Science.gov

Sample records for directed green liquor

  1. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  2. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  3. Method for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor and flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimpi, P.

    1984-09-11

    The invention relates to a method for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor by precarbonating green liquor by means of flue gases, by bringing a precarbonated solution into contact with a sodium bicarbonate solution and by stripping hydrogen sulphide from the so obtained reaction mixture by means of steam, for producing hydrogen sulphide gas and a sodium carbonate solution, which sodium carbonate solution is so pure, in relation to sodium sulphide that it can directly be led into the washing of the flue gases and into a carbonation stage, for producing the sodium bicarbonate solution. In order to save steam and sodium carbonate all precarbonated solution is not treated to the sodium sulphide free solution, which is required by a scrubber, but a part is discharged at higher sodium sulphide content by dividing the stripping into two stages which take place one above the other in the same tower, whereby a part of a solution obtained from the first stripping stage is led directly into the second stripping stage and the steams containing hydrogen sulphide, obtained from the second stripping stage are led directly into the first stripping stage.

  4. Chemical and physical properties of high-yield alkaline sulfite green liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. . Natural and Applied Sciences)

    1993-11-01

    The majority of sodium sulfite pulping liquor recovery systems are based on the reductive burning of the spent liquor, followed by acidification of the resulting smelt solution by CO[sub 2]. This study investigated a number of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting green liquor which might be relevant to the optimum design of this type of sulfite and carbonate recovery system for an alkaline sulfite high-yield process. CO[sub 2] gas does generate H[sub 2]S when bubbled through green liquor; however, a large amount of solid soon is formed. Continuing the flow leads to increased amounts of H[sub 2]S, but the ratio of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] remains less than 1.0. Solutions more highly concentrated in Na[sub 2]S absorb relatively more CO[sub 2], regardless of the ratios of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] in the initial gas stream. The percentage of H[sub 2]S released increases with increasing Na[sub 2]S concentration. Stripping the green liquor with inert gas, steam, or vacuum does not improve the H[sub 2]S removal efficiency. The maximum CO[sub 2] pressure can be generated by decomposing pure 6 M NaHCO[sub 3]. If the starting material is a bicarbonate/carbonate mixture, conversion is incomplete and a portion of the NaHCO[sub 3] forms a dead load.

  5. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  6. Methods for removing malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mill flue gases and the like by using green liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Farin, W.G.

    1984-02-14

    This is an improved method for removing malodorous sulfur compounds from flue gases generated in kraft or sodium sulfite pulping operations and the like by the absorption process using green liquor, an aqueous solution containing sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate. The malodorous gas compounds, including hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide are preferentially absorbed by the sodium sulfide forming sodium hydrosulfide and methanol. Any sulfur dioxide in the gas is absorbed and neutralized by sodium carbonate. In this method carbon dioxide absorption is minimized and the formation of sodium bicarbonate is limited. Sodium bicarbonate formation is minimized in order to avoid its reaction with sodium hydrosulfide which would then release undesirable hydrogen sulfide during absorption, as well as to forestall the need to increase chemical and lime kiln capacity requirements when the green liquor returned to the kraft recovery process contains excess amounts of sodium bicarbonate.

  7. Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

    2013-12-01

    Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production. PMID:24128400

  8. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock. PMID:26377325

  9. Comparison of the substrate enzymatic digestibility and lignin structure of wheat straw stems and leaves pretreated by green liquor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Wangxia; Gu, Feng; Cao, Tingyue; Jin, Yongcan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) and the lignin structure of green liquor (GL) pretreated wheat straw stems and leaves were investigated. Compared with wheat straw stems, leaves showed higher delignification selectivity in GL pretreatment and higher SED in enzymatic hydrolysis. Wet chemical analysis indicated that, characterized with lower content of syringyl units and less β-O-4 linkages, leaf lignin is structurally different from stem lignin. After GL pretreatment, the drops of both nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation products yield of leaves were obviously higher than those of stems, which means that more β-O-4 linkages of leaf lignin were broken than that of stem lignin. The SED of total sugar in GL-pretreated leaves was about 50% higher than that in GL-pretreated stems. The less content and lower S/G ratio of lignin are suggested to be the important factors for the better SED of GL-pretreated leaves. PMID:26342786

  10. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below

  11. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  12. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO(2) capture.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2012-04-01

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO(2) abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO(2) capture and CO(2) offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden. PMID:22342037

  13. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  14. Reutilization of green liquor chemicals for pretreatment of whole rice waste biomass and its application to 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Saratale, Ganesh D; Jung, Moo-Young; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    The performance of green liquor pretreatment using Na2CO3 and Na2SO3 and its optimization for whole rice waste biomass (RWB) was investigated. Incubation of Na2CO3-Na2SO3 at a 1:1 ratio (chemical charge 10%) for 12% RWB at 100°C for 6h resulted in maximum delignification (58.2%) with significant glucan yield (88%) and total sugar recovery (545mg/g of RWB) after enzymatic hydrolysis. Recovery and reusability of the resulting chemical spent wash were evaluated to treat RWB along with its compatibility for enzymatic digestibility. Significant hydrolysis and lignin removal were observed for up to three cycles; however, further reuse of Na2CO3 and Na2SO3 lowered their performance. Significant 2,3-butanediol (BDO) was produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae KMK-05 with the RWB enzymatic hydrolysate from each pretreatment cycle. BDO yield achieved using RWB-derived sugars was similar to those using laboratory-grade sugars. This pretreatment strategy constitutes an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and practical method for utilizing lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26820921

  15. Green buildings: DOE`s historical role and new directions

    SciTech Connect

    Millhone, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has traditionally played a major role in the development of {open_quotes}green buildings{close_quotes} technologies. OBT`s mission is to reduce the amount of fossil-based energy consumed by new and existing buildings, and improved energy efficiency is a critical factor in the green movement. A number of OBT`s programs also address other, non-energy facets of green technology, including the development of CFC-free insulation and appliances, indoor air quality research, and the development of standards for water-consuming appliances. This paper describes OBT`s strategy for enhancing the energy efficiency of the buildings sector, and outlines new directions in the area of green buildings technology resulting from recent Congressional legislation and administration initiatives.

  16. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and

  17. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  18. Phosphor-free white: the prospects for green direct emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Christian; Detchprohm, Theeradetch

    2011-10-01

    Energy efficiency has been the primary driving force for solid state lighting to replace wasteful incandescent lamps by light emitting diodes (LEDs). Recently, rising cost for rare earth metals has redoubled the push to also replace fluorescent and compact fluorescent lighting. Phosphors in fluorescent lamps heavily rely on rare earth metals and even first generation LEDs use such phosphors, albeit at much lower quantities. The role of phosphors to expand a narrow wavelength source into a wider spectrum is a very lossy process in itself and can be circumvented altogether by second generation LEDs, where the full visible solar spectrum is directly replicated by direct emitting LEDs. We here report progress of our work towards this goal, in particular by the development of high brightness direct emitting green group- III nitride LEDs.

  19. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  20. Recovering gallium from residual bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso de Magalhães, Maria Elizabeth; Tubino, Matthieu

    1991-06-01

    Gallium is normally obtained by direct electrolysis as a by-product from Bayer process residual liquor at an aluminum processing plant. However, to permit any net accumulation of the metal, the gallium concentration must be at least about 0.3 g/l in the liquor. This article describes a continuous process of extraction with organic solvents and rhodamine-B, followed by a re-extraction step into aqueous media. The final product is a solid containing up to 18 wt.% Ga in a solid mixture of hydroxides and oxides of gallium and aluminum. This final product can then be electrolyzed to recover the gallium more efficiently.

  1. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  2. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  3. EPA’s Village Green Project: New Directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level, real-time air pollution measurements using low-cost sensor technologies. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a publ...

  4. EPA’s Village Green Project: New Directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level, real-time air pollution measurements using low-cost sensor technologies. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public lib...

  5. Scrubbing liquors for nitrogen tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Once it was determined that the wet scrubbing concept was the most practical solution to the N2O4 emission problem, it became important to optimize the composition of the scrubbing liquor. Several reagents were cited in the literature as being advantageous in scrubbing NO2. Experiments were conducted on a model wet scrubber in order to verify and rank the performances of these scrubbing liquors. The most efficient scrubbing liquor found experimentally was a 10% sodium sulfite solution.

  6. Two-photon directed evolution of green fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stoltzfus, Caleb R.; Barnett, Lauren M.; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Wicks, Geoffrey; Mikhaylov, Alexander; Hughes, Thomas E.; Rebane, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Directed evolution has been used extensively to improve the properties of a variety of fluorescent proteins (FPs). Evolutionary strategies, however, have not yet been used to improve the two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of a fluorescent protein, properties that are important for two-photon imaging in living tissues, including the brain. Here we demonstrate a technique for quantitatively screening the two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) efficiency and 2PA cross section of tens of thousands of mutant FPs expressed in E. coli colonies. We use this procedure to move EGFP through three rounds of two-photon directed evolution leading to new variants showing up to a 50% enhancement in peak 2PA cross section and brightness within the near-IR tissue transparency wavelength range. PMID:26145791

  7. Two-photon directed evolution of green fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltzfus, Caleb R.; Barnett, Lauren M.; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Wicks, Geoffrey; Mikhaylov, Alexander; Hughes, Thomas E.; Rebane, Aleksander

    2015-07-01

    Directed evolution has been used extensively to improve the properties of a variety of fluorescent proteins (FPs). Evolutionary strategies, however, have not yet been used to improve the two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of a fluorescent protein, properties that are important for two-photon imaging in living tissues, including the brain. Here we demonstrate a technique for quantitatively screening the two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) efficiency and 2PA cross section of tens of thousands of mutant FPs expressed in E. coli colonies. We use this procedure to move EGFP through three rounds of two-photon directed evolution leading to new variants showing up to a 50% enhancement in peak 2PA cross section and brightness within the near-IR tissue transparency wavelength range.

  8. DIRECT SPECTROSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION OF THE ORIGIN OF 'GREEN FUZZY' EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    De Buizer, James M.; Vacca, William D.

    2010-07-15

    'Green fuzzies' or 'extended green objects' were discovered in the recent Spitzer GLIMPSE survey data. These extended sources have enhanced emission in the 4.5 {mu}m IRAC channel images (which are generally assigned to be green when making three-color RGB images from Spitzer data). Green fuzzies are frequently found in the vicinities of massive young stellar objects (MYSO), and it has been established that they are in some cases associated with outflows. Nevertheless, the spectral carrier(s) of this enhanced emission is (are) still uncertain. Although it has been suggested that Br {alpha}, H{sub 2}, [Fe II], and/or broad CO emission may be contributing to and enhancing the 4.5 {mu}m flux from these objects, to date there have been no direct observations of the 4-5 {mu}m spectra of these objects. Here we report on the first direct spectroscopic identification of the origin of the green fuzzy emission. We obtained spatially resolved L- and M-band spectra for two green fuzzy sources using NIRI on the Gemini North telescope. In the case of one source, G19.88 - 0.53, we detect three individual knots of green fuzzy emission around the source. The knots exhibit a pure molecular hydrogen line emission spectrum, with the 4.695 {mu}m {nu} = 0-0 S(9) line dominating the emission in the 4-5 {mu}m wavelength range, and no detected continuum component. Our data for G19.88 - 0.53 prove that green fuzzy emission can be due primarily to emission lines of molecular hydrogen within the bandpass of the IRAC 4.5 {mu}m channel. However, the other target observed, G49.27 - 0.34, does not exhibit any line emission and appears to be an embedded MYSO with a cometary UC H II region. We suggest that the effects of extinction in the 3-8 {mu}m wavelength range and an exaggeration in the color stretch of the 4.5 {mu}m filter in IRAC RGB images could lead to embedded sources such as this one falsely appearing 'green'.

  9. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  10. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Sunday Liquor Laws and Crime.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Many jurisdictions have considered relaxing Sunday alcohol sales restrictions, yet such restrictions' effects on public health remain poorly understood. This paper analyzes the effects of legalization of Sunday packaged liquor sales on crime, focusing on the phased introduction of such sales in Virginia beginning in 2004. Differences-in-differences and triple-differences estimates indicate the liberalization increased minor crime by 5% and alcohol-involved serious crime by 10%. The law change did not affect domestic crime or induce significant geographic or inter-temporal crime displacement. The costs of this additional crime are comparable to the state's revenues from increased liquor sales. PMID:22125348

  12. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely...

  13. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely...

  14. Laser Excited Fluorescence Studies Of Black Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of black liquor was investigated as a possible monitoring technique for pulping processes. A nitrogen pumped dye laser was used to examine the fluorescence spectrum of black liquor solutions. Various excitation wavelengths were used between 290 and 403 nm. Black liquor fluorescence spectra were found to vary with both excitation wavelength and black liquor concentration. Laser excited fluorescence was found to be a sensitive technique for measurement of black liquor with good detection limits and linear response over a large dynamic range.

  15. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  16. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  17. The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-08-01

    Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. PMID:21596089

  18. 27 CFR 19.513 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Authorized Liquor Bottles § 19.513 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. A proprietor must submit...

  19. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. )

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  20. Recycling paper-pulp waste liquors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    Papermills in U.S. annually produce 3 million tons of sulfite waste liquor solids; other fractions of waste liquor are monomeric sugars and lignosulfonates in solution. Recovery of lignosulfonates involves precipitation and cross-linking of sulfonates to form useful solid ion-exchange resin. Contamination of sugars recovered from liquor is avoided by first converting them to ethanol, then removing ethanol by distillation.

  1. Direct calculation of modal contributions to thermal conductivity via Green-Kubo modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-01-01

    We derived a new method for direct calculation of the modal contributions to thermal conductivity, which is termed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA). The GKMA method combines the lattice dynamics formalism with the Green-Kubo formula for thermal conductivity, such that the thermal conductivity becomes a direct summation of modal contributions, where one need not define the phonon velocity. As a result, the GKMA method can be applied to any material/group of atoms, where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium positions, which includes non-stoichiometric compounds, random alloys, amorphous materials and even rigid molecules. By using molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the time history of each mode’s contribution to the heat current, one naturally includes anharmonicity to full order and can obtain insight into the interactions between different modes through the cross-correlations. As an example, we applied the GMKA method to crystalline and amorphous silicon. The modal contributions at each frequency result from the analysis and thereby allow one to apply a quantum correction to the mode heat capacity to determine the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity. The predicted temperature dependent thermal conductivity for amorphous silicon shows the best agreement with experiments to date. The GKMA method provides new insight into the nature of phonon transport, as it casts the problem in terms of mode-mode correlation instead of scattering, and provides a general unified formalism that can be used to understand phonon-phonon interactions in essentially any class of materials or structures where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium sites.

  2. Direct embryogenesis and green plant regeneration from isolated microspores of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) cv. Bogo.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J

    2004-07-01

    The use of doubled haploids improves the efficiency of cultivar development in many crops and can be helpful in genetic and molecular studies. The major problem with this approach is the low efficiency of green plant regeneration. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) cv. Bogo. The absence of growth regulators in the induction medium was the most effective condition for the formation of embryo-like structures. The highest induction rates were observed at microspore densities of 1.5x10(5) microspores and 2x10(5) microspores per milliliter. Such cultures produced an average of 54.9 green plants per single donor spike. The frequency of albino plants ranged from 9.3% to 22.9%. Among the green progeny tested, 30.8% were spontaneously doubled haploids. PMID:15108018

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  4. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 2: Comparisons between different liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Nikkanen, S. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    This continuation of earlier work reports fuel nitrogen release for black liquors at two temperatures during pyrolysis of single droplets in an oxygen-free environment. Approximately half of the 20--60% fuel nitrogen released was ammonia and half was molecular nitrogen. The total amount of fixed nitrogen released during pyrolysis was almost linearly proportional to the liquor nitrogen content. The yield of fixed nitrogen for birch liquors was significantly higher than for pine liquors, and the yield for bagasse liquor was extremely high.

  5. Big Island Demonstration Project - Black Liquor

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    Black liquor is a papermaking byproduct that also serves as a fuel for pulp and paper mills. This project involves the design, construction, and operation of a black liquor gasifier that will be integrated into Georgia-Pacific's Big Island facility in Virginia, a mill that has been in operation for more than 100 years.

  6. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate...

  7. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate...

  8. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful conduct or purpose whatsoever. No trader shall use...

  9. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate...

  10. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  11. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  12. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  13. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  14. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  15. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  16. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  19. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  20. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  4. Steam stripping recycle developed for gasifier liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    When coal is gasified in fixed bed processes such as the British Gas/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, the crude product contains steam which on cooling results in the formation of an aqueous liquor. This liquor contains soluble species such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride and phenols. These liquors are environmentally unacceptable and their disposal can be a serious problem. British Gas has developed a new process for the purification of such aqueous effluent liquors. It has been discovered that the gasification steam may be used, at gasification pressure, to strip the volatile compounds from such liquors and thereby include these compounds in the reactant stream where they are gasified within the main reactor. A portion of the gasifier feed steam may be superheated, passed through the condensate liquor, combined with the remaining portion of the gasifier feed steam and then injected through the tuyeres of the gasification plant. In this way an effluent liquor is produced with contains substantially only inorganic compounds, and these can be removed by conventional treatments. Although high-pressure steam stripping removes any lighter volatile components, compounds such as the higher molecular weight phenols may not be readily stripped out. The invention therefore provides also for the use of oxygen-containing gas under pressure to purify the effluent. The oxygen-containing gas may either be used alone, in a mixture with steam or as a second stage following the steam-stripping process.

  5. Studies on synthesis of alumina nanopowder from synthetic Bayer liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloumi, Mahyar; Arami, Hamed; Khalifehzadeh, Razieh; Sadrnezhaad, S.K. . E-mail: sadrnezh@sharif.edu

    2007-06-05

    Procedure for synthesis of alumina nanopowder from Bayer liquor (synthetic sodium aluminate solution) is investigated. Cooling, ageing and then addition of 3 ml/l Tiron (1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salt) to the supersaturated liquor affect purity and fineness of the nanopowder product. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analyses indicate that purity of the alumina nanopowder increases with the aging time. Experimental observations show that highly pure alumina nanopowders could be produced by direct calcination of cold gelatinous sodium aluminate solution followed by careful washing at a Tiron concentration of 3 ml/l NaOH.

  6. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  7. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  8. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  9. 27 CFR 27.208 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... for Liquor Bottles § 27.208 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles, not conforming to the... customs custody of distilled spirits in bottles, except those coming under the provisions of §...

  10. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, or agent or employee of such person, shall: (a) Possess any liquor bottle in which...

  11. 27 CFR 26.314 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be distinctive; (3) Be suitable for their... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles... for Liquor Bottles § 26.314 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of...

  12. 27 CFR 26.319 - Used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 26... for Liquor Bottles § 26.319 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application filed in triplicate, authorize an importer to receive liquor bottles assembled for...

  13. 27 CFR 26.318 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.318 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles not conforming to... release from customs custody of distilled spirits in bottles, except those coming under the provisions...

  14. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, or agent or employee of such person, shall: (a) Possess any liquor bottle in which...

  15. 27 CFR 27.208 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... for Liquor Bottles § 27.208 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles, not conforming to the... customs custody of distilled spirits in bottles, except those coming under the provisions of §...

  16. 27 CFR 26.319 - Used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 26... for Liquor Bottles § 26.319 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application filed in triplicate, authorize an importer to receive liquor bottles assembled for...

  17. 27 CFR 26.314 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be distinctive; (3) Be suitable for their... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles... for Liquor Bottles § 26.314 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of...

  18. 27 CFR 26.318 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.318 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles not conforming to... release from customs custody of distilled spirits in bottles, except those coming under the provisions...

  19. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  20. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  1. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  2. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section 122.132 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor...

  3. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase chain…

  4. Impact of Site-Directed Mutant Luciferase on Quantitative Green and Orange/Red Emission Intensities in Firefly Bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Terakado, Kanako; Nakatsu, Toru

    2013-08-01

    Firefly bioluminescence has attracted great interest because of its high quantum yield and intriguing modifiable colours. Modifications to the structure of the enzyme luciferase can change the emission colour of firefly bioluminescence, and the mechanism of the colour change has been intensively studied by biochemists, structural biologists, optical physicists, and quantum-chemistry theorists. Here, we report on the quantitative spectra of firefly bioluminescence catalysed by wild-type and four site-directed mutant luciferases. While the mutation caused different emission spectra, the spectra differed only in the intensity of the green component (λmax ~ 560 nm). In contrast, the orange (λmax ~ 610 nm) and red (λmax ~ 650 nm) components present in all the spectra were almost unaffected by the modifications to the luciferases and changes in pH. Our results reveal that the intensity of the green component is the unique factor that is influenced by the luciferase structure and other reaction conditions.

  5. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  6. 27 CFR 10.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 10... Liquor bottle records. A proprietor must maintain records of the receipt, use, and disposition of liquor bottles. (26 U.S.C. 5207)...

  7. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5... Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.46 Standard liquor bottles. (a) General. A standard liquor bottle shall be... container of a bottle shall not be so designed as to mislead purchasers as to the size of the bottles....

  8. 27 CFR 27.204 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such bottles are found by the appropriate TTB officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles... Bottles § 27.204 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of distinctive shape...

  9. 27 CFR 27.209 - Used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 27... Bottles § 27.209 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application filed in triplicate, authorize an importer to receive liquor bottles assembled for him as provided...

  10. 27 CFR 27.209 - Used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 27... Bottles § 27.209 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application filed in triplicate, authorize an importer to receive liquor bottles assembled for him as provided...

  11. 27 CFR 27.204 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... such bottles are found by the appropriate TTB officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles... Bottles § 27.204 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of distinctive shape...

  12. 27 CFR 19.633 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TTB officer if the bottles are found to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements...

  13. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5... Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.46 Standard liquor bottles. (a) General. A standard liquor bottle shall be... container of a bottle shall not be so designed as to mislead purchasers as to the size of the bottles....

  14. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  15. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  16. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  17. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.50 Section 26.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50...

  18. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.220 Section 26.220 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands §...

  19. 27 CFR 26.44 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping. 26.44 Section 26.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the...

  20. 27 CFR 26.210 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping. 26.210 Section 26.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the...

  1. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors. 31.31 Section 31.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors....

  2. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.220 Section 26.220 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands §...

  3. 77 FR 61778 - Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community-Liquor Ordinance To Allow for On-Sale Liquor Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ...This notice publishes the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community--Liquor Ordinance to Allow for On-Sale Liquor Transactions (Ordinance). The Ordinance regulates and controls the sale, consumption and possession of liquor within the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community's Indian country. This Ordinance will increase the ability of the tribal government to control the distribution and possession of......

