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Sample records for disadvantage factor

  1. 48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... business participation evaluation factor. 1552.219-74 Section 1552.219-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.219-74 Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation...

  2. 48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business participation evaluation factor. 1552.219-74 Section 1552.219-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.219-74 Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation...

  3. Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

  4. Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.

    PubMed

    Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  5. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  6. Cigarette Smoking Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Young Adults in Association With Food Insecurity and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low socioeconomic status is associated with high rates of cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic differences in cigarette smoking tend to emerge during young adulthood. To further our understanding of socioeconomic differences in smoking among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking, with attention to multiple socioeconomic indicators that have not been examined in this population. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample consisted of young adults aged 18–30 years who were considered socioeconomically disadvantaged as measured by education and poverty. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with smoking status in this group, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of smoking frequency. Results In this sample (N = 1,511; 48% female, 66% Hispanic/Latino, 18% non-Hispanic white), 39.7% reported experiencing food insecurity in the past year. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among young adults who reported being food insecure (26.9%) than among those who reported being food secure (16.4%). Past-year food insecurity was significantly associated with current smoking, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use. Specifically, food insecurity was significantly associated with daily but not nondaily smoking. Conclusion Socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults with food insecurity may be considered a high-risk group with respect to cigarette smoking. Efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities should address diverse sources of socioeconomic influences, including experiences of food insecurity. PMID:26766849

  7. Exploring Situational Factors Shaping Access in a Laptop Program for Socially Disadvantaged Children in India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmanabhan, Poornima; Wise, Alyssa Friend

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was…

  8. Factors Influencing the Career Choice of Undergraduate Students at a Historically Disadvantaged South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Fatima; Jano, Rukhsana; van Lill, Burger

    2015-01-01

    During the apartheid years in South Africa, career guidance amongst disadvantaged learners was largely absent and, for many, career choices were limited and governed by politics. Despite South Africa having celebrated 20 years of democracy, this situation has improved only slightly. Therefore, the aims of the study were to determine the factors…

  9. Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains. PMID:26349636

  10. Getting Our Best Teachers into Disadvantaged Schools: Differences in the Professional and Personal Factors Attracting More Effective and Less Effective Teachers to a School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Of the school-level factors that have an impact on student learning, one of the most powerful appears to be the effectiveness of the individual teacher. The most effective teachers are, therefore, one of the most important tools schools and systems have at their disposal to lift the achievement of socio-economically disadvantaged students and…

  11. Women, disadvantage and health.

    PubMed

    Luddy, G

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the issue of disadvantage and health and how gender also affects health inequalities. Socio-economic status has been found to influence access to many social determinants of health, such as education and employment, food and nutrition, work opportunities, and housing. Socio-economic status has also been found to greatly impact on a person's access to effective healthcare in Ireland. Ireland has one of the widest gaps between rich and poor in Europe. Women in less well-off socio-economic groups are at the greatest disadvantage with regard to health and have been found to be at greater risk of developing poor health. The health of disadvantaged women is compromised by: lack of education, lack of information, and lack of awareness of factors that contribute to disease. These issues are explored in the paper with special focus on cancer, mental health, cardiovascular disease and sexual health. PMID:17955712

  12. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  13. A Multiple Risk Factors Model of the Development of Aggression among Early Adolescents from Urban Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kamphaus, Randy; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically derived a multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among middle school students in urban, low-income neighborhoods, using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that aggression increased from sixth to eighth grade. Additionally, the influences of four risk domains (individual, family,…

  14. Methods used to evaluate the immune protection factor of a sunscreen: advantages and disadvantages of different in vivo techniques.

    PubMed

    Young, Antony R

    2004-11-01

    Solar UV radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer in humans, a process partially mediated by UVR-induced immunosuppression. To help prevent skin cancer, sunscreens should prevent UVR-induced immunosuppression to a level that is comparable to their sun protection factor (SPF). There are no standardized protocols for determining the immune protection factor (IPF) of sunscreens or agreement on what degree of IPF is needed to fully preserve cutaneous immune function. Current in vivo approaches to this problem rely on sunscreens' ability to prevent localized UVR-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, using either the induction or elicitation arms of these responses, with comprehensive controls. The induction arm of the CHS response is sensitive to a single suberythemal exposure of solar-simulated radiation (SSR), and allows for direct SPF and IPF comparisons. However, this approach requires a large number of volunteers and is extremely labor-intensive and time-consuming. The elicitation arm of the CHS or DTH response exploits prior sensitization to contact or recall antigens. Fewer volunteers are needed, but current protocols require repeat SSR exposure, which may invalidate comparison with SPF measures based on a single exposure, or erythemal doses, which may have systemic effects. Robust protocols for routinely assessing IPF are needed. PMID:15603218

  15. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed. PMID:25422975

  16. An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2007-01-01

    We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

  17. An exploration of the complex relationship of socioecologic factors in the treatment and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J J; Wan, T T; Perlin, J B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of patients' socioeconomic status (SES) as measured by race, health insurance status, and median income by zip code to in-hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), paying special attention to patients with multiple unfavorable socioeconomic risk factors. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The data set was abstracted from patient-level hospital discharges in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Release 3, 1994. A total of 95,971 AMI discharges in 11 states were extracted. STUDY DESIGN: The risk adjustment methodology was adapted from the California Hospital Outcomes Project. Risk factors included demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients in double jeopardy had inferior insurance status and lived in poorer neighborhoods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared with patients with health care coverage under Medicare and private insurance uninsured AMI patients had the highest risk-adjusted mortality odds and Medicaid AMI patients had the second highest odds. Probably because of the modest association of median income by zip code areas with mortality odds, the double jeopardy phenomenon was not observed. However, compared to patients who had two favorable SES attributes, patients who carried two unfavorable SES attributes had much higher mortality risk, more comorbidities, longer length of stay, and higher total hospital charges, while they received fewer AMI specialized procedures. Race did not seem to be a significant factor after adjustment for other SES attributes. CONCLUSIONS: SES is significantly related to the mortality of AMI patients. The disadvantaged patients receive fewer specialized procedures, possibly because of their higher levels of severity and financial barriers. The variation in mortality between patients who had favorable and unfavorable SES becomes wider when multiple socioeconomic risks are borne by the latter. PMID:11508636

