosted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:24648555

Athey, Taryn B T; Teatero, Sarah; Li, Aimin; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Beall, Bernard W; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

2014-06-01

418

Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

2014-01-01

419

Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)

1989-01-01

420

Energetic Musical Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn to apply the principles and concepts associated with energy and the transfer of energy in an engineering context by designing and making musical instruments. They choose from a variety of provided supplies to make instruments capable of producing three different tones. After completing their designs, students explain the energy transfer mechanism in detail and describe how they could make their instruments better.

Engineering K-Phd Program

421

Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

2014-01-01

422

John Milton Reading Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaborative project between Thomas Luxon, associate professor of English at Dartmouth College, and his students, the Milton Reading Room offers most of Milton's major poetry in English, including Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained, "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity," Samson Agonistes, and "Lycidas;" and selected major prose works, including Areopagitica, The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, Of Education, and The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates. The texts include framed annotations that link to reference materials, such as sources of literary allusions and historical background, as well as gloss archaic words or uses. Researchers in Milton studies will find the extensive bibliography of recent secondary literature especially helpful.

423

Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Oxygen Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report.

Hunt, F L

1923-01-01

424

Replacement of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The DOE-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the replacement of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of this project is to replace the existing Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory (HPIL) with a new facility to provide a safe environment for maintaining and calibrating radiation detection instruments used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The existing HPIL facility provides portable health physics monitoring instrumentation and direct reading dosimetry procurement, maintenance and calibration of radiation detection instruments, and research and development support-services to the INEL and others. However, the existing facility was not originally designed for laboratory activities and does not provide an adequate, safe environment for calibration activities. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and evaluated reasonable alternatives, including the no action alternative in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508). Based on the environmental analysis in the attached EA, the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and 40 CFR Parts 1508.18 and 1508.27. The selected action (the proposed alternative) is composed of the following elements, each described or evaluated in the attached EA on the pages referenced. The proposed action is expected to begin in 1997 and will be completed within three years: design and construction of a new facility at the Central Facility Area of the INEL; operation of the facility, including instrument receipt, inspections and repairs, precision testing and calibration, and storage and issuance. The selected action will result in no significant environmental impacts.

NONE

1995-05-01

425

Historical Scientific Instrument Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual gallery features a collection of scientific instruments used in the early days of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The gallery's inroduction briefly describes the history of the department and its early instrument purchases, and the recovery and restoration of these items for use in a physical display. The virtual gallery is organized by the functions of the instruments (wave motion, optics, magnetism, and others). Each instrument is represented by a photograph and a brief description with the item's manufacturer, how it was used, and some references. There is also a gallery of "mystery objects," instruments whose function is no longer known.

426

Evidence-Based Reading Instruction for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Legislation mandates that all children, including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) be taught to read in ways that are consistent with reading research, and target the five components of evidence-based reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, reading fluency, vocabulary and comprehension strategies. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the literature on reading instruction for children with ASD that encompasses one or more of the five components of reading. The review yielded 11 studies with 61 participants ages 4 to 17. Results indicate that children with ASD can benefit from reading instruction consistent with reading research. Research in this area is still preliminary, and more research is needed to guide practice. Possible directions for future research are provided. PMID:20161582

Whalon, Kelly J.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Delano, Monica E.

2009-01-01

427

Read.gov  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Book, in the Library of Congress, was established in the late 1970s to promote reading, literacy and libraries. Their website offers a great many "Resources" on the menu on the left side of any page, including "Author Webcasts", "Booklists", and "Local/Community Resources". The "Author Webcasts" include videos of such authors as Tom Gjelten, Stephenie Meyer, Chinua Achebe, and Sara Paretsky. The "Books and Related Info For" menu on the left side of any page, has sections for "Kids", "Teens", "Adults", and "Educators and Parents". Within the "Kids" and "Teens" sections are classic books that have been digitized and put online to be read in all their original glory. Classics such as "A Apple Pie", "Baseball ABC", and "The Secret Garden" are beautifully captured. In the "Educators and Parents" section visitors can find wonderful lesson plans, exhibitions, and online activities. Visitors should not miss checking out "Contests: Letters About Literature" on the left hand menu to learn about several writing contests for young children and teens.

