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Sample records for direct-injection stratified-charge rotary

  1. Fuel-air mixing and distribution in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, J.; Bracco, F. V.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for flows and combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines is applied to a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine to identify the main parameters that control its burning rate. It is concluded that the orientation of the six sprays of the main injector with respect to the air stream is important to enhance vaporization and the production of flammable mixture. In particular, no spray should be in the wake of any other spray. It was predicted that if such a condition is respected, the indicated efficiency would increase by some 6 percent at higher loads and 2 percent at lower loads. The computations led to the design of a new injector tip that has since yielded slightly better efficiency gains than predicted.

  2. Performance of a supercharged direct-injection stratified-charge rotary combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartrand, Timothy A.; Willis, Edward A.

    1990-01-01

    A zero-dimensional thermodynamic performance computer model for direct-injection stratified-charge rotary combustion engines was modified and run for a single rotor supercharged engine. Operating conditions for the computer runs were a single boost pressure and a matrix of speeds, loads and engine materials. A representative engine map is presented showing the predicted range of efficient operation. After discussion of the engine map, a number of engine features are analyzed individually. These features are: heat transfer and the influence insulating materials have on engine performance and exhaust energy; intake manifold pressure oscillations and interactions with the combustion chamber; and performance losses and seal friction. Finally, code running times and convergence data are presented.

  3. Regressed relations for forced convection heat transfer in a direct injection stratified charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi M.; Schock, Harold J.

    1988-01-01

    Currently, the heat transfer equation used in the rotary combustion engine (RCE) simulation model is taken from piston engine studies. These relations have been empirically developed by the experimental input coming from piston engines whose geometry differs considerably from that of the RCE. The objective of this work was to derive equations to estimate heat transfer coefficients in the combustion chamber of an RCE. This was accomplished by making detailed temperature and pressure measurements in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) RCE under a range of conditions. For each specific measurement point, the local gas velocity was assumed equal to the local rotor tip speed. Local physical properties of the fluids were then calculated. Two types of correlation equations were derived and are described in this paper. The first correlation expresses the Nusselt number as a function of the Prandtl number, Reynolds number, and characteristic temperature ratio; the second correlation expresses the forced convection heat transfer coefficient as a function of fluid temperature, pressure and velocity.

  4. Performance and efficiency evaluation and heat release study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Addy, H. E.; Bond, T. H.; Lee, C. M.; Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation which models engine performance of the Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engines was used to study the effect of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and efficiency of an Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) experimental rotary combustion engine. Engine pressure data were used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine data were compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the rotary engine using advanced heat engine concepts such as faster combustion, reduced leakage, and turbocharging is also presented.

  5. Performance and combustion characteristics of direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of the direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) Wankel engine have been used to calculate heat release rates and performance and efficiency characteristics of the 1007R engine. Engine pressure data have been used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine performance data are compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the Wankel engine with faster combustion, reduced leakage, higher compression ratio, and turbocharging is presented.

  6. Stratified charge rotary engine for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, R. E.; Parente, A. M.; Hady, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    A development history, a current development status assessment, and a design feature and performance capabilities account are given for stratified-charge rotary engines applicable to aircraft propulsion. Such engines are capable of operating on Jet-A fuel with substantial cost savings, improved altitude capability, and lower fuel consumption by comparison with gas turbine powerplants. Attention is given to the current development program of a 400-hp engine scheduled for initial operations in early 1990. Stratified charge rotary engines are also applicable to ground power units, airborne APUs, shipboard generators, and vehicular engines.

  7. Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.

  8. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  9. Dual Spark Plugs For Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, John; Bracco, Frediano V.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel efficiency of stratified-charge, rotary, internal-combustion engine increased by improved design featuring dual spark plugs. Second spark plug ignites fuel on upstream side of main fuel injector; enabling faster burning and more nearly complete utilization of fuel.

  10. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  11. Development of a natural gas stratified charge rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sierens, R.; Verdonck, W.

    1985-01-01

    A water model has been used to determine the positions of separate inlet ports for a natural gas, stratified charge rotary engine. The flow inside the combustion chamber (mainly during the induction period) has been registered by a film camera. From these tests the best locations of the inlet ports have been obtained, a prototype of this engine has been built by Audi NSU and tested in the laboratories of the university of Gent. The results of these tests, for different stratification configurations, are given. These results are comparable with the best results obtained by Audi NSU for a homogeneous natural gas rotary engine.

  12. Stratified charge rotary engine critical technology enablement. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This second volume of appendixes is a companion to Volume 1 of this report which summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation; and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems. A family of four-stage third-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes is derived that required only two locations and has desirable stability characteristics. Error control is achieved by embedding a second-order scheme within the four-stage procedure. Certain schemes are identified that are as efficient and accurate as conventional embedded schemes of comparable order and require fewer storage locations.

  13. Stratified Charge Rotary Engine Critical Technology Enablement, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation, and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems.

  14. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  15. Design of a high-performance rotary stratified-charge research aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Mount, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The power section for an advanced rotary stratified-charge general aviation engine has been designed under contract to NASA. The single-rotor research engine of 40 cubic-inches displacement (RCI-40), now being procured for test initiation this summer, is targeted for 320 T.O. horse-power in a two-rotor production engine. The research engine is designed for operating on jet-fuel, gasoline or diesel fuel and will be used to explore applicable advanced technologies and to optimize high output performance variables. Design of major components of the engine is described in this paper.

  16. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Green, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  17. Two Rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE) Engine System Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, T.; Mack, J.; Mount, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes results of an evaluation of technology enablement component technologies as integrated into a two rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE). The work constitutes a demonstration of two rotor engine system technology, utilizing upgraded and refined component technologies derived from prior NASA Contracts NAS3-25945, NAS3-24628 and NAS-23056. Technical objectives included definition of, procurement and assembly of an advanced two rotor core aircraft engine, operation with Jet-A fuel at Take-Off rating of 340 BHP (254kW) and operation at a maximum cruise condition of 255 BHP (190kW), 75% cruise. A fuel consumption objective of 0.435 LBS/BHP-Hr (265 GRS/kW-Hr) was identified for the maximum cruise condition. A critical technology component item, a high speed, unit injector fuel injection system with electronic control was defined, procured and tested in conjunction with this effort. The two rotor engine configuration established herein defines an affordable, advanced, Jet-A fuel capability core engine (not including reduction gear, propeller shaft and some aircraft accessories) for General Aviation of the mid-1990's and beyond.

  18. Stratified charge rotary engine - Internal flow studies at the MSU engine research laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamady, F.; Kosterman, J.; Chouinard, E.; Somerton, C.; Schock, H.; Chun, K.; Hicks, Y.

    1989-01-01

    High-speed visualization and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) systems consisting of a 40-watt copper vapor laser, mirrors, cylindrical lenses, a high speed camera, a synchronization timing system, and a particle generator were developed for the study of the fuel spray-air mixing flow characteristics within the combustion chamber of a motored rotary engine. The laser beam is focused down to a sheet approximately 1 mm thick, passing through the combustion chamber and illuminates smoke particles entrained in the intake air. The light scattered off the particles is recorded by a high speed rotating prism camera. Movies are made showing the air flow within the combustion chamber. The results of a movie showing the development of a high-speed (100 Hz) high-pressure (68.94 MPa, 10,000 psi) fuel jet are also discussed. The visualization system is synchronized so that a pulse generated by the camera triggers the laser's thyratron.

  19. Advanced rotary engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  20. A review of Curtiss-Wright rotary engine developments with respect to general aviation potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1979-01-01

    Aviation related rotary (Wankel-type) engine tests, possible growth directions and relevant developments at Curtiss-Wright have been reviewed. Automotive rotary engines including stratified charge are described and flight test results of rotary aircraft engines are presented. The current 300 HP engine prototype shows basic durability and competitive performance potential. Recent parallel developments have separately confirmed the geometric advantages of the rotary engine for direct injected unthrottled stratified charge. Specific fuel consumption equal to or better than pre- or swirl-chamber diesels, low emission and multi-fuel capability have been shown by rig tests of similar rotary engine.

  1. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  2. Analysis and test of insulated components for rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, Patrick R.; Doup, Douglas; Kamo, Roy

    1989-01-01

    The direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) rotary engine, while attractive for aviation applications due to its light weight, multifuel capability, and potentially low fuel consumption, has until now required a bulky and heavy liquid-cooling system. NASA-Lewis has undertaken the development of a cooling system-obviating, thermodynamically superior adiabatic rotary engine employing state-of-the-art thermal barrier coatings to thermally insulate engine components. The thermal barrier coating material for the cast aluminum, stainless steel, and ductile cast iron components was plasma-sprayed zirconia. DISC engine tests indicate effective thermal barrier-based heat loss reduction, but call for superior coefficient-of-thermal-expansion matching of materials and better tribological properties in the coatings used.

  3. Advanced rotary engine studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  4. Efficiency evaluation of the DISC (direct-injection stratified charge), DHC (dilute homogeneous charge), and DI Diesel engines (direct-injection diesel)

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.

    1983-09-01

    The thermodynamic laws governing the Otto and diesel cycle engines and the possible approaches that might be taken to increase the delivered efficiency of the reciprocating piston engine are discussed. The generic aspects of current research are discussed and typical links between research and the technical barriers to the engines' development are shown. The advanced engines are discussed individually. After a brief description of each engine and its advantages, the major technical barriers to their development are discussed. Also included for each engine is a discussion of examples of the linkages between these barriers and current combustion and thermodynamic research. For each engine a list of questions is presented that have yet to be resolved and could not be resolved within the scope of this study. These questions partially indicate the limit to the state of knowledge regarding efficiency characteristics of the advanced engine concepts. The major technical barriers to each of the engines and their ranges of efficiency improvement are summarized.

  5. Numerical Study of Stratified Charge Combustion in Wave Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1997-01-01

    A wave rotor may be used as a pressure-gain combustor effecting non-steady flow, and intermittent, confined combustion to enhance gas turbine engine performance. It will be more compact and probably lighter than an equivalent pressure-exchange wave rotor, yet will have similar thermodynamic and mechanical characteristics. Because the allowable turbine blade temperature limits overall fuel/air ratio to sub-flammable values, premixed stratification techniques are necessary to burn hydrocarbon fuels in small engines with compressor discharge temperature well below autoignition conditions. One-dimensional, unsteady numerical simulations of stratified-charge combustion are performed using an eddy-diffusivity turbulence model and a simple reaction model incorporating a flammability limit temperature. For good combustion efficiency, a stratification strategy is developed which concentrates fuel at the leading and trailing edges of the inlet port. Rotor and exhaust temperature profiles and performance predictions are presented at three representative operating conditions of the engine: full design load, 40% load, and idle. The results indicate that peak local gas temperatures will result in excessive temperatures within the rotor housing unless additional cooling methods are used. The rotor itself will have acceptable temperatures, but the pattern factor presented to the turbine may be of concern, depending on exhaust duct design and duct-rotor interaction.

  6. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  7. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  8. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  9. An overview of the NASA rotary engine research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Hady, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    A brief overview and technical highlights of the research efforts and studies on rotary engines over the last several years at the NASA Lewis Research Center are presented. The test results obtained from turbocharged rotary engines and preliminary results from a high performance single rotor engine were discussed. Combustion modeling studies of the rotary engine and the use of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter to confirm the studies were examined. An in-house program in which a turbocharged rotary engine was installed in a Cessna Skymaster for ground test studies was reviewed. Details are presented on single rotor stratified charge rotary engine research efforts, both in-house and on contract.

  10. Rotary engine performance limits predicted by a zero-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartrand, Timothy A.; Willis, Edward A.

    1992-01-01

    A parametric study was performed to determine the performance limits of a rotary combustion engine. This study shows how well increasing the combustion rate, insulating, and turbocharging increase brake power and decrease fuel consumption. Several generalizations can be made from the findings. First, it was shown that the fastest combustion rate is not necessarily the best combustion rate. Second, several engine insulation schemes were employed for a turbocharged engine. Performance improved only for a highly insulated engine. Finally, the variability of turbocompounding and the influence of exhaust port shape were calculated. Rotary engines performance was predicted by an improved zero-dimensional computer model based on a model developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1980's. Independent variables in the study include turbocharging, manifold pressures, wall thermal properties, leakage area, and exhaust port geometry. Additions to the computer programs since its results were last published include turbocharging, manifold modeling, and improved friction power loss calculation. The baseline engine for this study is a single rotor 650 cc direct-injection stratified-charge engine with aluminum housings and a stainless steel rotor. Engine maps are provided for the baseline and turbocharged versions of the engine.

  11. The role of spray-enhanced swirl flow for combustion stabilization in a stratified-charge DISI engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zeng, Wei; Sjöberg, Magnus; Reuss, David L.; Hu, Zongjie

    2016-06-01

    Implementing spray-guided stratified-charge direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engines is inhibited by the occurrence of misfire and partial burns. Engine-performance tests demonstrate that increasing engine speed induces combustion instability, but this deterioration can be prevented by generating swirling flow during the intake stroke. In-cylinder pressure-based heat-release analysis reveals that the appearance of poor-burn cycles is not solely dependent on the variability of early flame-kernel growth. Moreover, cycles can experience burning-rate regression during later combustion stages and may or may not recover before the end of the cycle. Thermodynamic analysis and optical diagnostics are used here to clarify why swirl improves the combustionmore » repeatability from cycle to cycle. The fluid dynamics of swirl/spray interaction was previously demonstrated using high-speed PIV measurements of in-cylinder motored flow. It was found that the sprays of the multi-hole injector redistribute the intake-generated swirl flow momentum, thereby creating a better-centered higher angular-momentum vortex with reduced variability. The engine operation with high swirl was found to have significant improvement in cycle-to-cycle variations of both flow pattern and flow momentum. This paper is an extension of the previous work. Here, PIV measurements and flame imaging are applied to fired operation for studying how the swirl flow affects variability of ignition and subsequent combustion phases. PIV results for fired operation are consistent with the measurements made of motored flow. They demonstrate that the spark-plasma motion is highly correlated with the direction of the gas flow in the vicinity of the spark-plug gap. Without swirl, the plasma is randomly stretched towards either side of the spark plug, causing variability in the ignition of the two spray plumes that are straddling the spark plug. Conversely, swirl flow always convects the spark plasma towards one

  12. Active flow control for maximizing performance of spark ignited stratified charge engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fedewa, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Timm, Edward; Schock, Harold J.; Shih, Tom-I.P.; Koochesfahani, Manooch; Brereton, Giles

    2002-10-15

    Reducing the cycle-to-cycle variability present in stratified-charge engines is an important step in the process of increasing their efficiency. As a result of this cycle-to-cycle variability, fuel injection systems are calibrated to inject more fuel than necessary, in an attempt to ensure that the engines fire on every cycle. When the cycle-to-cycle variability is lowered, the variation of work per cycle is reduced and the lean operating limit decreases, resulting in increased fuel economy. In this study an active flow control device is used to excite the intake flow of an engine at various frequencies. The goal of this excitation is to control the way in which vortices shed off of the intake valve, thus lowering the cycle-to-cycle variability in the flow field. This method of controlling flow is investigated through the use of three engines. The results of this study show that the active flow control device did help to lower the cycle-to-cycle variability of the in-cylinder flow field; however, the reduction did not translate directly into improved engine performance.