  18. Child Survival/Fair Start. A Look at the Factors Threatening the Survival, Health, and Cognitive Development of the World's Disadvantaged Children, and the Ford Foundation's New Program to Help These Children Get a Fair Start in Life. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    In view of the many factors threatening the survival, health, and cognitive development of the world's disadvantaged children, both in the United States and in developing countries, the Ford Foundation has begun a new program, called Child Survival/Fair Start, to improve these children's chances. In this working paper, Fair Start's overall…

  19. Shortchanging the Disadvantaged Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobman, Arnold B.

    1972-01-01

    Argues that institutions that attempt to make it easy for disadvantaged students through (manipulation of graduation requirements by granting credit for remedial courses) are actually restricting the intellectual growth and maturity of these students.'' (Author/AL)

  20. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  1. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  2. PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTS, ALFRED M.; AND OTHERS

    THE TERM "DISADVANTAGED" IS USED TO REPRESENT ENVIRONMENTS THAT ARE INADEQUATE FOR A FULL LIFE. INCLUDED WOULD BE GROUPS IDENTIFIED AS MIGRANTS, LINGUALLY DISADVANTAGED, CULTURALLY DEPRIVED, AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. A CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS UNABLE TO CONFORM TO PRESENT GROUP EXPECTANCIES. THIS WORKSHOP REPORT IS THE RESULT OF…

  3. Conference on Bio-Social Factors in the Development and Learning of Disadvantaged Children. Conference Proceedings (Syracuse, New York, April 19-21, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY. Ferkauf Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences.

    These conference proceedings contain two major papers. The paper by Susan S. Stodolsky and Gerald S. Lesser, "Learning Patterns in the Disadvantaged," reports a study of effects of social class and ethnic group influences on levels and patterns of mental ability. Scores for verbal ability, reasoning, number facility, and space conceptualization of…

  4. ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

  5. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

  6. Schools and Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…

  7. HELPING EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, JAMES W.

    PROJECT ABLE, IN ITS EFFORT TO AID DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, WORKED WITH INTERMEDIATE GRADE CHILDREN OF LOW SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND. THE PERSONNEL INVOLVED WERE CLASSROOM TEACHERS, GUIDANCE COUNSELORS, SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS, AND READING TEACHERS. THE CHILDREN WERE HELPED THROUGH SUCH WAYS AS COUNSELING, REMEDIAL READING, ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES, FIELD…

  8. Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

  9. Taking Advantage of the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantini, Mario D.; Weinstein, Gerald

    1967-01-01

    The problem of the effective development of educational programs for the educationally disadvantaged is discussed. Salient points for the revitalization of American education are presented, including the major thesis that all American children are educationally disadvantaged. To improve the education of disadvantaged children, the educational…

  10. The Culturally Disadvantaged Gifted Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Shirley

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the need for educational intervention with disadvantaged gifted children and cites her legislative actions in support of the issue. Note: An address by the Honorable Shirley Chisholm before the National Forum on Minority Disadvantaged Gifted and Talented (May 15, 1978). (CL)

  11. Opening Opportunities for Disadvantaged Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    Contents of this book include: "Urban environment in the 1970's," A. Harry Passow; "Educational strategies and the disadvantaged," S.M. Miller and Pamela Roby; "A critique of the concept of 'compensatory education,'" Basil Bernstein; "Early childhood education for the disadvantaged," Helen Robison; "Up from poverty: the price of 'making it' in a…

  12. What Factors Contribute to the Achievement Gap: A Case Study of Multicultural/Disadvantaged Student Participation in Co Curricular Activities at a Large Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Carlton D.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative research study used logistical regression and ordinary least squares to examine factors that contribute to the narrowing of the achievement gap at an urban high school in the Midwest. The study analyzed the relationship between five independent variables related to participation in co curricular activities, demographic…

  13. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, G.; Jha, V.

    2015-01-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  14. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, G; Jha, V

    2015-05-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  15. The Disadvantaged: Challenge to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantini, Mario D.; Weinstein, Gerald

    The major thesis of this new approach to pedagogy is that through an understanding of the problems of disadvantaged children the educational problems of all children will be better understood. The functionalism of John Dewey has been brought up to date in this book through the propositions that curriculum should move from the remote to the…

  16. Demography of Disadvantage in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W., Comp.; And Others

    In this report, demography conceptualizes significant characteristics to serve as a basis for more intensive study, planning, and procedures focusing on the target group. A compilation of the latest reports available and primarily tabular in form, identifies and locates Tennessee's disadvantaged people, ranking the 95 counties on each of 8…

  17. Free Schools and Disadvantaged Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Free Schools policy in England has led to the opening of a number of new autonomous state-funded schools. This article uses data from the Annual Schools Census to present the proportions of socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending the first three waves of these schools. It updates and builds on previous work that focused on the…

  18. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  19. Young Disadvantaged Men as Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeconomic characteristics of men who enter fatherhood at a young age, highlighting that they tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged. Fourth, it reviews the empirical research on both antecedents of father involvement and patterns of involvement across father types. Finally, it describes the limitations of existing research and provides suggestions for future research and policy. PMID:21643452

  20. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (a) Disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, team members, and subcontractors. This clause addresses disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, teaming arrangement members, and subcontractors.... The Contractor shall obtain representations of small disadvantaged status from joint venture...