428

Basal Readers and Reading as Socialization: What Are Children Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second-grade students were divided into groups subjected to three programs namely, Direct Instruction, Open Court and literature based program, in order to determine the effectiveness of the three programs. The results indicated that the Open Court and Direct Instruction programs did not improve the children's reading.

Jordan, Nancy L.

2005-01-01

429

Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ? .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ? .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed. PMID:25350926

Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

2014-10-16

430

Glutamate and choline levels predict individual differences in reading ability in emergent readers.  

PubMed

Reading disability is a brain-based difficulty in acquiring fluent reading skills that affects significant numbers of children. Although neuroanatomical and neurofunctional networks involved in typical and atypical reading are increasingly well characterized, the underlying neurochemical bases of individual differences in reading development are virtually unknown. The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators range on a continuum from impaired to superior, we examined the relationship between individual differences in reading and reading-related skills and concentrations of neurometabolites measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentrations were negatively correlated with reading and related linguistic measures in phonology and vocabulary (such that higher concentrations were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance. Implications for neurodevelopmental models of reading and reading disability are discussed, including possible links of choline and glutamate to white matter anomalies and hyperexcitability. These findings point to new directions for research on gene-brain-behavior pathways in human studies of reading disability. PMID:24623786

Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Stephen J; Rothman, Douglas L; Hoeft, Fumiko; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Mason, Graeme F; Molfese, Peter J; Mencl, W Einar; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L; Jacobsen, Leslie; Seidenberg, Mark S; Fulbright, Robert K

2014-03-12

431

Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences in Reading Ability in Emergent Readers  

PubMed Central

Reading disability is a brain-based difficulty in acquiring fluent reading skills that affects significant numbers of children. Although neuroanatomical and neurofunctional networks involved in typical and atypical reading are increasingly well characterized, the underlying neurochemical bases of individual differences in reading development are virtually unknown. The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators range on a continuum from impaired to superior, we examined the relationship between individual differences in reading and reading-related skills and concentrations of neurometabolites measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentrations were negatively correlated with reading and related linguistic measures in phonology and vocabulary (such that higher concentrations were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance. Implications for neurodevelopmental models of reading and reading disability are discussed, including possible links of choline and glutamate to white matter anomalies and hyperexcitability. These findings point to new directions for research on gene-brain-behavior pathways in human studies of reading disability. PMID:24623786

Frost, Stephen J.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Mason, Graeme F.; Molfese, Peter J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Fulbright, Robert K.

2014-01-01

432

Economic Shocks and Civil Conflict: An Instrumental Variables Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the impact of poverty on the likelihood of civil conflict in less developed countries is difficult because of omitted variable bias and endogeneity. We use exogenous weather variation - as measured in satellite vegetation readings - as an instrumental variable for economic growth in 40 Sub-Saharan African countries during 1983-1999, and estimate that economic growth is strongly negatively related

Edward Miguel; Shanker Satyanath; Ernest Sergenti

2006-01-01

433

Challenge '89: Interfacing of Chemical Instruments to Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project involved interfacing of microcomputers with three chemical instruments--Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), and the spectrophotometer. A Pascal program called "Spectrum" allows data from the NMR to be read and graphed, a specific area of the graph zoomed, ratios of specified areas of the graph measured, the…

Lyons, Jim; Lamarre, Colin

434

Microcomputers in the Reading Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the capabilities and limitations of contemporary reading software designed for microcomputers. (Available from: Modern Learning Publishers, Inc., 6517 Liggett, Oakland, CA 94611, $14.) (AEA)

Smith, Jane D.

1983-01-01

435

Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.  

PubMed

Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers. PMID:19044397

Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

2008-09-01

436

Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [~1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of ~9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is ~1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to ~1%. Spectrometer read noise is ~2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to ~10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel spectral lines have a FWHM of ~2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to ~0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

Klaasen, Kenneth P.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

2008-09-01

437

Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

2009-01-01

438

Reading Recovery Teachers Discuss Reading Recovery: A Qualitative Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading Recovery is an early intervention program used around the world for at-risk readers. Developed at a time when constructivist principles dominated educational philosophy, its efficacy has caused debate and division over the last three decades. This qualitative study employed in-depth interviews and observations to explore 10 Reading

Serry, Tanya; Rose, Miranda; Liamputtong, Pranee

2014-01-01

439

Do You Read Me? Industrial Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension skills of…

Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

440

A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

2014-01-01

441

Functional neuroimaging studies of reading and reading disability (developmental dyslexia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Converging evidence from a number of neuroimaging studies, in- cluding our own, suggest that fluent word identification in reading is re- lated to the functional integrity of two consolidated left hemisphere (LH) posterior systems: a dorsal (temporo-parietal) circuit and a ventral (occipito- temporal) circuit. This posterior system is functionally disrupted in develop- mental dyslexia. Reading disabled readers, relative to nonimpaired

Kenneth R. Pugh; W. Einar Mencl; Annette R. Jenner; Leonard Katz; Stephen J. Frost; Jun Ren Lee; Sally E. Shaywitz; Bennett A. Shaywitz

2000-01-01

442

Instant Read on Reading, in Palms of Their Hands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses teachers' use of hand-held computers in a rural New Mexico district to assess student's reading progress. With the help of a federal Reading First grant, the district began using the DIBELS assessments across its elementary schools along with the mCLASS: DIBELS assessment and reporting system. The district's experience helps…

Olson, Lynn

2007-01-01

443

The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Motivation to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discrepancy exists on both state and local assessments between economically disadvantaged and noneconomically disadvantaged 4th grade students in the area of reading. As students enter the intermediate grades, their motivation to read begins to dwindle. This lack of motivation can ultimately put the academic career of these students in jeopardy.…

Williams, Nocola Ann

2011-01-01

444

Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between fourth grade primary school students' reading habits/conditions/ situations and their comprehension regarding what they read. For this purpose, a correlational survey method was used in the study. 90 fourth-grade students who were attending a state primary school in the center of Ku¨tahya…

Basaran, Mustafa

2013-01-01

445

Reading Time Series Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides a brief introduction to GPS and provides a student activity to practice creating and reading time series plots with simplified GPS data. Students graph how a tectonic plate (and the GPS unit attached to it) has moved over a five year time period by moving a GPS model across a North-East coordinate graph. Students practice these skills by analyzing GPS time series from two GPS stations in Iceland. Teaching Tips Adaptations that allow this activity to be successful in an online environment Need to really transform to an online environment. I did have one participant draw the vectors on an online map of Iceland - however, only one person gets to do this, so I'd like to figure out other techniques for this. Elements of this activity that are most effective Recommendations for other faculty adapting this activity to their own course:

Olds, Shelley

446

An intercomparison of airborne nitrogen dioxide instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results on NO2 instruments are reported from the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) program in summer 1986. The instruments tested were (1) a two-photon LIF system using a laser for NO2-NO photolysis, (2) a chemiluminescence (CL) detector using FeSO4 for NO2-NO conversion, (3) a CL detector using an arc lamp for NO2-NO photolysis, and (4) a tunable-laser-diode multipath-absorption system. The procedures for the CITE 2 ground-based and flight tests are described in detail, and the results are presented in extensive graphs. Instrument (2) was eliminated because the FeSO4 converted atmospheric PAN to NO, resulting in spuriously high NO2 values. The remaining instruments gave readings in 30-40-percent agreement at NO2 mixing ratios of 100-200 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). At ratios below 50 pptv, the correlation among the measurements was very poor, with a tendency for system (4) to give higher values than (1) or (3).

Gregory, G. L.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Carroll, M. A.; Ridley, B. A.; Davis, D. D.; Bradshaw, J.; Rodgers, M. O.; Sandholm, S. T.; Schiff, H. I.; Torres, A. L.

1990-01-01

447

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

448

Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

Moseley, Harvey

2009-01-01

449

Astrometric instrument model software tool for Gaia real-time instrument health monitoring and diagnostic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of micro-arcsecond space mission rely on the limiting performance associated to the selected instrumental configuration and observing conditions. In particular, variation of the instrumental response over the field, with wavelength and in time, are potentially critical. We discuss the impact on the data quality and how the science data can be used to trace directly and in real time the astrometric instrument response of Gaia. This is one of the driver philosophies behind the Astrometric Instrument Model (AIM) concept. We show results from the test campaigns carried on throughout the 2013.

Busonero, D.; Licata, E.; Gai, M.