  13. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  14. Invited Review. Combustion instability in spray-guided stratified-charge engines. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Fansler, Todd D.; Reuss, D. L.; Sick, V.; Dahms, R. N.

    2015-02-02

    Our article reviews systematic research on combustion instabilities (principally rare, random misfires and partial burns) in spray-guided stratified-charge (SGSC) engines operated at part load with highly stratified fuel -air -residual mixtures. Results from high-speed optical imaging diagnostics and numerical simulation provide a conceptual framework and quantify the sensitivity of ignition and flame propagation to strong, cyclically varying temporal and spatial gradients in the flow field and in the fuel -air -residual distribution. For SGSC engines using multi-hole injectors, spark stretching and locally rich ignition are beneficial. Moreover, combustion instability is dominated by convective flow fluctuations that impede motion of the spark or flame kernel toward the bulk of the fuel, coupled with low flame speeds due to locally lean mixtures surrounding the kernel. In SGSC engines using outwardly opening piezo-electric injectors, ignition and early flame growth are strongly influenced by the spray's characteristic recirculation vortex. For both injection systems, the spray and the intake/compression-generated flow field influence each other. Factors underlying the benefits of multi-pulse injection are identified. Finally, some unresolved questions include (1) the extent to which piezo-SGSC misfires are caused by failure to form a flame kernel rather than by flame-kernel extinction (as in multi-hole SGSC engines); (2) the relative contributions of partially premixed flame propagation and mixing-controlled combustion under the exceptionally late-injection conditions that permit SGSC operation on E85-like fuels with very low NOx and soot emissions; and (3) the effects of flow-field variability on later combustion, where fuel-air-residual mixing within the piston bowl becomes important.

  15. Invited Review. Combustion instability in spray-guided stratified-charge engines. A review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fansler, Todd D.; Reuss, D. L.; Sick, V.; Dahms, R. N.

    2015-02-02

    Our article reviews systematic research on combustion instabilities (principally rare, random misfires and partial burns) in spray-guided stratified-charge (SGSC) engines operated at part load with highly stratified fuel -air -residual mixtures. Results from high-speed optical imaging diagnostics and numerical simulation provide a conceptual framework and quantify the sensitivity of ignition and flame propagation to strong, cyclically varying temporal and spatial gradients in the flow field and in the fuel -air -residual distribution. For SGSC engines using multi-hole injectors, spark stretching and locally rich ignition are beneficial. Moreover, combustion instability is dominated by convective flow fluctuations that impede motion of themore » spark or flame kernel toward the bulk of the fuel, coupled with low flame speeds due to locally lean mixtures surrounding the kernel. In SGSC engines using outwardly opening piezo-electric injectors, ignition and early flame growth are strongly influenced by the spray's characteristic recirculation vortex. For both injection systems, the spray and the intake/compression-generated flow field influence each other. Factors underlying the benefits of multi-pulse injection are identified. Finally, some unresolved questions include (1) the extent to which piezo-SGSC misfires are caused by failure to form a flame kernel rather than by flame-kernel extinction (as in multi-hole SGSC engines); (2) the relative contributions of partially premixed flame propagation and mixing-controlled combustion under the exceptionally late-injection conditions that permit SGSC operation on E85-like fuels with very low NOx and soot emissions; and (3) the effects of flow-field variability on later combustion, where fuel-air-residual mixing within the piston bowl becomes important.« less

  16. Effect of cavitation in high-pressure direct injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulhasanzadeh, Bahman; Johnsen, Eric

    2015-11-01

    As we move toward higher pressures for Gasoline Direct Injection and Diesel Direct Injection, cavitation has become an important issue. To better understand the effect of cavitation on the nozzle flow and primary atomization, we use a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin approach using multi-GPU parallelism to simulate the compressible flow inside and outside the nozzle. Phase change is included using the six-equations model. We investigate the effect of nozzle geometry on cavitation inside the injector and on primary atomization outside the nozzle.

  17. Rotary Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  18. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  19. ROTARY SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Watterberg, J.P.E.

    1960-03-15

    BS>A compact rotary-type switoh was designed wherein an insulating shell carries circumferentially spaced contacts exposed to its interior and also carries, on a re-entrant portion, resilient contact arms having contact portions aligned wth and biased toward the spaced contacts. A dielectric rotor with a movable wall between the contacts and contact arms has an aperture that may be turned into or out of registry with the contacts so as to establish or interrupt circuits.

  20. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  1. Superconducting resonators with trapped vortices under direct injection of quasiparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsanzineza, Ibrahim; Patel, Umesh; Dodge, K. R.; McDermott, R. F.; Plourde, B. L. T.

    Nonequilibrium quasiparticles and trapped magnetic flux vortices can significantly impact the performance of superconducting microwave resonant circuits and qubits at millikelvin temperatures. Quasiparticles result in excess loss, reducing resonator quality factors and qubit lifetimes. Vortices trapped near regions of large microwave currents also contribute excess loss. However, vortices located in current-free areas in the resonator or in the ground plane of a device can actually trap quasiparticles and lead to a reduction in the quasiparticle loss. We will describe experiments involving the controlled trapping of vortices in superconducting resonators with direct injection of quasiparticles using Normal metal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS)-tunnel junctions.

  2. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  3. Rotary latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Joel M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A rotary latch is disclosed, including a hollow, cylindrical outer member and a concentrically arranged inner rotor. The rotor is rotatable within the outer cylindrical member. The outer cylindrical member includes a pair of aligned openings as a cylinder first end facing a latch pin. The rotor includes a pair of aligned slots at a rotor first end facing the latch pin. Slot extensions are provided in the rotor, the slot extensions extending generally perpendicularly to the slots and generally parallel to the rotor first end. In a first position, the outer cylindrical member openings and the rotor slots are aligned to allow receipt of the latch pin. In a second position, the openings and the slot extensions are aligned thereby engaging the latch pin within a closed area defined by the rotor slot extensions and the outer cylinder openings.

  4. A small direct injection diesel engine with a swirl nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, T.; Sunami, K.; Mizuta, J.; Oshima, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A new combustion system for a small direct injection diesel engine has been developed, with a spheroidal cavity and swirl nozzle characterized by weak spray penetration and wide spray angle. This system is intended to realize air-borne mixture formation and good combustion processes over wide operating ranges. In-cylinder observations of the system reveal that droplets are easily bent in the direction of air movement, ignition occurs near the spray tip, and the flame is hard to envelop the spray. In a single cylinder engine of 460 cm/sup 3/ swept volume, the system realizes active diffusion burning and mild premixed burning despite of long ignition delay, and provides low fuel consumption and low smoke emission, especially at low speeds.

  5. Rotary actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, Myron (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotary actuators and other mechanical devices incorporating shape memory alloys are provided herein. Shape memory alloys are a group of metals which when deformed at temperatures below their martensite temperatures, resume the shapes which they had prior to the deformation if they are heated to temperatures above their austensite temperatures. Actuators in which shape memory alloys are employed include bias spring types, in which springs deform the shape memory alloy (SMA), and differential actuators, which use two SMA members mechanically connected in series. Another type uses concentric cylindrical members. One member is in the form of a sleeve surrounding a cylinder, both being constructed of shape memory alloys. Herein two capstans are mounted on a shaft which is supported in a framework. Each capstan is capable of rotating the shaft. Shape memory wire, as two separate lengths of wire, is wrapped around each capstan to form a winding around that capstan. The winding on one capstan is so wrapped that the wire is in a prestretched state. The winding on the other capstan is so wrapped that the wire is in a taut, but not a prestretched, state. Heating one performs work in one direction, thus deforming the other one. When the other SMA is heated the action is reversed.

  6. Computational experience with a three-dimensional rotary engine combustion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Willis, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    A new computer code was developed to analyze the chemically reactive flow and spray combustion processes occurring inside a stratified-charge rotary engine. Mathematical and numerical details of the new code were recently described by the present authors. The results are presented of limited, initial computational trials as a first step in a long-term assessment/validation process. The engine configuration studied was chosen to approximate existing rotary engine flow visualization and hot firing test rigs. Typical results include: (1) pressure and temperature histories, (2) torque generated by the nonuniform pressure distribution within the chamber, (3) energy release rates, and (4) various flow-related phenomena. These are discussed and compared with other predictions reported in the literature. The adequacy or need for improvement in the spray/combustion models and the need for incorporating an appropriate turbulence model are also discussed.

  7. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  8. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  9. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  10. Rotary filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  11. Overcoming Selectivity and Sensitivity Issues of Direct Inject Electrospray Mass Spectrometry via DAPNe-NSI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemons, Kristina; Nnaji, Chinyere; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2014-05-01

    Direct inject electrospray mass spectrometry offers minimal sample preparation and a "shotgun" approach to analyzing samples. However, complex matrix effects often make direct inject an undesirable sample introduction technique, particularly for trace level analytes. Highlighted here is our solution to the pitfalls of direct inject mass spectrometry and other ambient ionization methods with a focus on trace explosives. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization mass spectrometry solves selectivity issues and reduces matrix effects while maintaining minimal sample preparation requirements. With appropriate solvent conditions, most explosive residues can be analyzed with this technique regardless of the nature of the substance (i.e., nitroaromatic, oxidizing salt, or peroxide).

  12. Analysis of rotary engine combustion processes based on unsteady, three-dimensional computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Willis, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    A new computer code was developed for predicting the turbulent, and chemically reacting flows with sprays occurring inside of a stratified charge rotary engine. The solution procedure is based on an Eulerian Lagrangian approach where the unsteady, 3-D Navier-Stokes equations for a perfect gas mixture with variable properties are solved in generalized, Eulerian coordinates on a moving grid by making use of an implicit finite volume, Steger-Warming flux vector splitting scheme, and the liquid phase equations are solved in Lagrangian coordinates. Both the details of the numerical algorithm and the finite difference predictions of the combustor flow field during the opening of exhaust and/or intake, and also during fuel vaporization and combustion, are presented.

  13. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  14. Rotary antenna attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Hardy, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Radio frequency attenuator, having negligible insertion loss at minimum attenuation, can be used for making precise antenna gain measurements. It is small in size compared to a rotary-vane attenuator.

  15. Compact rotary sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Rotary sequencer is assembled from conventional planetary differential gearset and latching mechanism utilizing inputs and outputs which are coaxial. Applications include automated production-line equipment in home appliances and in vehicles.

  16. Evaluation of injector location and nozzle design in a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Nande, A. M.; Naber, J.; Energy Systems; Michigan Technological Univ.

    2008-06-01

    The favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) make it an excellent alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen direct injection provides multiple degrees of freedom for engine optimization and influencing the in-cylinder combustion processes. This paper compares the results in the mixture formation and combustion behavior of a hydrogen direct-injected single-cylinder research engine using two different injector locations as well as various injector nozzle designs.

  17. Rotary Series Elastic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  18. Rotary series elastic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  19. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  20. Rotary drum separator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, Michael R. (Inventor); Murdoch, Karen (Inventor); Scull, Timothy D. (Inventor); Fort, James H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rotary phase separator system generally includes a step-shaped rotary drum separator (RDS) and a motor assembly. The aspect ratio of the stepped drum minimizes power for both the accumulating and pumping functions. The accumulator section of the RDS has a relatively small diameter to minimize power losses within an axial length to define significant volume for accumulation. The pumping section of the RDS has a larger diameter to increase pumping head but has a shorter axial length to minimize power losses. The motor assembly drives the RDS at a low speed for separating and accumulating and a higher speed for pumping.

  1. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, Pamela K.

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  2. Solar heated rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, P.K.

    1984-04-17

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  3. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  4. Rotary mechanical latch

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

    2012-11-13

    A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

  5. Push-through direct injection NMR: an optimized automation method applied to metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a pressing need to increase the throughput of NMR analysis in fields such as metabolomics and drug discovery. Direct injection (DI) NMR automation is recognized to have the potential to meet this need due to its suitability for integration with the 96-well plate format. ...

  6. Heritable gene knockout in Caenorhabditis elegans by direct injection of Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung Woo; Lee, Jihyun; Carroll, Dana; Kim, Jin-Soo; Lee, Junho

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel method of targeted gene disruption that involves direct injection of recombinant Cas9 protein complexed with guide RNA into the gonad of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Biallelic mutants were recovered among the F1 progeny, demonstrating the high efficiency of this method. PMID:23979576

  7. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  8. Rotary Burner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Flanagan

    2003-04-30

    The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.

  9. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  10. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  11. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  12. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  13. Determination of hexazinone in groundwater by direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Perkins, L B; Bushway, R J; Katz, L E

    1999-01-01

    Hexazinone has been detected at levels ranging from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/L in many groundwater samples from eastern Maine over the past decade. A rapid and inexpensive direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed to monitor contamination levels of the herbicide. The method is sensitive (limit of quantitation = 0.33 microgram/L) and is linear to 33.0 micrograms/L (R2 = 0.9995). Direct injection results from 50 field samples compared well (R2 = 0.98) with an HPLC method using solid-phase extraction for concentration and cleanup. The technique is very reproducible (coefficients of variation of 0-8.4% within day and 3.0-13.2% between day) and eliminates loss of analyte because of fewer steps in the procedure. PMID:10589500

  14. Numerical Analysis of Combustion in a Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Hideto; Tsukasaki, Yukihiro

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) direct injection engine has many advantages for the reduction of CO2 emission. For further improvement of those engines, a numerical simulation technique has been developed for the analysis of combustion process. Prior to an in-cylinder calculation, the wall function was modified to improve the accuracy of the wall heat loss. Then the nozzle-to-cylinder entire calculation was performed. Good agreements were obtained in comparison with the experiment for the behavior of impinging jets. This method was applied to the analysis of the difference of combustion processes between CNG and conventional gasoline direct-injection engines. It is accordingly found that the velocity and the turbulence of in-cylinder gas are increased by the fuel injection into CNG engine and thus the combustion speed is enhanced significantly.

  15. Development of Innovative Combustion Processes for a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    John Dec; Paul Miles

    1999-01-01

    In support of the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) emissions and fuel economy goals, a small-bore, high-speed, direct-injection (HSDI) diesel facility in which to conduct research into the physics of the combustion process relevant to these engines has been developed. The characteristics of this facility are described, and the motivation for selecting these characteristics and their relation to high efficiency, low-emission HSDI engine technology is discussed.