  4. Organic thermoelectric materials: emerging green energy materials converting heat to electricity directly and efficiently.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Yimeng; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben

    2014-10-29

    The abundance of solar thermal energy and the widespread demands for waste heat recovery make thermoelectric generators (TEGs) very attractive in harvesting low-cost energy resources. Meanwhile, thermoelectric refrigeration is promising for local cooling and niche applications. In this context there is currently a growing interest in developing organic thermoelectric materials which are flexible, cost-effective, eco-friendly and potentially energy-efficient. In particular, the past several years have witnessed remarkable progress in organic thermoelectric materials and devices. In this review, thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers and small molecules are summarized, with recent progresses in materials, measurements and devices highlighted. Prospects and suggestions for future research efforts are also presented. The organic thermoelectric materials are emerging candidates for green energy conversion. PMID:24687930

  5. Acidification of prehydrolysis liquor and spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping process.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Pedram; Gao, Weijiue; Sun, Yonghui; Dashtban, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Acidification has been commercialized for producing kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process. This work intended to evaluate the effectiveness of acidification in extracting lignocelluloses from the spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping (NSSC) process and from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The results showed that the NSSC and PHL spent liquors had some lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), and that the square weighted counts of particles with a chord length of 50-150μm in the spent liquors were significantly increased as pH dropped to 1.5. Interestingly, the acidification reduced the lignosulfonate/lignin content of NSSC and PHL by 13% or 20%, while dropped their oligosugars content by 75% and 38%, respectively. On a dry basis, the precipitates had more carbon, hydrogen and a high heating value of 18-22MJ/kg, but less oxygen, than spent liquors. The precipitates of PHL could be used as fuel. PMID:27394999

  6. Green direct determination of mineral elements in artichokes by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; Martínez-García, Maria; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were investigated to predict the concentration of calcium, potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc in artichoke samples. Sixty artichokes were purchased from different Spanish areas (Benicarló, Valencia and Murcia). NIR and XRF spectra, combined with partial least squares (PLS) data treatment, were used to develop chemometric models for the prediction of mineral concentration. To obtain reference data, samples were mineralised and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Coefficients of determination obtained for the regression between predicted values and reference ones for calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc were 0.61, 0.79, 0.53, 0.77, 0.54 and 0.60 for NIR and 0.96, 0.93, 0.80, 0.79, 0.76 and 0.90 for XRF, respectively. Both assayed methodologies, offer green alternatives to classical mineral analysis, but XRF provided the best results in order to be used as a quantitative screening method. PMID:26593585

  7. Ionic liquid as a promising biobased green solvent in combination with microwave irradiation for direct biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    The wet biomass microalgae of Nannochloropsis sp. was converted to biodiesel using direct transesterification (DT) by microwave technique and ionic liquid (IL) as the green solvent. Three different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium methyl sulphate [EMIM][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3]) and organic solvents (hexane and methanol) were used as co-solvents under microwave irradiation and their performances in terms of percentage disruption, cell walls ruptured and biodiesel yields were compared at different reaction times (5, 10 and 15 min). [EMIM][MeSO4] showed highest percentage cell disruption (99.73%) and biodiesel yield (36.79% per dried biomass) after 15 min of simultaneous reaction. The results demonstrated that simultaneous extraction-transesterification using ILs and microwave irradiation is a potential alternative method for biodiesel production. PMID:26851899

  8. Regioselective desymmetrization of diaryltetrahydrofurans via directed ortho-lithiation: an unexpected help from green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mallardo, Valentina; Rizzi, Ruggiero; Sassone, Francesca C; Mansueto, Rosmara; Perna, Filippo M; Salomone, Antonio; Capriati, Vito

    2014-08-14

    An efficient functionalization of diaryltetrahydrofurans via a regioselective THF-directed ortho-lithiation is first described. This reaction can be successfully carried out in cyclopentyl methyl ether as a "greener" alternative to Et2O, with better results in terms of yield and selectivity and, surprisingly, also in protic eutectic mixtures competitively with protonolysis. PMID:24968025

  9. Direct green waste land application: How to reduce its impacts on greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound emissions?

    PubMed

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R; Green, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Direct land application as an alternative to green waste (GW) disposal in landfills or composting requires an understanding of its impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. We investigated the effects of two approaches of GW direct land application, surface application and soil incorporation, on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and VOC emissions for a 12month period. Five treatments were applied in fall 2013 on fallow land under a Mediterranean climate in California: 30cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW tilled into soil; control+till; control+no till. In addition, a laboratory experiment was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of GW application on soil O2 consumption and GHG emission. The annual cumulative N2O, CO2 and VOC emissions ranged from 1.6 to 5.5kgN2O-Nha(-1), 5.3 to 40.6MgCO2-Cha(-1) and 0.6 to 9.9kgVOCha(-1), respectively, and were greatly reduced by GW soil incorporation compared to surface application. Application of GW quickly consumed soil O2 within one day in the lab incubation. These results indicate that to reduce GHG and VOC emissions of GW direct land application, GW incorporation into soil is recommended. PMID:27033991

  10. Convenient Detection of the Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing) Bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Direct PCR from the Midrib Extract

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Iwanami, Toru

    2013-01-01

    A phloem-limited bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a major pathogen of citrus greening (huanglongbing), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. The rapid identification and culling of infected trees and budwoods in quarantine are the most important control measures. DNA amplification including conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has commonly been used for rapid detection and identification. However, long and laborious procedures for DNA extraction have greatly reduced the applicability of this method. In this study, we found that the Las bacterial cells in the midribs of infected leaves were extracted rapidly and easily by pulverization and centrifugation with mini homogenization tubes. We also found that the Las bacterial cells in the midrib extract were suitable for highly sensitive direct PCR. The performance of direct PCR using this extraction method was not inferior to that of conventional PCR. Thus, the direct PCR method described herein is characterized by its simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness, and is applicable to quarantine testing. PMID:23437295

  11. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  12. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  13. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; T'ien, James S.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY) ) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  14. Determining silica solubility in bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.

    1998-11-01

    The efficient precipitation of dissolved silica from Bayer process liquor is essential for the production of high-quality alumina and the reduction of excessive scaling in the heat exchangers in the evaporation building of Bayer processes. The accurate prediction of silica solubility in Bayer liquor is one of the key parameters in improving the design and operation of the desilication process. Previous findings, particularly with respect to the influence of temperature and concentrations of caustic soda and alumina on the solubility of silica, are inconclusive. In this article, experimental results are presented over a wide range of temperature and alumina and caustic soda concentrations. Attempts are made to utilize artificial neural networks for identifying the process variables and modeling. The radial basis function neural network architecture was used successfully to generate a nonlinear correlation for the prediction of the solubility of silica in Bayer process liquor. The resulting correlation can predict the present data and the control data of other investigators with good accuracy.

  15. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands...

  16. 27 CFR 19.638 - Disposition of stocks of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 19.638 Section 19.638 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.638 Disposition of stocks of liquor bottles. When a...

  17. Direct and indirect toxic effects of cotton-derived cellulose nanofibres on filamentous green algae.

    PubMed

    Munk, Michele; Brandão, Humberto M; Nowak, Sophie; Mouton, Ludovic; Gern, Juliana C; Guimaraes, Alessandro S; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Raposo, Nádia R B; Marconcini, José M; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    Recently, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have attracted considerable attention as natural, abundant polymers with excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability. CNFs provide a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enable products for various applications. Given the increasing rates of CNF production, the potential for their release to the environment and the subsequent impact on ecosystem is becoming an increasing concern that needs to be addressed. Here, we used the Klebsormidium flaccidum as a bioindicator organism of terrestrial and freshwater habitats pollution using a battery of biomarkers. Our results show that cotton CNFs inhibit the proliferation of algae and induce morphological changes in them. The two main toxicity mechanisms induced by cotton CNFs are: (i) a direct contact of CNFs with the cell wall and cellular membrane and (ii) an indirect effect through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:26363983

  18. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~ 420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-15

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12. PMID:26967513

  20. Triacylglycerol profile in cocoa liquors using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bono, Luca; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    Triacylglycerols are responsible for chocolate's peculiar melting behavior: the type and position of fatty acids on the glycerol molecule strongly affect the melting range of cocoa butter. For this reason, the characterization of triglyceride composition in cocoa products is particularly important. In this work, triacylglycerols extracted from cocoa liquor samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Extracted samples were initially analyzed by direct injection in MS to obtain information on triglyceride molecular weights; relevant MS parameters were optimized, and the possible formation of the adducts [M + Na](+) and [M + NH(4)](+) was studied. Tandem mass experiments (both with triple quadrupole and TOF/TOF) were performed to study the fragmentation pathways (in particular, the loss of palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and identify the triacylglycerols in cocoa liquors. Some signals of the spectra obtained with both MS techniques could indicate the presence of diacylglycerols in the cocoa extract, but different experimental evidences demonstrated that they were generated by the in-source fragmentation of triglycerides. A nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation was also developed and used to support the identification of the analytes; nine triacylglycerols were recognized in the cocoa liquor extracts. The three different batches of Ecuador cocoa liquor did not show significant differences in the triacylglycerol profile. PMID:25230186

  1. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine production of recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum under optimal corn steep liquor limitation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Niu, Tengfei; Fang, Huimin

    2015-05-01

    4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid that exhibits insulinotropic biological activity. Here, L-isoleucine dioxygenase gene (ido) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis YBT-1520 was cloned and expressed in an L-isoleucine-producing strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum SN01, in order to directly convert its endogenous L-isoleucine (Ile) into 4-HIL through single-step fermentation. The effects of corn steep liquor limitation as well as ido and truncated idoΔ6 overexpression on 4-HIL production were researched. 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was improved to 65.44 ± 2.27 mM after fermented for 144 h under corn steep liquor-subsufficient condition, obviously higher than that under corn steep liquor-rich and insufficient conditions. The conversion ratio of Ile to 4-HIL increased to 0.85 mol/mol. In addition, 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was higher than that by idoΔ6-overexpressing strain, in accord with the relatively higher affinity of Ido as compared to IdoΔ6. This research generated a novel system for 4-HIL de novo biosynthesis and demonstrated corn steep liquor limitation as a useful strategy for improving 4-HIL production in recombinant C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum. PMID:25725632

  2. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  3. Black liquor decolorization by selected white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Da Re, Verónica; Papinutti, Leandro

    2011-09-01

    Five different strains of white-rot fungi have been tested for their ability to decolorize black liquor on plates and on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as the solid inert support. Since the high salt concentration inhibited the growth of all fungi, the black liquor was dialyzed against distilled water prior to use. A preliminary step on plates was carried out to qualitatively determine the capacity of the fungal strains for black liquor decolorization. Out of the five fungi studied, Phanerochaete sordida, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Trametes elegans exhibited the more conspicuous decolorization halos in malt extract medium, while the decolorization by all the strains was not evident when a defined culture medium was used. Cultures on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as solid support were also tested, the liquid phase was malt extract or glucose-based medium and supplemented with different black liquor concentrations. Decolorization of black liquor was largely affected by the fungal strain, the concentration of black liquor, and the carbon source. The percentage of color removal ranged from 6.14% to 91.86% depending on the fungal strain and culture conditions. Maximal decolorization was observed in malt extract cultures after 60 cultivation days. Interestingly, decolorization in malt extract medium increased with increasing black liquor concentration. The highest decolorization value was achieved by Steccherinum sp. which reduced up to 91.86% the color of the black liquor in malt extract medium; this percentage is equivalent to 5.2 g L(-1) of decolorized black liquor, the highest value reported to date. Traditional technologies used for the treatment of black liquor are not always effective and may not to be an environmentally friendly process. Vermiculite-white-rot fungi systems are presented in this work as a promising efficient alternative for the treatment of black liquor. PMID:21499784

  4. Biosorption of synthetic dyes (Direct Red 89 and Reactive Green 12) as an ecological refining step in textile effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Guendouz, Samira; Khellaf, Nabila; Zerdaoui, Mostefa; Ouchefoun, Moussa

    2013-06-01

    With the use of cost-effective natural materials, biosorption is considered as an ecological tool that is applied worldwide for the remediation of pollution. In this study, we proposed Lemna gibba biomass (LGB), a lignocellulosic sorbent material, for the removal of two textile dyes, Direct Red 89 (DR-89) and Reactive Green 12 (RG-12). These azo dyes commonly used in dying operations of natural and synthetic fibres are the most important pollutants produced in textile industry effluents. For this purpose, batch biosorption experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of LGB on dye treatment by evaluating the effect of contact time, biomass dosage, and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that the bioremoval efficiency of 5 mg L(-1) DR-89 and RG-12 reached approximately 100 % after 20 min of the exposure time; however, the maximum biosorption of 50 mg L(-1) DR-89 and 15 mg L(-1) RG-12 was determined to be about 60 and 47 %, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy used to explain the sorption mechanism showed that the functional groups of carboxylic acid and hydroxyl played a major role in the retention of these pollutants on the biomass surface. The modelling results using Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Elovich, and Dubini Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms demonstrated that the DR-89 biosorption process was better described with the Langmuir theory (R (2) =0.992) while the RG-12 biosorption process fitted well by the D-R isotherm equation (R (2) =0.988). The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 20.0 and 115.5 mg g(-1) for DR-89 and RG-12, respectively, showing a higher ability of duckweed biomass for the bioremoval of the green dye. The thermodynamic study showed that the dye biosorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The efficacy of using duckweed biomass for the bioremoval of the two dyes was limited to concentrations ≤50 mg L(-1), indicating that L. gibba biomass may be suitable in the refining step

  5. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.201 Refilling of liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, or agent or employee of such person, shall: (a) Place in any liquor bottle any distilled...

  6. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.201 Refilling of liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, or agent or employee of such person, shall: (a) Place in any liquor bottle any distilled...

  7. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any person... circumstances: (a) The owner or occupant of any premises on which the used bottles have been lawfully...

  8. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any person... circumstances: (a) The owner or occupant of any premises on which the used bottles have been lawfully...

  9. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Liquor bottle records. A proprietor must maintain records of the receipt, use, and disposition of...

  10. 27 CFR 19.513 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements... TTB F 5100.31, Application for and Certification/Exemption of Label/Bottle Approval, to the... designs. The proprietor must certify as to the total capacity of a representative sample bottle...

  11. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Liquor bottle records. A proprietor must maintain records of the receipt, use, and disposition of...

  12. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Liquor bottle records. A proprietor must maintain records of the receipt, use, and disposition of...

  13. PILOT-SCALE ANAEROBIC FILTER TREATMENT OF HEAT TREATMENT LIQUOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the application of the anaerobic filter in the treatment of liquor waste resulting from heat treatment of raw sludge in municipal sewage treatment plants. The liquor which contains high concentrations of soluble wastes is often ret...

  14. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    In the pulp and paper industry, black liquor gasification (BLG) can enable the recovery of pulping chemicals and production of syngas from the spent liquor accumulated in the pulping process. The syngas can be converted to value-added fuels, chemicals, and electricity, helping to boost the economics of the pulp mill.

  15. Viscoelastic properties of high solids softwood kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The linear viscoelastic functions of several softwood slash pine kraft black liquors from a two level, four variable factorially designed pulping experiment were determined for solids concentrations from 65% to 81% and temperatures from 40 to 85 C. At high solids and lower temperatures, black liquors behave like un-cross-linked polymers.The exact level of dynamic viscosity and storage modulus at any given condition is dependent upon the solids composition which will vary from liquor to liquor. The linear viscoelastic functions were described using Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models. Superposition principles developed for polymer melts and concentrated polymer solutions were applied to obtain reduced correlations for dynamic viscosity and storage modulus. The data for dynamic viscosity were shifted over the whole range of temperature, solids concentrations, and frequency, and a single curve for dynamic viscosity behavior of every liquor was obtained. The data for storage modulus did not superimpose into a single curve for the effects of solids concentration. The reduced correlations were used to estimate the viscoelasticity of the liquors near normal firing conditions and found that black liquors will not have any problem in droplet formation for concentrations up to 81% solids and temperatures above 120 C. The viscometric and linear viscoelastic functions of black liquors were compared (Cox-Merz rule), and it was shown that at sufficiently low shear rates and frequencies both shear viscosity and the magnitude of the complex viscosity approach zero shear rate viscosity.

  16. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving liquors with meals. 31.42 Section 31.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Certain Organizations, Agencies,...

  17. 27 CFR 31.32 - Wholesale dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in liquors. 31.32 Section 31.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.32 Wholesale dealer in...

  18. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    SciTech Connect

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  19. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  20. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  1. 27 CFR 19.634 - Receipt and storage of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 31.263. Liquor bottles, including those of less than 200 ml capacity, shall be stored in a safe... liquor bottles. 19.634 Section 19.634 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and...

  2. 27 CFR 19.639 - Use and resale of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottles. 19.639 Section 19.639 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.639 Use and resale of liquor bottles. No proprietor shall use any...

  3. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the stores list. (f) Handling the liquor kits—(1) Partial bottles. Partial bottles of liquor may be... with other partial bottles. This may be done only under Customs supervision. The costs of Customs... storeroom, using liquor bottles on which the seal has not been broken. (3) Sealing. All liquor kits shall...

  4. 27 CFR 28.268 - Receipt for liquors for use on vessels or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt for liquors for... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Proceedings at Ports of Export § 28.268 Receipt for liquors for use on vessels or aircraft. Where liquors are...

  5. 75 FR 44011 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... ordinances and resolutions for the Tribe. The sale of Liquor and Low-Point Beer, subject to the terms and... of Liquor and Low-Point Beer within the Tribal Lands. Now, Therefore, to permit the sale of Liquor... regulate and to control the possession and sale of Liquor and Low-Point Beer to and within the...

  6. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  8. Watt-class green-emitting laser modules using direct second harmonic generation of diode laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebig, Christian; Fricke, Jörg; Uebernickel, Mirko; Jedrzejczyk, Daniel; Sahm, Alexander; Paschke, Katrin

    2012-11-01

    Large-area high-resolution displays, using a flying-spot to create the picture, require light sources in the red, green and blue wavelength range with a high optical output power and nearly diffraction limited beam. In this paper we present experimental results of high-brightness distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode lasers at 106 x nm that can be used for single-pass second harmonic generation into the green. Based on these lasers we developed compact (2.5 cm3) green laser modules with an output power of 1W at 53 x nm and an electro-optical conversion efficiency of about 5%. The output power stability is better than 2% and the wavelength stability is ±10 pm. The excellent beam quality M {/δ 2} < 2 of the green light allows operation in flying spot application systems. Furthermore, we estimate that our concept allows power scaling up to 2W by using nonlinear planar waveguide crystals and into the multi-watt level by spectral beam combining.

  9. Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2007-04-14

    This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

  10. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. PMID:22980845

  11. Determination of the microbial origin of geosmin in Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2012-03-01

    Geosmin is the major cause of the common earthy off-flavor in light-aroma type Chinese liquor and, thus, highly detrimental to the aromatic quality. To find out its origin, the evolving process of geosmin in light-aroma type liquor making was monitored, and microbial analysis of Daqu containing geosmin was carried out. The results showed that geosmin appeared in all the fermented sorghums at different fermentation periods. About 57% geosmin in the fermented sorghums was distilled into liquor. During the distillation process, the peak of geosmin concentration appeared when alcohol content was 50-60% vol. More importantly, high geosmin content was observed during the Daqu-making process. Furthermore, five Streptomyces strains were isolated from different types of Daqu used for the fermentation of light-aroma type liquor. All of them produced only geosmin as the main volatile metabolite but no 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB). It appears that microorganisms developing in Daqu are responsible for the presence of geosmin in liquor. Because of the relatively low detection threshold estimated at 110 ng/L in 46 vol % hydroalcoholic solution, the presence of geosmin in Daqu may pose a risk for Chinese liquor producers. PMID:22324746

  12. Bridging the ``green gap'' of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Che-Yu; Krishnan, Chirenjeevi; Lin, Da-Wei; Chu, You-Chen; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Shen, Tien-Lin; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He-Hau, Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is the so-called ``green gap''. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boost the light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimate the view angle of LEDs from 131.5° to 114.0°. This could be because of the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs point the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is the so-called ``green gap''. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boost the light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimate the view angle of LEDs from 131.5° to 114.0°. This could be because of the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and

  13. Fundamental studies of black liquor combustion: Report No. 2, Phase 1 (October 1984-November 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Clay, D. T.; Lien, S. J.; Grace, T. M.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H. G.; Amin, N.; Charagundla, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of kraft black liquor combustion are being studied in a five year project. This report covers the second and third years of work by The Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for the US Department of Energy. The burning processes are being studied in two continuous flow reactor systems designed to both study overall process and single particle phenomena. Black liquor burning is divided into four distinct phases: drying, volatiles burning, char burning, and smelt coalescence. Phase 1, In-flight Processes, is the main focus of this report. In-flight processes include mainly the stages of drying and volatiles burning. Testing results in both flow reactors and in two specially designed single particle reactors are presented. Dynamic droplet velocity and swelling have been measured for the first time. A direct link between initial liquor viscosity and burning behavior in the early stages has also been identified. During the fourth year Phase 1 will be completed and Phases 2 (Char Burning) and 3 (Fume Processes) will begin.

  14. Performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors: behavioral evidence for olfactory attention.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Noboru; Okuhara, Keisuke; Kuroda, Akio; Kato, Junichi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2008-03-01

    We examined performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors by Y-maze behavioral assays. Thirsty mice were initially trained to choose the odor of a red wine in the Y-maze. After successful training (>70% concordance for each trained mouse), the individual mice were able to discriminate the learned red wine from other liquors, including white wine, rosé wine, sake, and plum liqueur. However, when the mice were tested to distinguish fine differences between 2 brands of red wine, their performance significantly varied among the individual trained mice. Among 10 mice tested, 2 mice were able to discriminate between the red wines (>75% concordance) whereas 6 mice failed to distinguish between them (50-67% concordance, where chance could be assumed to be 50%). More importantly, 2 other mice exhibited lower than 30% concordance, indicating that they were more attracted to the nonrewarded red wine compared with the learned one. This result suggested that the individual mice directed attention to different subsets of volatile components emanating from the rewarded red wine, when they were trained to choose the liquor odor in the Y-maze. Selective attention of mice was also observed in Y-maze behavioral assays using the mixtures of 3 or less pure odorants. Additionally, we also observed that the olfactory attention of mice could be modified through their learning experiences. PMID:18178544

  15. Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: Extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills). PMID:27374504

  16. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  17. Bridging the "green gap" of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Che-Yu; Krishnan, Chirenjeevi; Lin, Da-Wei; Chu, You-Chen; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Shen, Tien-Lin; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Charlton, Martin D B; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-14

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is the so-called "green gap". In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boost the light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimate the view angle of LEDs from 131.5° to 114.0°. This could be because of the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs point the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting. PMID:26666367

  18. Microbial Community Composition Associated with Maotai Liquor Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiu

    2016-06-01

    The solid-state fermentation state of Chinese Maotai liquor involves the interaction of several complex microbial communities leading to the generation of the most complex liquor fermentation system in the world and contributes to the unique flavor and aroma of the liquor. In this study, total DNA was extracted from 3 fermented grain samples (FG1, FG2, and FG3) and 12 environmental samples, including Daqu (DA1, DA2, DA3, and DA4), cellar mud (CS1, CS2, and CS3), soil (SL1 and SL2), air (A1 and A2), and sorghum (SH), and the 16S and 18S rRNA genes were amplified. The distribution of typical microorganisms in the samples was analyzed using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, while quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer genes was performed to estimate the microbial abundance present in each sample. The results indicated that Daqu was the primary source of bacteria, followed by the air, soil, and sorghum samples, while the majority of the fungi responsible for Maotai liquor fermentation were from Daqu and sorghum. Highest bacterial concentrations were found in fermented grains, followed by Daqu and sorghum, while the highest fungal concentrations were found in Daqu, followed by sorghum and an air sample from outside the liquor production area. The findings of this study may provide information regarding the mechanisms responsible for flavor development in Maotai liquor, and may be used to further optimize the traditional art of making liquor. PMID:27122124

  19. Method development for the determination of manganese, cobalt and copper in green coffee comparing direct solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Nédio; Castro, Jacira T; da Silva, Márcia M; Korn, Maria das Graças A; Welz, Bernhard; Vale, Maria Goreti R

    2007-10-31

    A method has been developed for the determination of cobalt, copper and manganese in green coffee using direct solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-ET AAS). The motivation for the study was that only a few elements might be suitable to determine the origin of green coffee so that the multi-element techniques usually applied for this purpose might not be necessary. The three elements have been chosen as test elements as they were found to be significant in previous investigations. A number of botanical certified reference materials (CRM) and pre-analyzed samples of green coffee have been used for method validation, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples as reference method. Calibration against aqueous standards could be used for the determination of Mn and Co by SS-ET AAS, but calibration against solid CRM was necessary for the determination of Cu. No significant difference was found between the results obtained with the proposed method and certified or independently determined values. The limits of detection for Mn, Cu and Co were 0.012, 0.006 and 0.004mugg(-1) using SS-ET AAS and 0.015, 0.13 and 0.10mugg(-1) using ICP OES. Seven samples of Brazilian green coffee have been analyzed, and there was no significant difference between the values obtained with SS-ET AAS and ICP OES for Mn and Cu. ICP OES could not be used as a reference method for Co, as essentially all values were below the limit of quantification of this technique. PMID:19073113

  20. Recaustization of kraft black liquor via bipolar electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koumoundouros, J.A.; Oshen, S.; Lynch, J.D.