2014-12-01

450

Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

2013-01-01

451

Relations among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (a) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency, (b) silent reading fluency…

Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

452

Secondary Students' Reading Attitudes and Achievement in a Scaffolded Silent Reading Program versus Traditional Sustained Silent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the reading attitudes and achievement, as well as genre knowledge, of tenth, eleventh, and twelfth-grade students who participated in Scaffolded Silent Reading, Sustained Silent Reading, or a control group. The Reading and You attitude survey, Degrees of Reading Power achievement measure, and Genre Assessment were administered…

West, Chandra Lorene

2010-01-01

453

Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two  

PubMed Central

From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256

Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

2012-01-01

454

Propulsion Instruments for Small Hall Thruster Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and development are underway for the propulsion instrumentation necessary for the next AFRL electric propulsion flight project, which includes both a small Hall thruster and a micro-PPT. These instruments characterize the environment induced by the thruster and the associated data constitute part of a 'user's manual' for these thrusters. Several instruments probe the back-flow region of the thruster plume, and the data are intended for comparison with detailed numerical models in this region. Specifically, an ion probe is under development to determine the energy and species distributions, and a Langmuir probe will be employed to characterize the electron density and temperature. Other instruments directly measure the effects of thruster operation on spacecraft thermal control surfaces, optical surfaces, and solar arrays. Specifically, radiometric, photometric, and solar-cell-based sensors are under development. Prototype test data for most sensors should be available, together with details of the instrumentation subsystem and spacecraft interface.

Johnson, Lee K.; Conroy, David G.; Spanjers, Greg G.; Bromaghim, Daron R.

2001-01-01

455

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

456

[Sterilization of dental instruments].  

PubMed

Instruments used by dentists are often sterilized with steam sterilization. At this moment three types of processes are described in the European norms: Type N, S and B. According to the norms type N can be used for non-wrapped non-hollow instruments and non-porous instruments, type S can be used for instruments specified by the manufacturer and type B can be used for wrapped, hollow and porous instruments. The principles on which the sterilizors are based are described. It is concluded that before purchasing the sterilizor the method of working and instruments to be sterilized must specified. In most cases a type B process is preferable in order to gaurantee to be certain to have an effective and reproducible process. PMID:11486515

van Doornmalen, J P; Verschueren, M; Dankert, J; Rietmeijer, A G

2001-07-01

457

Space applications instrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1972-01-01

458

Reading Girlhood in Victorian Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose behind my interdisciplinary seminar, which combined the “Origins and Developments” with the “Radical Visual” strands of CLISS, was twofold: to practice reading photographs and to examine examples of Victorian photography’s construction of girlhood. In this essay I will provide a snapshot of the seminar’s texts and concerns and then a brief close reading of one of its central

Lynne Vallone; Susan Sontag

2005-01-01

459

Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

1981-01-01

460

The Family Literacy Reading Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a summer project using children's literature as a teaching tool in the literacy section of the Family Literacy Reading Project. The idea for the project arose in response to a need for other resources for the English-as-a-Second-Language program and to students' desire to read to their children and grandchildren as one…

Cason, Ann; Shoufler, Ann

461

Reading "Terebithia" in Southern Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses reading "The Bridge to Terebithia" to a third-grade class prior to release of the film version. Reading of the final chapter followed by two days the April 16, 2007 shootings at Virginia Tech University, just seventy miles from the classroom. Although none of the college students from the author's town died, everyone knew…

Baker, Dori Grinenko

2008-01-01

462

Reading Study: 1989-90.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading pariety study for 1989-90 provided information for the Cleveland, Ohio school district, parents, and community to determine what progress the school system is making toward parity in reading proficiency. Parity will be attained when statistically equivalent proportions of Black and White students score at or above the thirty-fourth…

Gallagher, Michael P.; Lanese, James

463

Learning to Read Music Fluently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to read music accurately at sight is an extremely important, if not indispensable, qualification of both professional and amateur musicians. Sight-reading can be defined as the ability to translate musical symbols and terms into a musical performance using strict time limits. The musician must quickly perceive symbols ahead while…

Stauffer, Donald W.