  16. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  17. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water. PMID:14717185

  18. Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J.

    2008-10-06

    The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  19. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  20. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  1. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  2. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  3. Optical rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, R. G., Jr.

    1982-06-01

    The primary objective of this contract is the design, fabrication, and testing of an optical rotary joint which permits transmission of signals through optical fibers across the interface of two environments rotating relative to each other. Outstanding optical performance is achieved through the use of gradient index lenses to couple radiation across the separation between two fibers. The salient features of this device are bidirectional operation at two wavelengths (850 nm and 1300 nm), low insertion loss, low rotationally induced variation of attenuation, a seven-circuit electrical slip-ring assembly, and rugged construction. The device is designed to facilitate the application of future designs to pressurized, subsea environments.

  4. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  5. Rotary engine cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  6. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  7. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  8. Push-through direct injection NMR: an optimized automation method applied to metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Teng, Quincy; Ekman, Drew R; Huang, Wenlin; Collette, Timothy W

    2012-05-01

    There is a pressing need to increase the throughput of NMR analysis in fields such as metabolomics and drug discovery. Direct injection (DI) NMR automation is recognized to have the potential to meet this need due to its suitability for integration with the 96-well plate format. However, DI NMR has not been widely used as a result of some insurmountable technical problems; namely: carryover contamination, sample diffusion (causing reduction of spectral sensitivity), and line broadening caused by entrapped air bubbles. Several variants of DI NMR, such as flow injection analysis (FIA) and microflow NMR, have been proposed to address one or more of these issues, but not all of them. The push-through direct injection technique reported here overcomes all of these problems. The method recovers samples after NMR analysis, uses a "brush-wash" routine to eliminate carryover, includes a procedure to push wash solvent out of the flow cell via the outlet to prevent sample diffusion, and employs an injection valve to avoid air bubbles. Herein, we demonstrate the robustness, efficiency, and lack of carryover characteristics of this new method, which is ideally suited for relatively high throughput analysis of the complex biological tissue extracts used in metabolomics, as well as many other sample types. While simple in concept and setup, this new method provides a substantial improvement over current approaches. PMID:22434060

  9. Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K; Herzog, H J; Wickett, M E

    2001-04-24

    Direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one dimensional and three dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote sequestration potential. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warning cost avoided by sequestration in a reservoir. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in leaky reservoirs, such as the oceans, terrestrial biosphere, and some geologic formations. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injecting 900 m deep in the ocean avoids {approx}90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; an injection 1700 m deep would avoid > 99 % of the global warming cost. Hence, for discount rates in the range commonly used by commercial enterprises, oceanic direct injection may be nearly as economically effective as permanent sequestration at avoiding global warming costs.

  10. Lubrication of rotary rock bits

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhail, J.; Gardner, H.

    1996-12-01

    The rotary rock bit is designed so that both the bearings and cutting structure work together as one unit. Should the bearings wear prematurely before the cutting structure is worn out, then the complete bit will rapidly deteriorate leading to a shortened bit life. The optimum bit run is when the bearings and cutting structure wear out simultaneously, having obtained a good footage and rate of penetration. This paper discusses reasons why users of rotary air blast hole bits encounter premature bit failure due to bearing failure. It also discusses a lubrication system designed for rotary rock bits to combat bearing failure.

  11. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.; Dyson, J.E.

    1984-04-06

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet sgegment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  12. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Dyson, Jack E.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet segment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  13. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Greg S. (Inventor); Vandamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  14. Rotary Blood Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  15. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  16. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  17. Rotary spring energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.

    1981-07-01

    The goal was to design a lightweight system, for bicycles, that can level the input energy requirement (human exertion) in accordance with variations in road load (friction, wind, and grade) and/or to provide a system for regenerative braking, that is, to store energy normally lost in brake pad friction for brief periods until it required for re-acceleration or hill-climbing. The rotary spring, also called the coil, motor, spiral, or power spring is governed by the equations reviewed. Materials used in spring manufacture are briefly discussed, and justification for steel as the design choice of material is given. Torque and power requirements for a bicycle and rider are provided as well as estimated human power output levels. These criteria are examined to define spring size and possible orientations on a bicycle. Patents and designs for coupling the spring to the drive train are discussed.

  18. Emissions of submicron particles from a direct injection diesel engine by using biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Cho; Wu, Chung-Hsing

    2002-01-01

    Small airborne particles less than 1 microm in diameter have a high probability to deposit deeply in the respiratory tract and cause respiratory diseases such as lung cancer. In this study, emission characteristics of submicron particles from a direct injection diesel engine using biodiesel (provided by the American Soybean Association) and petroleum-diesel fuels were measured under different operation conditions. The results show that the emitted particle sizes for both fuels are about the same. But when fueled with biodiesel, the diesel engine can substantially reduce 24-42% emission of the total number concentration, and 40-49% of the total mass concentration of submicron particles, which indicates that the emission of submicron particles can be effectively approved. PMID:12049119

  19. Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines Employing Very Early Injection Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Tsurushima, Tadashi; Shimazaki, Naoki; Harada, Akira; Sasaki, Satoru; Hayashi, Koichi; Asaumi, Yasuo; Aoyagi, Yuzo

    An ignition and combustion model has been developed to predict the heat release rate in direct injection compression ignition engines employing very early injection timing. The model describes the chemical reactions, including low-temperature oxidation. The KIVA II computer code was modified with the present ignition and combustion model. The numerical results indicate that the model developed in this work reproduces major features of two-stage autoignition, as well as experimentally observed trends in NOx and unburned fuel emissions. The computational results show that fuel injection timing significantly influences NOx emissions. Results also indicate that fuel droplets that enter the squish region possibly become unburned fuel emissions. Some graphical results demonstrate the relationships among the in-cylinder fuel spray distributions, fuel-air equivalence ratio, temperature, and mass fractions of NO and unburned fuel.

  20. The influence of bowl offset on air motion in a direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, T.L.; Primus, R.J

    1988-01-01

    The influence of bowl offset on motored mean flow and turbulence in a direct injection diesel engine has been examined with the aid of a multi-dimensional flow code. Results are presented for three piston geometries. The bowl geometry of each piston was the same, while the offset between the bowl and the cylinder axis was varied from 0.0 to 9.6% of the bore. The swirl ratio at intake valve closing was also varied from 2.60 to 4.27. It was found that the angular momentum of the air at TDC was decreased by less than 8% when the bowl was offset. Nevertheless, the mean (squish and swirl) flows were strongly affected by the offset. In addition, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (predicted by the /delta/-e model) was modified. Moderate increases (10% or less) in mass averaged turbulence intensity at TDC with offset were observed.

  1. Baseline performance and emissions data for a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezelick, R. A.; Mcfadden, J. J.; Ream, L. W.; Barrows, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive fuel consumption, mean effective cylinder pressure, and emission test results for a supercharged, single-cylinder, direct-injected, four-stroke-cycle, diesel test engine are documented. Inlet air-to-exhaust pressure ratios were varied from 1.25 to 3.35 in order to establish the potential effects of turbocharging techniques on engine performance. Inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted from 34 to 107 C and from 193 to 414 kPa to determine the effects on engine performance and emissions. Engine output ranged from 300 to 2100 kPa (brake mean effective pressure) in the speed range of 1000 to 3000 rpm. Gaseous and particulate emission rates were measured. Real-time values of engine friction and pumping loop losses were measured independently and compared with motored engine values.

  2. Arterial and venous embolization: Declotting of dialysis shunts by direct injection of streptokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Zeit, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    During the past 33 months, thrombolysis of 79 clotted hemodialysis shunts was attempted by injecting small quantities of dilute streptokinase solution directly into the clotted shunt, followed by massage of the clot. Embolization of clot fragments in six of 79 cases (7.6%) was demonstrated angiographically. In four of the six cases embolization involved the brachial artery or its branches. In one case embolization involved an arm vein, and in one case embolization involved both the bracial artery and axillary vein. All patients remained asymptomatic, and repeat angiographic study, usually performed the following day, showed resolution of the emboli in four of five cases. The incidence of embolization in direct-injection thrombolysis reported in this study appears to be comparable to that reported in studies using the streptokinase infusion technique.

  3. Direct injection of water vapor into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Malo, Alain; McLinden, Chris A.; D'Amours, Real

    2016-07-01

    While theoretical studies show that water vapor (WV) can be directly injected into the stratosphere during a volcanic eruption, few observations of such a phenomenon exist. The Microwave Limb Sounder observed stratospheric injection of WV following the 2015 Calbuco eruption. Lower stratospheric mixing ratios exceeded 10 ppmv for a few days downwind of the injection location. Plume transport is confirmed by back trajectory modeling. Due to the short duration and limited spatial extent of the enhancement, climatic impact is expected to be negligible. This letter provides spatiotemporal analysis of a volcanogenic pulse of lower stratospheric WV as it dispersed. The inferred mass of stratospheric WV from this eruption of 2 megaton (Mt) and the rapid evanescence of the enhancement are similar to what has been observed for other eruptions, suggesting that injection by moderately explosive eruptions is not an effective mechanism for large-scale stratospheric hydration.

  4. An Idealized, Single Radial Swirler, Lean-Direct-Injection (LDI) Concept Meshing Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Thompson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    To easily study combustor design parameters using computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD), a Gridgen Glyph-based macro (based on the Tcl scripting language) dubbed BladeMaker has been developed for the meshing of an idealized, single radial swirler, lean-direct-injection (LDI) combustor. BladeMaker is capable of taking in a number of parameters, such as blade width, blade tilt with respect to the perpendicular, swirler cup radius, and grid densities, and producing a three-dimensional meshed radial swirler with a can-annular (canned) combustor. This complex script produces a data format suitable for but not specific to the National Combustion Code (NCC), a state-of-the-art CFD code developed for reacting flow processes.

  5. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  6. A computational study of an HCCI engine with direct injection during gas exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Haiyun; Vikhansky, Alexander; Mosbach, Sebastian; Kraft, Markus; Bhave, Amit; Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Mauss, Fabian

    2006-10-15

    We present a new probability density function (PDF)-based computational model to simulate a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine with direct injection (DI) during gas exchange. This stochastic reactor model (SRM) accounts for the engine breathing process in addition to the closed-volume HCCI engine operation. A weighted-particle Monte Carlo method is used to solve the resulting PDF transport equation. While simulating the gas exchange, it is necessary to add a large number of stochastic particles to the ensemble due to the intake air and EGR streams as well as fuel injection, resulting in increased computational expense. Therefore, in this work we apply a down-sampling technique to reduce the number of stochastic particles, while conserving the statistical properties of the ensemble. In this method some of the most important statistical moments (e.g., concentration of the main chemical species and enthalpy) are conserved exactly, while other moments are conserved in a statistical sense. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the statistical error associated with the down-sampling algorithm is more sensitive to the number of particles than to the number of conserved species for the given operating conditions. For a full-cycle simulation this down-sampling procedure was observed to reduce the computational time by a factor of 8 as compared to the simulation without this strategy, while still maintaining the error within an acceptable limit. Following the detailed numerical investigation, the model, intended for volatile fuels only, is applied to simulate a two-stroke, naturally aspirated HCCI engine fueled with isooctane. The in-cylinder pressure and CO emissions predicted by the model agree reasonably well with the measured profiles. In addition, the new model is applied to estimate the influence of engine operating parameters such as the relative air-fuel ratio and early direct injection timing on HCCI combustion and emissions. The qualitative trends

  7. Seals cap rotary kiln emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gunkle, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The possibility of producing fugitive emissions is one of the most critical aspects of an incineration system. Whether such a system processes hazardous, medical, mixed or municipal waste, fugitive emissions are of special concern to system operators and the public alike. Effectively designed rotary-kiln seals can reduce fugitive emissions to acceptable, minimal levels. Modern air monitoring systems track incineration site emissions. Possible emissions sources include excavation and transfer sites, storage areas, material-feed systems, rotary kiln seals, and exhaust stacks. Several options are available for rotary-kiln seals. Six are discussed here: labyrinth; overlapping spring plate; graphite block; pneumatic; shrouded; and overpressure. Kiln seals are used to prevent process gases from escaping or ambient air from entering a rotary kiln uncontrolled. They are not designed to function as material seals, or prevent spills of solids or liquids. Seal design involves considering differential pressure produced by a kiln's internal-to-external temperature, pressure excursions (explosions) and material spills.

  8. A compact rotary vane attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D. L.; Otosh, T. Y.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1969-01-01

    Rotary vane attenuator, when used as a front end attenuator, introduces an insertion loss that is proportional to the angle of rotation. New technique allows the construction of a shortened compact unit suitable for most installations.

  9. Forces in rotary motion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsch, Markus K.; Elliott, Gregory K.

    2008-09-01

    In many coating chambers substrates are moved by simple or planetary rotary motion systems. Isaac Newton already taught that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. To move a substrate on a rotary trajectory, centripetal and gravitational forces must act upon the substrate. The substrate must be somehow confined. Confinement options range from firm attachment to a fixture to loose placement in a pocket. Depending on the rotary motion pattern, a loosely held substrate may slide once against a confinement boundary and then stay, or may constantly slide around. 'Rattling around' may be undesirable as it could lead to edge destruction, debris formation, precession of the substrate, and other adverse effects. Firm attachment is advantageous in most cases, but often adds process complexity. We examine the forces present on substrates in typical rotary motion systems and discuss the implications of different confinement methods.

  10. Best compression: Reciprocating or rotary?

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, C.

    1997-07-01

    A compressor is a device used to increase the pressure of a compressible fluid. The inlet pressure can vary from a deep vacuum to a high positive pressure. The discharge pressure can range from subatmospheric levels to tens of thousands of pounds per square inch. Compressors come in numerous forms, but for oilfield applications there are two primary types, reciprocating and rotary. Both reciprocating and rotary compressors are grouped in the intermittent mode of compression. Intermittent is cyclic in nature, in that a specific quantity of gas is ingested by the compressor, acted upon and discharged before the cycle is repeated. Reciprocating compression is the most common form of compression used for oilfield applications. Rotary screw compressors have a long history but are relative newcomers to oilfield applications. The rotary screw compressor-technically a helical rotor compressor-dates back to 1878. That was when the first rotary screw was manufactured for the purpose of compressing air. Today thousands of rotary screw compression packages are being used throughout the world to compress natural gas.