    1990-05-01

    The US Department of Energy in conjunction with HPD Inc. supported a research program to perform a laboratory feasibility study with various black liquor samples for the recaustization of these samples via bipolar electrodialysis. The research was conducted at the HPD pilot plant facility in Plainfield, Illinois, beginning in April 1989. This report is a summary of the work completed thru November 1989. The program was designed to operate the electrodialyzer in order to obtain performance and engineering data such as current efficiency, power consumption per gram of NaOH produced, and assess fouling and/or membrane durability. Prior to the electrodialysis laboratory runs, the black liquor samples were pretreated in order to remove as much lignin as possible. The black liquor samples were air oxidized, acidified to pH = 9.0 and pH = 2.0 and later filtered via a Buchner funnel under vacuum. The filtrate was then utilized to become the feed to the electrodialysis stack. Initial test runs were performed with synthetic solutions of either sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate in order to determine acceptable operating current, power, current efficiencies, and fouling behavior. A second set of test were conducted with a series of four Southern Kraft black liquor samples. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that the use of bipolar electrodialysis for producing a caustic stream and an acidified black liquor stream is feasible and was demonstrated. 9 refs., 27 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. Binding and desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor in biocoalbriquettes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoon; Lu, Guoqing; Li, Tianji; Sadakata, Masayoshi

    2002-04-01

    To control pollutant emissions from coal combustion in some developing countries, biocoalbriquette, an artificially produced solid fuel, was developed. Both the breaking strength and production costs of the biocoalbriquette have become essentially the most important factors in popularizing it in these countries. To increase the breaking strength and decrease the production costs, it is proposed in this study to use pulp black liquor, a byproduct from the pulp production industry, as a binder. The influences of pulp black liquor on the briquetting and combustion characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, the desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor were also evaluated through combustion experiments. The study results show that the briquetting pressure has a limited effect on the breaking strength. An increase in the briquetting pressure yields greater breaking strength of up to the 50 MPa. Above 50 MPa, the breaking strength changes very little with the briquetting pressure. The use of pulp black liquor has had a greater effect on increasing the breaking strength than on changing the briquetting pressure and also on improving the combustion characteristics of the biocoalbriquette. On the other hand, pulp black liquor has some desulfurization capabilities. When used as a binder, it not only increases the breaking strength and decreases the necessary briquetting pressure, but it also improves some characteristics of the combustion and reduces the pollutants emission. PMID:11999073

  2. Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 1. Swelling.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Kevin; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    This is the first of two papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Two industrial kraft liquors were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale pressurized single particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater at temperatures ranging from 650 to 1100 degrees C and at pressures between 1 and 20 bar. The dimensions of the chars produced were measured and the specific swollen volume was calculated. Swelling decreased roughly logarithmically over the pressure range 1-20 r. An expression is developed to predict the specific swollen volume at elevated pressure when the volume at 1 bar is known. The bulk density of the char increased with pressure, indicating that liquors will be entrained less easily at higher pressures. PMID:17349790

  3. Materials evaluations with the pulsed black liquor burner test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, A.

    1997-08-01

    A pulsed burner was designed to provide sufficient heat to convert a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor into combustible gas which would be used to produce process steam. The pulsed burner design provides a significant increase in the heat transfer capability and consequently significantly increases the efficiency of the conversion process. High temperature corrosion tests were performed in a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor using a pulsed burner process to determine the optimum materials for use in a commercial application. The materials tested included three different austenitic stainless steels, Type 446 martensitic stainless steel, a high temperature carbon steel, 153MA, and four nickel base alloys. All materials performed well with no corrosion attributed to the environment created by the decomposition of a black Kraft liquor. This behavior was contrary to what was expected due to the high concentration of H{sub 2}S present in the high temperature, 562 C, atmosphere.

  4. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  5. Chromatic signatures of broadband optical spectra for liquor discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. R.; Deakin, A. G.; Spencer, J. W.

    2009-02-01

    Methods based upon chromatic analysis are described for quantifying broadband optical absorption spectra in discriminating between different types of liquors. The absorption spectra are quantified by three chromaticity coordinates, which can be represented by two points, one on each of two chromatic diagrams. Various types of liquors may then be distinguished on such chromatic maps and groups of similar samples conveniently identified. Examples of the deployment of the approach are given for distinguishing between and classifying various types, brands and mixtures of alcoholic beverages and for identifying an authentic brand. The method provides a high level of traceability and is not restricted to a particular type of optical spectrum.

  6. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the

  7. Enhanced liners for attenuating utility by-product liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.J.; Dennison, D. )

    1990-03-01

    The enhancement of soil liners for selected inorganic solution species by improving attenuation properties neutralizing reagents was investigated. One soil type (Cole silt loam) and two coal combustion liquors (boiling cleaning waste (acidic) and water treatment system brine (alkaline)) were used in laboratory studies. These studies tested the effectiveness of the use of neutralizing reagents both as a direct solution treatment and as a neutralizing barrier in a waste impoundment. The two kinds of laboratory experiments conducted were batch experiments for assessing the reagent's effectiveness and for selecting some for further study, and column experiments to (1) investigate different reagent application techniques, (2) determine the reagent's effects on permeability, and (3) study the changes in contaminant mobility. The batch studies resulted in the selection of two cost-effective neutralizing agents, hydrated lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) for the acidic waste and alum (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{center dot}8H{sub 2}O) for the alkaline waste. In the column studies, these reagents were incorporated several ways in amending a soil liner to create neutralizing barriers. The results showed that a layered combination of homogeneous amended soil over unamended soil provided the most applicable and effective barrier with acceptable permeability. Precipitation, adsorption, and bacteriological activity were the major mechanisms involved in changing contaminant mobility and permeability. Several mineralogical changes occurred during contact in both studies, although the most significant was the precipitation of iron hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide, with their subsequent adsorption of trace metals. 13 refs., 26 figs.

  8. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  9. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance...

  10. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... either maintaining a retail liquor, beer and/or wine establishment within the Indian Country under the jurisdiction of the Tribe or making sales of liquor, beer and/or wine at retail within the Indian Country under... liquor, beer and/or wine within the Indian Country under the jurisdiction of the Tribe. (F)...

  11. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance AGENCY... certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake) Liquor Control Ordinance... purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian Country. The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake...

  12. 22 CFR 91.4 - Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500... CONTROLS § 91.4 Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons. (a) Upon request of interested shippers... net tons when affixed to declarations covering shipments of alcoholic liquors destined to the...

  13. 22 CFR 91.4 - Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500... CONTROLS § 91.4 Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons. (a) Upon request of interested shippers... net tons when affixed to declarations covering shipments of alcoholic liquors destined to the...

  14. 22 CFR 91.4 - Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500... CONTROLS § 91.4 Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons. (a) Upon request of interested shippers... net tons when affixed to declarations covering shipments of alcoholic liquors destined to the...

  15. 22 CFR 91.4 - Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500... CONTROLS § 91.4 Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons. (a) Upon request of interested shippers... net tons when affixed to declarations covering shipments of alcoholic liquors destined to the...

  16. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors...

  17. The signal sequence of exported protein-1 directs the green fluorescent protein to the parasitophorous vacuole of transfected malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Adisa, Akinola; Rug, Melanie; Klonis, Nectarios; Foley, Michael; Cowman, Alan F; Tilley, Leann

    2003-02-21

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, spends part of its life cycle inside the erythrocytes of its human host. In the mature stages of intraerythrocytic growth, the parasite undertakes extensive remodeling of its adopted cellular home by exporting proteins beyond the confines of its own plasma membrane. To examine the signals involved in export of parasite proteins, we have prepared transfected parasites expressing a chimeric protein comprising the N-terminal region of the Plasmodium falciparum exported protein-1 appended to green fluorescent protein. The majority of the population of the chimeric protein appears to be correctly processed and trafficked to the parasitophorous vacuole, indicating that this is the default destination for protein secretion. Some of the protein is redirected to the parasite food vacuole and further degraded. Photobleaching studies reveal that the parasitophorous vacuole contains subcompartments that are only partially interconnected. Dual labeling with the lipid probe, BODIPY-TR-ceramide, reveals the presence of membrane-bound extensions that can bleb from the parasitophorous vacuole to produce double membrane-bound compartments. We also observed regions and extensions of the parasitophorous vacuole, where there is segregation of the lumenal chimera from the lipid components. These regions may represent sites for the sorting of proteins destined for the trafficking to sites beyond the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. PMID:12456681

  18. Re–Os geochronology of the lacustrine Green River Formation: Insights into direct depositional dating of lacustrine successions, Re–Os systematics and paleocontinental weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary successions provide exceptionally high-resolution records of continental geological processes, responding to tectonic, climatic and magmatic influences. These successions are therefore essential for correlating geological and climatic phenomena across continents and furthermore the globe. Producing accurate geochronological frameworks within lacustrine strata is challenging because the stratigraphy is often bereft of biostratigraphy and directly dateable tuff horizons. The rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronometer is a well-established tool for determining precise and accurate depositional ages of marine organic-rich rocks. Lake systems with stratified water columns are predisposed to the preservation of organic-rich rocks and thus should permit direct Re–Os geochronology of lacustrine strata. We present Re–Os systematics from one of the world's best documented lacustrine systems, the Eocene Green River Formation, providing accurate Re–Os depositional dates that are supported by Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages of intercalated tuff horizons. Precision of the Green River Formation Re–Os dates is controlled by the variation in initial 187Os/188Os and the range of 187Re/188Os ratios, as also documented in marine systems. Controls on uptake and fractionation of Re and Os are considered to relate mainly to depositional setting and the type of organic matter deposited, with the need to further understand the chelating precursors of Re and Os in organic matter highlighted. In addition to geochronology, the Re–Os data records the 187Os/188Os composition of lake water (1.41–1.54) at the time of deposition, giving an insight into continental runoff derived from weathering of the geological hinterland of the Green River Formation. Such insights enable us to evaluate fluctuations in continental climatic, tectonic and magmatic processes and provide the ability for chemostratigraphic correlation combined with direct depositional dates. Furthermore

  19. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bernath, P. |; Sinquefield, S.A. |; Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C.; Barfield, M. |

    1996-05-01

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Novel maqui liquor using traditional pacharán processing.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Diego A; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP). The results showed that MBL had attractive colour, exhibited higher anthocyanin content and retention during maceration, higher antioxidant capacity, presented similar aroma profile and showed optimal sensory characteristics. Therefore, MBL can be an acceptable new liquor, with better quality characteristics and higher anthocyanin content and retention than pacharán, as well as with great scores in sensory analysis and consumer acceptance, offering a new and tasty beverage for future liquor manufacturing. PMID:25466148

  1. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF THERMALLY CONDITIONED SLUDGE RECYCLE LIQUORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate and evaluate the feasibility of treating undiluted heat treatment liquor prior to its rerouting back to the head of the sewage treatment plant. Chemical and biological treatment processes were studied. Chemical treatment w...

  2. 27 CFR 19.513 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements... TTB F 5100.31, Application for and Certification/Exemption of Label/Bottle Approval, to the... designs. The proprietor must certify as to the total capacity of a representative sample bottle...

  3. 27 CFR 19.513 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements... TTB F 5100.31, Application for and Certification/Exemption of Label/Bottle Approval, to the... designs. The proprietor must certify as to the total capacity of a representative sample bottle...

  4. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... on November 11, 1953 (18 FR 7178 (1953)). This amendment further regulates and controls the sale... the sale of liquor by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 1.1.3. ``Beer'' means any..., containing distilled or rectified spirits, potable alcohol, beer, wine, brandy, whiskey, rum, gin,...

  5. LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 6. INORGANIC PICKLING LIQUOR WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of an inorganic pickling liquor waste. The waste is spread on the site as a 20% solids sludge. Sulfate and iron are known to be major waste constituents. The organi...

  6. CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF WASTE PICKLE LIQUOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a demonstration of the feasibility of converting ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O)--obtained by low-temperature crystallization from H2SO4 waste pickle liquor generated by the acid-cleaning of steel surfaces--to marketable ferric oxide (Fe2O3). A closed-loo...

  7. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Rico who ship wine to the United States shall comply with the formula requirements of 27 CFR part 240... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.50 Section 26.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  8. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  9. Research of the measure principle of the liquor resonance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qi; Liu, Shengxiong; Xu, Ke; Min, Cuicui; Xu, Shijun; Xiao, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Various sensors based on the piezoelectric crystal have been widely used in the process of research. Currently, the research and application of the piezoelectric sensors are mostly based on the "mass responses" and "non-mass responses" of the piezoelectric crystal. But in the researches and applications of the piezoelectric crystal sensors, many phenomenons have been found which can not be explained and can not accord with the Sauerbrey theory based on the "mass responses". And the scholars often explained those phenomenons with the "non-mass response of the piezoelectric crystal" [1]. In our researches, we improved the detectors and got some primary experimental results. And the results showed that the non-mass respones has no relation to the piezoelectric sensor, and it related to the characteristics of the liquor itself. Based on the results, it can be reckoned that this is a new physical phenomenon, that is to say, the liquor has the electrical resonance characteristic which likes the characteristic of the piezoelectric crystal, and can identify the characteristic of the liquor using the frequency of the electrical resonance. As soon as any of the characteristics of the liquor changed such as component, and density, the resonance frequency will change accordingly.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Berry and Fruit Wines and Liquors.

    PubMed

    Heinonen; Lehtonen; Hopia

    1998-01-19

    A total of 44 different berry and fruit wines and liquors with total phenolic contents between 91 and 1820 mg/L, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Dealcoholized wine extracts were added to methyl linoleate (MeLo), and the oxidation in the dark at 40 degrees C was followed by conjugated diene measurement. Wines made of mixtures of black currants and crowberries or bilberries (240-275 µM GAE) were slightly superior to reference red grape wines (330-375 µM GAE) and equally as active as the control antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (50 µM), in inhibiting MeLo hydroperoxide formation. Also, raw materials including apple, arctic bramble, cowberries, cranberries, red currants, or rowanberries possessed antioxidant activity. Thus, these raw materials contain phenolic compounds, some of which are capable of protecting lipids against oxidation also in a hydrophobic lipid system. Liquors, apart from arctic bramble liquor, were less active than wines. However, the total phenolic content did not correlate with the antioxidant activity of the berry and fruit wines and liquors, therefore alleviating the importance of further characterization of the phenolic antioxidants present in berry and fruit wines. PMID:10554191

  11. Arsenic availability, toxicity and direct role of GSH and phytochelatins in As detoxification in the green alga Stichococcus bacillaris.

    PubMed

    Pawlik-Skowrońska, B; Pirszel, J; Kalinowska, R; Skowroński, T

    2004-12-10

    Accumulation and toxicity of inorganic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) to the green microalga Stichococcus bacillaris depended on environmental variables. pH of exposure and to a lesser extent elevated concentrations of humic acid, chloride and orthophosphate ions affected arsenic accumulation and its toxicity. As(V) was more toxic than As(III), especially at the near neutral pH 6.8. Intracellular As(V) uptake by algal cells was greater at pH 6.8 than at 8.2. In response to As(III) and As(V) the alga produced phytochelatins (PC(2-3)), but at As(V) exposure, their levels in cells were higher than with As(III), suggesting higher As(V) than As(III) availability and uptake. Arsenic in algal cells occurred in various complexes with non-protein SH groups. Some of these complexes dissociated under acidic conditions, but others were able to dissociate only at an alkaline pH. The former consisted of SH groups of phytochelatins. Those dissociating at an alkaline pH involved SH groups from both glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PC) or their derivatives. In the predominant acid-stable mixed As-SH complex, the ratio of SH (PC(2)) to SH (GSH) was 2:1, which suggests that one molecule of PC(2) (containing two SH groups) together with one molecule of GSH were involved in intracellular complexation of each As atom. This is the first demonstration of GSH involvement in arsenic complexation, in vivo. The intracellular concentration of As was greater than that of non-protein SH groups which suggests that not all the arsenic in algal cells was complexed and detoxified by thiol groups. PMID:15550277

  12. Multistep mass spectrometry methodology for direct characterization of polar lipids in green microalgae using paper spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Oradu, Sheran A; Cooks, R Graham

    2012-12-18

    Paper spray ionization, an ambient ionization method, has been applied for the identification of polar lipids in green microalgae with no sample preparation. A multistep experimental protocol was employed to characterize the lipid species of two microalgae strains, Kyo-Chlorella in tablet form and Nannochloropsis in paste form by mass spectrometry (MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments using collision induced dissociation (CID) were employed for initial characterization of the detected lipid species, which were dominated by polar glycolipids and phospholipids. Product ion scan experiments were performed to determine the lipid head groups and fatty acid composition. Precursor ion scan experiments using fragment ions such as m/z 184, which is characteristic of the phosphocholine headgroup, were then used to confirm the lipid classification. Lipid elemental compositions were determined by exact mass measurements using high resolution mass spectrometry. Finally, the position of unsaturation was determined using reactive paper spray ionization experiments with ozone used as a reagent to cleave double bonds. Ozone was produced in situ using dielectric barrier discharge from a low temperature plasma, and it reacted in ambient air with the spray of ions produced by paper spray ionization. Using the precursor ion scan experiment, the resulting ozone cleavage product ions were used to determine the position of unsaturation for some of these species. By applying this experimental protocol, the molecular formulas and key aspects of the structures of glycerophosphocholines (PCs) such as 9Z-16:1/9Z,12Z-16:2 PC and 6Z,9Z-18:2/6Z,9Z,12Z-18:3PC and monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) such as 18:3/16:3MGDG were identified in the positive ion mode, while glycerophosphoglycerols (PGs) such as 18:3/16:0 PG and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) such as 18:3/16:0 SQDG were identified in the negative ion mode. PMID:23181824

  13. Direct analysis of six antibiotics in wastewater samples using rapid high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector: a chemometric study towards green analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vosough, Maryam; Rashvand, Masoumeh; Esfahani, Hadi M; Kargosha, Kazem; Salemi, Amir

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a rapid HPLC-DAD method has been developed for the analysis of six antibiotics (amoxicillin, metronidazole, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacine, sulfadiazine and sulfamerazine) in the sewage treatment plant influent and effluent samples. Decreasing the chromatographic run time to less than 4 min as well as lowering the cost per analysis, were achieved through direct injection of the samples into the HPLC system followed by chemometric analysis. The problem of the complete separation of the analytes from each other and/or from the matrix ingredients was resolved as a posteriori. The performance of MCR/ALS and U-PLS/RBL, as second-order algorithms, was studied and comparable results were obtained from implication of these modeling methods. It was demonstrated that the proposed methods could be used promisingly as green analytical strategies for detection and quantification of the targeted pollutants in wastewater samples while avoiding the more complicated high cost instrumentations. PMID:25640119

  14. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  15. Direct and Indirect Horizontal Transmission of the Antifungal Probiotic Bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum on Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans) Tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Rebollar, Eria A; Simonetti, Stephen J; Shoemaker, William R; Harris, Reid N

    2016-04-01

    Amphibian populations worldwide are being threatened by the disease chytridiomycosis, which is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis To mitigate the effects of B. dendrobatidis, bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria has been shown to be a promising strategy. One way to implement bioaugmentation is through indirect horizontal transmission, defined as the transfer of bacteria from a host to the environment and to another host. In addition, direct horizontal transmission among individuals can facilitate the spread of a probiotic in a population. In this study, we tested whether the antifungal bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum could be horizontally transferred, directly or indirectly, in a laboratory experiment using Lithobates clamitans tadpoles. We evaluated the ability of J. lividumto colonize the tadpoles' skin and to persist through time using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We also tested whether the addition of J. lividum affected the skin community in L. clamitans tadpoles. We found that transmission occurred rapidly by direct and indirect horizontal transmission, but indirect transmission that included a potential substrate was more effective. Even though J. lividum colonized the skin, its relative abundance on the tadpole skin decreased over time. The inoculation of J. lividum did not significantly alter the skin bacterial diversity of L. clamitans tadpoles, which was dominated by Pseudomonas Our results show that indirect horizontal transmission can be an effective bioaugmentation method. Future research is needed to determine the best conditions, including the presence of substrates, under which a probiotic can persist on the skin so that bioaugmentation becomes a successful strategy to mitigate chytridiomycosis. PMID:26873311

  16. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. Corn steep liquor as a cost-effective nutrition adjunct in high-performance Zymomonas ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been demonstrated to possess several fermentation performance characteristics that are superior to yeast. In a recent survey conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Zymomonas was selected as the most promising host for improvement by genetic engineering directed to pentose metabolism for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes. Minimization of costs associated with nutritional supplements and seed production is essential for economic large-scale production of fuel ethanol. Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a byproduct of corn wet-milling and has been used as a fermentation nutrient supplement in several different fermentations. This study employed pH-controlled batch fermenters to compare the growth and fermentation performance of Z. mobilis in glucose media with whole and clarified corn steep liquor as sole nutrient source, and to determine minimal amounts of CSL required to sustain high-performance fermentation. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Recovery of solvent and by-products from organosolv black liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Botello, J.I.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Oliet, M.

    1999-09-01

    The recovery of alcohol and by-products from ethanol-water and methanol-water pulping liquors was studied. The recovery system proposed consists of three stages: black liquor flashing, lignin precipitation, and precipitation distillation of mother liquor. At the flash stage, 47 and 51% of the alcohol in the black liquor are recovered for ethanol and methanol processes, respectively. The lignin recovery yield at the precipitation stage is 67% for ethanol black liquor and 73% for methanol black liquor. The distillation of precipitation mother liquors enables recovery of 98% ethanol and 96% methanol from this stream as distillate, whereas the distillation residue contains significant amounts of sugars, furfural, and acetic acid that can be recovered. The study concludes with the overall mass balance for the recovery system proposed.

  19. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Other Phytochemicals Directly Detected by High-Resolution NMR on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) Blue-Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value. The presence of cis-3,4-DhLys was revealed for the first time. This molecule could be involved in the anticancer properties ascribed to AFA. PMID:27537083

  20. Biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum using xylose recovered from birch Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika L; Helmerius, Jonas; Nilsson, Robert T; Sjöblom, Magnus; Hodge, David B; Rova, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13g/g and 0.34g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1g/L and 7.3g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol. PMID:25460986

  1. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health. PMID:26231502

  2. Solvated liquid-lignin fractions from a Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Velez, Julian; Thies, Mark C

    2013-11-01

    A softwood Kraft black liquor was acidified with carbon dioxide at 115°C and 6.2 bar over a pH range of 13.6-9.5, resulting in the precipitation of liquefied-lignin fractions as a separate phase. Seven such "liquid-lignin" fractions were produced, with each fraction being phase-separated within a narrow pH band of 0.5 units. The fractions were found to be highly hydrated phases, containing 32.3-48.2 wt.% water; as a result, their measured melting points were quite low, 90.7-110.5°C. In contrast, no melting point was detected up to 375°C for any of the lignin fractions after drying. Significant reductions in metals content were observed for the lignin fractions compared to the original black-liquor feed. PMID:24054066

  3. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  4. Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, E. G.

    1987-08-01

    In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

  5. A survey of present levels of radiocesium in Swedish pulp mill liquors and the implications for wood radiocesium transfer factors.