2005-01-01

464

The Joy of Reading Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading groups or book clubs have become increasingly popular in recent years, with many libraries, bookshops and workplaces hosting meetings, while a wealth of support is available online. They provide a chance to read, share opinions, chat and have fun--each one will be unique in how it works. Discussing books can help to reinforce, change or…

Southwood, Sue

2012-01-01

465

Reading, Dyslexia and the Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Neuroimaging offers unique opportunities for understanding the acquisition of reading by children and for unravelling the mystery of developmental dyslexia. Here, I provide a selective overview of recent neuroimaging studies, drawing out implications for education and the teaching of reading. Purpose: The different neuroimaging…

Goswami, Usha

2008-01-01

466

Reading Enjoyment and Affective Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this publication offer ideas for developing enjoyment of reading in children. Among the topics discussed are the following: the need for teachers and parents to build children's self-esteem through increasing their experiences of success, their expectations of success, and the value they place on reading; methods for increasing…

Reporting on Reading, 1978

1978-01-01

467

American Reading Instruction. Special Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First published in 1934 and updated in 1965 and 1986, Nila Banton Smith's "American Reading Instruction" has provided insight and historical perspective to reading instruction in the United States beginning with the colonial era. This "Special Edition" addresses such areas as theories and practical applications; established and emerging leaders in…

Smith, Nila Banton

468

VISUAL DEFICIENCIES AND READING DISABILITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE ROLE OF VISUAL SENSORY DEFICIENCIES IN THE CAUSATION READING DISABILITY IS DISCUSSED. PREVIOUS AND CURRENT RESEARCH STUDIES DEALING WITH SPECIFIC VISUAL PROBLEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN FOUND TO BE NEGATIVELY RELATED TO SUCCESSFUL READING ACHIEVEMENT ARE LISTED--(1) FARSIGHTEDNESS, (2) ASTIGMATISM, (3) BINOCULAR INCOORDINATIONS, AND (4) FUSIONAL…

ROSEN, CARL L.

469

Bringing Reading Research to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book brings together some of the world's foremost literacy scholars to discuss how research influences what teachers actually do in the classroom. Chapters describe the current state of knowledge about such key topics as decoding, vocabulary, comprehension, digital literacies, reading disabilities, and reading reform. At the same time, the…

McKeown, Margaret G., Ed.; Kucan, Linda, Ed.

2009-01-01

470

Reading in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses reading instruction in the 20th century. The paper begins with a tour of the historical pathways that have led people, at the century's end, to the "rocky and highly contested terrain educators currently occupy in reading pedagogy." After the author/educator unfolds his version of a map of that terrain in the paper, he…

Pearson, P. David

471

The Case for Slow Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To truly comprehend and appreciate texts, we need to read more slowly. Schools should provide a counterbalance to our increasingly hectic digital environment, where so many of us read and write in abbreviated messages and through clicks of the mouse. To help students reclaim the acoustical properties of written language and appreciate the passages…

Newkirk, Thomas

2010-01-01

472

Reading Incentive Programs with Pizzazz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates how the use of the basic elements of a story can help create an event that will stimulate imagination and encourage further reading. Margaret Robison, the librarian at the Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind (VSDB) in Staunton, Virginia, decided that for Teen Read Week she would use a popular series as a bridge to…

Hall, Michelle

2009-01-01

473

Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

2008-01-01

474

Reading--Who's Doing What?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discussed what other classroom teachers commonly used to teach reading in New Jersey schools. The information was obtained through questionnaires sent to a 20 per cent random sample of all elementary schools in the State by the New Jersey Right to Read Office. (Author/RK)

Swaim, James E.

1975-01-01

475

Encouraging the Lifetime Reading Habit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators must accept the challenge of encouraging the lifetime reading habit in school. Students who are surrounded with books, newspapers, magazines, and other materials will be tempted to browse and to read from these sources. When selecting materials for the classroom, educators should work closely with the library media specialist who is…

Sanacore, Joseph

476

Suprasegmental Aspects of Reading Interference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented in this paper regarding suprasegmental features of Black English thay may cause reading interference for some Black children. Much of the research concerning reading problems of many Afro-American students stresses the segmental differences of the phonology, the morphology, the syntax, and lexical selection between two…

Westbrook, Colston R.