  11. Rotary kiln seal

    DOEpatents

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  12. Field Measurements of Gasoline Direct Injection Emission Factors: Spatial and Seasonal Variability.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Ramos, Manuel; Hilker, Nathan; Healy, Robert M; Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Wallace, James S; Evans, Greg J

    2016-02-16

    Four field campaigns were conducted between February 2014 and January 2015 to measure emissions from light-duty gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles (2013 Ford Focus) in an urban near-road environment in Toronto, Canada. Measurements of CO2, CO, NOx, black carbon (BC), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene-xylenes (BTEX), and size-resolved particle number (PN) were recorded 15 m from the roadway and converted to fuel-based emission factors (EFs). Other than for NOx and CO, the GDI engine had elevated emissions compared to the Toronto fleet, with BC EFs in the 73rd percentile, BTEX EFs in the 80-90th percentile, and PN EFs in the 75th percentile during wintertime measurements. Additionally, for three campaigns, a second platform for measuring PN and CO2 was placed 1.5-3 m from the roadway to quantify changes in PN with distance from point of emission. GDI vehicle PN EFs were found to increase by up to 240% with increasing distance from the roadway, predominantly due to an increasing fraction of sub-40 nm particles. PN and BC EFs from the same engine technology were also measured in the laboratory. BC EFs agreed within 20% between the laboratory and real-world measurements; however, laboratory PN EFs were an order of magnitude lower due to exhaust conditioning. PMID:26794244

  13. Low-Emission Hydrogen Combustors for Gas Turbines Using Lean Direct Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. John; Smith, Timothy D.; Kundu, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    One of the key technology challenges for the use of hydrogen in gas turbine engines is the performance of the combustion system, in particular the fuel injectors. To investigate the combustion performance of gaseous hydrogen fuel injectors flame tube combustor experiments were performed. Tests were conducted to measure the nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions and combustion performance at inlet conditions of 588 to 811 K, 0.4 to 1.4 MPa, and equivalence ratios up to 0.48. All the injectors were based on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) technology with multiple injection points and quick mixing. One challenge to hydrogen-based premixing combustion systems is flashback since hydrogen has a reaction rate over 7 times that of Jet-A. To reduce the risk, design mixing times were kept short and velocities high to minimize flashback. Five fuel injector designs were tested in 6.35- and 8.9-cm-diameter flame tubes with non-vitiated heated air and gaseous hydrogen. Data is presented on measurements of NO(x) emissions and combustion efficiency for the hydrogen injectors at 2.540, 7.937, and 13.652 cm from the injector face. Results show that for some configurations, NO(x) emissions are comparable to that of state of the art Jet-A LDI combustor concepts.

  14. A Second Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Chang, Clarence T.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2014-01-01

    A low-NO (sub x) aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept was developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. Three second generation SV-LDI configurations were developed. All three were based on the baseline 9-point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. These second generation configurations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. Two of these second generation configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center flametube; these two configurations are called the at dome and 5-recess configurations. Results show that the 5-recess configuration generally had lower NO (sub x) emissions than the flat dome configuration. Correlation equations were developed for the flat dome configuration so that the landing-takeoff NO (sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome landing-takeoff NO (sub x) is estimated to be 87-88 percent below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the ERA project goal of 75 percent reduction.

  15. Small Volume Flow Probe for Automated Direct-Injection NMR Analysis: Design and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haner, Ronald L.; Llanos, William; Mueller, Luciano

    2000-03-01

    A detailed characterization of an NMR flow probe for use in direct-injection sample analysis is presented. A 600-MHz, indirect detection NMR flow probe with a 120-μl active volume is evaluated in two configurations: first as a stand-alone small volume probe for the analysis of static, nonflowing solutions, and second as a component in an integrated liquids-handling system used for high-throughput NMR analysis. In the stand-alone mode, 1H lineshape, sensitivity, radiofrequency (RF) homogeneity, and heat transfer characteristics are measured and compared to conventional-format NMR probes of related design. Commonly used descriptive terminology for the hardware, sample regions, and RF coils are reviewed or defined, and test procedures developed for flow probes are described. The flow probe displayed general performance that is competitive with standard probes. Key advantages of the flow probe include high molar sensitivity, ease of use in an automation setup, and superior reproducibility of magnetic field homogeneity which enables the practical implementation of 1D T2-edited analysis of protein-ligand interactions.

  16. Assessing the Climate Trade-Offs of Gasoline Direct Injection Engines.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wallace, James S; Evans, Greg J

    2016-08-01

    Compared to port fuel injection (PFI) engine exhaust, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine exhaust has higher emissions of black carbon (BC), a climate-warming pollutant. However, the relative increase in BC emissions and climate trade-offs of replacing PFI vehicles with more fuel efficient GDI vehicles remain uncertain. In this study, BC emissions from GDI and PFI vehicles were compiled and BC emissions scenarios were developed to evaluate the climate impact of GDI vehicles using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature potential (GTP) metrics. From a 20 year time horizon GWP analysis, average fuel economy improvements ranging from 0.14 to 14% with GDI vehicles are required to offset BC-induced warming. For all but the lowest BC scenario, installing a gasoline particulate filter with an 80% BC removal efficiency and <1% fuel penalty is climate beneficial. From the GTP-based analysis, it was also determined that GDI vehicles are climate beneficial within <1-20 years; longer time horizons were associated with higher BC scenarios. The GDI BC emissions spanned 2 orders of magnitude and varied by ambient temperature, engine operation, and fuel composition. More work is needed to understand BC formation mechanisms in GDI engines to ensure that the climate impacts of this engine technology are minimal. PMID:27406325

  17. A Design Methodology for Rapid Implementation of Active Control Systems Across Lean Direct Injection Combustor Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, William T.; Saunders, William R.; Vandsburger, Uri; Saus, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The VACCG team is comprised of engineers at Virginia Tech who specialize in the subject areas of combustion physics, chemical kinetics, dynamics and controls, and signal processing. Currently, the team's work on this NRA research grant is designed to determine key factors that influence combustion control performance through a blend of theoretical and experimental investigations targeting design and demonstration of active control for three different combustors. To validiate the accuracy of conclusions about control effectiveness, a sequence of experimental verifications on increasingly complex lean, direct injection combustors is underway. During the work period January 1, 2002 through October 15, 2002, work has focused on two different laboratory-scale combustors that allow access for a wide variety of measurements. As the grant work proceeds, one key goal will be to obtain certain knowledge about a particular combustor process using a minimum of sophisticated measurements, due to the practical limitations of measurements on full-scale combustors. In the second year, results obtained in the first year will be validated on test combustors to be identified in the first quarter of that year. In the third year, it is proposed to validate the results at more realistic pressure and power levels by utilizing the facilities at the Glenn Research Center.

  18. Low Emission Hydrogen Combustors for Gas Turbines Using Lean Direct Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. John; Smith, Timothy D.; Kundu, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    One of the key technology challenges for the use of hydrogen in gas turbine engines is the performance of the combustion system, in particular the fuel injectors. To investigate the combustion performance of gaseous hydrogen fuel injectors flame tube combustor experiments were performed. Tests were conducted to measure the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and combustion performance at inlet conditions of 600 to 1000 deg F, 60 to 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia), and equivalence ratios up to 0.48. All the injectors were based on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) technology with multiple injection points and quick mixing. One challenge to hydrogen based premixing combustion systems is flashback since hydrogen has a reaction rate over seven times that of Jet-A. To reduce the risk, design mixing times were kept short and velocities high to minimize flashback. Five fuel injector designs were tested in 2.5 and 3.5-in. diameter flame tubes with non-vitiated heated air and gaseous hydrogen. Data is presented on measurements of NOx emissions and combustion efficiency for the hydrogen injectors at 1.0, 3.125, and 5.375 in. from the injector face. Results show that for some configurations, NOx emissions are comparable to that of state of the art Jet-A LDI combustor concepts.

  19. National Combustion Code Validated Against Lean Direct Injection Flow Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Most combustion processes have, in some way or another, a recirculating flow field. This recirculation stabilizes the reaction zone, or flame, but an unnecessarily large recirculation zone can result in high nitrogen oxide (NOx) values for combustion systems. The size of this recirculation zone is crucial to the performance of state-of-the-art, low-emissions hardware. If this is a large-scale combustion process, the flow field will probably be turbulent and, therefore, three-dimensional. This research dealt primarily with flow fields resulting from lean direct injection (LDI) concepts, as described in Research & Technology 2001. LDI is a concept that depends heavily on the design of the swirler. The LDI concept has the potential to reduce NOx values from 50 to 70 percent of current values, with good flame stability characteristics. It is cost effective and (hopefully) beneficial to do most of the design work for an LDI swirler using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are CAE tools that can calculate three-dimensional flows in complex geometries. However, CFD codes are only beginning to correctly calculate the flow fields for complex devices, and the related combustion models usually remove a large portion of the flow physics.

  20. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  1. Experimental facility and methodology for systematic studies of cold startability in direct injection Diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, J. V.; García-Oliver, J. M.; Pastor, J. M.; Ramírez-Hernández, J. G.

    2009-09-01

    Cold start at low temperatures in current direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is a problem which has not yet been properly solved and it becomes particularly critical with the current trend to reduce the engine compression ratio. Although it is clear that there are some key factors whose control leads to a proper cold start process, their individual relevance and relationships are not clearly understood. Thus, efforts on optimization of the cold start process are mainly based on a trial-and-error procedure in climatic chambers at low ambient temperature, with serious limitations in terms of measurement reliability during such a transient process, low repeatability and experimental cost. This paper presents a novel approach for an experimental facility capable of simulating real engine cold start, at room temperature and under well-controlled low speed and low temperature conditions. It is based on an optical single cylinder engine adapted to reproduce in-cylinder conditions representative of those of a real engine during start at cold ambient temperatures (of the order of -20 °C). Such conditions must be realistic, controlled and repeatable in order to perform systematic studies in the borderline between ignition success and misfiring. An analysis methodology, combining optical techniques and heat release analysis of individual cycles, has been applied.

  2. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  3. Repulsive force actuated rotary micromirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyuan; Ben Mrad, Ridha

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, a novel repulsive force based rotary micromirror is proposed. A repulsive force is produced in the rotary micromirror and the mirror plate is pushed up and away from the substrate. Therefore the rotation angle of the micromirror is not limited to the space underneath the mirror plate and thus the "pull-in" effect is completely circumvented. The novel rotary micromirror can achieve a large rotation angle with a large mirror plate. In addition the novel micromirror has a very simple structure and can be fabricated by standard surface micromachining technology. Numerical simulation is used to verify the working principle of the novel micromirror. A prototype of the novel rotary micromirror is fabricated by a commercially available surface microfabrication process called MUMPs. The prototype has a mirror size of 300μm x 300μm. The experimental measurements show that the prototype can achieve a mechanical rotation of 2.25 degrees (an optical angle of 4.5 degrees) at a driving voltage of 170 volts. A conventional surface micromachined attractive force based rotary micromirror of the same size can only achieve an angle of 0.1~0.2 degree.

  4. Rotary Power Transformer and Inverter Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1985-01-01

    Noise lower than with sliprings. Rotary transformer transfers electric power across rotary joint. No wearing contacts, no contact noise, and no contamination from lubricants or wear debris. Because additional inductor not required, size and complexity of circuit reduced considerably.

  5. Rotary head type reproducing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Takayama, Nobutoshi; Edakubo, Hiroo; Kozuki, Susumu; Takei, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    In an apparatus of the kind arranged to reproduce, with a plurality of rotary heads, an information signal from a record bearing medium having many recording tracks which are parallel to each other with the information signal recorded therein and with a plurality of different pilot signals of different frequencies also recorded one by one, one in each of the recording tracks, a plurality of different reference signals of different frequencies are simultaneously generated. A tracking error is detected by using the different reference signals together with the pilot signals which are included in signals reproduced from the plurality of rotary heads.

  6. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  7. Direct injection into the dorsal root ganglion: Technical, behavioral, and histological observations

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory; Kostic, Sandra; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Park, Frank; Sapunar, Damir; Yu, Hongwei; Hogan, Quinn

    2013-01-01

    Direct injection of agents into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) offers the opportunity to manipulate sensory neuron function at a segmental level to explore pathophysiology of painful conditions. However, there is no described method that has been validated in detail for such injections in adult rats. We have found that 2 (µl of dye injected through a pulled glass pipette directly into the distal DRG, exposed by a minimal foraminotomy, produces complete filling of the DRG with limited extension into the spinal roots. Injection into the spinal nerve required 3 µl to achieve comparable DRG filling, produced preferential spread into the ventral root, and was accompanied by substantial leakage of injected solution from the injection site. Injections into the sciatic nerve of volumes up to 10 (µl did not reach the DRG. Transient hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation at threshold (von Frey) and noxious levels (pin) developed after 2 µl saline injection directly into the DRG that was in part attributable to the surgical exposure procedure alone. Only minimal astrocyte activation in the spinal dorsal horn was evident after DRG saline injections. Injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector conveying green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene resulted in expression as soon as 1 day after injection into the DRG, including fibers in the spinal dorsal horn and columns. AAV injection into the DRG produced additional thermal hypersensitivity and withdrawal from the stroke of a brush and compromised motor performance. These findings demonstrate a method for selective injection of agents into single DRGs for anatomically restricted actions. PMID:21540055

  8. Asymptotic analysis soot model and experiment for a directed injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Pei, Pucheng; Xiong, Qinghui; Lu, Yong

    2012-09-01

    The existing soot models are either too complex and can not be applied to the internal combustion engine, or too simple to make calculation errors. Exploring the soot model becomes the pursuit of the goal of many researchers within the error range in the current computer speed. On the basis of the latest experimental results, TP (temperature phases) model is presented as a new soot model to carry out optimization calculation for a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature and excess air factor are the most important two parameters in this model. When zone temperature T<1 500 K and excess air factor Φ>0.6, only the soot precursors—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) is created and there is no soot emission. When zone temperature T ⩾ 1 500 K and excess air factor Φ<0.6, PAHs and soot source terms (particle inception, surface growth, oxidation, coagulation) are calculated. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimizing. KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed for the results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP models. The experimental results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and computational fluid dynamics can be a tool to calculate for a high-pressure common rail directed injection diesel engine. The TP model result is closer than the use of the original KIVA-3V results of soot model accuracy by about 50% and TP model gives a new method for engine researchers.