    PubMed

    Ravila, A; Holm, E

    1998-10-27

    Assessments of the impact from radioactive fallout on the pulp industry and the accumulation processes for radionuclides in such industries, using wood and water as primary raw materials, have been conducted in previous studies. Hitherto, there is a general lack of data on present levels of radioactivity in pulp mill liquors apart from the few mills studied by Nilsson (1992); Ravila and Holm (1992); Manjón et al. (1996); Krosshavn et al. (1997). A survey was therefore initiated to describe and compare the present activity levels in pulp mill liquors from various mill locations in Sweden. The 137Cs activity in pulp mill liquors were compared with the mill location and the deposition pattern of the Chernobyl fallout and nuclear weapons fallout. The large input of wood (approx. 2500 m3 day-1) to an average Nordic Kraft mill and the relatively long-term retention time for radiocesium in the Kraft mill recovery cycle enables representative sampling of substances directly related to the activity concentration in wood. PMID:9851069

  6. Solid fuel production by hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shimin; Li, Xianglan; Fan, Juan; Chang, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Formaldehyde was used as a polymerization agent to perform hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor for solid fuel production from 220 to 285°C. Compared to hydrochar prepared without formaldehyde, hydrochar produced in the presence of a 2.8wt.% formaldehyde solution (hydrochar-F) had 1.27-2.13 times higher yield, 1.02-1.36 times higher heating value (HHV), 1.20-2.31 times higher C recovery efficiency, 1.20-2.44 times higher total energy recovery efficiency, 0.51-0.64 times lower sulfur content, and 0.48-0.89 times lower ash content. The HHV of hydrochar-Fs ranged from 2.2×10(4) to 3.0×10(4)kJ/kg, while the HHV of hydrochar-F produced at 285°C was 1.90 times greater than that of the raw material (black liquor solid). These considerable improvements indicated that formaldehyde was an effective additive in hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor. PMID:22330593

  7. Freeze crystallization technology for Kraft black liquor concentration. Third report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.E.; Rhodes, C.R.

    1985-04-01

    About 25% of the purchased energy in the pulp and paper industry is used to concentrate black liquor. The technical feasibility of using freeze concentration to supplement evaporation has been successfully demonstrated, and results indicate that energy consumption can be reduced 45%. After compiling a considerable data base on the characteristics of black liquor at low temperature and after developing a computer program to aid analysis, the process chosen was vacuum freezing-vapor absorption (VFVA). A pilot plant was built and operated; however, due to problems with crystallization of the absorbent and contamination, it was found that maintaining the conditions necessary for a continuous process was not practical at the present state of development. Therefore, indirect freezing was used for all subsequent work. This required the design and fabrication of a simple shuttle crystallizer to replace scraped surface units conventionally used. CSI also developed an integrated ice separation column that combined crystal growth, a concentration gradient, and washing all in one unit. Finally, extensive heat transfer coefficient data were collected so that a preliminary design could be completed for a 350 TPD industrial freeze concentration unit. An economic analysis was calculated in order to compare using evaporation and freeze concentration to process the increased liquor flow from a pulp mill expansion. A 200,000 lb/hr freezing unit used to preconcentrate the mill's entire stream up to 18.7% solids would save $10 to $16 per ton of pulp.

  8. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  9. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  10. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  11. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  12. Eco-friendly synthesis for MCM-41 nanoporous materials using the non-reacted reagents in mother liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Eng-Poh; Goh, Jia-Yi; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R.

    2013-03-01

    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level.

  13. Eco-friendly synthesis for MCM-41 nanoporous materials using the non-reacted reagents in mother liquor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level. PMID:23497184

  14. A method for determining iron-containing components of liquor in neurosurgical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semibratova, V. A.; Titov, Yu. M.

    2008-09-01

    Results of spectral studies of human liquor aimed at determining the specific features of its composition arising as a result of neurosurgical diseases and during the recovery period are presented. A method for detecting characteristic bands attributed to pathology, which is based on precision measurements of the UV-VIS absorption spectra of liquor and on their subsequent computer analysis is presented. With this method, ironcontaining components of liquor can be qualitatively and quantitatively determined, which is important in solving neurosurgical problems.

  15. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.134 Section 122.134 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom....

  16. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Bo; Mu, Huan-Zhen; Huang, Yan-Chu

    2003-09-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved. PMID:14562934

  17. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  18. Layered double hydroxide formation in Bayer liquor and its promotional effect on oxalate precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrotta, A.J.; Williams, F.

    1996-10-01

    Enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer process liquor to improve the quality of alumina product remains an important objective for Bayer refining. The formation of layered double hydroxides by the reaction of alkaline earth oxides, such as lime and magnesia, with Bayer liquor gives a crystal structure which is capable of intercalating anions, both inorganic and organic, within its structure. Both lime and magnesia, with long contact times in Bayer liquor, show layered double hydroxide formation. This layered double hydroxide formation is accompanied with a decrease in the sodium oxalate content in the liquor from about 3 g/L to below 1 g/L. Short contact times lead to a destabilization of the liquor which facilitates sodium oxalate precipitation. Additional work on magnesium hydroxide shows, in comparison to lime and magnesia, much less layered double hydroxide formation with equivalent residence time in the liquor. Destabilization of the liquor also occurs, giving enhanced oxalate precipitation with less alumina being consumed in agreement with lower layered double hydroxide formation. Thermal regeneration of these structures, followed by in-situ recrystallization in Bayer liquor, also gives enhanced oxalate precipitation, suggesting that there is an opportunity for a regenerable oxalate reduction system. The implementation of these experiments and other related technology into the plant has resulted in the Purox Process for enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer liquor.

  19. Malt liquor marketing in inner cities: the role of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    McKee, Pat; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Hannan, Peter; Pham, Lan

    2011-01-01

    In response to anecdotal reports that African American neighborhoods are targeted for high-alcohol malt liquor advertising, the authors observed alcohol ads on off-premise alcohol outlets, billboards, and transit structures in 10 U.S. cities over 3 years. Malt liquor ads were prevalent on storefronts, but rare on billboards. Using Poisson regression, the authors found that storefront malt liquor ads were more common in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans, even after controlling for social and physical disorder. Results suggest that policymakers attempting to reduce malt liquor-related harms may do well to consider regulations that limit storefront advertising exposure. PMID:21409702

  20. A win-win technique of stabilizing sand dune and purifying paper mill black-liquor.

    PubMed

    Hanjie, Wang; Frits, Penning de Vries; Yongcan, Jin

    2009-01-01

    The principle and technique were reported here to produce lignin-based sand stabilizing material (LSSM) using extracted lignin from black liquor of straw paper mills. Field tests using LSSM to stabilize and green sand dunes were started in 2002. The field experiment was carried out in August 2005 when the newly formed plant community was 3 years old. The results from the comprehensive field experiment demonstrated that unlike polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, LSSM was plant-friendly material and could be used in combination with seeding and planting of desert species. With the help of LSSM, the desert species (i.e., Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq. and Artemisia desertorum Spreng. etc.) could be used to form community in 2-3 yeas and to stabilize sand dune effectively. The newly formed community was sustainable under an extremely dry climate condition. The organic matter and total nitrogen in the soil increased significantly as the community were formed, while the change in P and K contents in the soil was negligible. PMID:19634424

  1. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  2. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION AT BIG ISLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2003-10-20

    This Technical Progress Report provides an account of the status of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific Corporation's Big Island, VA facility. The report also includes budget information and a milestone schedule. The project to be conducted by G-P is a comprehensive, complete commercial-scale demonstration that is divided into two phases. Phase I is the validation of the project scope and cost estimate. Phase II is project execution, data acquisition and reporting, and consists of procurement of major equipment, construction and start-up of the new system. Phase II also includes operation of the system for a period of time to demonstrate the safe operation and full integration of the energy and chemical recovery systems in a commercial environment. The objective of Phase I is to validate the process design and to engineer viable solutions to any technology gaps. This phase includes engineering and planning for the integration of the full-scale MTCI/StoneChem PulseEnhanced{trademark} black liquor steam-reformer chemical recovery system into G-P's operating pulp and paper mill at Big Island, Virginia. During this phase, the scope and cost estimate will be finalized to confirm the cost of the project and its integration into the existing system at the mill. The objective of Phase II of the project is the successful and safe completion of the engineering, construction and functional operation of the fully integrated full-scale steam reformer process system. This phase includes installation of all associated support systems and equipment required for the enhanced recovery of both energy and chemicals from all of the black liquor generated from the pulping process at the Big Island Mill. The objective also includes operation of the steam reformer system to demonstrate the ability of the system to operate reliably and achieve designed levels of energy and chemical recovery while maintaining environmental emissions at or below

  4. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1987-09-01

    The major justification for examining ultrafiltration was to lower the viscosity of the Kraft Black Liquor by recovering it as an ultrafiltration permeate from which the highest MW lignin had been removed. The liquor could then be concentrated to a higher percentage solids before firing into the recovery boiler. Consequent energy savings for the 1000 ton/day pulp mill would be 2.05 x 10 Btu/y for each percentage increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) to the recovery boiler. This Phase II report gives data on viscosity with percentage solids of KBL permeates. Another favorable effect of ultrafiltration on the permeate properties is disproportionate removal of multivalent ions including the major scaling ion CaS . If this high-viscosity high-Ca retentate could be treated to lower its viscosity and to release the Ca in a non-scaling form, this would enhance the possibility that ultrafiltration might be useful in a mill situation. Included in this report are data on the results of treating the retentate fraction. Other justifications for this program included further information in KBL properties: lignin MW in the KBL at high pH; elemental and sugar analyses; and differential properties of lignins in the retentate and the permeate fractions. A preliminary economic analysis of ultrafiltration is contained in this report. These analyses indicate that with flux rates now attainable, ultrafiltration would not be economically justified at this time if the only justification is to lower KBL viscosity. For certain situations where high Ca liquors present a scaling problem, especially in an evaporator-limited mill, the economics are more favorable. There are also unsolved problems relating to the use of the high viscosity retentate.

  5. A critical exponent of an aniseed-based liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorga, A.; Thompson, D.

    1996-05-01

    We present the results of a simple experiment suitable for the undergraduate laboratory in which the onset of turbidity when an aniseed-based liquor is diluted with water is observed. The optical transmission shows the behavior typical of the order parameter in a second-order phase transition. The changes in the transmission are due to the precipitation of terpenes and the amount of precipitated terpenes also shows critical behavior of the form n=k'(c-cc)y, where c is the fraction of water in the solution. The critical exponent is determined to be y=1.01±0.06.

  6. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  7. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  8. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  9. Bacterial decolorization of black liquor in axenic and mixed condition and characterization of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Abhishek, Amar

    2011-06-01

    The pulping byproducts (black liquor) cause serious environmental problem due to its high pollution load. In order to search the degradability of black liquor, the potential bacterial strains Citrobacter freundii (FJ581026) and Citrobacter sp. (FJ581023) were applied in axenic and mixed condition. Results revealed that the mixed bacterial culture are more effective than axenic condition and can reduce 82% COD, 79% AOX, 79% color and 60% lignin after 144 h of incubation period. Additionally, the optimum activity of lignin degrading enzyme was noted at 96 h and characterized as manganese peroxidase (MnP) by SDS–PAGE analysis. Further, the HPLC analysis of control and bacterial degraded sample has shown the reduction as well as shifting of peaks compared to control indicating the degradation as well as transformation of compounds of black liquor. The comparative GC-MS analysis of control and degraded black liquor revealed that along with lignin fragment some chlorophenolic compounds 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were detected in black liquor degraded by axenic culture whereas these chlorophenolic compounds were completely absent in black liquor degraded by mixed bacterial culture. These chlorophenol inhibit the oxidative degradation which seems a major reason behind the low degradability of axenic degradation compared to mixed culture. The innovation of this aerobic treatment of alkaline black liquor opens additional possibilities for the better treatment of black liquor along with its metabolic product. PMID:21061144

  10. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  11. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... process used for its production. (b) Alcoholic beverage means all alcohol, spirits, liquor, wine, beer and any liquid or solid containing alcohol, spirits, liquor, wine, or beer, and which contains one-half of... of Alcohol. The manufacture of beer and wine shall be lawful within Lands under the Jurisdiction...

  12. 77 FR 10551 - Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation-Amendment to Liquor Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... four varieties of liquor herein defined (alcohol, spirits, wine, and beer) and all fermented... substance patented or not containing alcohol, spirits, wine, or beer, and all drinks of potable liquids and... distribution by any means whatsoever, of liquor or any liquid known or described as beer or by any...

  13. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... consumption on the premises, of liquor, as herein defined. Section 4.4. Beer. Any beverage obtained by the..., containing more than four percent (4%) of alcohol by weight shall be referred to as ``strong beer''. Section... defined (alcohol, spirits, wine, and beer), and all fermented spirituous, vinous, or malt liquor...

  14. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... term ``Liquor'' as defined by this ordinance. (iii) ``Beer'' shall mean any beverage obtained by the... person or entity authorized to sell Liquor, Beer or Wine by a License issued by the RSLCC. (vii..., containing distilled or rectified spirits, potable alcohol, beer, wine, brandy, whiskey, rum, gin,...

  15. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... herein defined. (d) Beer. Any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of an infusion or decoction... other substance, patented or not, containing distilled or rectified spirits, potable alcohol, beer, wine... liquor or beer. (h) Malt Liquor. Includes beer, strong beer, ale, stout and porter. (i) Package....

  16. Vapor pressure and boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors: Predictive models with statistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; McNally, T.W.; Fricke, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria and boiling point elevation of slash pine kraft black liquors over a wide range of solid concentrations (up to 85% solids) has been studied. The liquors are from a statistically designed pulping experiment for pulping slash pine in a pilot scale digester with four cooking variables of effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking time, and cooking temperature. It was found that boiling point elevation of black liquors is pressure dependent, and this dependency is more significant at higher solids concentrations. The boiling point elevation data at different solids contents (at a fixed pressure) were correlated to the dissolved solids (S/(1 {minus} S)) in black liquor. Due to the solubility limit of some of the salts in black liquor, a change in the slope of the boiling point elevation as a function of the dissolved solids was observed at a concentration of around 65% solids. An empirical method was developed to describe the boiling point elevation of each liquor as a function of pressure and solids mass fraction. The boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors was correlated quantitatively to the pulping variables, using different statistical procedures. These predictive models can be applied to determine the boiling point rise (and boiling point) of slash pine black liquors at processing conditions from the knowledge of pulping variables. The results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

  17. Synthesis of M-type hexaferrites from steel pickling liquors (ID 109)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, J.; Latorre, R.; Alcalá, E. M.; Negro, C.; Formoso, A.; López-Mateos, F.

    1996-05-01

    The recovery of steel pickling liquors is one of the main environmental aspects that the steelmaking industry must resolve. We propose the synthesis of barium M-type hexaferrite from these liquors as a recovery treatment. Two methods of synthesis have been studied: a variation of the ceramic method, and an oxicoprecipitation process. Products with excellent magnetic properties have been obtained.

  18. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  19. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This notice publishes the amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12). The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Colorado River Indian Tribes' Reservation. The land is located on trust land and this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Colorado River......

  20. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This notice publishes the amendment to Lummi Nation's Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Lummi Nation's Reservation and Indian country. The land is located on trust land and this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Lummi Nation's Reservation and Indian country. The......

  1. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports...

  2. 27 CFR 31.67 - Persons returning liquors for credit, refund, or exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons returning liquors for credit, refund, or exchange. 31.67 Section 31.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers...

  3. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  4. Biomass production and nutrient removal by Chlorella sp. as affected by sludge liquor concentration.

    PubMed

    Åkerström, Anette M; Mortensen, Leiv M; Rusten, Bjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2014-11-01

    The use of microalgae for biomass production and nutrient removal from the reject water produced in the dewatering process of anaerobically digested sludge, sludge liquor, was investigated. The sludge liquor was characterized by a high content of total suspended solids (1590 mg L(-1)), a high nitrogen concentration (1210 mg L(-1)), and a low phosphorus concentration (28 mg L(-1)). Chlorella sp. was grown in sludge liquor diluted with wastewater treatment plant effluent water to different concentrations (12, 25, 40, 50, 70, and 100%) using batch mode. The environmental conditions were 25 °C, a continuous lightning of 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a CO2 concentration of 3.0%. The highest biomass production (0.42-0.45 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1)) was achieved at 40-50% sludge liquor, which was comparable to the production of the control culture grown with an artificial fertilizer. The biomass production was 0.12 and 0.26 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1) at 12% and 100% sludge liquor, respectively. The percentage of nitrogen in the algal biomass increased from 3.6% in 12% sludge liquor and reached a saturation of ∼10% in concentrations with 50% sludge liquor and higher. The phosphorus content in the biomass increased linearly from 0.2 to 1.5% with increasing sludge liquor concentrations. The highest nitrogen removal rates by algal biosynthesis were 33.6-42.6 mg TN L(-1) Day(-1) at 40-70% sludge liquor, while the highest phosphorus removal rates were 3.1-4.1 mg TP L(-1) Day(-1) at 50-100% sludge liquor. PMID:24935023

  5. Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-10

    Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 μg/L to 9.90 μg/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process. PMID:21662241

  6. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  7. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  8. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  9. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  10. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  11. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  12. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  13. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator,...

  14. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator,...

  15. Conversion of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone using Fe3(CO)12: mimicking a biorefinery setting by exploiting crude liquors from biomass acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Metzker, Gustavo; Burtoloso, Antonio C B

    2015-09-28

    The conversion of biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) into gamma-valerolactone (GVL) using formic acid (FA) and Fe3(CO)12 as the catalyst precursor was achieved in 92% yield. To mimic a biorefinery setting, crude liquor (containing 20% LA) from the acid hydrolysis of sugarcane biomass in a pilot plant facility was directly converted into GVL in good yield (50%), without the need for isolating LA. PMID:26258183

  16. Polymerisation of Kraft lignin from black liquors by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila: effect of operational conditions and black liquor origin.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, S; Fernández-Costas, C; Sanromán, M A; Moldes, D

    2013-03-01

    The capacity of laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila to promote the oxidative polymerisation of Kraft lignin (KL) was evaluated in several conditions of pH, temperature, enzyme dosage and treatment time. Moreover, different black liquors from the Kraft cooking of Eucalyptus globulus and mixture of Pinus pinaster/E. globulus were evaluated in order to determine the effect of the KL source on the polymerisation reaction. Furthermore, one of these black liquors was fractionated by sequential organic solvent fractionation and the polymerisation of the corresponding fractions was tested. Polymerisation products were analysed by size exclusion chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results provide evidence of notable lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Structural oxidation and a notably molecular weight increase were attained, reaching a polymer of 69-fold its initial molecular weight depending on the raw lignin. Moreover, optimum values of reaction conditions were obtained: pH 7.3, 70°C, 2UmL(-1) and 2h. PMID:23360704

  17. Rapid and direct volatile compound profiling of black and green teas (Camellia sinensis) from different countries with PTR-ToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Yener, Sine; Sánchez-López, José A; Granitto, Pablo M; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Zimmermann, Ralf; Bonn, Günther K; Yeretzian, Chahan; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-05-15

    Volatile profiles of 63 black and 38 green teas from different countries were analysed with Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) both for tea leaves and tea infusion. The headspace volatile fingerprints were collected and the tea classes and geographical origins were tracked with pattern recognition techniques. The high mass resolution achieved by ToF mass analyser provided determination of sum formula and tentative identifications of the mass peaks. The results provided successful separation of the black and green teas based on their headspace volatile emissions both from the dry tea leaves and their infusions. The volatile fingerprints were then used to build different classification models for discrimination of black and green teas according to their geographical origins. Two different cross validation methods were applied and their effectiveness for origin discrimination was discussed. The classification models showed a separation of black and green teas according to geographical origins the errors being mostly between neighbouring countries. PMID:26992494

  18. Phytochrome from green plants:

    SciTech Connect

    Quail, P.H.

    1988-03-01

    This research has been directed toward characterizing and purifying the molecular species of phytochrome detected in green Avena tissue. We have found major differences between the phytochrome extracted from green and from etiolated tissue as regards immunochemial and spectral properties. In addition, we have established: (a) that the predominant ()approximately)80% of total) phytochrome polypeptide in green tissue has a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 118,000;(b) that the proteolytic peptide map of this 118,000-Mr species differs considerably from that of 124,000-Mr phytochrome from etiolated tissue;(c) that the green-tissue, 118,000-Mr polypeptide carries only one of three spatially separate epitopes that are present on etiolated-tissue phytochrome (i.e., an epitope in the carboxy-terminal domain recognized by Type 3 monoclonal antibodies);(d) that the minor phytochrome species in green tissue ()approximately)20% of total) resembles that in etiolated tissue in that it is 124,000-Mr and is immunoprecipitable with polyclonal, anti-etiolated-oat-phytochrome antibodies, thereby accounting for the previously observed limited population of immunoprecipitable activity in green extracts;and (e) that the 118,000-Mr green-tissue molecule migrates on non-denaturing size exclusionchromatography as a )approximately)320 kDa entity, suggesting a quaternary structure similar to etiolated tissue 124,000-Mr phytochrome. A new purification protocol that enriches the green-tissue phytochrome )approximately)200-fold has been developed. The preparations obtained in this way are apparently free of residual endogenous proteolytic activity. We have examined the regulation of the level of the 118,000-MR species during seedling developement and have obtained evidence that the abundance of this species is not modulated by light, in contrast to its etiolated-tissue counterpart. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  20. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  1. Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; van Heiningen, A.R.P. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the steam gasification kinetics of kraft black liquor char that were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis reactor. The effect of steam and hydrogen concentration on gasification rate can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. An activation energy of 210 kJ/mol was obtained. Methane formation was negligible, and H{sub 2}S was the major gaseous sulfur-containing product obtained over the temperature range studied, 873-973 K. The CO{sub 2} concentration was higher than calculated for the water-shift reaction at equilibrium. A gasification mechanism is proposed whereby CO{sub 2} is one of the primary gasification products.

  2. A process for producing lignocellulosic flocs from NSSC spent liquor.

    PubMed

    Sitter, Thomas; Oveissi, Farshad; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-03-10

    Presently, the spent liquor (SL) of neutral sulfite semi chemical (NSSC) pulping process is treated in the waste water system. In this work, a new process for isolating lignocelluloses from the SL of an NSSC process is proposed and the effectiveness of this process is evaluated on industrially produced SL. The results showed that under the optimal conditions of pH 6, 30°C and 15mg/g poly ethylene imine (PEI) concentration in the SL, a maximum of 37% lignin and 37% hemicelluloses could be removed from SL. Alternatively, the dual system of poly diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and PEI (7.5mg/g each) was evaluated in removing lignocelluloses from the SL; and the results showed that lignin and hemicellulose removals were improved to 47% and 50%, respectively. The turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of SL, as well as the elemental analysis of generated flocs were also assessed in this work. PMID:24440635

  3. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  4. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  5. The corrosion of titanium in alkaline peroxide bleach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Wyllie, W.E. II; Brown, B.E.; Duquette, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental program to determine the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and of potential corrosion inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of titanium has been developed. Corrosion rates less than 0.25 mm/y were observed in laboratory bleach liquor at pH 12 to which 5 g/l of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were added. At pH 13, with 10 g/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the corrosion rates were unacceptably high in both sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and laboratory bleach liquor solutions (>8.38 mm/y). The preliminary results of inhibitor studies indicated that the addition of 3.7 g/l sodium silicate or 0.01 g/l calcium nitrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) effectively inhibited the corrosion of titanium exposed to 5 g/l of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in NaOH solutions of pH 12. It was also found that in simulated paper mill chemistries, i.e., basic solutions containing 3.7 g/l sodium silicate and 0.6 g/l EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), corrosion rates increased markedly with the addition of 5 g/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. However, subsequent additions of peroxide resulted in corrosion rates which were even lower than those found in NaOH. This is believed to be due to the formation of a black scale on the surface of the sample. The addition of magnesium sulfate (MgSO{sub 4}) in the 0.1--0.5 g/l range also was shown to inhibit corrosion in the NaOH solution, but only after prior exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  7. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  8. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  9. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  10. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  11. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors.

  12. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors. PMID:25857434

  13. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  14. State-Specific Liquor Excise Taxes and Retail Prices in Eight U.S. States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in eight states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. We made 6,042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, we examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. We find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24159914

  15. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24159914

  16. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  17. One-pot quantitative hydrolysis of lignocelluloses mediated by black liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuolin; Sun, Meg M; Su, Chungao; Zhao, Hongmei; Ma, Xuemei; Zhu, Zuodong; Shi, Xianlei; Gu, Kangfu

    2013-01-01

    Black liquor from the kraft process facilitates quantitative biomass hydrolysis converting cellulose and hemicellulose into organic acids such as lactic acid (~50%), and lignin into small molecular aromatics, without gasification and black tar formation. Oxygen transfer between lignin and carbohydrates may be the mechanism. With this method, three tons of lignocellulosic biomass can potentially produce up to one ton of lactic acid, and one ton of small molecular aromatics. This novel usage of black liquor is environmentally viable because it is accompanied by significant emission reduction of particulates, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, most organic sulfur compounds and sulfites of black liquor were converted into sulfates. PMID:23196243

  18. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  19. A novel method for the determination of black liquor viscosity by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2013-12-13

    This work demonstrates a novel method for the determination of viscosity in the concentrated black liquors from pulp mill recovery process. The method is based on the kinetic release of methanol (a vapor tracer) to the headspace in a sample closed vial by a multiple headspace extraction gas chromatographic technique. Both theoretical and empirical models were proposed for establishing the correlation with the reference method. The results showed that the correlation using either of the models is excellent for the tested black liquor samples (at 110°C). The presented method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for black liquor viscosity related research and applications. PMID:24210298

  20. Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems

    SciTech Connect

    Black, N.P.