477

Read for Fun: Management Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Program materials and a brief description of a remedial reading program for grades 3-6 which uses contests to motivate reading at home are presented. The program uses bulletin board displays to keep track of student progress in the contests. The contests operate as follows: (1) students select a name for their figure on the bulletin board; (2)…

Miner, Donna

478

Conference on Studies in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Institute of Education (NIE) Conference on Studies in Reading, held in 1974, featured ten panel discussions, each focusing on a designated topic related to reading. This publication reviews the reports of recommended research and development activities produced by the panels for the following topical areas: semantics, concepts, and…

Erickson, Sheryl Eileen

479

Reading First: Overview and Guidance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching young children to read is the most critical educational priority facing this country. Encouragingly, this is an area where some of the best and most rigorous scientifically based research is available. The Reading First program helps States and districts apply this research--and the proven instructional and assessment tools consistent…

Virginia Department of Education, 2002

2002-01-01

480

Why Parents Read to Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the reasons parents read to their children using interviews from 25 Brisbane parents. Reasons given for reading aloud to their children were categorized under the following five main headings: pleasure for the child, functionality, good start at school, closeness, and quiet time. Concludes with a discussion of the practical implications…

Spreadbury, Julie

1995-01-01

481

10 Questions about Independent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers know that establishing a robust independent reading program takes more than giving kids a little quiet time after lunch. But how do they set up a program that will maximize their students' gains? Teachers have to know their students' reading levels inside and out, help them find just-right books, and continue to guide them during…

Truby, Dana

2012-01-01

482

Pluto integrated camera spectrometer (PICS) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an integrated instrument that will perform the functions of three optical instruments required by a Pluto Fast Flyby mission: a near-IR spectrometer (256 spectral channels, 1300–2600 nm), a two-channel imaging camera (300–500 nm, 500–1000 nm), and a UV spectrometer (80 spectral channels, 70–150 nm). A separate port, aligned in a direction compatible with radio occultation experiments, is provided

B. R. Sandel; R. V. Yelle; C. F. Bruce; G. S. Chen; M. P. Chrisp; G. A. Fraschetti; T. N. Krabach; S. W. Petrick; D. H. Rodgers; J. Rodriguez; S. L. Soll; A. H. Vaughan; L. A. Soderblom

1995-01-01

483

Phonological typicality does not influence fixation durations in normal reading.  

PubMed

Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive to subtle relationships between sound and syntactic function and that they make rapid use of this information in comprehension. The present article reports attempts to replicate this result using both eyetracking during normal reading (Experiment 1) and word-by-word self-paced reading (Experiment 2). No hint of a phonological typicality effect emerged on any reading-time measure in Experiment 1, nor did Experiment 2 replicate Farmer et al.'s finding from self-paced reading. Indeed, the differences between condition means were not consistently in the predicted direction, as phonologically atypical verbs were read more quickly than phonologically typical verbs, on most measures. Implications for research on visual word recognition are discussed. PMID:19379050

Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith

2009-05-01

484

COE589: Digital Forensics Reading Research Papers  

E-print Network

- Ahmad Almulhem 5 #12;Reading Process (Fong 2009) Comprehension · understand what a paper says EvaluationCOE589: Digital Forensics Reading Research Papers Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE of Papers · Reading Process · Efficient Reading ­ Keshav's Approach · Reading Exercise COE589 - Ahmad

Almulhem, Ahmad

485

Effect of Attention Therapy on Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantified the influence of visual attention therapy on the reading comprehension of Grade 6 children with moderate reading dis- abilities (RD) in the absence of specific reading remediation. Thirty stu- dents with below-average reading scores were identified using standard- ized reading comprehension tests. Fifteen children were placed randomly in the experimental group and 15 in the control group.

Harold A. Solan; John Shelley-Tremblay; Anthony Ficarra; Michael Silverman; Steven Larson

2004-01-01

486

The Before, During, and After Reading Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are several reading strategies necessary for students to read and comprehend test. This article introduces an informal teacher evaluation of before, during, and after reading strategy use called the Before, During, and After Reading Scale (BDARS). Two scales have been designed. The teacher version will help teachers determine which reading

Wangsgard, Nichole

2010-01-01

487

Close Reading Exemplars and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Close Reading Exemplars pull together several key shifts within the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in a single methodological approach towards reading texts. Close Reading Exemplars focus on investigating complex texts (Anchor Reading Standard 10) via text dependent questions that rely on evidence and inferences to answer them (Anchor Reading

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

488

Read Naturally. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Read Naturally" is designed to improve reading fluency using a combination of books, audiotapes, and computer software. According to the developer's web site, this program has three main strategies: repeated reading of text for developing oral reading fluency, teacher modeling of story reading, and systematic monitoring of student progress by the…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