  9. Simulation of spray-turbulence-flame interactions in a lean direct injection combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Nayan; Menon, Suresh

    2008-04-15

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) of a liquid-fueled lean-direct injection (LDI) combustor is carried out by resolving the entire inlet flow path through the swirl vanes and the combustor. A localized dynamic subgrid closure is combined with a subgrid mixing and combustion model so that no adjustable parameters are required. The inflow spray is specified by a Kelvin-Helmholtz (or aerodynamic) breakup model and compared with LES without breakup, where the incoming spray is approximated using measured data just downstream of the injector. Overall, both time-averaged gas and droplet velocity predictions compare well with the measured data. The major impact of breakup is on fuel evaporation in the vicinity of the injector. Further downstream, a broad spectrum of drop sizes are recovered by the breakup simulation and produces spray quality, as in the no-breakup case. It is shown that the vortex breakdown bubble (VBB) is smaller with more intense reverse flow when there is heat release. The swirling shear layer plays a major role in spray dispersion and the VBB provides an efficient flame-holding mechanism to stabilize the flame. Unsteady features such as the efficient dispersion of the spray by the precessing vortex core (PVC) are well captured. Flame structure analysis using the Takeno flame index shows the presence of a diffusion flame in the central portion, whereas premixed burning mode is observed farther away. Instantaneous thermochemical states of fuel-air mixing and oxidation indicate significant departure from the gaseous diffusion limits, consistent with earlier observations. Additionally, particle-particle and particle-gas correlations are analyzed and discussed. (author)

  10. Modeling near-field dispersion from direct injection of carbon dioxide into the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baixin; Song, Yongchen; Nishio, Masahiro; Someya, Satoshi; Akai, Makoto

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have predicted the dynamics of double plume formation and dispersion from direct injection of liquid CO2 into middle-depth ocean water. To do so, we used a three-dimensional, two-fluid numerical model. The model consists of a CO2 droplet submodel and a small-scale turbulent ocean submodel, both of which were calibrated against field observation data. With an injection rate of 100 kg s-1 CO2, numerical simulations indicated that the injection of 8-mm-diameter CO2 droplets from fixed ports at 858 m (20 m above the seafloor) into a current flowing at 2.5 cm s-1 could create a plume that reaches the bottom and has at most a 2.6-unit decrease in pH. The strong interaction between the buoyant rise of the liquid CO2 and the fall of the CO2-enriched water produced a vertically wavy plume tip at about 190 m above the seafloor. The maximum pH decrease, however, was kept to 1.7 units when the liquid CO2 had an initial droplet diameter of 20 mm and it was injected at 1500 m from a towed pipe with a ship speed of 3.0 m s-1. After 70 min the double plume developed into a single-phase passive plume with a vertical scale of 450 m and a horizontal scale larger than 150 m. This development was attributable to the droplets' buoyant rise and dissolution, along with ocean turbulence, which together diluted the plume and reduced the decrease in pH to less than 0.5 units.

  11. Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2016-01-01

    New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal. In addition, lean GDI engine exhaust temperatures are generally higher than diesel engines which results in more continuous regeneration of the GPF and less presence of the soot cake layer common to diesel particulate filters. Since the soot layer improves filtration efficiency, this distinction is important to consider. Research on the emission control of PM from a lean GDI engine with a GPF was conducted on an engine dynamometer. PM, after dilution, was characterized with membrane filters, organic vs. elemental carbon characterization, and size distribution techniques at various steady state engine speed and load points. The engine was operated in three primary combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean homogeneous, and lean stratified. In addition, rich combustion was utilized to simulate PM from engine operation during active regeneration of lean NOx control technologies. High (>95%) PM filtration efficiencies were observed over a wide range of conditions; however, some PM was observed to slip through the GPF at high speed and load conditions. The

  12. Rotary and Rotary-Percussive Drilling of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Maksymuk, M.; Wilson, J.; Santoro, C.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Roberts, D.; Kumar, N.; Kusack, A.

    2008-12-01

    Honeybee Robotics has been developing a rotary and a rotary-preliminary drill system for planetary exploration. This is a test drill with a power rating of 1000 Watt, whose purpose it to test various drill bits and augers in rotary and rotary percussive operation. It is not optimized for power or mass but rather to acquire qualitative drilling data such as penetration rate, power, and torque, temperature, Weight on Bit, vibration energy and others. In addition, the design of the drill allows it to acquire drill bit temperatures and use pneumatic system (instead of augers) for removing of rock cuttings. The drill is designed to have a 1 meter stroke. In addition to the drill system, we have been developing a matching split vacuum chamber, which is 3ft wide, 3ft deep and 11 feet tall. The chamber consists of two smaller chambers (84 inches tall and 48 inches tall) assembled on top of each other. This allows for additional flexibility if only a smaller chamber is required for some testing. The chamber will be able to maintain pressure of below 1 torr. Maintaining sample temperature will be achieved by closed loop cooling system down to -40C or by using liquid nitrogen that allows a temperature of 77K. The test samples can be varied raging from solid rocks, to loose soils to icy soils and pure ice. The sample holder could also be integrated with temperatures for acquiring of thermal data during drilling process.

  13. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, S.

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization. Tabs, figs, refs.

  14. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  15. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  16. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  17. Insights on postinjection-associated soot emissions in direct injection diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Arregle, Jean; Pastor, Jose V.; Lopez, J. Javier; Garcia, Antonio

    2008-08-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out in order to better understand combustion behavior in a direct injection diesel engine when using postinjections. More specifically, the aim of the study is twofold: (1) to better understand the mechanism of a postinjection to reduce soot and (2) to improve the understanding of the contribution of the postinjection combustion on the total soot emissions by looking at the effect of the postinjection timing variation and the postinjection mass variation on the soot emissions associated with the postinjection. The study is focused only on far postinjections, and the explored operating conditions include the use of EGR. The first objective was fulfilled analyzing some results from a previous work adding only a few complementary results. Concerning the second objective, the basic idea behind the analysis performed is the search of appropriate parameters physically linked to the processes under analysis. These parameters are found based on the state-of-the-art of diesel combustion. For the effect of the postinjection timing, the physical parameter found was the temperature of the unburned gases at the end of injection, T{sub ug{sub E}}{sub oI}. It was checked that a threshold level of T{sub ug{sub E}}{sub oI} ({proportional_to}700 K for the cases explored here) exists below which soot is unable to be formed, independently of the postinjection size, and the amount of soot increases as the temperature increases beyond this threshold. For the effect of the postinjection size, the physical parameter that was found was DoI/ACT (the ratio between the actual duration of injection and the time necessary for mixing - the apparent combustion time). This parameter can quantify when the postinjection is able to produce soot (the threshold value is {proportional_to}0.37 for the cases explored here), and the amount of soot produced increases as this parameter increases beyond this threshold value. A function containing these two parameters has been

  18. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size

  19. Analysis of selected antibiotics in surface freshwater and seawater using direct injection in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bayen, Stéphane; Yi, Xinzhu; Segovia, Elvagris; Zhou, Zhi; Kelly, Barry C

    2014-04-18

    Emerging contaminants such as antibiotics have received recent attention as they have been detected in natural waters and health concerns over potential antibiotic resistance. With the purpose to investigate fast and high-throughput analysis, and eventually the continuous on-line analysis of emerging contaminants, this study presents results on the analysis of seven selected antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, tylosin) in surface freshwater and seawater using direct injection of a small sample volume (20μL) in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Notably, direct injection of seawater in the LC-ESI-MS/MS was made possible on account of the post-column switch on the system, which allows diversion of salt-containing solutions flushed out of the column to the waste. Mean recoveries based on the isotope dilution method average 95±14% and 96±28% amongst the compounds for spiked freshwater and seawater, respectively. Linearity across six spiking levels was assessed and the response was linear (r(2)>0.99) for all compounds. Direct injection concentrations were compared for real samples to those obtained with the conventional SPE-based analysis and both techniques concurs on the presence/absence and levels of the compounds in real samples. These results suggest direct injection is a reliable method to detect antibiotics in both freshwater and seawater. Method detection limits for the direct injection technique (37pg/L to 226ng/L in freshwater, and from 16pg/to 26ng/L in seawater) are sufficient for a number of environmental applications, for example the fast screening of water samples for ecological risk assessments. In the present study of real samples, this new method allowed for example the positive detection of some compounds (e.g. lincomycin) down to the sub ng/L range. The direct injection method appears to be relatively cheaper and faster

  20. Near-field Physical And Biological Impacts Of Direct Injection Of CO2 Into The Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Nishio, M.; Akai, M.

    2005-12-01

    .16, 1.14, and 1.10 for vertical injection. Associated with the pH reductions, the zooplanktons could be injured slightly if CO2 was injected by horizontal injection technology. The maximum injury degrees of 0.83 at elapsed time of 10 minutes and D0 = 5mm. These injured zooplanktons then recovered back with the injury degrees all being less then 3.0E-3 for each initial droplet diameters at elapsed time of 180 minutes. The recovery is due to the dilute of CO2 enriched seawater by ocean turbulence. However, it seems to be difficult for the injured zooplanktons in case of vertical injection that the maximum injury degrees remain large range of 0.9 for D0 = 5mm to 0.7 for D0 = 25mm even the elapsed time had been up to 180 minutes. From this study, we suggested that direct injection of CO2 into the ocean by the horizontal injection technology and a middle size of droplet (D0=15mm) at depths ranging from 1500m to 2500m could produce a slight near-filed physical and biological impact.

  1. Rotary Transformer Seals Power In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Paulkovich, J.

    1982-01-01

    Rotary transformer originally developed for spacecraft transfers electrical power from stationary primary winding to rotating secondary without sliding contacts and very little leakage of electromagnetic radiation. Transformer has two stationary primary windings connected in parallel. Secondary, mounted on a shaft that extends out of housing, rotates between two windings of primary. Shaft of secondary is composed of electrically conducting inner and outer parts separated by an insulator. Electrical contact is made from secondary winding, through shaft, to external leads.

  2. Rough/Smooth Rotary Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. C.; Jackson, E. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rotary seal for turbopump combines low leakage of labyrinth seal with high load capacity of smooth-surface annular seal. New seal acts as strong journal bearing that provides high stiffness - about same as that of ball bearings for turbopump shaft. Seal shares load with ball bearings and prolongs their lives. At same time, seal allows minimal leakage of fluid from pump. By combining leakage control and bearing functions, seal makes multiple seals unnecessary and allows compact design.

  3. Testing Dual Rotary Filters - 12373

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.T.; Fowley, M.D.; Stefanko, D.B.; Shedd, D.A.; Houchens, C.L.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek{sup R} Rotary Micro-filter units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system and develop a multi-filter automated control scheme. Developing and testing the control of multiple filters was the next step in the development of the rotary filter for deployment. The test stand was assembled using as much of the hardware planned for use in the field including instrumentation and valving. The control scheme developed will serve as the basis for the scheme used in deployment. The multi filter setup was controlled via an Emerson DeltaV control system running version 10.3 software. Emerson model MD controllers were installed to run the control algorithms developed during this test. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel developed the software used to operate the process test model. While a variety of control schemes were tested, two primary algorithms provided extremely stable control as well as significant resistance to process upsets that could lead to equipment interlock conditions. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The equipment selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve, the pressure transmitters, and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual rotary filter system. Experience acquired on a multi-filter system behavior and with the system layout during this test helped to identify areas where the current deployment rotary filter installation design could be improved. Completion of this testing provides the necessary

  4. Bio-mimicking rotary nanomotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Anatoly; Murokh, Lev; Savel'ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco

    2009-05-01

    We propose a simple design of a rotary nanomotor comprised of three quantum dots attached to the rotating ring (rotor) in the presence of an in-plane dc electric field. The quantum dots (sites) can be coupled to or decoupled from source and drain carrier reservoirs, depending on the relative positions of the leads and the dots. We derive equations for the site populations and solve these equations numerically jointly with the Langevin-type equation for the rotational angle. It is shown that the synchronous loading and unloading of the sites results in unidirectional rotation of the nanomotor. The corresponding particle current, torque, and energy conversion efficiency are determined. Our studies are applicable both to biologically-inspired rotary nanomotors, the F0 motor of ATP synthase and the bacterial flagellar motor, which use protons as carriers, and to novel artificial semiconductor systems using electrons. The efficiency of this semiconductor analog of the rotary biomotors is up to 85% at room temperature.

  5. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  6. Rotary kilns - transport phenomena and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, A.

    2008-01-15

    Rotary kilns and rotating industrial drying ovens are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This book treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution and Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing and Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame - includes section on types of fuels used in rotary kilns, coal types, ranking and analysis, petroleum coke combustion, scrap tire combustion, pulverized fuel (coal/coke) firing in kilns, pulverized fuel delivery and firing systems. Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass and Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications.

  7. Rotary balances: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Marie H.; Kilgore, Robert A.; Sych, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography on rotary balances contains 102 entries. It is part of NASA's support of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Working Group 11 on Rotary Balances. This bibliography includes works that might be useful to anyone interested in building or using rotor balances. Emphasis is on the rotary balance rigs and testing techniques rather than the aerodynamic data. Also included are some publications of historical interest which relate to key events in the development and use of rotary balances. The arrangement is chronological by date of publication in the case of reports and by presentation in the case of papers.

  8. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  9. Experimental study of the swirl motion in direct injection diesel engines under steady state flow conditions (by LDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Snauwaert, P.; Sierens, R.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed three-dimensional study of the mean flow and the turbulence inside the liner of a direct injection diesel engine under steady state flow conditions has been carried out by laser doppler anemometer measurements. The influence of the valve lift, the port orientation (using a cylinder head with variable direction of the inlet channel) and the mass flow on flow characteristics (kinetic energy distributions, momentum flux, swirl parameters) has been analysed. These flow characteristics have been used to analyse the relation between the real flow pattern and swirl parameters as measured by the flow rectifier method and the paddle wheel anemometer.

  10. Rotary high power transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Peter E. (Inventor); Porter, Ryan S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for reducing terminal-to-terminal circuit resistance and enhancing heat transfer in a rotary power transfer apparatus of the roll ring type comprising a connecting thimble for attaching an external power cable to a cone shaped terminal which is attached to a tab integral to an outer ring. An inner ring having a spherical recess mates with the spherical end of a tie connector. A cone shaped terminal is fitted to a second connecting thimble for attaching a second external power cable.

  11. High torque bellows seal rotary drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, A. J.; Macomber, J. W.; Adams, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Bellows seal rotary drive device was developed which allows high torque transmission through sealed compartments. Bearing friction which would normally be carried by sealing bellows in comparable devices is absorbed by universal-gimbal joint. It can be used to transmit high torque, low speed, rotary motion through sealed barriers to prevent contamination or escape of fluids.

  12. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  13. Torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling for transmitting rotary motion without unwanted vibration into the spindle of a machine tool. A drive member drives a driven member using flexible connecting loops which are connected tangentially and at diametrically opposite connecting points through a free floating ring.

  14. Linear rotary optical delay lines.

    PubMed

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2014-05-19

    I present several classes of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for the design of high-speed rotary optical delay lines that use a combination of stationary and rotating curvilinear reflectors. Detailed analysis of four distinct classes of optical delay lines is presented. Particularly, I consider delay lines based on a single rotating reflector, a single rotating reflector and a single stationary reflector, two rotating reflectors, and two rotating reflectors and a single stationary reflector. I demonstrate that in each of these cases it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating and stationary reflector surfaces. Moreover, in the case of two rotating reflectors a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, all the blades presented in this paper are chosen to fit into a circle of 10 cm diameter and these delay lines feature in excess of 600 ps of optical delay. Finally, two prototypes of rotary delay lines were fabricated using CNC machining, and their optical properties are characterized. PMID:24921303

  15. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, H.A.