  1. The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Three components of the teacher shortage are the recruitment challenge, the retention problem, and the demand for teacher quality. Although the teacher shortage problem involves many factors, any solution must address salaries. Rural districts face a threefold disadvantage: teachers are not compensated as well as other rural professionals; rural…

  2. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

  3. Industry Hiring Requirements and the Employment of Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Daniel E.; Bedrosian, Hrach

    In an attempt to improve the economic well-being of the disadvantaged, this study investigated the possibility that excessive hiring requirements might be a major factor in unemployment of particular groups in the population. This was accomplished by surveying a random sample of employers in 10 major entry and near-entry level occupations in the…

  4. HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRCH, HERBERT G.

    THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

  5. Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Stephen L.

    The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

  6. Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

    This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

  7. Disadvantaged Children: Health, Nutrition and School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Herbert G.; Gussow, Joan Dye

    This book examines the relationships between poverty, disadvantage, and educational failure in a way considered to be more comprehensive and complex than is possible when such an examination is based solely on a concept of cultural disadvantage and defective experience. The mortality of infants and their mothers around birth, held to be both the…

  8. HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

    DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

  9. The Kotter Key (To Educating Disadvantaged Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Richard R.

    Teaching styles most effective in dealing with educationally disadvantaged students are analyzed. For the purpose of this research disadvantaged students in a secondary school were identified and given a questionnaire to determine the teacher they considered contributed the most and the teacher who contributed least to their education. The…

  10. Self-Perceptions of Culturally Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Anthony T.; Soares, Louise M.

    1969-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken of the self perceptions of disadvantaged children with those of advantaged children in grades four to eight. Each child's self concept, ideal concepts, and reflected values were measured. The result from an analysis of variance design, indicated more positive self images on all measures for disadvantaged children…

  11. THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--ISSUES AND INNOVATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FROST, JOE L.; HAWKES, GLENN R.

    PART ONE OF THIS COLLECTION OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED ARTICLES CONTAINS DISCUSSIONS OF THE DEFINITIONS OF "THE DISADVANTAGED" AND OF THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY. THE ARTICLES IN PART TWO DISCUSS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED, THE ETIOLOGY OF SCHOOL DROPOUT, A SOCIOLOGICAL VIEWPOINT ON THE EDUCATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED…

  12. METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDBERG, MIRIAM L.

    PROCEDURES TO HELP THE TEACHER OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN RECONSTITUTE THE MODELS OF LEARNERS AND CLASSROOMS TO WHICH SHE IS ACCUSTOMED ARE PRESENTED. THESE PROCEDURES ALSO HELP TO ELIMINATE THE EDUCATIONAL RETARDATION OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. SEVEN PROCEDURES WERE DISCUSSED--(1) "CONTACT WITH THE CULTURAL MAINSTREAM"--ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT…

  13. Cognitive aspects of young children's experience of economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2015-07-01

    Economic disadvantage is a well-studied risk factor for poorer behavioral and academic functioning in young children. Although the mechanisms by which disadvantage impacts children have long been of interest to researchers, studies to date have predominantly focused on mechanisms that are external to the child (e.g., parental depression, marital conflict). Very few studies have examined the internal, cognitive aspects of the experience of economic disadvantage, and almost none have considered how the effects of disadvantage on children's functioning might be mediated through cognitive processes. This article provides a framework for research into cognitive and social-cognitive mediators of economic disadvantage operating in early-to-middle childhood. The initial section of the article briefly reviews and summarizes the extant literature on childhood poverty and its effects. The second section reviews the evidence that preschool-aged children have the requisite cognitive abilities to recognize social inequality in their environments, to be aware of stereotypes related to social class, and to connect these social concepts to their own experience. The third section reviews and evaluates the small literature on children's appraisals, attributions, stereotypes, and perceptions of or about poverty and inequality. The fourth section defines and evaluates the literature on 2 social-cognitive processes-stereotype threat and status anxiety-that are hypothesized to mediate the effects of economic disadvantage on children's functioning. The article concludes with a series of proposed questions and hypotheses for future research, and elaborates on the potential implications of the proposed area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822131

  14. Childhood Social Disadvantage, Cardiometabolic Risk, and Chronic Disease in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Non, Amy L.; Rewak, Marissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E.; Loucks, Eric B.; Appleton, Allison A.; Román, Jorge C.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse social environments in early life are hypothesized to become biologically embedded during the first few years of life, with potentially far-reaching implications for health across the life course. Using prospective data from a subset of a US birth cohort, the Collaborative Perinatal Project, started in 1959–1966 (n = 566), we examined associations of social disadvantage assessed in childhood with cardiometabolic function and chronic disease status more than 40 years later (in 2005–2007). Social disadvantage was measured with an index that combined information on adverse socioeconomic and family stability factors experienced between birth and age 7 years. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) was assessed by combining information from 8 CMR biomarkers; an index of chronic disease status was derived by assessing 8 chronic diseases. Poisson models were used to investigate associations between social disadvantage and CMR or chronic disease scores while adjusting for childhood covariates and potential pathway variables. A high level of social disadvantage was significantly associated with both higher CMR (incident rate ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.39) and with a higher number of chronic diseases (incident rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.92) in minimally adjusted models. Associations with CMR persisted even after accounting for childhood and adult covariates. PMID:24970845