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

  1. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  2. The Green of Green Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, Lawrie; Sheard, Fred

    2003-12-01

    In 1828, an English miller from Nottingham published a mathematical essay that generated little response. George Green's analysis, however, has since found applications in areas ranging from classical electrostatics to modern quantum field theory.

  3. Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2010-11-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted. PMID:20558058

  4. Liquor Law Liability on the College Campus: When Are We Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews legislation and court litigation dealing with liquor law liability on the college campus and presents some risk prevention recommendations for administrators, including becoming familiar with the law and reviewing student life policies that pertain to drinking. (JAC)

  5. Black liquor fractionation for biofuels production - a techno-economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Mesfun, Sennai; Lundgren, Joakim; Grip, Carl-Erik; Toffolo, Andrea; Nilsson, Rasika Lasanthi Kudahettige; Rova, Ulrika

    2014-08-01

    The hemicelluloses fraction of black liquor is an underutilized resource in many chemical pulp mills. It is possible to extract and separate the lignin and hemicelluloses from the black liquor and use the hemicelluloses for biochemical conversion into biofuels and chemicals. Precipitation of the lignin from the black liquor would consequently decrease the thermal load on the recovery boiler, which is often referred to as a bottleneck for increased pulp production. The objective of this work is to techno-economically evaluate the production of sodium-free lignin as a solid fuel and butanol to be used as fossil gasoline replacement by fractionating black liquor. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are modeled in Aspen Plus to analyze energy and material balances as well as to evaluate the plant economics. A mathematical model of an existing pulp and paper mill is used to analyze the effects on the energy performance of the mill subprocesses. PMID:24950095

  6. 'White liquor hits black livers': meanings of excessive liquor consumption in South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Mager, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Four years into South Africa's first democracy, the African National Congress Youth League, with the help of the liquor industry's Social Aspects of Alcohol Committee drafted a policy to prevent substance abuse in black communities. They declared that alcohol was 'often not used in a socially acceptable way'. Concerned not so much with post-apartheid policy as with making sense of what socially acceptable alcohol usage might mean, this article explores narratives of alcohol use and abuse in South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century. It demonstrates that while multiple understandings of excess in alcohol consumption were articulated, those notions tied to particular constructions of racial difference prevailed. Ideas pairing drinking habits with race were given effect by state institutions. By tying drinking habits to 'race' and by locating 'race' in a social hierarchy, state institutions determined access to liquor and welfare services. By naturalising Africans as heavy drinkers, the state justified its sale of liquor to African men while denying the need for rehabilitation in the event of alcoholic dependence. By placing 'coloured' closer to 'white' in its racial order, the apartheid state found cause to extend limited rehabilitation services to those designated 'coloured'. By tying liquor revenues to apartheid administration, the ruling regime exonerated its policy of excluding blacks from the retail liquor trade even after lifting prohibition in 1962. This policy encouraged rampant illicit liquor dealing, created a social environment in which alcoholic excess, particularly after 1976, reached new proportions and generated new and dangerous meanings of socially acceptable drinking. Against the grain of these dominant discourses of racially designated meanings of drinking, African people forged a more complex set of practices and meanings not rendered any clearer by the ANC Youth League's discourse of acceptable and unacceptable usage. PMID:15177831

  7. Polarization-phase images of liquor polycrystalline films in determining time of death.

    PubMed

    Garazdyuk, M S; Bachinskyi, V T; Vanchulyak, O Ya; Ushenko, A G; Dubolazov, O V; Gorsky, M P

    2016-04-20

    An optical model for generalized optical anisotropy of polycrystalline networks of albumin and globulin liquor of the human brain has been suggested. The polarization-phase method for spatial and frequency differentiation of linear and circular birefringence coordinate distributions has been analytically substantiated. A set of criteria documenting the dynamics of polarization-phase images of liquor polycrystalline films has been identified in determining time of death. PMID:27140134

  8. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. 11.6 Section 11.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. (a)...

  9. 22 CFR 91.4 - Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons. 91.4 Section 91.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES IMPORT CONTROLS § 91.4 Alcoholic liquors on vessels of not over 500 tons. (a) Upon request of interested shippers or masters of vessels at ports in the...

  10. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  11. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-01-01

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25116725

  12. Correlations for viscosity of kraft black liquors at low solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The kinematic viscosities of several kraft black liquors from a two-level, four-variables, factorial-designed experiments for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations from 10 to 50% and temperatures up to 80 C by glass capillary methods. The four pulping variables were cooking time, cooking temperature, sulfidity, and effective alkali. Relationships between temperature and kinematic viscosity have been developed by using free volume and absolute rate theories. The results from these two methods have been compared and discussed. A reduced variables method for dilute polymer solutions was used to correlate the viscosity with the combined effect of temperature and solids concentration. The viscosity of black liquor is an important parameter in the design and performance of kraft recovery systems. The energy efficiency will be increased by firing black liquors at higher solids concentrations. To evaporate the liquor most efficiently and to achieve higher concentrations, knowledge of viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and solids concentrations is essential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of various fundamentally based models for correlating viscosity data of black liquors as a function of temperature and concentration of nonvolatile components in the region in which the liquors behave a Newtonian fluids.

  13. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production. PMID:25010454

  14. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

  15. Anaerobic treatment of coconut husk liquor for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Leitão, R C; Araújo, A M; Freitas-Neto, M A; Rosa, M F; Santaella, S T

    2009-01-01

    The market for coconut water causes environmental problems as it is one of the major agro-industrial solid wastes in some developing countries. With the aim of reusing the coconut husk, Embrapa developed a system for processing this raw material. During the dewatering stage Coconut Husk Liquor (CHL) is generated with chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying from 60 to 70 g/L due to high concentrations of sugars and tannins. The present study evaluated the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of CHL through Anaerobic Toxicity Assay and the operation of a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Results showed that CHL can be treated through a UASB reactor operating with an OLR that reaches up to 10 kg/m3.d and that is maintained stable during the whole operation. With this operational condition, the removal efficiency was higher than 80% for COD and approximately 78% for total tannins, and biogas production was 20 m3 of biogas or 130 KWh per m3 of CHL. Seventy-five percent of the biogas composition was methane and toxicity tests demonstrated that CHL was not toxic to the methanogenic consortia. Conversely, increasing the concentration of CHL leads to increased methanogenic activity. PMID:19448321

  16. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed

    Pauly, P J

    1994-02-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. PMID:8296962

  17. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, P J

    1994-01-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. Images p307-a p309-a PMID:8296962

  18. Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

    1998-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  19. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  20. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  1. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  2. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  3. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  4. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  5. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  6. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  7. Separation of lignocelluloses from spent liquor of NSSC pulping process via adsorption.

    PubMed

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Gilbert, Allan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-04-01

    Hemicelluloses and lignin present in the spent liquor (SL) of neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) pulping process can potentially be converted into value-added products such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, phenols and adhesives. However, the direct conversion of hemicelluloses and lignin of SL into value-added products is uneconomical due to the dilute nature of the SL. To have a feasible downstream process for utilizing lignocelluloses of SL, the lignocelluloses should initially be separated from the SL. In this study, an adsorption process (via applying activated carbon) was considered for isolating the dissolved lignin and hemicelluloses from the SL of an NSSC pulping process. Under the optimal conditions of pH, SL/AC weight ratio, time and temperature of 5.7, 30, 360 min and 30 °C, the maximum lignin and hemicellulose adsorptions were 0.33 and 0.25 g/g on AC. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity of the SL were decreased by 11% and 39%, respectively, as a result of lignocellulose adsorption on AC. Also, the incineration behavior of the SL-treated AC was studied with a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). PMID:24565877

  8. Efficiency intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:CNGG-LBO green laser at 530.5 nm under direct 885 nm pumping into the emitting level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. M.; Zhang, X.

    2011-10-01

    We report an efficient laser emission on the 1061 nm 4 F 3/2 to 4 I 11/2 transition in Nd:CNGG under the pump with diode laser at 885 nm. Continuous wave (CW) 5.4 W output power at 1061 nm is obtained under 17.4 W of incident pump power; the slope efficiency with respect to the incident pump power was 36.2%. Moreover, intracavity frequency doubling with LiB3O5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal yielded 1.75 W of green light at 530.5 nm. An optical-to-optical efficiency with respect to the incident pump power was 10.1%.

  9. Optical properties of black liquor and refractometric methods for monitoring the solid residue concentration in sulfate cellulose production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. P.; Lapshov, S. N.; Mayorov, E. E.; Sherstobitova, A. S.; Yaskov, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of the refractive index, its temperature dependence, and the optical transmission of black liquors produced during sulfate pulping are reported for soluble solid residue concentrations up to k ≅ 60 %. The design features of a commercial refractometer for monitoring the concentration of black liquor are examined briefly. A procedure is proposed for laboratory calibration of commercial sensors that employs black liquor solutions in highly refractive organic liquids as reference samples.

  10. Protective effect of Zhuyeqing liquor, a Chinese traditional health liquor, on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The study first evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Animals were administered orally with 50% alcohol 12 ml/kg at 4 h after the doses of ZYQL everyday for fourteen consecutive days except mice in normal group. The protective effect was evaluated by biochemical parameters including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total-bilirubin (TBIL) and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue. The result were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α in mice liver was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. HPLC-PDA was used for phytochemical analysis of ZYQL, and the plant source of each compound was claritied by UPLC-TOF-MS. The result showed that pretreatment with ZYQL exhibited a significant protective effect by reversing the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in a dose depended manner. HPLC analysis indicated that ZYQL contained flavonoids, iridoids, terpenoids and phenolic acids, which might be the active chemicals. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of ZYQL, thus scientifically supported the function of its health care. PMID:24090365

  11. New insight into influence of mechanical stirring on membrane fouling of membrane bioreactor: Mixed liquor properties and hydrodynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Wang, Jinnan; Lin, Yaohua

    2016-07-01

    Although membrane bioreactor is widely used in wastewater treatment, the problem of membrane fouling remains to be resolved. This paper focused on the influence of mechanical stirring on membrane fouling. Ammonium removal decreased with viscous bulking when stirring rates slowed down. Trans-membrane pressure increased more rapidly when the stirring rate decreased. The resistance of the gel layer increased significantly under low stirring rates, which indicated that the fouling rates of MBR in different stages were attributed to gel layer variation. The proportion of small particles increased when stirring rates slowed down. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominant in the mixed liquor. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 41% to 50% in the entire experiment. The computational fluid dynamics model was used to simulate the fluid flow characteristics. The model indicated velocities and directions of the fluid flow changes with different stirring rates. PMID:27058400

  12. Laser Induced Fluorescence For Measurement Of Lignin Concentrations In Pulping Liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.; Biasca, K. L.; Attala, R.

    1988-11-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of pulping liquors was investigated for use in the pulp and paper industry for process measurement and control applications. Liquors from both mill and laboratory cooks were studied. A Nd-YAG pumped dye laser was used to generate the excitation wavelength of 280 nm; measurements were also performed using a commercially available fluorometer. Measurements on mill pulping liquors gave strong signals and showed changes in the fluorescence intensity during the cook. Absorption spectra of diluted mill liquor samples showed large changes during the cook. Samples from well controlled and characterized laboratory cooks showed fluorescence to be linear with concentration over two decades with an upper limit of approximately 1000 ppm dissolved lignin. At the end of these cooks a possible chemical change was indicated by an increase in the observed fluorescence intensity. Results indicate that lignin concentrations in pulping liquors can be accurately determined with fluorescence in the linear optical region over a greater dynamic range than absorption spectroscopy. Laser induced fluorescence may also provide an indication of chemical changes occurring in the lignin structure during a cook.

  13. Separation of humic acids from Bayer process liquor by membrane filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Awadalla, F.T.; Kutowy, O.; Tweddle, A. ); Hazlett, J.D. )

    1994-05-01

    Humic acids of high molecular weight were removed from spent Bayer liquor by polymeric ultrafiltration membranes. Among the commercial and laboratory-cast membranes tested, Radel-R polyphenylsulfone on a polypropylene backing material was found to be the most promising candidate for this separation. However, the maximum separation of humic acids obtained at operating conditions of 50[degree]C and 0.34 MPa, as measured by spectrophotometric analysis, was only in the 50 to 55% range. In order to explain this limited membrane separation of humic acids in spent Bayer liquor, a synthetic alkaline solution of humic acids was treated using the same membranes. These tests indicated much higher separation of humic acids (92%). Humic substances in Bayer liquor appear to be hydrolyzed and degraded to low molecular weight fractions (molecular weight < 1000 daltons) by the combined action of the strongly alkaline Bayer liquor and high digestion temperatures. These low molecular weight fractions cannot be retained by standard ultrafiltration membranes. However, some preliminary tests with laboratory-cast Radel-R nanofiltration membranes showed improved color separation (> 70%) when treating spent Bayer liquor. 23 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. PMID:26516109

  15. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at

  16. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway. PMID:25920225

  17. Effect of liquid products of semicoking on the absorption properties of arsenic-soda liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonov, V.S.; Anipko, S.N.; Buryak, V.I.; Fomin, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    The process gas obtained in the gasification of semicoke contains organic substances which, entering the arsenic-soda liquor in the process of removal of the sulfur from the gas, impairs its absorption properties. Thus, it is necessary to pretreat the gas to remove organic impurities, one of the methods being absorption. The absorbents may be organic liquids dissolving the gas impurities and having no effect on the absorption properties of the arsenic-soda liquor. The constant nature of the concentration of sulfide sulfur in the absorption liquor permits one to assume that the substances in semicoking middle oil still bottoms improve its redistribution in the hydroxythioarsenic salts with the formation of arsenates which react very slowly with the hydrogen sulfide, and thio-arsenates which do not react at all. A decrease in the sulfur content of the arsenic-soda solution was experienced.

  18. [Rapid determination of silicon content in black liquor of straw fibrous material].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Long; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhan, Huai-Yu; Liu, Meng-Ru; Fu, Shi-Yu; Sun, Li-Jin

    2012-06-01

    The present paper reports a novel method for the determination of silicon content in straw fibrous material black liquor based on alpha-Si--Mo heteropoly acid spectrophotometry. The selected conditions were as follows: detection wavelength 360 nm, pH 4.0, and reaction time 10 min. It was found that the acidic soluble lignin in the sample liquor was the major interference species in the silicon content determination. The interference of acidic soluble lignin can be eliminated by hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid digestion method. The present method is not only simple, rapid, stable and less interferential, but also of good measurement precision and accuracy, with the relative standard deviations of 0.9%, and recoveries of 99.0%-102%. It is suitable for use in high silicon content of black liquor routine rapid analyses. PMID:22870666

  19. Advanced process for precipitation of lignin from ethanol organosolv spent liquors.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Peter; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Lorenz, Heike; Leschinsky, Moritz; Unkelbach, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    An advanced process for lignin precipitation from organosolv spent liquors based on ethanol evaporation was developed. The process avoids lignin incrustations in the reactor, enhances filterability of the precipitated lignin particles and significantly reduces the liquor mass in downstream processes. Initially, lignin solubility and softening properties were understood, quantified and exploited to design an improved precipitation process. Lignin incrustations were avoided by targeted precipitation of solid lignin at specific conditions (e.g. 100 mbar evaporation pressure, 43°C and 10%wt. of ethanol in lignin dispersion) in fed-batch operation at lab and pilot scale. As result of evaporation the mass of spent liquor was reduced by about 50%wt., thus avoiding large process streams. By controlled droplet coalescence the mean lignin particle size increased from below 10 μm to sizes larger than 10 μm improving the significantly filterability. PMID:26459197

  20. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  1. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  2. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis, (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability, (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies, (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health, and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density (BMD) and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities. PMID:19700031

  3. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  4. 27 CFR 30.67 - Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. 30.67 Section 30.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Prescribed Tables § 30.67 Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This table is prescribed for use in correcting spirits to volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. To do...

  5. 27 CFR 30.67 - Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. 30.67 Section 30.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Prescribed Tables § 30.67 Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This table is prescribed for use in correcting spirits to volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. To do...

  6. 27 CFR 30.67 - Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. 30.67 Section 30.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Prescribed Tables § 30.67 Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This table is prescribed for use in correcting spirits to volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. To do...

  7. 27 CFR 30.67 - Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. 30.67 Section 30.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Prescribed Tables § 30.67 Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This table is prescribed for use in correcting spirits to volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. To do...

  8. 27 CFR 30.67 - Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. 30.67 Section 30.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Prescribed Tables § 30.67 Table 7, for correction of volume of spirituous liquors to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This table is prescribed for use in correcting spirits to volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. To do...

  9. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    .... 04.030 Alcoholic beverage. ``Alcoholic beverage'' includes all alcohol, spirits, liquor, wine, beer, and any liquid or solid containing alcohol, spirits wine or beer, and which contains one-half of one... ``liquor''. 04.040 Beer. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of any...

  10. 78 FR 15970 - Cedarville Rancheria-Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria, Ordinance No. 2012-05

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    .... Alcoholic beverage includes all alcohol, spirits, liquor, wine, beer, and any liquid or solid containing alcohol, spirits, wine or beer, and which contains one-half of one percent or more of alcohol by volume... substances. It shall be interchangeable in this ordinance with the term liquor. 03.040--Beer. Beer means...

  11. 75 FR 39969 - Liquor Control Ordinance for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...This notice publishes the Liquor Control Ordinance of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria tribal land. The tribal land is located on trust land and this Ordinance allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages. This......

  12. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  13. A portable liquor monitoring system using a PC-based chromatic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. R.; Deakin, A. G.; Brookes, R. J.; Spencer, J. W.

    2009-07-01

    An approach is described for discriminating between different liquors with a portable system based upon chromatic monitoring. It uses a webcam-computer combination in a robust manner and has the potential for making cursory assessments in the field. The behaviour of the system has been investigated using subsidiary measurements with a spectrometer, from which the repeatability of test results has been assessed. It is shown that the webcam-computer system can provide useful referencing to reduce the influence of system artefacts and so yield good discrimination between different liquors without the use of a spectrometer.

  14. Effects of rupture directivity on ground motions and macroseismic intensities. Study of a Mw 4.1 earthquake recorded in the Alps and a Mw 6 event simulated using Empirical Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courboulex, F.; Dujardin, A.; Vallée, M.; Delouis, B.; Sira, C.; Honoré, L.; Thouvenot, F.; Deschamps, A.

    2013-12-01

    We first conduct a detailed analysis of a moderate earthquake in the French Alps (2012/02/26, Mw 4.1), that has been much more distinctly felt South of the event than North of it. This discrepancy was especially clear in the two large cities of Nice and Grenoble, both situated at 100 km from the epicenter. This observation was confirmed by ground motion measurements that were eight times larger in one city than in the other one, for the same site conditions. Using a time domain deconvolution between the broadband recordings of the mainshock and an aftershock used as empirical Green's Functions, we show that the rupture process of this event had a strong directivity effect towards a direction of N 155° +/- 5 on a ~ 2-km-long fault, detectable only at frequencies higher than 1 Hz. These fault size and direction are in good accordance with the location of the early aftershocks (4 days). The potential directivity effect of 232 aftershocks of the sequence has been also analyzed using their PGA values on broad band stations. We obtained that no preferential directivity effect can be evidenced on aftershocks. In a second step, we take advantage of the good recordings of this Mw=4.1 earthquake and its aftershocks to simulate the ground motions (and compute the macroseismic intensities using GMICES conversion relations) that would be generated by a larger event (Mw 6) occurring on the same fault. We consider separately the cases where the directivity effect is present or absent. The ground motions values (mainly PGA and PGV) and the macroseismic intensities are compared with the values predicted using Ground Motions Equations (GMPEs). The values obtained for the directive scenario on directive stations are almost always larger than the median values +1 sigma predicted by the GMPEs; this highlights the fact that a simple directivity effect of the rupture process can produce much larger damages than expected. Effects of rupture directivity on ground motions and macroseismic

  15. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

  16. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  17. Green Diesel from Kraft Lignin in Three Steps.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Joakim; Dahlstrand, Christian; Orebom, Alexander; Meuzelaar, Gerrit; Sawadjoon, Supaporn; Galkin, Maxim V; Agback, Peter; Wimby, Martin; Corresa, Elena; Mathieu, Yannick; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Eriksson, Sören; Corma, Avelino; Samec, Joseph S M

    2016-06-22

    Precipitated kraft lignin from black liquor was converted into green diesel in three steps. A mild Ni-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis using 2-propanol generated a lignin residue in which the ethers, carbonyls, and olefins were reduced. An organocatalyzed esterification of the lignin residue with an in situ prepared tall oil fatty acid anhydride gave an esterified lignin residue that was soluble in light gas oil. The esterified lignin residue was coprocessed with light gas oil in a continous hydrotreater to produce a green diesel. This approach will enable the development of new techniques to process commercial lignin in existing oil refinery infrastructures to standardized transportation fuels in the future. PMID:27246391

  18. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  19. The Readership of Liquor Ads Employing Appeals to Affiliation, Achievement, and Product-Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined whether advertising appeals based on product affiliation, achievement, and attributes would account for differences in male readership of liquor advertisements. The investigation focused on the relationship between the content of alcholic beverage advertisements and attention engagement, the first state in consumer information…

  20. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Yang, Jing; Huang, Tao; Hu, Xiao-Jie; Luo, Ming; Li, Duo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL) and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL) have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women), aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v) alcohol) of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC) and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P < 0.05). Serum uric acid (P = 0.004 for TFL, P = 0.001 for TCL), glucose (P < 0.001 for TFL, P < 0.001 for TCL) and endothelial adhesion molecules (P < 0.05) were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney) of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered. PMID:22919307

  1. Succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant Escherichia coli strain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L−1 total initial sugars, 42.27 g L−1 MgCO3 and 17.84 g L−1 yeast extract. The maximum production of succinic acid was 52.09 ± 0.21 g L−1 after 84 h with a yield of 0.63 ± 0.03 g g−1 total sugar, approaching the predicted value (53.18 g L−1). It was 1.78-fold of the production of that obtained with the basic medium. This was the first report on succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant E. coli strains with media optimization using response surface methodology. This work suggested that the xylose mother liquor could be an alternative substrate for the economical production of succinic acid by recombinant E. coli strains. PMID:26019590

  2. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports...

  3. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  4. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... members shall not accept gratuity, compensation, or other things of value from any Liquor producer... their personal or other non-commercial use. The possession, transportation, sale, consumption, or other... of cashiers or personal checks, payroll checks, debit cards or credit cards issued by any...

  5. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production with switchgrass-derived black liquor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Zhang, Ximing; Cheng, Jay J

    2012-05-01

    To improve the cost-effectiveness of biomass-to-sugar conversion, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment of switchgrass was carried out at 21°C using previously determined optimum conditions (2% NaOH (w/v), 6h), and the spent alkaline liquid (black liquor) was collected and used for pretreatment of corn stover, a feedstock exhibiting a higher susceptibility to NaOH attack, for improved enzymatic hydrolysis at a reduced cost. The results showed that, because of the high pH and the appreciable amount of carbohydrates in the black liquor, sugar production during enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated with black liquor was comparable to that of biomass pretreated with 1% NaOH. After black liquor pretreatment at the best residence time (24h), the total reducing sugar, glucose, and xylose yields of corn stover reached 478.5, 287.7, and 145.3mg/g raw biomass, respectively, indicating the viability of this novel pretreatment technology. PMID:22357289

  6. Recovering ultraclean lignins of controlled molecular weight from Kraft black-liquor lignins.

    PubMed

    Klett, A S; Chappell, P V; Thies, M C

    2015-08-18

    By operating in a region of liquid-liquid equilibrium, hot acetic acid-water mixtures can be used to simultaneously clean, fractionate, and solvate Kraft black-liquor lignins. Lignin-rich liquid phases of controlled molecular weight with key metals contents reduced to <50 ppm are obtained without a washing step. PMID:26169767

  7. Coliquefaction of coal and black liquor to environmentally acceptable liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Akash, B.A.