    1983-08-23

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10[degree] to about 30[degree] in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device. 5 figs.

  16. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, Hubert A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10.degree. to about 30.degree. in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device.

  17. Achievements in rotary head magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallinson, John C.

    1990-06-01

    The principal achievements since 1980 in rotary head recording on magnetic tape are outlined. These developments are related to fundamental improvements in recording media, heads, the design of tape transports, and signal processing. The D-1 and D-2 video tape recorders (VTRs), the Hi-Band 8-mm video cassette recorder (VCR), and the rotary digital audio tape (R-DAT) recorders are discussed. The future of rotary head recorders for consumer digital VCRs, professional high-definition TV (HDTV) VTRs, and consumer HDTV VCRs is assessed.

  18. Rotary Stirling-Cycle Engine And Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electric-power generator comprises three motor generators coordinated by microprocessor and driven by rotary Stirling-cycle heat engine. Combination offers thermodynamic efficiency of Stirling cycle, relatively low vibration, and automatic adjustment of operating parameters to suit changing load on generator. Rotary Stirling cycle engine converts heat to power via compression and expansion of working gas between three pairs of rotary pistons on three concentric shafts in phased motion. Three motor/generators each connected to one of concentric shafts, can alternately move and be moved by pistons. Microprocessor coordinates their operation, including switching between motor and generator modes at appropriate times during each cycle.

  19. Cyclical bi-directional rotary actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stange, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A thermally powered rotary actuator is disclosed which is used for positioning a shaft in first and second positions which are disposed 180 deg apart. A pair of heat extensible springs are attached to the shaft and to the frame of the rotary actuator for selectively rotating the shaft from one of its two positions to the other position upon the application of heat to one of the heat extensible springs. The heat extensible springs are preferably constructed from the alloy 55-Nitinol. In the preferred embodiment, a detent mechanism is provided for locking the rotatable shaft in its two rotary positions.

  20. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  1. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  2. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  3. Direct injection method for quantitation of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Kimura, H; Maekubo, T; Tomita, T; Senda, M; Urata, G; Kajiwara, M

    1992-07-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for determining delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in urine was established, using direct injection of urine into a high-performance liquid chromatographic column, with fluorometric detection after post-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The recovery of ALA was about 100% and ALA was completely separated on an ion exchange column (retention time, 38 min). The detection limit for ALA was 10 pmol (S/N = 2). The mean levels of urinary ALA of 10 healthy volunteers, 4 patients with acute intermittent porphyria, and 2 workers occupationally exposed to lead were 0.76, 5.25, and 23.54 mg/l, respectively. Because of its simplicity, the method is considered to be suitable for routine analysis of urinary ALA in the clinical laboratory. PMID:1394716

  4. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  5. The effect of insulated combustion chamber surfaces on direct-injected diesel engine performance, emissions, and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Daniel W.; Vinyard, Shannon; Keribar, Rifat

    1988-01-01

    The combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine was insulated with ceramic coatings to determine the effect of low heat rejection (LHR) operation on engine performance, emissions, and combustion. In comparison to the baseline cooled engine, the LHR engine had lower thermal efficiency, with higher smoke, particulate, and full load carbon monoxide emissions. The unburned hydrocarbon emissions were reduced across the load range. The nitrous oxide emissions increased at some part-load conditions and were reduced slightly at full loads. The poor LHR engine performance was attributed to degraded combustion characterized by less premixed burning, lower heat release rates, and longer combustion duration compared to the baseline cooled engine.

  6. Studies of the Combustion Process with Simultaneous Formaldehyde and OH PLIF in a Direct-Injected HCCI Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Mattias; Collin, Robert; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hildingsson, Leif; Johansson, Bengt

    This paper presents simultaneous laser based measurements of formaldehyde and OH-radical distributions in a 0.5 liter optical HCCI engine with direct injection. Formaldehyde is formed as an intermediate species when combusting hydrocarbons. The formation occurs through low temperature reactions in an early phase of the combustion process. Later in the process formaldehyde is being consumed. Formaldehyde is, therefore, used as indicator of the first stage of combustion and a marker of zones with low-temperature reactions. The OH radical is formed as an intermediate during the high temperature reactions, and is used as a marker of zones where the combustion is ongoing. The purpose of the investigation was to study how the combustion process is affected by the change in homogeneity that arises from early and late injection, respectively. The measurement technique used was planar laser-induced fluorescence where formaldehyde was excited at 355nm and OH at 283nm.

  7. Rotary motion driven by a direct current electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takinoue, Masahiro; Atsumi, Yu; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-03-01

    We report the rotary motion of an aqueous microdroplet in an oil phase under a stationary direct current electric field. A droplet exhibits rotary motion under a suitable geometrical arrangement of positive and negative electrodes. Rotary motion appears above a certain critical electric potential and its frequency increases with an increase in the potential. A simple theoretical model is proposed to describe the occurrence of this rotary motion, together with an argument for the future expansion of this micro rotary motor system.

  8. Determining ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products by combining direct injection with micelle collapse on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Wen-Yao; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Feng, Chia-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2015-02-27

    The on-line preconcentration technique of analyte focusing by micelle collapse-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (AFMC-MEKC) was combined with direct injection without extraction to determine ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products. The stacking mechanism is based on the transport, release, and accumulation of analytes bound to micelle carriers that are collapsed into the micelle dilution zone. The following optimized conditions were determined: the running buffer was 10mM Tris buffer (pH 9.5) containing 60mM SDS, 7mM γ-CD and 20% ethanol; the SDS concentration was required to be slightly above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) value (7.4mM) in the sample matrix, which allowed the micelle dilution zone to form when voltage was applied; and finally, the sample was prepared in 100mM Tris buffer (pH 9.0) containing 7.5mM SDS and 20% (v/v) ethanol to provide sufficient resolution and to improve the sensitivity. Samples were injected at 0.5psi for 40s, and the separation voltage was set at 15kV for first 15min and then increased to 23kV to decrease the analysis time. The detection sensitivity for ultraviolet absorbents was enhanced by approximately 41-fold using AFMC-MEKC compared to conventional MEKC. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 98nM for benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-4. The correlation of the regression curve was greater than 0.995. The relative error and relative standard deviation were lower than 9.94% with high precision and accuracy. The recoveries of nine ultraviolet absorbents in a homemade emulsion were between 95.08% and 104.57%. After optimization and validation, this AFMC-MEKC method combined with direct injection is considered to be established and successfully applicable to commercial sunscreen products. PMID:25637009

  9. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings—like wheels on an axle—demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  10. Gear drive automatically indexes rotary table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Combination indexer and drive unit drills equally spaced circular hole patterns on rotary tables. It automatically rotates the table a distance exactly equal to one hole spacing for each revolution of a special idler gear.

  11. Electronic controller for reciprocating rotary crystallizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.; Reiss, Donald A.; Hester, Howard B.

    1988-01-01

    An electronic controller for a reciprocating rotary crystallizer is described. The heart of this system is the electronic timer circuit. A schematic along with a detailed description of its operation is given.

  12. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, Jos C M; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings--like wheels on an axle--demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system. PMID:26492009

  13. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  14. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  15. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD

  16. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  17. Rotary valve internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Coman, C.R.

    1987-04-21

    A rotary valve internal combustion engine is described which comprises: a cylinder block having a cylindrical recess therein, a cylindrical bore transverse to the cylindrical recess, an exhaust passageway leading from the cylindrical bore, and an intake passageway leading to the cylindrical bore. A cylindrical piston sealably reciprocable in the cylindrical recess wherein the space defined by the piston and the walls of the cylindrical recess forms a combustion chamber. An arcuate passageway in the block between the cylindrical bore and the combustion chamber; a crankshaft connected to the piston; ignition means in communication with the combustion chamber; carburetion means in connection with the intake passageway to provide a fuel-air mixture; a cylindrical valve rotatably received in the cylindrical bore, the cylindrical valve having a hollow cylindrical body, open ends, at least two axially aligned intake ports near one end of the cylindrical body, at least two axially aligned exhaust ports near the opposite end of the cylindrical body, at least four axially aligned arcuate center openings between the exhaust ports and the intake ports, and at least for internal tubes, each tube connecting one of the center openings with one of the intake or exhaust ports; a sprocket wheel extending from one end of the cylindrical valve; and a tooth belt extending between the sprocket wheel and the crankshaft.

  18. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Fan, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery.

  19. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z X; Zhu, F Q; Fan, D L

    2016-05-19

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery. PMID:27152885

  20. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.

  1. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over amore » variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.« less

  2. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  3. Computational study of interfacial charge transfer complexes of 2-anthroic acid adsorbed on a titania nanocluster for direct injection solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Kotsis, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    Adsorption and light absorption properties of interfacial charge transfer complexes of 2-anthroic acid and titania, promising for direct-injection solar cells, are studied ab initio. The formation of interfacial charge transfer bands is observed. The intensity of visible absorption is relatively low, highlighting a key challenge facing direct injection cells. We show that the popular strategy of using a lower level of theory for geometry optimization followed by single point calculations of adsorption or optical properties introduces significant errors which have been underappreciated: by up to 3 eV in adsorption energies, by up to 5 times in light absorption intensity.

  4. Crevice flow and combustion visualization in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine using laser imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, M.C.; Fansler, T.D.; French, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Crevice flows of hydrocarbon fuel (both liquid and vapor) have been observed directly from fuel-injector mounting and nozzle-exit crevices in an optically-accessible single-cylinder direct-injection two-stroke engine burning commercial gasoline. Fuel trapped in crevices escapes combustion during the high-pressure portions of the engine cycle, exits the crevice as the cylinder pressure decreases, partially reacts when mixed with hot combustion gases in the cylinder, and contributes to unburned hydrocarbon emissions. High-speed laser Mie-scattering imaging reveals substantial liquid crevice flow in a cold engine at light load, decreasing as the engine warms up and as load is increased. Single-shot laser induced fluorescence imaging of fuel (both vapor and liquid) shows that substantial fuel vapor emanates from fuel injector crevices during every engine cycle and for all operating conditions. Early in the crevice-flow process, some of the emerging fuel vapor (imaged by laser-induced fluorescence) burns as a rich diffusion flame (imaged by flame luminosity), but most of the crevice flow fails to burn as the cylinder pressure and temperature fall. Crevice HC`s are a significant (but not the predominant) source of hydrocarbon emissions in this two-stroke engine, since most of the crevice flow hydrocarbons are retained as residual fuel in the combustion chamber. Similar laser-imaging techniques are applicable to four-stroke spark-ignition engines, where crevice flows are believed to be the dominant hydrocarbon-emissions source.

  5. Detection of s-triazine pesticides in natural waters by modified large-volume direct injection HPLC.

    PubMed

    Beale, David J; Kaserzon, Sarit L; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A; Carpenter, Peter D

    2010-07-15

    There is a need for simple and inexpensive methods to quantify potentially harmful persistent pesticides often found in our water-ways and water distribution systems. This paper presents a simple, relatively inexpensive method for the detection of a group of commonly used pesticides (atrazine, simazine and hexazinone) in natural waters using large-volume direct injection high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) utilizing a monolithic column and a single wavelength ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) detector. The best results for this system were obtained with a mobile phase made up of acetonitrile and water in a 30:70 ratio, a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), and a detector wavelength of 230 nm. Using this method, we achieved retention times of less than three minutes, and detection limits of 5.7 microg L(-1) for atrazine, 4.7 microg L(-1) for simazine and 4.0 microg L(-1) for hexazinone. The performance of this method was validated with an inter-laboratory trial against a National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) accredited liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method commonly used in commercial laboratories. PMID:20602952

  6. Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol by Direct Injection of Electrons into Immobilized Enzymes on a Modified Electrode.

    PubMed

    Schlager, Stefanie; Dumitru, Liviu Mihai; Haberbauer, Marianne; Fuchsbauer, Anita; Neugebauer, Helmut; Hiemetsberger, Daniela; Wagner, Annika; Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2016-03-21

    We present results for direct bio-electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 products using electrodes with immobilized enzymes. Enzymatic reduction reactions are well known from biological systems where CO2 is selectively reduced to formate, formaldehyde, or methanol at room temperature and ambient pressure. In the past, the use of such enzymatic reductions for CO2 was limited due to the necessity of a sacrificial co-enzyme, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), to supply electrons and the hydrogen equivalent. The method reported here in this paper operates without the co-enzyme NADH by directly injecting electrons from electrodes into immobilized enzymes. We demonstrate the immobilization of formate, formaldehyde, and alcohol dehydrogenases on one-and-the-same electrode for direct CO2 reduction. Carbon felt is used as working electrode material. An alginate-silicate hybrid gel matrix is used for the immobilization of the enzymes on the electrode. Generation of methanol is observed for the six-electron reduction with Faradaic efficiencies of around 10%. This method of immobilization of enzymes on electrodes offers the opportunity for electrochemical application of enzymatic electrodes to many reactions in which a substitution of the expensive sacrificial co-enzyme NADH is desired. PMID:26890322

  7. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%. PMID:25679531

  8. Influence of mileage accumulation on the particle mass and number emissions of two gasoline direct injection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd

    2013-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made. PMID:24040936

  9. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carolyn; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-08-30

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

  10. A Low NO(x) Lean-Direct Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combuster Concept for Advanced Aircraft Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert; Wey, Changlie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    A low NO(x) emissions combustor has been demonstrated in flame-tube tests. A multipoint, lean-direct injection concept was used. Configurations were tested that had 25- and 36- fuel injectors in the size of a conventional single fuel injector. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers and fuel manifold into a single element. Test conditions were inlet temperatures up to 810 K, inlet pressures up to 2760 kPa, and flame temperatures up to 2100 K. A correlation was developed relating the NO(x) emissions with the inlet temperature, inlet pressure, fuel-air ratio and pressure drop. Assuming that 10 percent of the combustion air would be used for liner cooling and using a hypothetical engine cycle, the NO(x) emissions using the correlation from flame-tube tests were estimated to be less than 20 percent of the 1996 ICAO standard.