  15. Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

  16. Identification of Intellectually Able Disadvantaged Filipino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval-Severino, Teresita

    1992-01-01

    Preschool Filipino children from disadvantaged urban communities were assessed for giftedness. This article describes the identification procedures and tools used and presents a profile of the children in terms of socioeconomic, intellectual, and personality variables. (Author/JDD)

  17. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the association among females. Violence also accounts for about one fifth of the conditional association between disadvantage and teenage pregnancy among adolescents of both genders. Violence is a critical social characteristic of disadvantaged neighborhoods, one that explains a sizable portion of the effects of growing up in such neighborhoods. PMID:20676355

  18. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders. PMID:23091454

  19. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an

  20. A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Folke, Tomas; Ouzia, Julia; Bright, Peter; De Martino, Benedetto; Filippi, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicating that bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive function suggests that this enhancement may operate within a broader spectrum of cognitive abilities than previously thought (e.g., Stocco & Prat, 2014). In this study, we focus on metacognition or the ability to evaluate one's own cognitive performance (Flavell, 1979). Over the course of two experiments, we presented young healthy adult monolinguals and bilinguals with a perceptual two-alternative-forced-choice task followed by confidence judgements. Results from both experiments indicated that bilingual participants showed a disadvantage in metacognitive efficiency, determined through the calculation of Mratio (Maniscalco & Lau, 2014). Our findings provide novel insight into the potential differences in bilingual and monolingual cognition, which may indicate a bilingual disadvantage. Results are discussed with reference to the balance of advantages versus disadvantages associated with multilanguage learning. PMID:26896725

  1. Educational Interests of Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Iowa Household Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Donald Philip

    A study was made of 538 disadvantaged and 247 non-disadvantaged household heads in Iowa -- their occupation, training desired, material possessions, membership and participation. The sample included 643 males and 142 females and was distributed in zones from open country to large urban areas. According to the prescribed criteria 14% of the…

  2. Teaching the Disadvantaged: A Curriculum Guide for Classes of Disadvantaged Students in Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crunkilton, John R.

    The guide begins with some observations on teaching disadvantaged students, a list of successful types of learning activities, and recommendations for planning and conducting an effective classroom situation. Also included are 13 general objectives of a program for the disadvantaged. The guide, intended as a source of ideas and directions in…

  3. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  4. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  5. EDUCATING THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED, A MATURING APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOWLER, WILLIAM L.

    THIS REPORT BRIEFLY REVIEWS TRENDS IN 20TH-CENTURY RESEARCH ON EDUCATING DISADVANTAGED AND MINORITY GROUP PUPILS. MANY STUDIES WRITTEN IN THE 1920'S AND 1930'S INDICATED THAT NEGROES WERE LESS INTELLIGENT THAN CAUCASIANS, AND THUS TEACHERS DEMANDED LITTLE OF THEIR MINORITY GROUP PUPILS. SINCE THAT TIME RESEARCH STUDIES HAVE EMPHASIZED THE…

  6. Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

    2014-01-01

    Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

  7. How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

  8. The New CETA Targets the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashian, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Summaries of eight titles of the reauthorized (for fiscal years 1979 through 1982) Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 (CETA) are presented and discussed. The new CETA will serve, essentially, to increase the earned income of the economically disadvantaged. (MF)

  9. Using Pamphlets with Disadvantaged Adults. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Susan K.

    One of a series on library services to disadvantaged adults, this guide explains the advantages of pamphlets for a public library collection. Pamphlets provide easily read, up-to-date information at little cost. Several bibliographies and magazine columns regularly list free and inexpensive pamphlets. Collections of these booklets can be placed…

  10. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  11. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  12. Children rectify inequalities for disadvantaged groups.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-08-01

    Children's decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African American and European American children ages 5 to 6 years (n = 91) and 10 to 11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies, evaluated different resource allocation strategies, and completed a measure of status awareness based on race. With age, children were increasingly aware of wealth status disparities between African Americans and European Americans, and judged a medical resource inequality between groups more negatively. Further, with age, children rectified the resource inequality over perpetuating it, but only when African American children were disadvantaged. With age, children also referenced rights when reasoning about their judgments concerning the disadvantaged African American group. When European American children were disadvantaged, children did not systematically allocate more resources to one group over another. The results are discussed in terms of social inequalities, disadvantaged status, moral judgments, and intergroup attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455190

  13. School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

  14. Work Environment and Disadvantagement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searls, D.; Miskimins, R. W.

    The report describes a series of empirical evaluations of the work environment and its relation to the disadvantaged worker. Data were collected on 530 subjects in five different industries at both the supervisory and non-supervisory level, using a total of eight instruments, including measures of perceived vocational opportunity, self-concept,…

  15. Cultural Disadvantages and Vygotskii's Stages of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Andrew

    1980-01-01

    Points out how the theories advanced during the 1930s by Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky can provide insights to western educational psychologists as they seek to understand child development and, particularly, as they devise ways of working with socially disadvantaged and mentally retarded children. (DB)

  16. Barriers to Parental Involvement for Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles which prevent active participation at home and at school for economically disadvantaged families. Parental involvement has been recognized as one of the most important variables influencing student academic achievement (Henrich & Gadaire, 2008; Jeynes, 2007; Stewart, 2008). Recent history…

  17. A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GILLIE, ANGELO C.

    A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

  18. Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreedhar, M. V.

    Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

  19. Achievement Related Motives of Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J.; And Others

    The motivational dynamics of educationally disadvantaged students in Title I education programs in Illinois were studied. Pretesting and posttesting for 450 students in grades 1 through 6 were conducted by using two test forms, the Mature Test Form for the older students and the Happy Face Form for the younger students. Ethnicity included Whites,…

  20. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  1. Selected Teacher Behaviors Considered as a Basis for Reporting Recommended Strategies for Teaching the Disadvantaged: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    This paper reviews the research and commentary literature on techniques, traits, and success factors for teachers of the disadvantaged. The author categorizes and discusses behaviors for teachers of the disadvantaged within four selected dimensions: 1) Affective (related to the teacher's attitudes, emotions, feelings, and values), 2) Cognitive…

  2. Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sara B

    2014-12-01

    Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. PMID:25477459

  3. Strongyloidiasis: A Disease of Socioeconomic Disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by soil transmitted helminths of the Strongyloides genus. Currently, it is predominately described as a neglected tropical disease. However, this description is misleading as it focuses on the geographical location of the disease and not the primary consideration, which is the socioeconomic conditions and poor infrastructure found within endemic regions. This classification may result in misdiagnosis and mistreatment by physicians, but more importantly, it influences how the disease is fundamentally viewed. Strongyloidiasis must be first and foremost considered as a disease of disadvantage, to ensure the correct strategies and control measures are used to prevent infection. Changing how strongyloidiasis is perceived from a geographic and clinical issue to an environmental health issue represents the first step in identifying appropriate long term control measures. This includes emphasis on environmental health controls, such as better infrastructure, sanitation and living conditions. This review explores the global prevalence of strongyloidiasis in relation to its presence in subtropical, tropical and temperate climate zones with mild and cold winters, but also explores the corresponding socioeconomic conditions of these regions. The evidence shows that strongyloidiasis is primarily determined by the socioeconomic status of the communities rather than geographic or climatic conditions. It demonstrates that strongyloidiasis should no longer be referred to as a "tropical" disease but rather a disease of disadvantage. This philosophical shift will promote the development of correct control strategies for preventing this disease of disadvantage. PMID:27213420

  4. Strongyloidiasis: A Disease of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by soil transmitted helminths of the Strongyloides genus. Currently, it is predominately described as a neglected tropical disease. However, this description is misleading as it focuses on the geographical location of the disease and not the primary consideration, which is the socioeconomic conditions and poor infrastructure found within endemic regions. This classification may result in misdiagnosis and mistreatment by physicians, but more importantly, it influences how the disease is fundamentally viewed. Strongyloidiasis must be first and foremost considered as a disease of disadvantage, to ensure the correct strategies and control measures are used to prevent infection. Changing how strongyloidiasis is perceived from a geographic and clinical issue to an environmental health issue represents the first step in identifying appropriate long term control measures. This includes emphasis on environmental health controls, such as better infrastructure, sanitation and living conditions. This review explores the global prevalence of strongyloidiasis in relation to its presence in subtropical, tropical and temperate climate zones with mild and cold winters, but also explores the corresponding socioeconomic conditions of these regions. The evidence shows that strongyloidiasis is primarily determined by the socioeconomic status of the communities rather than geographic or climatic conditions. It demonstrates that strongyloidiasis should no longer be referred to as a “tropical” disease but rather a disease of disadvantage. This philosophical shift will promote the development of correct control strategies for preventing this disease of disadvantage. PMID:27213420

  5. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and the Shape of the Age–Crime Curve

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Li-Chuan; Loeber, Rolf; Cohen, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to better determine the way in which neighborhood disadvantage affects the shape of the age–crime curve. Methods. We used data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), a 14-year longitudinal study, to compare the age–crime curves of individuals in neighborhoods of different disadvantage. We visually compared observed age–crime curves, and then used generalized linear mixed models to test for differences in curve parameters. Results. Adjusted for individual risk factors, the mixed models found that the parameters for interactions of neighborhood disadvantage with both linear age and quadratic age were significant (P < .05) and consistent with higher and longer age–crime curves in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. This implied that compared with boys in advantaged neighborhoods, rates of violence among boys in disadvantaged neighborhoods rose to higher levels that were sustained significantly longer. Conclusions. These results suggested that residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood during early adolescence may have an enduring effect on the shape of the age–crime curve throughout an individual's life. PMID:21778512

  6. Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

  7. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Small Disadvantaged... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR...

  9. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  10. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  11. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  12. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  13. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  14. A summer academic research experience for disadvantaged youth.

    PubMed

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

  15. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Parenting: Behavioral Genetics Evidence of Child Effects.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak

    2016-10-01

    The criminological literature has a long tradition of emphasizing the socialization effects that parents have on children. By contrast, evidence from behavioral genetics research gives precedence to child effects on parental management techniques over parental effects on children's outcomes. Considering these diverging lines of scholarship and literature, the current study explores a novel hypothesis that child effects on parenting may be conditioned by the level of the disadvantage of the neighborhood in which the child's family resides. By using measures of perceived parenting as dependent variables, the researchers analyze data on 733 same-sex sibling pairs derived from the Add Health study by taking advantage of the DeFries-Fulker analytical technique. The results show that in adequate neighborhoods, between 43% and 55% of the variance in the measures of perceived parenting is due to genetic factors, whereas shared environmental effects are negligible. In disadvantaged neighborhoods, genetic effects are negligible, whereas shared environmental influences account for between 34% and 57% of the variance in perceived parenting. These results offer partial support for the contextualized gene-environment correlation, which provides initial evidence that although both parental socialization effects and child effects exist, these effects can be modified by the context. PMID:25891272