    1999-11-01

    Previous work in the laboratories has demonstrated that addition to lignin to coal during liquefaction significantly increases the depolymerization of coal and enhances the quality of the liquid products. It is believed that thermolysis of the lignin results in the formation of phenoxyl and other reactive radicals at temperatures too low for significant thermolysis of the coal matrix; such radicals are effective and active intermediates that depolymerize coal by cleaving methylene bridges. It has been reported that alkali is also effective for extraction of liquids from coal. The work presented here combines these two reactive agents by utilizing the black liquor waste stream from the Kraft pulping process for coal depolymerization. That waste stream contains large amounts of lignin and sodium hydroxide, as well as other components. To permit comparative evaluations of the extent of coal depolymerization by coprocessing coal and black liquor, reference runs were performed with tetralin alone, sodium hydroxide in tetralin, and lignin in tetralin. Results indicated that the sodium hydroxide-tetralin system resulted in almost 67% conversion at 375 C, 1 hour. The black liquor system exhibited a lower conversion of 60%, indicating some inhibition of the depolymerization reactions by components in the black liquor.

  8. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  9. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director, in his discretion, may require marks, brands, stamps..., brands, stamps, labels, or similar devices required by Federal, State, or local statute or regulation may... measurement shall be done at a public store, warehouse, or other appropriate facility. (c) Marks,...

  10. 77 FR 34981 - Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Act of August 15, 1953, Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C... taxation of liquor within the Tribe's Indian Country in conformity with any compact between the Tribe and... enumerated authority under Article VII, Sec. 1(a) to enact a comprehensive law and order code, which...

  11. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  12. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  13. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  14. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  15. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  16. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... purpose of this Ordinance, includes stores only a portion of which are devoted to sale of liquor or beer..., spirits, wine, beer, and any liquid or solid containing alcohol, spirits, wine or beer, and which contains... license. (b) ``Retail on-sale beer and wine license'' means a license authorizing the applicant to...

  17. 77 FR 31381 - Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake-Tribal Liquor Ordinance No. 2008-01

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... defined. D. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation or any infusion or... includes ale, porter, brown, stout, lager beer, small beer, and strong beer but does not include sake... defined (Alcohol, Spirits, Wine, and Beer), and all fermented spirituous, vinous, or malt liquor...

  18. Technological aspects as the main impact on quality of quince liquors.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Szychowski, Przemysław J; Vásquez, María Verónica; Hernández, Francisca; Wojdyło, Aneta

    2015-01-15

    Phytochemical profiles of 24 quince liquors were studied as the combination of technologically variant. Liquors were obtained after macerating quinces from three varieties (Vranja, ALM3 and ZM2), with or without skin, at two ratios of quince:ethanol (50:50 and 25:75), and at two alcohol content (60% and 30%). Polyphenols were identified by LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA and UPLC-FL. A total of 18 polyphenolic compounds were identified and classified as 5 flavan-3-ols, 5 phenolic acids, and 8 flavonols. Flavan-3-ols were the most abundant group followed by hydroxycinnamates and flavonols. The highest contents of total polyphenols (∼1,000 mg/100mL) and antioxidant activity (37.1 mmol Trolox/100mL) were found in the liquors prepared using fruits with skin and 50:50 quince:ethanol ratio. The skin of quinces was the main source of phenolic acids and especially flavonols. The high antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content of quince liquor may be deemed as a promising new alcoholic beverage. PMID:25149002

  19. 6. Building E9; view of glass lines for dilute liquor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Building E-9; view of glass lines for dilute liquor and spent acid; second floor, looking ESE. Bottom of wash tank is at the top of the view. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  20. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director, in his discretion, may require marks, brands, stamps..., brands, stamps, labels, or similar devices required by Federal, State, or local statute or regulation may... measurement shall be done at a public store, warehouse, or other appropriate facility. (c) Marks,...

  1. Growth of Chaetomium cellulolyticum on Alkali-Pretreated Hardwood Sawdust Solids and Pretreatment Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Pamment, N.; Moo-Young, M.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Robinson, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of a hardwood sawdust with 1% NaOH solution at 121°C dissolved 19.7% of the dry matter, mainly hemicellulose and lignin. Fermentation of the treated solids by Chaetomium cellulolyticum for 48 h gave a product containing 12.5% crude protein (total N × 6.25) on a dry weight basis. The in vitro rumen digestibility of the 48-h fermentation product was 30%, compared to 24% for the alkali-treated but unfermented sawdust. Growth was independent of sawdust particle size in the range 40 to 100 mesh. Fermentation of the pretreatment liquor gave a product containing up to 50% crude protein (dry weight basis) with an in vitro rumen digestibility of 65 to 76%. Approximately 6.7 g of crude protein was obtained from the treated solids and 2.2 g from the pretreatment liquor per 100 g of sawdust treated. The product from the pretreatment liquor fermentation has potential as a high-protein animal feed supplement but could not be produced economically without an outlet for the relatively indigestible product from the solids fermentation. Growth on the pretreatment liquor was strongly pH dependent; there was a considerable increase in the lag phase when the pH was lowered from 7.5 to 5.2. This effect appears to be due to an inhibitor whose toxicity is reduced at high pH. PMID:16345308

  2. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  3. 75 FR 51102 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    .... Correction In the Federal Register of July 27, 2010, in FR Doc. 2010-18319, on page 44011, in the first and... Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation.'' DATES: Effective Date: This correction is effective as of August 18..., remove the sentence: ``The amended Liquor Ordinance of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation reads...

  4. TOXICITY REDUCTION THROUGH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF SPENT PULP BLEACHING LIQUORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenols similar to or identical with those detected in spent chlorination and caustic extraction liquors were synthesized and tested over a range of concentrations to determine their effect on the growth of several fungi, an alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and duckweed (Lemna ...

  5. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...

  6. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  7. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  8. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  9. Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS• min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions. PMID:25837566

  10. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. PMID:26475111

  11. At-line gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of fatty acid profiles of green microalgae using a direct thermal desorption interface.

    PubMed

    Blokker, Peter; Pel, Roel; Akoto, Lawrence; Brinkman, Udo A Th; Vreuls, René J J

    2002-06-14

    Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (THM-GC) is an important tool to analyse fatty acid in complex matrices. Since THM-GC has major drawbacks such as isomerisation when applied to fatty acids in natural matrices, a direct thermal desorption (DTD) interface and an incubation time of 30 min were used to circumvent these problems. Using vegetable oils such as sunflower oil and triarachidonin, the conversion of triglycerides into their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was investigated. The yields using a DTD (and trimethylsulfonium hydroxide as a reagent) were found to be similar or even higher than when applying a conventional off-line method, while the FAME profiles were identical. When the procedure was applied to analyse the FAME profiles of microbial cells in a methanolic or aqueous suspension, it was found that accurate profiles are obtained for such samples. Thus, the present approach opens the route to analyse fatty acids in microbial cells in a fully automated fashion, which will allow high sample throughput. PMID:12141545

  12. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). Design A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. Setting We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. Measurements We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control vs. license state. We used a random effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices – overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. Findings The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states (95% confidence interval [CI], $25.26–$30.32) and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI, $26.98–$32.66). Based on the random effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately two dollars lower (6.9% lower) in license states. Conclusions In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. PMID:22934914

  13. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  14. [Study on the Recognition of Liquor Age of Gujing Based on Raman Spectra and Support Vector Regression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-xiang; Wang, Hai-yan; Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zheng-yong; Liu, Jun

    2016-03-01

    It is an important and difficult research point to recognize the age of Chinese liquor rapidly and exactly in the field of liquor analyzing, which is also of great significance to the healthy development of the liquor industry and protection of the legitimate rights and interests of consumers. Spectroscopy together with the pattern recognition technology is a preferred method of achieving rapid identification of wine quality, in which the Raman Spectroscopy is promising because of its little affection of water and little or free of sample pretreatment. So, in this paper, Raman spectra and support vector regression (SVR) are used to recognize different ages and different storing time of the liquor of the same age. The innovation of this paper is mainly reflected in the following three aspects. First, the application of Raman in the area of liquor analysis is rarely reported till now. Second, the concentration of studying the recognition of wine age, while most studies focus on studying specific components of liquor and studies together with the pattern recognition method focus more on the identification of brands or different types of base wine. The third one is the application of regression analysis framework, which cannot be only used to identify different years of liquor, but also can be used to analyze different storing time, which has theoretical and practical significance to the research and quality control of liquor. Three kinds of experiments are conducted in this paper. Firstly, SVR is used to recognize different ages of 5, 8, 16 and 26 years of the Gujing Liquor; secondly, SVR is also used to classify the storing time of the 8-years liquor; thirdly, certain group of train data is deleted form the train set and put into the test set to simulate the actual situation of liquor age recognition. Results show that the SVR model has good train and predict performance in these experiments, and it has better performance than other non-liner regression method such

  15. Green Student Centers' Influence on the Campus Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    Green building and design is an emerging trend in institutions of higher education. It is important to consider the practices and expectations of the users of green buildings. The attitudes of faculty, staff, and students play a key role in the overall successful performance of green buildings. This study offers direction for the intentional…

  16. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  17. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  18. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  19. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill. PMID:19767203

  20. Evaluation of the anaerobic degradation of black liquor from a Kraft pulp plant with addition of organic co-substrates.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Sakamoto, I K; Varesche, M B; Pires, E C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anaerobic degradation of black liquor with and without additional carbon sources. Batch experiments were conducted using black liquor, from an integrated pulp and paper mill adding ethanol, methanol and nutrients. The PCR/DGGE technique was used to characterize the structure of the microbial community. The addition of extra sources of carbon did not significantly influence the degradation of black liquor under the conditions evaluated and the microbial community was similar in all experiments. It was observed an increase in some members of the archaeal in reactors that had the best efficiencies for removal of black liquor (around 7.5%). Either ethanol or methanol can be used as co-substrates because the produce the same quantitative and qualitative effect. PMID:19587424

  1. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Peascoe, RA

    2001-09-25

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar.

  2. Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 2. Char yields and component release.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Kevin; Kullberg, Mika; Sorvari, Vesa; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    This is the second in a series of papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis at elevated pressures. Two industrial black liquors were pyrolyzed under pressurized conditions in two laboratory-scale devices, a pressurized single-particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater. Temperatures ranging between 650 and 1100 degrees C and pressures in the range 1-20 bar were studied. Char yields were calculated and based on analysis of some of the chars the fate of carbon, sodium, potassium and sulfur was determined as a function of pyrolysis pressure. At temperatures below 800 degrees C little variation in char yield was observed at different pressures. At higher temperatures char yield increased with pressure due to slower decomposition of sodium carbonate. For the same reason, sodium release decreased with pressure. Sulfur release, however, increased with pressure primarily because there was less opportunity for its capture in the less-swollen chars. PMID:17349787

  3. Development of viscometers for kraft black liquor. Summary report, Phase 2 and 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Crisalle, O.D.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the on-line prototype viscometers for kraft black liquors carried out at the Pilot Plant facilities of the University of Florida. The original plan called for the evaluation of five prototype on-line viscometers along with laboratory bench versions. At a later stage in the project an additional experimental prototype under development at Southwest Research Institute was added. The viscometers are evaluated for accuracy and repeatability under varying process conditions, such as black liquor species, solids content, temperature, flow rate, and contaminants, as well as for maintenance and reliability. This document reports extensive results of the evaluations and recommendations for design modifications and for the installation of the instruments in industrial pulping mills for further field evaluations in Phase 3 of the project. The report also documents relevant details of the final design of the pilot flow loop used to support the experiments.

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-01

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. PMID:26256376

  5. Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

  6. A Remote Sensing Technique For Combustion Gas Temperature Measurement In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charagundla, S. R.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    A remote sensing technique, based on the principles of emission spectroscopy, is being developed for temperature measurements in black liquor recovery boilers. Several tests have been carried out, both in the laboratory and at a number of recovery boilers, to characterize the emission spectra in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 800 nm. These tests have pointed out the potential for temperature measurements using the line intensity ratio technique based on a pair of emission lines at 404.4 nm and 766.5 nm observed in the recovery boiler combustion zone; these emission lines are due to potassium, a common constituent found in all the black liquors. Accordingly, a fiber optics based four-color system has been developed. This in-situ, nonintrusive temperature measurement technique, together with some of the more recent results, is described in this paper.

  7. Pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite with lime in sodium aluminate liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiao-lin; Yu, Hai-yan; Dong, Kai-wei; Tu, Gan-feng; Bi, Shi-wen

    2012-11-01

    The effect of lime on the pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite in synthetic sodium aluminate liquor at different temperatures was investigated. The bauxite is comprised of gibbsite, aluminogoethite, hematite, kaolin, quartz, and minor boehmite. Lime increases the desilication efficiency of the bauxite during the pre-desilication process by promoting the conversion of sodalite and cancrinite to hydrogarnet. Desilication reactions during the digestion process promoted by lime result in the loss of Al2O3 entering the red mud, but the amount of aluminogoethite-to-hematite conversion promoted by lime leads to the increase of aluminogoethitic Al2O3 entering the digested liquor. The alumina digestion rate at 245°C is higher than that at 145°C due to the more pronounced conversion of aluminogoethite to hematite. The soda consumption during the digestion process decreases due to lime addition, especially at higher temperatures.

  8. A beverage-specific measure of expectancies for malt liquor: development and initial testing.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Bradizza, Clara M; Kubiak, Audrey J; Falco, Diana L

    2011-12-01

    Malt liquor (ML) is a unique, high alcohol content beverage marketed to encourage heavy drinking. We developed the Malt Liquor Expectancy Questionnaire (MLEQ), a beverage-specific measure of alcohol expectancies, and examined its association with typical weekly ML use, typical weekly alcohol use, and alcohol problems. Forty positive and 40 negative expectancy items were administered to a sample of 639 young adults who regularly consumed ML. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses led to the development of the 30-item MLEQ. The MLEQ consists of two positive (i.e., Social Facilitation and Enjoyment, Enhanced Sexuality) and two negative factors (i.e., Aggression and Negative Consequences; Impairment and Physical Symptoms) that possess good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. The psychometrically sound MLEQ contributes to the limited research on beverage-specific expectancies and heavy drinking. PMID:21928870

  9. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S M; Xu, M L; Ramaswamy, H S; Yang, M Y; Yu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100-400 MPa; 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese "Junchang" liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p < 0.05) changes in aroma components of the liquor. An increase in total ester content and a decrease in total acid content were observed for all treated samples (p < 0.05), which was verified by gas chromatography analysis. In addition, a slight decrease in alcohol content was found for HP treatment at 400 MPa for 30 min. These changes and trends were in accordance with the natural aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential. PMID:27484292

  10. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p < 0.05) changes in aroma components of the liquor. An increase in total ester content and a decrease in total acid content were observed for all treated samples (p < 0.05), which was verified by gas chromatography analysis. In addition, a slight decrease in alcohol content was found for HP treatment at 400 MPa for 30 min. These changes and trends were in accordance with the natural aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  11. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa; 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p < 0.05) changes in aroma components of the liquor. An increase in total ester content and a decrease in total acid content were observed for all treated samples (p < 0.05), which was verified by gas chromatography analysis. In addition, a slight decrease in alcohol content was found for HP treatment at 400 MPa for 30 min. These changes and trends were in accordance with the natural aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential. PMID:27484292

  12. Inhibition and deactivation effects in catalytic wet oxidation of high-strength alcohol-distillery liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, K.; Larachi, F.; Hamoudi, S.; Turcotte, G.; Sayari, A.

    1999-06-01

    The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) from raw high-strength alcohol-distillery waste liquors was evaluated using three different treatments: thermolysis (T), noncatalytic wet oxidation (WO), and solid-catalyzed wet oxidation (CWO). The distillery liquors (TOC = 22,500 mg/l, sugars = 18,000 mg/l, and proteins = 13,500 mg/l) were produced by alcoholic fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates from steam-exploded timothy grass. TOC-abatement studies were conducted batchwise in a stirred autoclave to evaluate the influence of the catalyst (7:3, MnO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2} mixed oxide), oxygen partial pressure (0.5--2.5 MPa), and temperature (453--523 K) on T, WO, and CWO processes. Although CWO outperformed T and WO, TOC conversions did not exceed {approximately}60% at the highest temperature used. Experiments provided prima facie evidence for a gradual fouling of the catalyst and a developing inhibition in the liquors which impaired deep TOC removals. Occurrence of catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proven experimentally through quantitative and qualitative experiments such as elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Inhibition toward further degradation of the liquors was ascribed to the occurrence of highly stable antioxidant intermediates via the Maillard reactions between dissolved sugars and proteins. A lumping kinetic model involving both reaction inhibition by dissolved intermediates and catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proposed to account for the distribution of carbon in the liquid, solid, and the vapor phases.

  13. Biocontrol of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. by two Bacillus strains from Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-16

    Streptomyces spp. producing geosmin have been regarded as the most frequent and serious microbial contamination causing earthy off-flavor in Chinese liquor. It is therefore necessary to control the Streptomyces community during liquor fermentation. Biological control, using the native microbiota present in liquor making, appears to be a better solution than chemical methods. The objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota antagonistic toward Streptomyces spp. and then to evaluate the possible action mode of the antagonists. Fourteen Bacillus strains isolated from different Daqu (the fermentation starter) showed antagonistic activity against Streptomyces sampsonii, which is one of the dominant geosmin producers. Bacillus subtilis 2-16 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1-45 from Maotai Daqu significantly inhibited the growth of S. sampsonii by 57.8% and 84.3% respectively, and effectively prevented the geosmin production in the simulated fermentation experiments (inoculation ratio 1:1). To probe the biocontrol mode, the ability of strain 2-16 and 1-45 to produce antimicrobial metabolites and to reduce geosmin in the fermentation system was investigated. Antimicrobial substances were identified as lipopeptides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF MS) and in vitro antibiotic assay. In addition, strains 2-16 and 1-45 were able to remove 45% and 15% of the geosmin respectively in the simulated solid-state fermentation. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, and how the use of native Bacillus species in Daqu could provide an eco-friendly method to prevent growth of Streptomyces spp. and geosmin contamination in Chinese liquor fermentation. PMID:27161758

  14. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

  15. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor. PMID:25637386

  16. Characterisation of microbial communities in Chinese liquor fermentation starters Daqu using nested PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqiang; Wu, Chongde; Ding, Xiaofei; Zheng, Jia; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-12-01

    In this study, characterises of the microbial community structures of three typical Chinese liquor Daqu, as well as different kinds of light flavour Daqu were investigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that microbial diversity was considerably different, and the microfloral compositions were highly variable among various Daqu. Lactic acid bacteria, which accounted for 30.95 % of all identified bacteria, were dominant in all Daqu samples, whereas Bacillus species were also predominant in the Luzhou (14.8 %) and Langjiu Daqu (18.2 %). Citrobacter and Burkholderia were first identified in light flavour Daqu. Aspergillus was the dominant moulds, and the non-Saccharomyces yeast species, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wallemia sebi, Wallemia muriae, and Pichia subpelliculosa, were the dominant yeasts. Rasamsonia, Galactomyces, Geotrichum and Wallemia were first identified using nested PCR-DGGE. Cluster analysis indicated that the microbial community structures of different Daqu samples exhibited some differences. These may be ascribed to the different peak production temperatures, raw material constituents and microhabitats around the liquor enterprises. The current study provides insights into the microbial community structures of three typical Daqu samples, and may facilitate the development of starter cultures for manufacturing Chinese liquor. PMID:25193747

  17. Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2013-09-15

    The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (km) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm(-2) was 0.41 kWh m(-3) for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m(-3) for the removal of TKN. PMID:23770619

  18. Enhanced remediation of black liquor by activated sludge bioaugmented with a novel exogenous microorganism culture.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Chai, Li-Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Chong-Jian; Chen, Yue-Hui; Shi, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Black liquor (BL) is a notoriously difficult wastewater to treat due to the economic and efficiency limitations of physiochemical methods and intrinsic difficulties with bioremediation strategies caused by the high pH (10-13) and lignin content. This study investigated the feasibility of a novel bioaugmentation strategy for BL treatment, which uses a mixed microorganism culture of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms isolated from degraded bamboo slips. Black liquor treatment was assessed in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal with a sequencing batch reactor organic loading rate of 9 kg COD/L·day under highly alkaline conditions (pH 10). Results revealed that bioaugmented activated sludge treatment of BL with special mixed microorganisms significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of COD, color, and lignin from the wastewater up to 64.8, 50.5, and 53.2 %, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography profiles showed that the bioaugmentation system could successfully degrade high molecular lignin fragments in black liquor. This work confirms bioaugmentation as a feasible alternative strategy for enhanced biological treatment of wastewater with high lignin content and high organic load rate under strongly alkaline conditions. PMID:23053102

  19. Evaluation of the effect of ultrasound on organosolv black liquor from olive tree pruning residues.

    PubMed

    García, Araceli; Alriols, María González; Labidi, Jalel

    2012-03-01

    Ultrasonic treatments (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min) were applied to black liquor resulting from organosolv fractionation of olive tree pruning residues (ethanol/water 60/40 v/v, 180 °C, 60 min) in order to determine their effect on black liquor components. HPLC analyses of ultrasound-treated liquid fractions demonstrated that ultrasonic irradiation promoted up to 20% degradation of monosaccharides for 15 min of sonication and an increase of monomeric sugars from 3% to 16% due lignin-carbohydrate complex rupture. The quality and purity of the lignin precipitated from sonicated liquors by adding acidified water were assessed. Attenuated-total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed that main lignin structure did not change due sonication, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and chemical composition and antioxidant behavior showed purification of lignin samples. These results established sonication as a suitable intensification technology in biorefinery processes. PMID:22277207

  20. Carbon and char residue yields from rapid pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Sricharoenchaikul, V; Hicks, A L; Frederick, W J

    2001-04-01

    The yields of char residue, fixed carbon, and inorganic carbonate were measured for oxidized black liquor char residues produced in a laboratory laminar entrained-flow reactor (LEFR) at heating rates of 4000-13,000 degrees C/s. The char residue yields at the end of devolatilization thus obtained decreased nearly linearly with temperature, from 75% at 700 degrees C to 58% at 1100 degrees C. There were explainable differences in the char residue yields from the liquor used in this study and those used in other studies. Char residue yields seemed to depend mainly on the temperature to which the particles or droplets were exposed and were not very sensitive to heating rate. Fixed carbon yields behaved similarly to those of the char residue. The fixed carbon remaining at the end of devolatilization decreased from 67% at 700 degrees C to about 45% at 1100 degrees C. The carbonate content in black liquor changed very little before and after devolatilization. PMID:11272019

  1. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification. Second annual report, [November 1990--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This second annual report summarizes the work accomplished during the period November 1990 through February 1992 for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-90CE40893. The overall project objective is to field test an energy-efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system at a significant industrial scale. This is intended to demonstrate the maturity of the technology in an industrial environment and serve as an example to the industry of the safer and more energy-efficient processing technique. The project structure is comprised of three primary activities: process characterization testing, scale-up hardware development, and field testing. The objective of the process characterization testing was to resolve key technical issues regarding the black liquor recovery process that were identified during earlier laboratory verification tests. This was intended to provide a sound engineering data base for the design, construction and testing of a nominal 1.0 TPH integrated black liquor recovery gasifier. The objective of the scale-up hardware development effort was to ensure that key hardware components, in particular the pulse heater module, would perform reliably and safely in the field. Finally, the objective of the field test is to develop an industrial data base sufficient to demonstrate the capabilities and performance of the operating system with respect to thermal efficiency, product quality, fuel handling, system control, reliability and cost. These tests are to provide long-term and continuous operating data at a capacity unattainable in the bench-scale apparatus.