  11. Evaluation of volatile compounds in different types of ghee using direct injection with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wadodkar, Uday R; Punjrath, Jagjit S; Shah, Amrish C

    2002-02-01

    Desi ghee (DG) was prepared from fermented cream followed by heat clarification (desi method) in the laboratory and butter oil (BO) was prepared from fresh butter by melting and centrifugation. Fresh samples of three brands of industrial ghee (IG-1, IG-2, IG-3) were collected from the local market. Volatile compounds of desi and industrial ghee and butter oil were isolated and concentrated using direct injection and cryofocussing techniques; separation and identification was by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). A maximum of 36 compounds were detected in desi ghee whereas compounds detected in three industrial ghee samples varied from 22-29. The lowest number of compounds (16) was detected in butter oil. Of the identified compounds, maltol, 5-hydroxymethyl furfuraldehyde, dihydrodihydroxypyranone, 1,3-butanediol and 1-octanol were identified only in desi ghee volatiles. The concentration of acetic acid was found to be remarkably higher in desi ghee volatiles than in industrial ghee. Also the levels of identified fatty acids, methyl ketones, aldehydes, lactones and alcohols were high in desi ghee volatiles compared with industrial ghee and butter oil. In total, 62 compounds were detected, which included 6 aldehydes, 12 ketones, 8 each of fatty acids, alcohols and lactones, 4 each of esters and hydrocarbons or other compounds, and 12 compounds remained unidentified. PMID:12047107

  12. Bulk organic matter and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water during groundwater recharge by enhanced direct injection well.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang; Xuzhou, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Water shortages lead to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. A new kind of approach, enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir) consisting of short- and long-term soil treatment, is considered to be suitable for large cities in China. In this paper, EnDir was simulated by soil columns in the laboratory with the secondary effluent as raw water that was ozonated before EnDir. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term part of EnDir can remove 47 to 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), convert 5 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen to equivalent nitrate-nitrogen, and offer preferred removal of non-UV-absorbing organics. Soluble microbial byproducts and fulvic-acid-like materials can be ozonated and then partially biodegraded. The residuals of organic matter as a refractory fraction are biodegraded continuously during the long-term part. The DOC value of 1.8 to 2.5 mg/L can be reached, and 40% of organic matter with molecular weight less than 500 Da can be removed after full-term EnDir. PMID:19280901

  13. Direct injection method for HPLC/MS/MS analysis of acrylamide in aqueous solutions: application to adsorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Ines; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides are polymers used in many fields and represent the main source of release of the highly toxic acrylamide in the environment. In this work, a simple, rapid, and sensitive analytical method was developed with HPLC/MS/MS and direct injection for acrylamide analysis in water and adsorption samples. AFNOR standards NF T90-210 and NF T90-220 were used for the analytical method validation and uncertainty estimation. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for acrylamide was 1 μg/L, and accuracy was checked at three acrylamide levels (1, 6, and 10 μg/L). Uncertainties were estimated at 34.2, 22, and 12.4 % for acrylamide concentrations at LOQ, 6 μg/L, and 10 μg/L, respectively. Acrylamide adsorption on clays (kaolinite, illite) and sludge was then studied as a function of pH, time, and acrylamide concentrations. Acrylamide adsorption on kaolinite, illite, and sludge was found to be very weak since adsorption percentages were inferior to 10 %, whatever the pH value and the initial acrylamide concentration. The low affinity of acrylamide for clays and sludge is likely due to its hydrophilic property, small size, and charge neutrality. PMID:25388555

  14. Original use of a direct injection high efficiency nebulizer for the standardization of liquid fuels spray flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, R.; Maugendre, M.; Schuller, T.; Therssen, E.; Yon, J.

    2009-10-01

    It is of practical importance to lead laboratory-scale experiments allowing a better understanding of the impact of commercial fuels composition on the formation of combustion residues such as soot particles. To this end, a hybrid burner has been designed recently to burn high-speed sprays of small liquid fuel droplets. It consists of a Holthuis (previously McKenna) burner originally equipped with a direct injection high efficiency nebulizer for the atomization of liquid hydrocarbons. A detailed description of this original setup is given in this paper. A priori estimations of atomization and evaporation times and length scales are then proposed and compared with experimental data. Droplet-size distribution measurements obtained in nonreacting conditions using a Malvern Spraytec particle sizer are presented and compared with values estimated by calculation. Cold sprays contours and liquid jet lengths in flames determined by Mie scattering at 532 and 1064 nm, respectively, are also presented. The results discussed in this work indicate that the hydrodynamic characteristics of the sprays generated with our system are relatively independent of the physical properties of fuels leading to comparable flames with identical liquid jet lengths, dimensions, and global structure. This feature facilitates an accurate comparison of flames burning various liquid hydrocarbons, which is of interest to emphasize differences in pollutants emissions and to highlight chemical effects for soot formation analysis.

  15. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  16. Different regulatory sequences control creatine kinase-M gene expression in directly injected skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, C K; Gualberto, A; Patel, C V; Walsh, K

    1993-01-01

    Regulatory sequences of the M isozyme of the creatine kinase (MCK) gene have been extensively mapped in skeletal muscle, but little is known about the sequences that control cardiac-specific expression. The promoter and enhancer sequences required for MCK gene expression were assayed by the direct injection of plasmid DNA constructs into adult rat cardiac and skeletal muscle. A 700-nucleotide fragment containing the enhancer and promoter of the rabbit MCK gene activated the expression of a downstream reporter gene in both muscle tissues. Deletion of the enhancer significantly decreased expression in skeletal muscle but had no detectable effect on expression in cardiac muscle. Further deletions revealed a CArG sequence motif at position -179 within the promoter that was essential for cardiac-specific expression. The CArG element of the MCK promoter bound to the recombinant serum response factor and YY1, transcription factors which control expression from structurally similar elements in the skeletal actin and c-fos promoters. MCK-CArG-binding activities that were similar or identical to serum response factor and YY1 were also detected in extracts from adult cardiac muscle. These data suggest that the MCK gene is controlled by different regulatory programs in adult cardiac and skeletal muscle. Images PMID:8423791

  17. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine.

    PubMed

    Smith, James D; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion. PMID:16270557

  18. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  19. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  20. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1 1/2 inches inner pipe size, 3 inches vacuum jacket, and 4 inches inner pipe size, 6 inches vacuum jacket. The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 inch and 6 inch pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

  1. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

  2. Simulation of a Single-Element Lean-Direct Injection Combustor Using a Polyhedral Mesh Derived from Hanging-Node Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the procedures of generating a polyhedral mesh derived from hanging-node elements as well as presents sample results from its application to the numerical solution of a single element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor using an open-source version of the National Combustion Code (NCC).

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  4. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  5. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress. PMID:27369091

  6. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  7. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (Ω pilot ∼ 0.2-0.6 and Ω overall ∼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant Ω pilot (> 0.5), increasing Ω overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing Ω overall (at constant Ω pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  8. Determination of metformin in rat plasma by HILIC-MS/MS combined with Tecan automation and direct injection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Han, Futian; Zhao, Harry; Lin, Zhongping John; Huang, Qingtao Mike; Weng, Naidong

    2012-10-01

    Metformin is a well-known oral antihyperglycemic drug used in treatment of type II diabetes. Analysis of metformin in biological fluids is a challenge owing to its high polarity and small molecular size, which lead to poor retention of metformin on reversed-phase liquid chromatographic columns. A high-throughput method was developed and validated for the determination of metformin in rat plasma in support of preclinical toxicology studies, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) and Tecan automated sample preparation. Extracted samples were directly injected onto the unbounded silica column with an aqueous-organic mobile phase. This HILIC-MS/MS method was validated for accuracy, precision, sensitivity, stability, matrix effect, recovery and calibration range. Acceptable intra-run and inter-run assay precision (coefficient of variation ≤ 3.9%) and accuracy (99.0-101.8%) were achieved over a linear range of 50-50,000 ng/mL. Metformin is stable in rat plasma for at least 6 h at room temperature, 147 days at -70°C and through three freeze (-70°C) and thaw cycles. Metformin is also stable in rat whole blood for at least 2 h at room temperature and in an ice-water bath. The validated method was successfully used in support of several preclinical studies where metformin is dosed together with an investigational drug substance. The ruggedness of the validated method was demonstrated by the incurred sample reproducibility test. PMID:22213213

  9. Fast quantification of chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples by direct injection high-resolution mass spectrometry with pattern deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Alsberg, Tomas; Diefenbacher, Pascal S; MacLeod, Matthew; Berger, Urs

    2015-03-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals, but data about their environmental fate are scarce. CP mixtures composed of thousands of isomers represent a major challenge for quantification at low levels in environmental samples. Here, we present a novel analytical method for analysis of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain CPs in a single injection, that also yields information about congener group pattern. Our detection method is based on direct injection into an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode under chlorine-enhanced conditions, followed by quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (APCI-qTOF-HRMS) operated in full-scan mode. A mathematical algorithm is applied to deconvolute the CP patterns in the analyzed samples into a linear combination of patterns of technical CP mixtures and to quantify CPs using technical mixtures as external calibration standards. For CP mixtures with known composition, the new method provided concentrations that were within a factor of 1.2 of the target value. Accuracies for CPs spiked to sediment and fish extracts were between 91% and 123%. Concentrations determined in unspiked field samples were within a factor of 5 for short-chain CPs and a factor of 16 for medium-chain CPs of results obtained with an independent method based on gas chromatography/electron capture negative ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-HRMS). The presented APCI-qTOF-HRMS pattern deconvolution method is an interesting alternative for CP analysis in environmental samples. It is particularly sensitive for medium- and long-chain CPs and has the advantage of being extremely fast (instrumental analysis time, less than 1 min). PMID:25668073

  10. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-02

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.

  11. Effect of horizontal grid resolution on simulations of oceanic CFC-11 uptake and direct injection of anthropogenic CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickett, M. E.; Caldeira, K.; Duffy, P. B.

    2003-06-01

    We simulate direct injection of CO2 and uptake of CFC-11 in a global, three-dimensional ocean general circulation model using two model resolutions: a coarse resolution of 4° in longitude by 2° in latitude and a finer resolution of 1° in both longitude and latitude. We assess the impact of resolution on the relative effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration for four different injection sites: New York at 710 and 3025 m depths and San Francisco at 710 and 3025 m depths. Results show that deep injection is generally effective, with relatively small differences in retention, transport, and fluxes between the two resolutions. Results for the change in ocean pH due to CO2 injection show that resolution does limit the details at sufficiently small scales, with the finer resolution showing greater maximum pH changes. Model predictions of CFC-11 uptake generally have shallower penetration than is seen in observations, and the differences between the model resolutions are much smaller than the differences between either simulation and the observations. There is no persuasive evidence of improvement of large-scale results with globally higher horizontal resolution in these non-eddy-resolving simulations to justify the computational expense. However, when local details are the primary interest, the use of higher resolution may be justified. We suggest that the best approach to improving the results of coarse-resolution ocean models is not to globally increase horizontal resolution outside of the eddy-resolving regime, but rather to pursue other approaches such as improved numerical methods, better parameterizations of sub-grid-scale processes, better forcing data, or perhaps local resolution increases.

  12. Determination of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in wastewater by direct injection followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-09-15

    A simple, fast and reliable analytical method for the determination of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in wastewater was developed and validated. The method was based on direct injection followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole as mass analyzer. Transformation products and analogues were included in the target list besides the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil). The method performance was thoroughly investigated, including the analyte stability in wastewater and matrix effect. All target compounds presented linear fits between their LOD and 500ng/L. The quantification limits ranged from 1.6 to 30ng/L for all compounds except for n-octylnortadalafil (LOQ: 100ng/L); precision calculated as intraday repeatability was lower than 30%; accuracy calculated as procedural recovery ranged successfully between 85 and 105% in all cases. The method was applied to samples collected during three week-long monitoring campaigns performed in 2013, 2014 and 2015 in three Dutch cities. Only sildenafil and its two metabolites, desmethyl- and desethylsildenafil, were present with normalized loads ranging from LOQ to 8.3, 11.8 and 21.6mg/day/1000 inh, respectively. Two additional week-long sets of samples were collected in Amsterdam at the time that a festival event took place, bringing around 350,000 visitors to the city. The difference in drug usage patterns was statistically studied: "weekday" versus "weekend", "normal" versus "atypical" week; and results discussed. The metabolite to parent drug concentration ratio evolution during consecutive years was discussed, leading to several possible explanations that should be further investigated. Finally, wastewater-based epidemiology approach was applied to back-calculate sildenafil consumption. PMID:27161135

  13. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  18. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Barnes, Gary R.; Fric, Thomas Frank; Lyons, James Patrick Francis; Pierce, Kirk Gee; Holley, William Edwin; Barbu, Corneliu

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  19. PARTITIONING OF METALS IN ROTARY KILN INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project investigated the fate of trace metals in rotary kiln incineration with venturi- and packed tower-scrubber particulate- and acid gas-control. est plan was developed, using a factorial experimental design, to study the partitioning of metals among kiln ash, sc...

  20. Deformation analysis of rotary combustion engine housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilmann, Carl

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of the deformation of rotary combustion engine housings targeted the following objectives: (1) the development and verification of a finite element model of the trochoid housing, (2) the prediction of the stress and deformation fields present within the trochoid housing during operating conditions, and (3) the development of a specialized preprocessor which would shorten the time necessary for mesh generation of a trochoid housing's FEM model from roughly one month to approximately two man hours. Executable finite element models were developed for both the Mazda and the Outboard Marine Corporation trochoid housings. It was also demonstrated that a preprocessor which would hasten the generation of finite element models of a rotary engine was possible to develop. The above objectives are treated in detail in the attached appendices. The first deals with finite element modeling of a Wankel engine center housing, and the second with the development of a preprocessor that generates finite element models of rotary combustion engine center housings. A computer program, designed to generate finite element models of user defined rotary combustion engine center housing geometries, is also included.