  16. Child survival in big cities: the disadvantages of migrants.

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, M

    1995-05-01

    Data from 15 Demographic and Health Surveys are used to examine whether rural-urban migrants in developing countries experience higher child mortality after settling in towns and cities than do lifelong urban residents, and if so, what individual or household characteristics account for this. Findings indicate that children of female migrants from the countryside generally have much poorer survival chances than other urban children. This survival disadvantage is more pronounced in big cities than in smaller urban areas, among migrants who have lived in the city for many years than among recent migrants, and in urban Latin America than in urban North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. Within big cities, higher child mortality among migrant women is clearly related to their concentration in low-quality housing, and in part to fertility patterns at early ages of children and mother's educational attainment at later ages. Excess child mortality among urban migrants may also result from factors associated with the migration process, that are outlined in this study but not included in the analysis. Evidence of moderately high levels of residential segregation of migrant women in big cities suggests that opportunities exist for urban health programs to direct interventions to this disadvantaged segment of city populations. PMID:7638646

  17. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

  18. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged... Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION... Administration by using the Central Contractor Registration database or by contacting the SBA's Office of...

  19. Educating Disadvantaged Children in the Elementary School (An Annotated Bibliography). Disadvantaged Children Series, Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gertrude M.; Murow, Esther

    This annotated bibliography presents the views of writers concerned with the many aspects of educating the disadvantaged. Books and journal articles which appeared principally between January 1960 and June 1965 are listed, the Wilson Company "Education Index" having been used as a basic guide. The list is designed particularly for educational…

  20. Poverty, Delinquency, and Educational Attainment: Cumulative Disadvantage or Disadvantage Saturation? JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Lance

    Data from the NLSY (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) were analyzed to test two competing hypotheses regarding how poverty affects the relationship between delinquency and educational attainment. The cumulative disadvantage perspective argues that poor youth suffer greater consequences for their involvement in delinquency than middle and…

  1. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    Twelve March 2015 will mark the 10th anniversary of World Kidney Day (WKD), an initiative of the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations. Since its inception in 2006, WKD has become the most successful effort ever mounted to raise awareness among decision-makers and the general public about the importance of kidney disease. Each year WKD reminds us that kidney disease is common, harmful and treatable. The focus of WKD 2015 is on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations. This article reviews the key links between poverty and CKD and the consequent implications for the prevention of kidney disease and the care of kidney patients in these populations. PMID:25713703

  2. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity.

    PubMed

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  3. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    PubMed Central

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  4. Some Learning Disabilities of Socially Disadvantaged Puerto Rican and Negro Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan

    The findings of several tests are used to describe some learning disabilities and patterns common in lower-class Puerto Rican and Negro children. In particular, perceptual dysfunction is pointed to as a major causal factor in the reading problems of the disadvantaged. In one urban slum school, 40 percent of first graders showed serious dysfunction…

  5. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  6. The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)

  7. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  8. Tackling Disadvantage: What Works in Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Mclean, Christabel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the success factors behind narrowing the achievement gap of disadvantaged pupils who are entitled to free school meals. A complementary methodological approach including a case study and focus group were used to explore performance and the views of teachers, parents and pupils. The key criteria for the selection of schools were…

  9. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  11. The Impact of the High Tuition Policy on Disadvantaged Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching-Yuan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan's education rate of return has increased incrementally over the long term, and education is the primary factor impacting income inequality. Its impact has been increasing every year. Having their children attend college is the way for disadvantaged households to escape poverty, but the high tuition policy is putting the poor in an…

  12. The School Readiness of Children Living in a Disadvantaged Area in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Gemma; Axford, Nick; Little, Michael; Murphy, Cliona; Greene, Sheila; Gormley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the multiple factors that contribute to the school readiness and early school progress of children living in an urban disadvantaged area. Structured interviews were undertaken with parents of children who had recently started school to elicit information about those aspects of children's health, and their home and neighbourhood…

  13. The intergenerational transmission of inequality: Maternal disadvantage and health at birth

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

  14. What helps children eat well? A qualitative exploration of resilience among disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren K; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the family and environmental factors underlying resilience to poor nutrition among children and their mothers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 mother-child pairs (N = 76) from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Children were selected if they were a healthy weight, consumed adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables and were physically active. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: active strategies from parents to promote healthy eating and external barriers and supports to healthy eating. Mothers believed that exercising control over access to unhealthy food, providing education and encouragement for consumption of healthy food and enabling healthy food options aided their child to eat well. Children did not perceive food advertisements to be major influences on their eating preferences or behaviour. The results of the current study offer insight into potential avenues for nutrition promotion among disadvantaged children. PMID:21350037

  15. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy. PMID:26266467

  16. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  17. Group Counseling With Disadvantaged Youth in an Employment Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Jean C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses: (1) characteristics of the disadvantaged; (2) principles of group selection and group interaction; and (3) group counseling techniques - continuity, results, talking and influencing behavior. (EK)

  18. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure. PMID:26788486

  19. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped. PMID:10343988

  20. Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

    1992-12-01

    The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

  1. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  2. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

  3. A Transagency Approach to Enabling Access to Parent-Based Intervention for Language Delay in Areas of Social Disadvantage: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, Deborah; Smith, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Primary language delay remains one of the most prevalent developmental delays in early childhood, particularly in disadvantaged areas. Previous research has established language difficulties and social disadvantage being particular risk factors for adverse outcomes later in life. To help prevent low educational achievement and poorer outcomes,…

  4. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  5. Disadvantaged Learners and VET to Higher Education Transitions. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tabatha

    2014-01-01

    The vocational education and training (VET) system can provide an entry point to the education sector for people who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. Participation in VET can provide personal benefits as well as lead to further study and/or employment. How disadvantaged learners participate in vocational education and training is an…

  6. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Small disadvantaged... PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The Contracting officer shall insert the provision at 1552.219-72,...