2007-01-01

489

Read Naturally. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Read Naturally" is designed to improve reading fluency using a combination of books, audio-tapes, and computer software. This program includes three main strategies: (1) repeated reading of English text for oral reading fluency development; (2) teacher modeling of story reading; and (3) systematic monitoring of student progress by teachers.…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

490

Elec 331 -Surgical Instruments Surgical Instruments  

E-print Network

Alloys - Substitutional Atoms · Same size as Fe · Positions normally occupied by Fe. #12;Elec 331 - Surgical Instruments 3 Alloys - Interstitial Atoms · Smaller than Fe · Occupy gaps · Greater solubility in Austenite (larger gaps) · Precipitate out during cooling Iron Alloy Atoms Substitutional Atoms · Chromium

Pulfrey, David L.

491

Possible Reasons for Students' Ineffective Reading of Their First-Year University Mathematics Textbooks. Technical Report. No. 2011-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the observed behaviors and difficulties that eleven precalculus and calculus students exhibited in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. To gauge the effectiveness of these students' reading, we asked them to attempt straightforward mathematical tasks, based directly on what they had just read. These …

Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

2011-01-01

492

Shining Stars: Kindergarteners Learn to Read--How Parents Can Help Their Kindergarteners Learn to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet introduces parents to techniques for helping their kindergarteners learn to read. Included is a story about how one mother and father encourage their sons to read, a sample reading activity, and a checklist for kindergarten reading skills.

National Institute for Literacy, 2006

2006-01-01

493

Social Perspectives on Reading: Social Influences and Reading Achievement. Perspectives in Reading No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of short papers examines reading as a social institution. Rolland Callaway begins with the idea that the teaching of reading must be looked at in terms of educational policy or politics. Jack E. Williams follows with a semihistorical orientation which traces social class, ethnic, and racial biases on achievement. James B. Macdonald…

Macdonald, James B., Ed.

494

Repeated Reading versus Continuous Reading: Influences on Reading Fluency and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research we evaluated two methods to improve the reading fluency of struggling readers. Poor readers in Grades 2 and 4 with (n = 17) and without (n = 20) learning disabilities were randomly assigned to one of two fluency practice variations or to a control group. Students in the treatments practiced reading aloud under repeated or…

O'Connor, Rollanda E.; White, Annika; Swanson, H. Lee

2007-01-01

495

Comparing the Efficacy of SRA Reading Mastery and Guided Reading on Reading Achievement in Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal No Child Left Behind Act requires all students, regardless of gender, race, or socioeconomic status, to be proficient in reading by the year 2014. Although progress has been made, discrepancies in reading achievement remain. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two instructional strategies…

Green, Alisha K.

2010-01-01

496

Instrumentation and Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter contains a broad introduction to astronomical instruments and detectors. The basic design principles for cameras, spectrometers, polarimeters, and interferometers are given, together with some practical material on instrument building techniques, including vacuum-cryogenic methods. Different detector technologies are introduced, such as CCDs and infrared arrays, together with basic information on semiconductors.

McLean, Ian S.; Larkin, James; Fitzgerald, Michael

497

Johannes Kepler's astronomical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life and activity of Kepler coincided with an important period in the history of astronomy, when every decade new instruments were being invented, bringing about many great discoveries. At this time many scientists and artisans participated in the construction of astronomical instruments. The contribution made by them is fairly well known, but Kepler's work in this field has been

V. L. Chenakal

1975-01-01

498

Instrument Landing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical background of instrumental approach and landing equipment for aircraft is given beginning with post-World War I efforts of J. D. Doolittle and emphasizing military-civil standardization efforts that began in 1948 and are continuing. The inadequacies of the current Instrument Landing System (ILS) are detailed and the various efforts of special committees to define an eventual replacement system are

L. Sanders

1973-01-01

499

Instrumental Analysis Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-20

500

METROLOGY & INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT (MID)  

E-print Network

METROLOGY & INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT (MID) SCIENTIFIC SCOPE BEAMLINE CHARACTERISTICS DETECTOR TO USERS: January 2018 The Metrology and Instrumentation Development (MID) is a 3-pole wiggler beamline wavefront sensor developed at SOLEIL for wavefront metrology of adaptive optics A bi-prism interferometer

Ohta, Shigemi