  1. Sector Tests of a Low-NO(sub x), Lean, Direct- Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combustor Concept Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.; Wey, Chang-Lie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    The low-emissions combustor development described is directed toward advanced high pressure aircraft gas-turbine applications. The emphasis of this research is to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high-power conditions and to maintain carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons at their current low levels at low power conditions. Low-NOx combustors can be classified into rich-burn and lean-burn concepts. Lean-burn combustors can be further classified into lean-premixed-prevaporized (LPP) and lean direct injection (LDI) concepts. In both concepts, all the combustor air, except for liner cooling flow, enters through the combustor dome so that the combustion occurs at the lowest possible flame temperature. The LPP concept has been shown to have the lowest NOx emissions, but for advanced high-pressure-ratio engines, the possibility of autoignition or flashback precludes its use. LDI differs from LPP in that the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone, and thus, it does not have the potential for autoignition or flashback and should have greater stability. However, since it is not premixed and prevaporized, good atomization is necessary and the fuel must be mixed quickly and uniformly so that flame temperatures are low and NOx formation levels are comparable to those of LPP. The LDI concept described is a multipoint fuel injection/multiburning zone concept. Each of the multiple fuel injectors has an air swirler associated with it to provide quick mixing and a small recirculation zone for burning. The multipoint fuel injection provides quick, uniform mixing and the small multiburning zones provide for reduced burning residence time, resulting in low NOx formation. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers, and fuel manifold into a single element. The multipoint concept combustor was demonstrated in a 15 sector test. The configuration tested had 36

  2. Rapid determination of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Dong; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young; Paeng, Ki-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 μL) mixed with 80 μL of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 μL) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, α-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and α-hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully

  3. Mathematical study of methods to reduce emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate from a compression ignited, direct injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiming

    2001-11-01

    A phenomenological model based on the multizone concept and a three-dimensional CFD model were used to predict the effect of engine modification on particulated and NOx emission from a compression ignited direct injection (CIDI) engine. The phenomenological model consisted of a spray model, an evaporation model, a heat release model, NOx formation, soot formation, and oxidation model, and can be used to predict the combustion process and pollutant emission in a CIDI diesel engine. The advantage of the multizone model over the 3-D CFD model is the small CPU and memory it requires for a simulation. In this study, the phenomenological model was used to investigate (1) the effect of increasing the intake-air O2 content on soot and NO x emission as a function of power level and wall temperature; and (2) the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and split fuel injection on pollutant emission, and compare their soot penalty at a given NOx emission. The results indicate that EGR with a relatively low temperature can reduce NOx emission with a minimum penalty of soot particle emission. The use of EGR is promising for significantly reducing NOx emission with small or no penalty of soot particle emission. The effect of auxiliary gas injection (AGI) on diesel engine combustion and emission was studied using KIVA 3V, a multidimensional computation fluid dynamics code. AGI enhances the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce the emission of pollutants. The simulation of a high-speed gas jet model with a relatively coarse computational grids was described. The choice of turbulent length scale for optimum simulation suitability is dependent of local mesh grid. The results demonstrate that AGI creates a second-way flow in the cylinder, which improves the mixing of charge in the cylinder. The effect of AGI on combustion and flow movement is significant. The use of exhaust gas on the AGI can reduce soot emission, while NOx emission also can be decreased to some degree. To reduce

  4. Rapid identification of vinca alkaloids by direct-injection electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry and confirmation by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Tai, Yuanpo; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2005-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the identification of Vinca alkaloids from a crude extract of Catharanthus roseus G. Don (Apocynaceae) by direct-injection electrospray ionisation (ESI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been developed. The alkaloids vindoline, vindolidine, vincristine and vinblastine were evaluated in a commercial extract of C. roseus using this method. Catharanthine and its isomers 19S-vindolinine and vindolinine were detected in the commercial product by direct injection ESI/MS/MS and confirmed by preparation and by HPLC-ESI/MS. For the characterisation of different fragment fingerprints, ESI/MS/MS is a sensitive, rapid and convenient technique by which to identify some constituents in complex and mixed plant extracts. PMID:16223089

  5. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  6. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-02-28

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2.

  7. Transient phenomena in rotary-kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. EPA into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. (NOTE: The batch introduction of waste-filled drums or containers into practical rotary-kiln incinerators can lead to transient overcharging conditions which, for brevity, are here denoted as 'puffs.') The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73-kW laboratory rotary-kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes (plastic rods) and surrogate liquid wastes (on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers) were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (e.g., charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs.

  8. Compact fast analyzer of rotary cuvette type

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1976-01-01

    A compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type is provided for simultaneously determining concentrations in a multiplicity of discrete samples using either absorbance or fluorescence measurement techniques. A rigid, generally rectangular frame defines optical passageways for the absorbance and fluorescence measurement systems. The frame also serves as a mounting structure for various optical components as well as for the cuvette rotor mount and drive system. A single light source and photodetector are used in making both absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Rotor removal and insertion are facilitated by a swing-out drive motor and rotor mount. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to concentration measuring instruments and more specifically to a compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type which is suitable for making either absorbance or fluorescence measurements. It was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  9. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward–feedback compound control.

  10. Helical rotary screw expander power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A.; Sprankle, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    An energy converter for the development of wet steam geothermal fields is described. A project to evaluate and characterize a helical rotary screw expander for geothermal applications is discussed. The helical screw expander is a positive displacement machine which can accept untreated corrosive mineralized water of any quality from a geothermal well. The subjects of corrosion, mineral deposition, the expansion process, and experience with prototype devices are reported.

  11. An advanced space rotary power transfer device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, P. E.

    A new electrical signal and rotary power transfer device has recently evolved from ball-bearing and electrical-transfer technologies. This hybrid device, known as a roll ring, has been tested extensively since the late 1970s and has demonstrated important operational advantages in a wide variety of signal and power transfer configurations. A high power version has been developed and evaluated. This paper describes this latter roll ring configuration. The paper also summarizes test results.

  12. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. F.; Gencsoy, H. T.; Strimbeck, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    This feeder concept uniquely combines the functions of solids feeding, metering, and pressurization into one compact system. Success with the rotary-piston concept would provide a lower-cost alternative to lock-hopper systems. The design of the feeder is presented, with special emphasis on the difficult problem of seal design. Initial tests will be to check seal performance. Subsequent tests will evaluate solids-feeding ability.

  13. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of predicting rotary wing operation maintenance costs by using several aircraft design factors for the aircraft dynamic systems. The dynamic systems considered were engines, drives and transmissions, rotors, and flight controls. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate aircraft design and operational factors with manhours per flight hour, and equations for each dynamic system were developed. Results of labor predictions using the equations compare favorably with actual values.

  14. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1990-08-15

    BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

  15. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-04-22

    The focus of our work during the first quarter of 1991 was on combustion tests at the PEDCO rotary kiln reactor at North American Rayon (NARCO) plant in Elizabethton, TN. The tests had essentially tow related objectives: (a) to obtain basic data on the combustion of anthracite culm in a rotary kiln reactor, and (b) upon the test results, determine how best to proceed with our own planned program at the Humphrey Charcoal kiln in Brookville, PA. The rationale for the tests at PEDCO arose from process analysis which posted red flags on the feasibility of burning low-grade, hard-to-burn fuels like anthracite culms, in the rotary kiln. The PEDCO unit afforded a unique opportunity to obtain some quick answers at low cost. Two different anthracite culm fuels were tested: a so-called Jeddo culm with an average heating value of 7000 Btu/lb, and a relatively poorer culm, and Emerald'' culm, with an average heating value of 5000 Btu/lb. An attempt was also made to burn a blend of the Emerald culm with bituminous coal in 75/25 percent proportions. This report describes the tests, their chronology, and preliminary results. As it turned out, the PEDCO unit is not configured properly for the combustion of anthracite culm. As a result, it proved difficult to achieve a sustained period of steady-state combustion operation, and combustion efficiencies were low even when supplemental fuel was used to aid combustion of the culm. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  17. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  18. Dry coating in a rotary fluid bed.

    PubMed

    Kablitz, Caroline Désirée; Harder, Kim; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2006-02-01

    A highly efficient dry coating process was developed to obtain an enteric film avoiding completely the use of organic solvents and water. Using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) an enteric coat should be obtained without adding talc as anti-tacking agent because of problems arising from microbiological contamination. Further on, a method was developed preparing isolated films in order to determine the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the required process temperature. The process was conducted in the rotary fluid bed with a gravimetric powder feeder achieving an exact dosage in contrast to volumetric powder feeder. A three way nozzle was aligned tangential to the pellet bed movement feeding simultaneously powder and plasticizer into the rotary fluid bed. The determined coating efficiency of the talc-free formulation was high with 94% and storage stability regarding tacking could be achieved using colloidal silicium dioxide as top powder. The T(g) of the enteric coat could be determined analyzing the T(g) of isolated films obtained by coating celluloid spheres instead of pellets using the dry coating process in rotary fluid bed. The dry coating process has been demonstrated to be a serious alternative to conventional solvent or water based coating processes. PMID:16290285

  19. Analysis of Apex Seal Friction Power Loss in Rotary Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Owen, A. Karl

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the frictional losses from the apex seals in a rotary engine was developed. The modeling was initiated with a kinematic analysis of the rotary engine. Next a modern internal combustion engine analysis code was altered for use in a rotary engine to allow the calculation of the internal combustion pressure as a function of rotor rotation. Finally the forces from the spring, inertial, and combustion pressure on the seal were combined to provide the frictional horsepower assessment.

  20. Study on the Oil Supply System for Rotary Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahide; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Makoto; Murata, Nobuo

    Research has been undertaken to clarify the shaft oil pump mechanisms and oil supply network systems for rotary compressors. Numerical expressions were developed for each part of the rotary compressor,(such as drive shaft,oil pump and journal bearing grooves)in order to confirm that the calculated values agree with the experimental results. Finally,a computer program has been developed to evaluate the oil supply system performance under steady conditions for rotary compressors.

  1. Forebody flow physics due to rotary motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanski, Kenneth Paul

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic behavior of an isolated forebody undergoing rotary motion was conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel. Force balance, surface pressure, and flow visualization data was acquired over a range of AOA, for a round and chined configuration of a generic tangent ogive shape. The nature of the fixed location of separation of the chined forebody develops a strong, symmetrical leeward side flowfield. In comparison, the round forebody develops a lateral asymmetry, as a function of AOA, from the naturally occurring separated flow. Quantifying the side force behavior due to the rotary motion of the two distinctively different forebody configurations will lead to a better understanding of the flowfield which plays a primary role in the overall stability and control of an air vehicle. For the round forebody, the side force behavior due to the rotary motion ( CYW ) is dependent upon flow speed (ReD), AOA, as well as the direction and magnitude of rotation ( W=wLV ). In the low AOA range, the rotary-induced flowfield is insufficient in promoting a side force development. In the high AOA range a damping in side force behavior is a result of the "moving wall" effect where the flow along the windward region of the forebody is the predominant influence. In the AOA range where an asymmetrical flowfield is established in a static environment, the rotary motion does not disrupt the natural asymmetric state of the vortices. Additionally, neither the presence of a static side force nor its direction is apparently sufficient in determining the CYW behavior from the axially-varying flowfield. The CYW behavior of the chined forebody is related to the leeward side vortices' vertical trajectory, which is a function of AOA. A slight propelling side force behavior develops in an AOA range where an increased suction develops from the upwind vortex. In the high AOA range there is a diminishing influence from the leeward side vortex suction resulting

  2. The Rotary Combustion Engine: a Candidate for General Aviation. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The state of development of the rotary combustion engine is discussed. The nonturbine engine research programs for general aviation and future requirements for general aviation powerplants are emphasized.

  3. Use of computed tomography-lymphangiography with direct injection of water-soluble contrast medium to identify the origin of chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Otake, Kohei; Uchida, Keiichi; Inoue, Mikihiro; Koike, Yuhki; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Contrast lymphangiography is a useful technique to determine the site of lymphatic leakage in the patient with chylous ascites. Conventional lymphangiography with lipid-soluble contrast material carries the disadvantage of complications, such as oil emboli and lymphedema. The authors report a successful case of computed tomography (CT)-lymphangiography with direct injection of water-soluble contrast medium into a lower limb lymphatic vessel to determine the site of lymphatic leakage in a pediatric patient with refractory primary chylous ascites. The patient subsequently underwent laparoscopic ligation of the leaking site and recovered well. This novel technique offers superior potential for preoperative assessment and the planning of laparoscopic repair. PMID:26993687

  4. Strain measurements in a rotary engine housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Bond, T. H.; Addy, H. E.; Chun, K. S.; Lu, C. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The development of structural design tools for Rotary Combustion Engines (RCE) using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) requires knowledge about the response of engine materials to various service conditions. This paper describes experimental work that studied housing deformation as a result of thermal, pressure and mechanical loads. The measurement of thermal loads, clamping pressure, and deformation was accomplished by use of high-temperature strain gauges, thermocouples, and a high speed data acquisition system. FEM models for heat transfer stress analysis of the rotor housing will be verified and refined based on these experimental results.

  5. Rotary stepping device with memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A rotary stepping device includes a rotatable shaft which is driven by means of a coiled spring clutch which is alternately tightened to grip and rotate the shaft and released to return it to a resting position. An actuator formed of a memory metal is used to pull the spring clutch to tighten it and rotate the shaft. The actuator is activated by heating it above its critical temperature and is returned to an elongated configuration by means of the force of the spring cloth.

  6. Rotary atomizers - Performance understanding and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Belcher, D. W.; Crosby, E. J.

    The general design features of commercial rotary atomizers used in the chemical process industries are reviewed relative to application and performance requirements. Desired knowledge about atomizer design and spray-cloud characteristics are summarized and compared to available information. The status of understanding based on analysis and experimentation is surveyed. Generally unconsidered aspects of flow within the atomizer body, disengagement from the atomizer periphery, spray cloud configuration, degree of atomization and feedstock properties are discussed. Certain phenomena related to the atomization of multiphase feedstocks are noted.

  7. 38. DETAIL OF VIVIANNA WORKS ROTARY KILN FIREBOX ABOVE CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF VIVIANNA WORKS ROTARY KILN FIREBOX ABOVE CHANNEL FOR THE REMOVAL OF TAILINGS FROM THE ROTARY KILN LOOKING NORTHWEST. CONDENSER TO THE RIGHT, TWO STORY OFFICE AND STOREROOM STRUCTURE BEHIND. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  8. Kinematic Analysis of Rotary Deep-Depth Turning Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtyakov, A. M.; Babaev, A. S.; Chudinova, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    This article offers a parameterization procedure for deep-depth turning without simplifying assumptions. In this paper the authors will show comparative results of researching parameters for rotary turning according to the developed methodology and according to the methodology of finish-machining conditions. A theoretically found kinematic coefficient of rotary cutting is presented in the paper

  9. CARBON REACTIVATION BY EXTERNALLY-FIRED ROTARY KILN FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/...

  10. Functional Genomics Via Metabolic Footprinting: Monitoring Metabolite Secretion by Escherichia Coli Tryptophan Metabolism Mutants Using FT–IR and Direct Injection Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kaderbhai, Naheed N.; Broadhurst, David I.; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston

    2003-01-01

    We sought to test the hypothesis that mutant bacterial strains could be discriminated from each other on the basis of the metabolites they secrete into the medium (their ‘metabolic footprint’), using two methods of ‘global’ metabolite analysis (FT–IR and direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry). The biological system used was based on a published study of Escherichia coli tryptophan mutants that had been analysed and discriminated by Yanofsky and colleagues using transcriptome analysis. Wild-type strains supplemented with tryptophan or analogues could be discriminated from controls using FT–IR of 24 h broths, as could each of the mutant strains in both minimal and supplemented media. Direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry with unit mass resolution could also be used to discriminate the strains from each other, and had the advantage that the discrimination required the use of just two or three masses in each case. These were determined via a genetic algorithm. Both methods are rapid, reagentless, reproducible and cheap, and might beneficially be extended to the analysis of gene knockout libraries. PMID:18629082