  7. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The Contracting officer shall insert the provision at 1552.219-72,...

  8. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  9. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disadvantaged business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to receive a benefit as a...

  10. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  11. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disadvantaged business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to receive a benefit as a...

  12. Working with the Disadvantaged Student in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKalb SERVE Satellite Center, Stone Mountain, GA.

    This handbook provides vocational educators at the secondary and postsecondary levels with approaches for working with minimally disadvantaged students enrolled in their regular programs. Chapter 1 focuses on the disadvantaged student and considers such problems as perceptual difficulties, resistance to authority, parental influence, insecurity…

  13. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disadvantaged business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to receive a benefit as a...

  14. KNOWING AND EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTS, ALFRED M., 2D

    "KNOWING AND EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED" IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIALS RELATED TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANTS OR THE ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED. IT IS ARRANGED BY BOTH TOPIC AND TITLE INDEXES. TOPICS INCLUDE AGRICULTURE, AMERICAN CULTURE, DIRECTORIES, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, GUIDES, HANDBOOKS, ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION, ADULT…

  15. An Inservice Program for Vocational Teachers of the Disadvantaged. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Norman D.; And Others

    A product of a research project designed to improve the teaching effectiveness of vocational teachers of disadvantaged students, this handbook includes the specific procedures and materials that can be utilized in an inservice program for vocational teachers of disadvantaged youth. (The final report of this project is contained in a separate…

  16. Special Emergency Education for the Disadvantaged. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene; Mark M.; And Others

    This evaluation of Project Special Elementary Education for the Disadvantaged (SEED) sought to assess the impact of SEED instruction upon students enrolled in disadvantaged schools (grades three to six) in four major study areas: mathematics achievement, interest in math and other school subjects, motivation, and self concept. In addition, the…

  17. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  18. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  19. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  20. 78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...) entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications,'' at 77 FR 54952, that... FR 651164, that corrected minor errors in the NPRM related to the Paperwork Reduction Act and... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise:...

  1. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  2. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  3. Distance Education in Rural Schools: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews distance-education technologies, their uses for rural schools, and related issues. Lists advantages and disadvantages for satellite TV teaching, microcomputer networks, and two-way TV instruction. Concludes that technologies' advantages outweigh disadvantages. Suggests final decision making and assessment depend on local program content…

  4. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  5. New Dimensions in Career Development for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshil, Thomas H., Ed.; Sheppard, N. Alan, Ed.

    The document presents the full texts of conference papers that examine views and programs in career development for disadvantaged youth, including minority and low income groups, and the handicapped. Four papers under the heading of Major Addresses discuss: (1) career development strategies for disadvantaged rural youth, (2) career development for…

  6. Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

  7. The Engagement in Schooling of Economically Disadvantaged Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carey E.; Crosnoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study considers academic risk and resilience in the context of economic disadvantage, examining the associations among such disadvantage, parental involvement in education, and children's academic orientation in a sample of 489 inner-city families. Neither parents' nor children's engagement in the educational system was significantly…

  8. The Effects of Sociodramatic Play on Disadvantaged Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smilansky, Sara

    This book explores sociodramatic play as a potential compensatory tool for educationally disadvantaged children. The author examines the antecedents of educational disadvantagement and develops a rationale for the use of sociodramatic play. She places sociodramatic play in perspective as a particular stage of play behavior and further investigates…

  9. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals (small... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR...

  10. 13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... protests? 124.1009 Section 124.1009 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1009 Who decides...

  11. 13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... protests? 124.1009 Section 124.1009 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1009 Who decides...

  12. 13 CFR 124.1014 - Appeals of disadvantaged status determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determinations. 124.1014 Section 124.1014 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1014 Appeals of...

  13. 13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protests? 124.1009 Section 124.1009 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1009 Who decides...

  14. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals (small... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR...

  15. 13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... protests? 124.1009 Section 124.1009 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1009 Who decides...

  16. 13 CFR 124.1014 - Appeals of disadvantaged status determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determinations. 124.1014 Section 124.1014 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1014 Appeals of...

  17. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals (small... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR...

  18. 13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... protests? 124.1009 Section 124.1009 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1009 Who decides...

  19. Intimate Partner Violence in Neighborhood Context: The Roles of Structural Disadvantage, Subjective Disorder, and Emotional Distress

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jennifer E.; Kuhl, Danielle C.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent’s level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. PMID:26188438

  20. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-01-01

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities. PMID:24169412

  1. Segmented assimilation, neighborhood disadvantage, and Hispanic immigrant health.

    PubMed

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Do, D Phuong; Frank, Reanne

    2016-01-01

    We use a subset of Hispanics from the New Immigrant Survey, a nationally representative data set on immigrants recently granted legal permanent residency (n = 2245), to examine whether the relationship between assimilation and health is modified by neighborhood disadvantage and, in doing so, carry out an empirical test of the segmented assimilation hypothesis. Results indicate that assimilation in the least disadvantaged neighborhoods can be protective against poor health. Specifically, more assimilated men and women in the lowest disadvantage neighborhoods have a lower likelihood of self-reported poorer health and being overweight, respectively; no link was found in higher disadvantage neighborhoods. Assimilation was not found to be associated with self-reported health for women or BMI for men, regardless of neighborhood disadvantage level. Overall, we find some evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of assimilation on health depend on the context in which immigrants experience it. PMID:26708247

  2. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent substance use disorder: The moderating role of maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (ages 15–18; mean age=16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level SES, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana dependence symptoms among maltreated, but not non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment. PMID:25947011