  2. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    PubMed

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases. PMID:27374402

  3. [The Near Infrared Spectral Bands Optimal Selection in the Application of Liquor Fermented Grains Composition Analysis].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya-ting; Li, Zong-peng; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shu-jun; Yin, Jian-jun; Song, Quan-hou

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the technical level of the rapid detection of liquor fermented grains, in this paper, use near infrared spectroscopy technology to quantitative analysis moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol of liquor fermented grains. Using CARS, iPLS and no information variable elimination method (UVE), realize the characteristics of spectral band selection. And use the multiple scattering correction (MSC), derivative and standard normal variable transformation (SNV) pretreatment method to optimize the models. Establish models of quantitative analysis of fermented grains by PLS, and in order to select the best modeling method, using R2, RMSEP and optimal number of main factors to evaluate models. The results showed that the band selection is vital to optimize the model and CARS is the best optimization of the most significant effect. The calculation results showed that R2 of moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol were 0.885, 0.915, 0.951, 0.885 respectively and RMSEP of moisture, starch, acidity and alcohol were 0.630, 0.519, 0.228, 0.234 respectively. After optimization, the model prediction effect is good, the models can satisfy the requirement of the rapid detection of liquor fermented grains, which has certain reference value in the practical. PMID:27228746

  4. Community of environmental streptomyces related to geosmin development in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Lu, Hu; Xu, Yan; Du, Xiaowei

    2013-02-13

    Diverse Streptomyces species act as geosmin producers in the Chinese liquor-making process. In this paper, the ecology of these Streptomyces species was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified Actinobacteria -specified rDNA. The result showed that Streptomyces were widely distributed during Daqu incubation, and multiple processing, geographic, and climate factors can affect their distribution and diversity. The genes associated with geosmin production were characterized in four geosmin-producing Streptomyces strains, all of which were isolated from geosmin-contaminated Daqu. On the basis of this information, a real-time PCR method was developed, enabling the detection of traces of Streptomyces in complex solid-state matrices. The primer was targeted at the gene coding for geosmin synthase (geoA). The real-time PCR method was found to be specific for geosmin-producing Streptomyces and did not show any cross-reactivity with geosmin-negative isolates, which are frequently present in the Chinese liquor-brewing process. Quantification of geoA in the Chinese liquor-making process could permit the monitoring of the level of geosmin producers prior to the occurrence of geosmin production. Comparison of the qPCR results based on the gene encoding geosmin synthase and Actinobacteria-specified rDNA showed that about 1-10% of the Actinobacteria carry the geosmin synthesis gene. PMID:23373536

  5. Combined biomass and black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration at pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E.D.; Kreutz, T.G.; Consonni, S.

    1999-07-01

    Kraft pulp and paper mills generate large quantities of black liquor and byproduct biomass suitable for gasification. These fuels are used today for onsite cogeneration of heat and power in boiler/steam turbine systems. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modeling of pulp-mill cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. Pressurized, oxygen-blown black liquor gasification, the most advanced of proposed commercial black liquor gasifier designs, is considered, together with three alternative biomass gasifier designs under commercial development (high-pressure air-blown, low-pressure air-blown, and low-pressure indirectly-heated). Heavy-duty industrial gas turbines of the 70-MW{sub e} and 25-MW {sub e} class are included in the analysis. Results indicate that gasification-based cogeneration with biomass-derived fuels would transform a typical pulp mill into significant power exporter and would also offer possibilities for net reductions in emissions of carbon dioxide relative to present practice.

  6. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  7. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  9. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40%) as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%), galactose (8%-10%), glucose (8%-10%), and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF), which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa-mediated biohydrogenation of xylose

  10. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Direct Green-6 and Reactive Blue-160 under UV & visible light.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Thejaswini, T V L; Prabhakaran, D; Sivakumar, A; Satyanarayana, V S V; Arun Prasad, A S

    2015-10-01

    This work is focused on sol-gel synthesis of silver and strontium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their utilization as photo-catalysts in degradation of two textile dyes. Effect of pH, intensity of light, amount of photo-catalyst, concentration of dye, sensitizers, etc., were studied to optimize conditions for obtaining enhanced photo-catalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD, BET, HR-TEM, EDAX and UV-Vis (diffused reflectance mode) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Interestingly, band gap of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed considerable narrowing (2.6 eV) when compared to Ag doped TiO2 (2.7 eV) and undoped TiO2 (3.17 eV) nanoparticles. Incorporation of Ag and Sr in the lattice of TiO2 could bring isolated energy levels near conduction and valence bands thus narrowing band gap. The XRD analysis shows that both Ag and Sr nanoparticles are finely dispersed on the surface of titania framework, without disturbing its crystalline structure. TEM images indicate that representative grain sizes of Ag-doped TiO2 & Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are in the range of 8-20 nm and 11-25 nm, respectively. Effective degradation of Direct Green-6 (DG-6) and Reactive Blue-160 (RB-160) under UV and visible light has been achieved using the photo-catalysts. Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysts showed higher catalytic activity during degradation process in visible region when compared to Ag-doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles which could be attributed to the interactive effect caused by band gap narrowing and enhancement in charge separation. For confirming degradation of the dyes, total organic carbon (TOC) content was monitored periodically. PMID:25983059

  11. SYBR green real time-polymerase chain reaction as a rapid and alternative assay for the efficient identification of all existing Escherichia coli biotypes approved directly in wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Chetta, Massimiliano; Bafunno, Valeria; Grillo, Rosalba; Mele, Antonio; Lo Perfido, Pietro; Notarnicola, Michele; Cellini, Francesco; Cifarelli, Rosa Anna

    2012-07-01

    Escherichia coli has been recognized as the principal indicator of fecal contamination of water. Indeed, E. coli is the only species in the coliform group found in relationship with gastrointestinal tract of human and warm-blooded animals and subsequently excreted in large numbers in the human feces. To obtain a complete picture of water quality and therefore, a better protection of public health, different techniques for water analysis have been proposed. In this article, we describe an alternative method that uses SYBR green real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology to identify and quantify all E. coli biotypes in a group of wastewater samples collected from a wastewater depurator located in South of Italy. This new RT-PCR protocol is accurate in measuring the concentration of chromosomal E. coli DNA using the amplification of three new specific fragments of the following bacteria genes: CadC, HNS, and Allan whose sequence is specific for E. coli family and conserved in all E. coli subtypes. This method allowed us to detect the presence of all E. coli biotypes directly in wastewater samples and estimated the correspondence between colony forming units and bacterial DNA concentrations. The availability of a rapid and sensitive method may be useful to monitor the persistence of E. coli in water, to evaluate the efficiency of wastewater purification treatments and the possible recycle for agricultural use. Furthermore, the development of a simple and routine method to monitor water quality with RT-PCR analysis can encourage the testing of a higher number of samples. PMID:22730251

  12. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  13. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  14. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  15. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  16. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  17. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  18. Direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger and radiative recombination lifetime in HgCdTe, InAsSb, and InGaAs computed using Green's function formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanqing; Pinkie, Benjamin; Bellotti, Enrico

    2015-07-01

    Direct and phonon-assisted (PA) indirect Auger and radiative recombination lifetime in HgCdTe, InAsSb, and InGaAs is calculated and compared under different lattice temperatures and doping concentrations. Using the Green's function theory, the electron self energy computed from the electron-phonon interaction is incorporated into the quantum-mechanical expressions of Auger and radiative recombination, which renders the corresponding minority carrier lifetime in the materials due to both direct and PA indirect processes. Specifically, the results of two pairs of materials, namely, InAs0.91Sb0.09, Hg0.67Cd0.33Te and In0.53Ga0.47As, Hg0.38Cd0.62Te with cutoff wavelengths of 4 μm and 1.7 μm at 200 K and 300 K, respectively, are presented. It is shown that for InAs0.91Sb0.09 and Hg0.67Cd0.33Te, when the lattice temperature falls below 250 K the radiative process becomes the limiting factor of carrier lifetime in both materials at an n-type doping of 1015 cm-3, while at a constant temperature of 200 K, a high n-type doping (ND > 5 × 1015 cm-3 for InAs0.91Sb0.09 and 3 × 1015 cm-3 for Hg0.67Cd0.33Te) makes the Auger process dominate. For the Auger lifetime in In0.53Ga0.47As and Hg0.38Cd0.62Te, the calculation suggested that under all the temperatures and n-doping concentrations investigated in this paper, radiative process is always the limiting factor of the materials' minority carrier lifetime. The calculation of the PA indirect Auger process in the four materials further demonstrated its indispensable contribution to the materials' total Auger rate especially at low temperature, which is necessary to reproduce some experimental data. By fitting the Beattie-Landsberg-Blakemore (BLB) formula to the numerical Auger results, the corresponding overlap integral factors | F 1 F 2 | in BLB theory are evaluated and presented to facilitate fast and accurate Auger calculations in the IR detector simulations.

  19. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  20. Analysis and comparison of the bacterial community in fermented grains during the fermentation for two different styles of Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Li-Ping; Xu, Yan

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial populations in fermented grains during fermentation may play important roles in Chinese liquor flavor. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene library analysis were performed to analyze the bacterial community structure of two styles of liquor. The results of DGGE profiles showed that bacterial diversity decreased with the fermentation process and Lactobacillus acetotolerans became the predominant species at the end of the fermentation. But the obvious differences of bacterial community appeared in the middle stage of two styles of liquor fermentation, in which the different upstream production techniques were used. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene libraries of two styles were constructed. A total of 125 and 107 clones, chosen from two libraries, were grouped into 46 and 49 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. According to sequencing results of clones, the predominant bacteria in strong aroma style fermented grains were those from the class Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, and Clostridia, whereas the predominant bacteria in fermented grains of roasted sesame aroma style belonged to Bacilli, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Molecular analysis of the bacterial diversity of the liquor fermentation will benefit the analysis of important microorganisms playing key roles in the formation of liquor flavor components. PMID:18317829

  1. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

  2. High-speed interferometric measurement and visualization of the conversion of a black liquor droplet during laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lycksam, Henrik; Sjödahl, Mikael; Gren, Per; Öhman, Marcus; Gebart, Rikard

    2012-11-01

    Black liquor is a mix of organic and inorganic materials that is left after the kraft pulping process. In a modern pulp mill the pulping chemicals and the energy in the black liquor is recovered and used in the pulping cycle by burning the black liquor in a recovery burner. An alternative to the recovery boiler is to gasify the black liquor to produce an energy rich synthesis gas that can be upgraded into synthetic fuels or chemicals. Characterization of black liquor has mostly been done under conditions that are relevant for recovery boilers but the conditions in a gasifier differ significantly from this. In particular the droplets are much smaller and the heating rates are much higher. This paper presents an optical interferometric technique that has the potential to produce data under relevant conditions for gasification. In the paper, results are measured at atmospheric conditions and with relatively low heating rate. However, the method can be applied also for pressurized conditions and at heating rates that are only limited by the frame rate of the digital camera that is used to capture the transient event when the droplets are heated. In the paper the dynamic properties of the gas ejected from and the swelling during conversion of a single droplet are measured.

  3. The use of BMED for glyphosate recovery from glyphosate neutralization liquor in view of zero discharge.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiangnan; Huang, Jie; Liu, Lifen; Ye, Wenyuan; Lin, Jiuyang; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-15

    Alkaline glyphosate neutralization liquors containing a high salinity pose a severe environmental pollution problem by the pesticide industry. However, there is a high potential for glyphosate recovery due to the high concentration of glyphosate in the neutralization liquors. In the study, a three-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) process was applied on pilot scale for the recovery of glyphosate and the production of base/acid with high concentration in view of zero discharge of wastewater. The experimental results demonstrate that BMED can remove 99.0% of NaCl from the feed solution and transform this fraction into HCl and NaOH with high concentration and purity. This is recycled for the hydrolysis reaction of the intermediate product generated by the means of the Mannich reaction of paraformaldehyde, glycine and dimethylphosphite catalyzed by triethylamine in the presence of HCl and reclamation of the triethylamine catalyst during the production process of glyphosate. The recovery of glyphosate in the feed solution was over 96%, which is acceptable for industrial production. The current efficiency for producing NaOH with a concentration of 2.0 mol L(-1) is above 67% and the corresponding energy consumption is 2.97 kWh kg(-1) at a current density of 60 mA cm(-2). The current efficiency increases and energy consumption decreases as the current density decreases, to 87.13% and 2.37 kWh kg(-1), respectively, at a current density of 30 mA cm(-2). Thus, BMED has a high potential for desalination of glyphosate neutralization liquor and glyphosate recovery, aiming at zero discharge and resource recycling in industrial application. PMID:23832058

  4. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-10-22

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  5. Effect of pulsations on black liquor gasification. Progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kushari, A.; Jeong, H.; Jagoda, J.I.; Zinn, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to investigate the use of pulse combustion to provide the energy required for the endothermic gasification of black liquor in a fluidized bed. In this process it is critical that the temperature remain in the small window above the gasification temperature but below the smelting temperature of the inorganic salts in the black liquor. Pulse combustors have been shown to have high heat transfer rates between the hot combustion products and the combustor tailpipe. Similarly, fluidized beds have high heat transfer rates within the bed itself, promoting temperature uniformity throughout. Typical analysis of the gasified black liquor shows there is a large percentage of combustible gases in the products of the gasification process (approximately 70%). The potential exists, therefore, for using this fuel mixture to fire the pulse combustor. This makes the entire process more efficient and may be necessary to make it economically feasible. The overall goals of this study are to determine (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring the heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tailpipe to the bed and then throughout the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the temperature distribution in the bed can be maintained within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed even if the heat transfer from the pulse combustor is significantly increased; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  6. Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V.

    1995-07-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. High temperature attack of ores by means of a liquor essentially containing a soluble bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Bosca, B.; Maurel, P.; Nicolas, F.

    1981-10-20

    A process for the oxidizing attack at high temperature of ores containing at least one metal belonging to the group formed by uranium, vanadium and molybdenum, by means of an aqueous liquor containing a majority of sodium bicarbonate and a minority of sodium carbonate according to a ratio by weight of sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate of at least 1.5, in the presence of free oxygen injected into the reaction medium, this medium being maintained at a temperature of between 160/sup 0/C and 300/sup 0/C. For at most six hours.

  8. Land treatment field studies. Volume 6. Inorganic pickling liquor waste. Final report Sep 77-Feb 81

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.B.; Bysshe, S.E.; Goodwin, B.E.; Harris, J.C.; Land, D.B.

    1983-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of an inorganic pickling liquor waste. The waste is spread on the site as a 20% solids sludge. Sulfate and iron are known to be major waste constituents. The organic content of the waste is neglible. The site was sampled twice, and observations were made on the type and amount of waste handled, site characteristics, and management procedures for waste application and monitoring. Organic and inorganic analysis was conducted on the waste and soil/waste mixture; inorganic analysis was performed on plant samples.

  9. Conversion of a black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Eleniewski, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    In 1983 a large integrated pulp and paper mill in southeastern United States retired an older chemical recovery boiler when it was replaced by a newer and larger unit as part of a mill expansion. At that time the mill was generating steam and power using wood waste, natural gas and black liquor, a common fuel mix for pulp mills. The retirement of the recovery boiler presented an opportunity for the mill and corporate engineering to evaluate various mixes of fuels for the mill.

  10. Protocol Development for the Carbohydrate Quantification in Black Liquor with Brix Refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Arnab; Putatunda, Sirsha; Sen, Dwaipayan; Sarkar, Ankur; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-07-01

    Present work is a proposed methodology to quantify carbohydrates even at its trace level in black liquor (BL) in the presence of lignosulphonates (LS) using brix refractometer. Primarily, the detection accuracy was validated with the simulated solutions resembling BL used in the present work. A factor, resembling the weight fraction of LS and inorganics, was multiplied with the brix degree obtained for the simulated solution to convert it into the brix reading for a sole carbohydrate present in the solution along with other chemicals. It was found that the accuracy level of measuring carbohydrate was within ±1-2 % of the actual.

  11. Study on the structure of Bayer liquor with spectroscopy and MD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Chen, Yuandao; Zhang, Guofan

    2006-05-01

    The combination of spectroscopy analysis (Raman and IR) and MD simulation was applied to explore the structure characters of Bayer liquor. In this work, MD simulation had been used to probe the nature of sodium metal-aluminate ion pairing and its role in the stabilization of clusters. It was found that the maximum concentration of Al(OH)4- occurs in low caustic solutions, but in high caustic solution, the appearance of Al(OH)63- was found. Results of molecular dynamic simulation indicated that the formation of clustering of aluminates in solution, and the clusters stabilized by sodium ions made a contribution to the formation of polyaluminate.

  12. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen

    2014-05-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  13. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen

    2014-05-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  14. Optical system for study of temporal dynamics of a change in the complex degree of polarization in liquor laser images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovitch, D. T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a description of the principles defining period of death by polarimetric study temporal dynamics of changes in optical anisotropy of the cerebrospinal fluid of the human body. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of human body liquor is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of absolute value and phase of complex degree of mutual polarization in the points of laser images of liquor and temporal dynamics of optical anisotropy of human body liquor. The diagnostic criteria of death coming prescription are determined.

  15. Heterotrophic denitrification plays an important role in N₂O production from nitritation reactors treating anaerobic sludge digestion liquor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from nitritation reactors receiving real anaerobic sludge digestion liquor have been reported to be substantially higher than those from reactors receiving synthetic digestion liquor. This study aims to identify the causes for the difference, and to develop strategies to reduce N2O emissions from reactors treating real digestion liquor. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) performing nitritation, fed with real (SBR-R) and synthetic (SBR-S) digestion liquors, respectively, were employed. The N2O emission factors for SBR-R and SBR-S were determined to be 3.12% and 0.80% of the NH4(+)-N oxidized, respectively. Heterotrophic denitrification supported by the organic carbon present in the real digestion liquor was found to be the key contributor to the higher N2O emission from SBR-R. Heterotrophic nitrite reduction likely stopped at N2O (rather than N2), with a hypothesised cause being free nitrous acid inhibition. This implies that all nitrite reduced by heterotrophic bacteria was converted to and emitted as N2O. Increasing dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L, or above, decreased aerobic N2O production from 2.0% to 0.5% in SBR-R, whereas aerobic N2O production in SBR-S remained almost unchanged (at approximately 0.5%). We hypothesised that DO at 1 mg/L or above suppressed heterotrophic nitrite reduction thus reduced aerobic heterotrophic N2O production. We recommend that DO in a nitritation system receiving anaerobic sludge digestion liquor should be maintained at approximately 1 mg/L to minimise N2O emission. PMID:24956602

  16. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. 30.63 Section 30.63... gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity of... Total 16,884.1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits at 190 proof is equal to...

  17. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. 30.63 Section 30.63... gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity of... Total 16,884.1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits at 190 proof is equal to...

  18. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. 30.63 Section 30.63... gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity of... Total 16,884.1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits at 190 proof is equal to...

  19. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. 30.63 Section 30.63... TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Prescribed Tables § 30.63 Table 3, for determining the number of proof... to the left. Fractional gallons beyond the first decimal ascertained through use of this table...

  20. A Constructed Alkaline Consortium and Its Dynamics in Treating Alkaline Black Liquor with Very High Pollution Load

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyu; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Xia; Feng, Jinhui; Zhao, Liping; Xu, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. Findings Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs) using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD). Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l−1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l−1 (27.3%) CODcr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. Conclusions/Significance Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor treatment

  1. Green Channel Guiding Denoising on Bayer Image

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Maojun

    2014-01-01

    Denoising is an indispensable function for digital cameras. In respect that noise is diffused during the demosaicking, the denoising ought to work directly on bayer data. The difficulty of denoising on bayer image is the interlaced mosaic pattern of red, green, and blue. Guided filter is a novel time efficient explicit filter kernel which can incorporate additional information from the guidance image, but it is still not applied for bayer image. In this work, we observe that the green channel of bayer mode is higher in both sampling rate and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) than the red and blue ones. Therefore the green channel can be used to guide denoising. This kind of guidance integrates the different color channels together. Experiments on both actual and simulated bayer images indicate that green channel acts well as the guidance signal, and the proposed method is competitive with other popular filter kernel denoising methods. PMID:24741370

  2. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor. PMID:25619126

  3. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  4. Separation and characterization of lignins from the black liquor of oil palm trunk fiber pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, R.; Tomkinson, J.; Bolton, J.

    1999-11-01

    Six lignin preparations, isolated by a novel two-step precipitation method instead of the traditional one-step precipitation method from the oil palm trunk fiber pulping (OPTFP) black liquor, were found to be relatively free of nonlignin materials such as polysaccharide degradation products, ash, and salts. A lignin fraction with a purity of 99.5% was obtained at an optimum precipitation pH 1.5 after isolation of the nonlignin materials in ethanol. About 94% of the total lignin was recovered by this novel method at this condition, and the value of COD in the treated black liquor reduced significantly to lower 250. The isolated lignin fractions contained syringyl, guaiacyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl units in an approximate molar ratio of 16--20:5:1 on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acids were found to be esterified to lignin, while ferulic acids were associated to lignin by ether linkage. {sup 13}C-NMR indicated the presence of {beta}-O-4 ether bonds, and {beta}-5 and 5-5{prime} carbon-carbon linkages between the lignin molecules.

  5. Characteristic of a novel composite inorganic polymer coagulant-PFAC prepared by hydrochloric pickle liquor.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wei; Qiu, Huiqin; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Yanjing; Yang, Kailiang; Liu, Zhongzhe; Ding, Guoji

    2009-02-15

    A composite inorganic polymer coagulant, polyferric aluminum chloride (PFAC) was prepared by using hydrochloric pickle liquor and calcium aluminate as main materials. The optimum conditions for preparing PFAC with the hydrochloric pickle liquor and the calcium aluminate were studied. The coagulation performance of PFAC was investigated by studying the turbidity, COD, total phosphate (TP) and NH(3)-N removal efficiency in municipal sewage treatment. Results indicated that the effective composition, basicity (simplified as B, B=[OH]/(3[Fe(T)+Al(T)])x100%), coagulation performance and stability of PFAC were affected by calcium aluminate dosage, reaction time, reaction temperature and stabilizing agents. The COD and turbidity removal efficiency of PFAC was better than that of PFS and FeCl(3), and the TP and NH(3)-N removal efficiency of PFAC was much better than that of PFS, FeCl(3) and PAC. PFAC not only possessed a good coagulation performance, but also had good stability when stored. PMID:18579291

  6. [Preparation of spherical lignin cation adsorption resin with black pulping liquor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Hua; Zou, Jin-Guang; Hong, Shu-Nan; Zeng, Zhen-Ou

    2005-09-01

    Spherical lignin cation adsorption resin was obtained by two-step method with black liquor of paper mill and characterized by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Firstly, the spherical lignin beads were prepared with black liquor of paper mill by applying reverse-phase suspension polymerization technique, and the preparation conditions were also optimized. The suitable conditions include 200 r/min of stirring speed, 90 degrees C of reaction temperature, 1.0 h of reaction time and use epoxy chloropropane (1.5% by weight of lignin) as cross-linking agent, the ideal volume ratio between oil phase and water phase was 3:1 by using kerosene oil as disperse phase, and the perfect dispersant agent was Tween 80 (3% by weight of lignin). Secondly, the spherical lignin cation adsorption resin was developed by grafting the acrylamide onto the back-bone of the spherical lignin beads. The best concentration of acrylamide was 0.72 mol/L at ambient temperature for 2.0 h, and the ideal initiator system was the Fenton reagent of H2O2/Fe2+. Under the above conditions, the ion exchange capacity of the prepared resin could reach 1.640 5 mmol/g. PMID:16366482

  7. Recovery of Cr(III) from tannery spent chrome liquor for reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Khwaja, A.R.; Singh, R.; Tandon, S.N.

    2000-04-01

    This paper embodies details on the extraction behavior of Cr(III) along with Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) from hydrochloric acid media employing the Cyanex 301-toluene system. All of these metals, except Cr(III), Mg(II), and Mn(II), are extracted into the organic phase. This property of the extractant has been used to separate Cr(III) from the binary mixtures. The partition data have been extended onto spent chrome liquor, and this waste has been treated in such a manner so that it becomes suitable for use in trivalent plating baths. The hydrolytic stability and recycling capacity has been reported. Because the concentration of Cr(III) in the waste is much lower than that required for chromium depositions in Cr(III) plating baths, a concentration step using MgO as a precipitating agent has been appended. To summarize, this paper envisages a new approach to tannery waste management that focuses on treating spent chrome liquors using a solvent extraction technique in such a manner that the waste becomes suitable for use in trivalent plating baths. This would not only help abate pollution but also recover the metal in a pure form.

  8. Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used In Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Keiser, James R; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Gorog, John Peter

    2008-01-01

    Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials, and particularly the refractory lining of the reactor vessel, have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for this application.

  9. Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used in Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Keiser, James R; Meisner, Roberta A

    2010-01-01

    Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials such as the refractory lining of the reactor vessel have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, an updated summary of the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for both the hot-face and back-up linings used in this application.

  10. Economic evaluation of kraft black liquor freeze concentration for the pulp and paper industry: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, T.C.

    1986-09-01

    The system was conceptually incorporated into several paper mill liquor concentration systems. Three fundamental scenarios were considered: a small, sulphite mill expansion comparing freeze concentration to evaporators and vapor recompression; a ''greenfield'' mill which evaluated the use of a freeze concentration process to achieve varying degrees of liquor concentration before achieving final concentration using traditional evaporation; and a kraft mill expansion which explored the use of freeze concentration to achieve a mill capacity expansion using a freeze concentrator in tandem with an existing evaporator set. The performance of these various scenarios were evaluated using a heat balance analysis and the comparative net present value of each arrangement was determined using a traditional evaporator system as a reference. Results indicate that generally the freeze concentration process is not economically attractive relative to traditional evaporator systems at the present time. At a fuel cost of $28.77/barrel, the freeze concentration process becomes attractive. However, this study was performed considering a fuel oil cost of $23.63 per barrel and the world fuel oil price has declined markedly since then.

  11. Effect of cacao liquor extract on tumor marker enzymes during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, I; Koh, B K; Asmah, R

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cacao liquor extract (CLE) on tumor marker enzymes--alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities--in plasma and/or liver of hepatocarcinogenic rats, which were induced with diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene. Twenty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 150-330 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6-8): normal control group (N), normal group + CLE (NE), cancer group (C), and cancer group + CLE (CE). Analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<.05) in the specific activities of ALP, GGT, and GST between the C and N groups. However, GR activity for the C group was not significantly different compared with the N group. In the CE group, the specific activities of ALP, GGT, GST, and GR were significantly lower (P<.05) compared with the C group. The findings showed that CLE could lower the activity of tumor marker enzymes of rats during hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on the results obtained, polyphenol compounds present in the cacao liquor, extracted by using ethanol, have the potential in decreasing the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:15117546

  12. Convergence rate for numerical computation of the lattice Green's function.

    PubMed

    Ghazisaeidi, M; Trinkle, D R

    2009-03-01

    Flexible boundary-condition methods couple an isolated defect to bulk through the bulk lattice Green's function. Direct computation of the lattice Green's function requires projecting out the singular subspace of uniform displacements and forces for the infinite lattice. We calculate the convergence rates for elastically isotropic and anisotropic cases for three different techniques: relative displacement, elastic Green's function correction, and discontinuity correction. The discontinuity correction has the most rapid convergence for the general case. PMID:19392089

  13. Fermentation Kinetics for Xylitol Production by a Pichia stipitis d-Xylulokinase Mutant Previously Grown in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Lu, Chenfeng; Lin, Bernice; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3Δ) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into xylitol. This work describes the xylose fermentation kinetics of yeast strain P.stipitis FPL-YS30. Yeast was grown in rich medium supplemented with different carbon sources: glucose, xylose, or ammonia-base SSL. The SSL and glucose-acclimatized cells showed similar maximum specific growth rates (0.146 h-1). The highest xylose consumption at the beginning of the fermentation process occurred using cells precultivated in xylose, which showed relatively high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49). However, the maximum specific rates of xylose consumption (0.19 gxylose/gcel h) and xylitol production (0.059 gxylitol/gcel h) were obtained with cells acclimatized in glucose, in which the ratio between xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) was kept at higher level (0.82). In this case, xylitol production (31.6 g/l) was 19 and 8% higher than in SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. Maximum glycerol (6.26 g/l) and arabitol (0.206 g/l) production were obtained using SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. The medium composition used for the yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance. The SSL could be used as a carbon source for cell production. However, the inoculum condition to obtain a high cell concentration in SSL needs to be optimized.

  14. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  15. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In order to popularize scientific knowledge of…

  16. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2011-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. Service learning, a research-based teaching pedagogy, provides a flexible framework for integrating green concepts across interdisciplinary content areas.…

  17. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  18. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  19. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada High School…

  20. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  1. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2012-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. School communities that keep greening the school on the periphery of their awareness will reap advantages, but those that align this idea with the…

  2. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  3. LIGHTWEIGHT GREEN ROOF SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Applying a Lightweight Green Roof System to a building can achieve in managing storm water runoff, decreasing heat gain, yielding energy savings, and mitigating the heat island effect. Currently, Most green roof systems are considerably heavy and require structural reinforceme...

  4. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  5. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  6. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  7. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line. PMID:16770900

  8. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  9. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  10. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  11. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  12. Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. First quarterly technical report, [January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

    1995-08-01

    Hydrolysis of Nitrogen-Sulfur Containing Compounds (N-SCC) derived from desulfurization liquors was carried out at high temperature and pressure with varying sulfuric acid concentration in order to determine the influence of temperature and acid concentration on time required for complete hydrolysis. An ammonia specific electrode (gas sensing) was used to monitor the concentration of ammonium ion in the hydrolyzed liquor. The results indicated a large shortening of time for complete hydrolysis of the Ca salt of N-SCC but varying acid concentration did influence the rate of hydrolysis. Since the physical-chemical analysis of the N-SCC obtained by re-liming the waste scrubbing liquor (containing the Fe-EDTA complex) was found to contain a high quantity of sodium, the N-SCC is believed to be a double salt of calcium and sodium. The final product, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, was obtained in experimentation using an evaporative crystallizer. The clean hydrolyzed liquor was neutralized with a strong NH{sub 2} solution before the final crystallization of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  13. [Inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Hou, Wen-hua

    2007-10-01

    The inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa have been investigated by measuring the cell number and the chlorophyll a content of Microcystis aeruginosa of culture in the laboratory. The results showed that the inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa with different concentration of the liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona were dissimilar, and an evident phenomenon appeared that low concentrations could promote the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. However, the inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa with continuous liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona were obvious, which made the algal cell almost lose the capability of photosynthesis, and the inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nymphaea tetragona were better than those of Nelumbo nucifera. The scale-up experiment demonstrated that the algal cell received menace and damage by measuring the activities of peroxidase (SOD) and the accumulated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) of Microcystis aeruginosa in the co-culture. Sterilization methods influenced the algal growth inhibition experiment so that high temperature couldn't replace micropore filter, which explained that the matter excreted by Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona may contain thermally-instabe matter. PMID:18268975

  14. Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Yu, Dan; Niu, Yunwei; Chen, Feng; Song, Shiqing; Zhu, Jiancai; Zhu, Guangyong

    2014-01-15

    Aroma composition of five Chinese premium famous liquors with different origins and liquor flavor types was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flash gas chromatographic electronic nose system. Eighty-six aroma compounds were identified, including 5 acids, 34 esters, 10 alcohols, 9 aldehydes, 4 ketones, 4 phenols, and 10 nitrous and sulfuric compounds. To investigate possible correlation between aroma compounds identified by GC-MS and sensory attributes, multivariate ANOVA-PLSR (APLSR) was performed. It turned out that there were 30 volatile composition, ethyl acetate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl benzenacetate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-heptanol, phenylethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxy-3-methyl butane, furfural, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furanal, 2-octanone, 2-n-butyl furan, dimethyl trisulfied and 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, ethyl nonanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, octanoic acid, ethyl 5-methyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate,ethyl oleate, propyl hexanoate, butanoic acid and phenol, ethyl benzenepropanoate, which showed good coordination with Chinese liquor characteristics. The multivariate structure of this electronic nose responses was then processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). According to the obtained results, GC-MS and electronic nose can be used for the differentiation of the liquor origins and flavor types. PMID:24333641

  15. A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

  16. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  17. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... liquor and beer products on all properties within the limits of the Santee Sioux Nation Reservation, and... by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 3. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained... rectified spirits, potable alcohol, beer, wine, brandy, whiskey, rum, gin, aromatic bitters, and all...

  18. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  19. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430.03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD...

  20. Protective effects of Zhuyeqing liquor on the immune function of normal and immunosuppressed mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL), a well-known Chinese traditional health liquor, has various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoenhancement and cardiovascular protective effects. Methods The protective effects of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) on the immune function was investigated in vivo in normal healthy mice and immunosuppressed mice treated with Cyclophosphamide (Cy, 100 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on days 4, 8 and 12. ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered via gavage daily for 14 days. The phagocytotic function of mononuclear phagocytic system was detected with carbon clearance methods, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in serum were detected with Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immune organs were weighed and organ indexes (organ weight/body weight) of thymus and spleen were calculated. Meanwhile, the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in serum and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) in spleen tissue were measured. Results ZYQL significantly upgrades the K value for clearance of carbon particles in normal mice treated with ZYQL (400 mg/kg) and immunosuppressed mice treated with ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) together with Cy (100 mg/kg) in vivo. The treatment of ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively increased the activity of serum lysozyme as well as promoted the serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ in normal mice and immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) had an antioxidant effects in immune system by enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in vivo. In addition, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively elevated the Cy-induced decreased organ index (thymus and spleen). Conclusions The present work shows that the dose-dependent administration of ZYQL is capable of influencing immune responses, which implying that its valuable functional health may be attributed

  1. Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. Second quarterly technical report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

    1995-12-31

    In June of this quarter, two 50 gallon drums of ferrous EDTA scrubbing liquor were supplied by Dravo Lime Company (Fort Miami, OH plant) for continuing investigation of the precipitation of N-S containing crystals in the DDO (Double-Draw-Off crystallizer) configuration. In order to further study the influence of design variables on the size of Nitrogen-Sulfur (N-S) containing product crystals, another DDO run was carried out at a higher DDO ratio. Using a DDO ratio of 20 in the current experimental run, the mass mean size of the crystals was found to be 250 {micro}m, which is much higher than that found previously with a lower DDO ratio. The new liquor supplied by Dravo Lime Company was found to have a much lower pH ({approximately}4.5) compared to the previous supply ({approximately}6.8). The liquor was also found to contain higher amounts of sodium and sulfur. However, the liquor still produced N-S containing crystals, thus illustrating the robustness of the process. Hydrolysis experiments were conducted in a one liter jacketed glass vessel, equipped with a temperature controller, using 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 70 C and 80 C under atmospheric pressure. The purpose of these hydrolysis experiments was to evaluate kinetic information and to generate enough hydrolyzed liquor to produce NH{sub 3} gas. The NH{sub 3} gas is then used to neutralize the diluted sulfuric acid solution and precipitate pure ammonium sulfate crystals.

  2. Influence of mixed liquor recycle ratio and dissolved oxygen on performance of pre-denitrification submerged membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Teck Wee; Ng, How Yong

    2008-02-01

    The conflicting influence of mixed liquor recycle ratio and dissolved oxygen on nitrogen removal and membrane fouling of a pre-denitrification submerged MBR was investigated in this study. It was found that a high aeration rate of 10 L air/min was able to minimize membrane fouling as compared with lower aeration rates of 5 and 2.5L air/min in this study. Faster fouling at lower aeration rate was due to the decrease in cross-flow velocity across the membrane surface. However, high DO concentration (average of 5.1+/-0.5mg O2/L) present in the recycle mixed liquor at an aeration rate of 10 L air/min deteriorated the TN removal efficiency when operating at a recycle ratio of more than 3. A lower aeration rate of 5L air/min, resulting in an average DO concentration of 3.4+/-0.7 mg O2/L in the recycle mixed liquor, led to an improvement in TN removal efficiency: 63%, 80%, 84% and 89% for mixed liquor recycle ratio of 1, 3, 5 and 10, respectively. Further decrease in aeration rate to 2.5L air/min, resulting in an average DO concentration of 1.9+/-0.8 mg O2/L, did not improve the TN removal efficiency. Using a newly developed simplified nitrification-denitrification model, it was calculated that the COD/NO3(-)-N required for denitrification at 10 L air/min aeration rate was higher than those associated with 5 and 2.5L air/min aeration rates. The model also revealed that denitrification at an aeration rate of 10 L air/min was limited by COD concentration present in the wastewater when operating at a mixed liquor recycle ratio of 3 and higher. PMID:17905406

  3. Improved ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing fatty acid synthesis genes with OPI1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yefu; Luo, Weiwei; Gong, Rui; Xue, Xingxiang; Guan, Xiangyu; Song, Lulu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-09-01

    During yeast fermentation, ethyl esters play a key role in the development of the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is the characteristic flavor of strong aromatic liquor, which is the best selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate is mainly produced at the later fermentation stage by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold in a mud pit instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the expense of grains and fermentation time. To improve the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) with less food consumption and shorter fermentation time, we constructed three recombinant strains, namely, α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1), and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2) with OPI1 (an inositol/choline-mediated negative regulatory gene) deletion, respectively. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, the contents of ethyl caproate produced by α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 increased by 0.40-, 1.75-, and 0.31-fold, correspondingly, compared with the initial strain α5. The contents of other fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0) also increased. In comparison, the content of FAEEs produced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1 significantly improved. Meanwhile, the contents of acetyl-CoA and ethyl acetate were enhanced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1. Overall, this study offers a promising platform for the development of pure yeast culture fermentation of Chinese strong aromatic liquor without the use of a mud pit. PMID:27344573

  4. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  5. Selective removal of phenolic lignin derivatives enables sugars recovery from wood prehydrolysis liquor with remarkable yield.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Jiang, Jungang; Wang, Xiaojun; Fu, Yingjuan; Li, Zongquan; Zhang, Fengshan; Qin, Menghua

    2014-12-01

    The specific elimination of lignin derivatives from wood hydrolysate without sugar loss has great practical significance to biorefinery and bioenergy. In the present study, a process consisting of calcium hydroxide and anion exchange resin treatments was developed for the purpose of selective removal of lignin from wood prehydrolysis liquor (PHL). Particular emphasis was made on the ionization of phenolic lignin, and the subsequent binding to metallic salts. It was observed that phenolic hydroxyl groups (PhOH) in lignin played an important role in lignin removal. The results showed that up to 95.2% lignin was removed from PHL with 78.8% sugar recovery. This suggested that the proposed process is highly specific to lignin, and therefore can be envisaged as a great contribution to wood-sugar production or bioenergy conversion. PMID:25463800

  6. Preparation of activated carbon with large specific surface area from reed black liquor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Zhang, J P; Yang, G; Li, Z H

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbon with large specific surface area and well-developed porosity was prepared from pyrolysis of K2CO3-impregnated lignin precipitated from reed pulp black liquors. The impregnation ratio was 1:1. The effect of activation temperature upon the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore volume of the carbon was closely investigated. Increasing activation temperature led to an opening and widening of the porous structure below 800'C. Above 800'C, the excess widening of pore led to the decrease of BET surface area and micropore volume. The BET surface area and pore volume of the carbon activated at 800 degrees C were 1395 m(2) g(-1) and 0.7702 ml g(-1) , respectively. The potential application of the carbon activated at 800 degrees C for removal of Cr (VI) was also investigated. The experimental results showed that it had good adsorption capacity. PMID:17615958

  7. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  8. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production. PMID:26996259

  9. Single-cell protein production from spent sulfite liquor utilizing cell-recycle and computer monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.; Mohagheghi, A.; Cooney, C.L.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1981-01-01

    To reduce the BOD of spent sulfite liquor before disposal, torula yeast (Candida utilis) is produced by a continuous culture process, the productivity of which is limited by sugar concentration and cell growth rate. To increase productivity, a recycle system has been designed and tested. Cells were sedimented continuously with a flocculating agent (bentonite) before being recycled to the fermentor. A bentonite concentration of 0.02 g/g cell was required. A computer monitoring system based on material balancing techniques was developed to monitor and control the recycle system. With this computer system, productivity was raised to 6.1 g/L-h, with cell concentrations of less than or equal to 65 g/L in the recycle stream and 24 g/L in the fermentor. This represents a productivity increase of 150% over continuous culture with no recycle.

  10. Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of orange pomace including anaerobic digestibility of process liquor.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ezgi; Atila, Buse; Mumme, Jan; Reza, M Toufiq; Toptas, Asli; Elibol, Murat; Yanik, Jale

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of the temperature and reaction time on hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of orange pomace was investigated. In addition, a set of anaerobic batch tests were performed to determine the resulting biogas and methane potential of the spent liquor. Hydrochar yields followed a decreasing trend with the increasing temperature, whereas reaction time had no considerably effect on the yield. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios from the raw material to the hydrochars suggested that dehydration reactions prevail during HTC. The hydrochars tended to become enriched in Ca, Mg and P minerals by increasing HTC temperature. The heavy metal contents in hydrochars were found below limits and no PAH compound was detected. Anaerobic digestion tests showed that the aqueous phase from HTC can be used as feedstocks for biogas production. PMID:26226579

  11. Impact of herbicide Ametryn on microbial communities in mixed liquor of a membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    PubMed

    Navaratna, Dimuth; Elliman, Jennifer; Cooper, Alanna; Shu, Li; Baskaran, Kanagaratnam; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2012-06-01

    Ametryn, which is a second generation herbicide, was introduced to a lab-scale MBR at a concentration of 1mg/L and a 20-40% removal was observed at HRT ranging from 7.8 to 15.6h for an average influent Ametryn concentration of 0.8 mg/L. Components of EPS (protein and carbohydrates) increased in the bioreactor and the observed biomass production reduced after the addition of Ametryn. In a batch study, GAC was added to MBR mixed liquor and removal of Ametryn via biodegradation and adsorption were measured. Five common bacterial colony types (Gram negative and positive bacilli and Gram negative cocci) were identified and three of these were resistant to Ametryn up to 5mg/L. GAC was found to be a very effective Ametryn adsorption medium and in some occasions Ametryn may have acted as a nutrient source for bacteria. PMID:22230781

  12. Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors: Effects of temperature and solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The Newtonian (zero shear rate) viscosities of four different softwood kraft black liquors from a four variable-two level factorially designed experiment for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations up to 84% and temperatures up to 140 C (413.2 K). Methods of measurement and estimation of zero shear rate viscosities from viscosity-shear rate data have been described and compared. The combination of the absolute reaction rates and free-volume concepts were used to express the relationship between the Newtonian viscosity and temperature. Attempts were made to obtain a generalized correlation for Newtonian viscosity as a function of temperature and solids concentrations. The results of this model and results of the previous empirical correlation have been compared and discussed.

  13. Measurement and characterization of emissions from a gas liquor fed cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galegher, Sheila J.; Mann, Michael D.

    Phase I cooling tower testing at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) was designed to use solvent extracted and steam stripped wastewater from fixed-bed gasification of lignite as makeup. The objective of this test was to simulate the proposed mode of operation at the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) plant. A crucial part of this study was the characterization of emissions from a stripped gas liquor (SGL) fed cooling tower. Several types of sampling equipment including a multicyclone, cooled impingers, and an XAD resin trap were used for the collection and retention of components in the tower evaporate. Results of this study indicated that a significant portion of the phenol and ammonia, and also some methanol, in the tower makeup stream were stripped into the atmosphere. Concentration levels of 26,900 μg m -3 ammonia, 8000 μg m -3 phenol and 2500 μ m -3 methanol were detected in the lower exhaust.

  14. Experimental study on microscopic evolving process of boiling overheat liquor in boiler under microcracking condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sining; He, Xuechao; Sun, Jinhua

    2009-07-01

    Boilers are frequently used in agricultural engineering. After micro cracks appear on the wall of the boiler for high pressure saturated liquor, the containing liquid will be overheated, rapidly boiled and expanded, which may result in explosion of the whole container. The evolving processes differ greatly by cracking conditions. In the experiment conducted in the this article, we made a small sized experimental device and applied high speed photography technology observing the simulated fierce boiling process of the high temperature and high pressure saturated water under overheat condition when micro cracking appears on boiler wall. According to our study, lower depressurization rate will suppress the boiling intensity of the overheated liquid and slow the growth of bubbles, decelerating the expansion of the two-phase flow compared with the boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion. The magnitude of overpressure in the container is also relatively smaller than overpressure in BLEVE.

  15. Preparation of adsorbent with magnesium sulfate and straw pulp black liquor and its phenol adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lugang; Wang, Haizeng

    2009-09-01

    A magnesia adsorbent was prepared from straw pulp black liquor and magnesium sulfate for the first time, and its adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution was examined. The characteristics of the adsorbent were tested through chemical analysis, surface analysis, X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The effects of various factors, such as dose, adsorption time and adsorption temperature, on phenol adsorption behavior were studied. The results show that the adsorption processes can be fitted to the isotherm Langmuir model very well. It was found that the adsorption process was strongly influenced by temperature and the optimal temperature for phenol removal was 40 °C. The optimum adsorption time was 10 min, and desorption would happen afterwards. Between the models of Langmuir and Freundlich, the adsorption process of phenol onto magnesia fitted the Langmuir equation better.

  16. Ni-Cu-Zn Ferrite Powder Prepared from Steel Pickled Liquor and Electroplating Waste Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Wen; Fu, Yen-Pei; Lin, Cheng-Hsiung

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we propose a new method of synthesizing Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite powder using steel pickled liquor and electroplating waste solutions as starting materials. It was found that the Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite powder prepared by a hydrothermal process from the waste solutions shows the formation of cubic ferrite with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 31.5 emu/g and an intrinsic coercive force (Hci) of 19.3 Oe. Upon annealing at 750 °C for 2 h, the saturation magnetization increases to 52.6 emu/g and the intrinsic coercive force reaches 42.8 Oe. This useful method can promote the recycling of industrial waste solution and contribute to the preservation of the earth. Moreover, this method decreases the manufacturing cost in the treatment of the industrial waste solution for electroplating and steel industries.

  17. Comparison between mixed liquors of two side-stream membrane bioreactors treating wastewaters from waste management plants with high and low solids anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Fernández-Giménez, E; Álvarez-Requena, C; Muñagorri-Mañueco, F; Ortiz-Villalobos, G

    2016-09-01

    In the last years, biological treatment plants for the previously separated organic fraction from municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) have gained importance. In these processes a liquid effluent (liquid fraction from the digestate and leachate from composting piles), which has to be treated previously to its discharge, is produced. In this paper, the characteristics of the mixed liquor from two full-scale membrane bioreactors treating the effluents of two OFMSW treatment plants have been evaluated in view to study their influence on membrane fouling in terms of filterability. For that, the mixed liquor samples have been ultrafiltrated in an UF laboratory plant. Besides, the effect of the influent characteristics to MBRs and the values of the chemical and physical parameters of the mixed liquors on the filterability have been studied. Results showed that the filterability of the mixed liquor was strongly influenced by the soluble microbial products in the mixed liquors and the influent characteristics to MBR. Permeate flux of MBR mixed liquor treating the most polluted wastewater was considerable the lowest (around 20 L/m(2) h for some samples), what was explained by viscosity and soluble microbial products concentration higher than those measured in other MBR mixed liquor. PMID:27235772

  18. Going Green: Eco-Friendly Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Debra Lau

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of studies show that a school's physical condition--especially its lighting and indoor air quality--directly affect student performance. A 2005 Turner Construction survey of green buildings found that 70 percent of districts with sustainable schools reported improved student performance. It also makes perfect sense that…

  19. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-10-05

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  20. Test plan for radioactive testing of a vertical direct denitration calciner

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, F.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and come of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.