  3. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder: The Moderating Role of Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-08-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (age 15-18; mean age = 16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level socioeconomic status, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana-dependence symptoms among maltreated but not among non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol-dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment. PMID:25947011

  4. The perplexing links between contraceptive sterilization and (dis)advantage in ten low-fertility countries.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Sweeney, Megan M

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the association between contraceptive sterilization and socio-economic status (measured by educational attainment) in ten countries, using data from the 2006-10 National Survey of Family Growth and the 2004-10 Generations and Gender Surveys. The findings confirm that a long-standing association between socio-economic status and sterilization persists in the contemporary United States: female sterilization is associated with economic disadvantage, whereas male sterilization is associated with economic advantage. The latter association is found to be unique to the United States, but female sterilization is associated with disadvantage in most of the other countries studied. While basic demographic background factors such as early childbearing and parity can explain the observed associations in most of the countries, a strong gendered association between sterilization and socio-economic status remains in the United States and Belgium even after adjusting for these factors. PMID:26792541

  5. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... in the DBE program, unless the individual claiming disadvantaged status can demonstrate that...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... in the DBE program, unless the individual claiming disadvantaged status can demonstrate that...

  7. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  8. Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdani, Asma

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

  9. Making Computer Science More Accessible to Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ian; Mueller, Conrad

    1994-01-01

    Addresses how the Department of Computer Science at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa has attempted to make computer science accessible to students who have been disadvantaged by the apartheid system. (Author/MKR)

  10. Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bask, Miia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education…

  11. Advantages and disadvantages in usage of bioinformatic programs in promoter region analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Posyniak, Kacper; ZiÄ bska, Karolina; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    An important computational challenge is finding the regulatory elements across the promotor region. In this work we present the advantages and disadvantages from the application of different bioinformatics programs for localization of transcription factor binding sites in the upstream region of genes connected with sex determination in cucumber. We use PlantCARE, PlantPAN and SignalScan to find motifs in the promotor regions. The results have been compared and possible function of chosen motifs has been described.

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Preconception Stressful Life Events, and Infant Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Whitney P.; Park, Hyojun; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Mandell, Kara; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Zarak, Dakota

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine whether the effects of preconception stressful life events (PSLEs) on birth weight differed by neighborhood disadvantage. Methods We drew our data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001–2002; n = 9300). We created a neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI) using county-level data from the 2000 US Census. We grouped the NDI into tertiles that represented advantaged, middle advantaged, and disadvantaged neighborhoods. Stratified multinomial logistic regressions estimated the effect of PSLEs on birth weight, controlling for confounders. Results We found a gradient in the relationship between women's exposure to PSLEs and having a very low birth weight (VLBW) infant by NDI tertile; the association was strongest in disadvantaged neighborhoods (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 2.53), followed by middle (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.93) and advantaged (AOR = 1.29; 95% CI = 0.91, 1.82) neighborhoods. We observed a similar gradient for women with chronic conditions and among minority mothers. Conclusions Women who experienced PSLEs, who had chronic conditions, or were racial/ethnic minorities had the greatest risk of having VLBW infants if they lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods; this suggests exacerbation of risk within disadvantaged environments. Interventions to reduce rates of VLBW should focus on reducing the deleterious effects of stressors and on improving neighborhood conditions. PMID:25790423

  13. Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

  14. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444

  15. Impact of County Disadvantage on Behavior Problems Among US Children With Cognitive Delay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojun; Robert, Stephanie A.; Palta, Mari; Witt, Whitney P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated relationships among cognitive delay, community factors, and behavior problems over 2 years in early childhood with a national sample of US families. Methods. Data were from 3 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001–2005; n = 7650). We defined cognitive delay as the lowest 10% of mental scores from the Bayley Short Form–Research Edition, administered at 9 and 24 months. At 24 months, we classified children as typically developing or as having resolved, newly developed, or persistent cognitive delays. Behavior was measured at age 4 years with the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales (range = 0–36). Community factors included perceived neighborhood safety and an index of county disadvantage. Results. Behavior scores at age 4 years (mean = 12.4; SD = 4.9) were higher among children with resolved (Β = 0.70; SE = 0.20), newly developed (Β = 1.92; SE = 0.25), and persistent (Β = 2.96; SE = 0.41) cognitive delays than for typically developing children. The interaction between county disadvantage and cognitive delay status was statistically significant (P < .01), suggesting that county disadvantage was particularly detrimental for children with persistent delays. Conclusions. The community context may provide an opportunity for public health interventions to improve the behavioral health of children with cognitive delays. PMID:25211742

  16. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., including her personal income for the past two years (including bonuses, and the value of company stock... woman is economically disadvantaged if she can demonstrate that her ability to compete in the free... her ownership interest in the concern and equity in her primary personal residence. (c) Factors...

  17. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  18. Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation. PMID:24531637

  19. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  20. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today. PMID:27478254

  1. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Maternal Parenting Stress: The Role of Structural Disadvantages and Parenting Values

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers’ higher stress than white mothers’ persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  2. General health care service utilisation: where, when and by whom in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.

    PubMed

    Achat, Helen M; Thomas, Paul; Close, Glenn R; Moerkerken, Leendert R; Harris, Mark F

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to examine the utilisation of and preferences related to health care services by residents of a disadvantaged area and to identify factors associated with levels of current and future use. Data were collected from face-to-face structured interviews of randomly selected residents of a disadvantaged local government area in 2003-04. Information about respondents' health and socioeconomic status and patterns of use and preferred features of health care was analysed in PASW Statistic 17. Chi-square statistics were used to examine differences in utilisation by sex and simple logistic regression provided sex specific age-adjusted odds ratios about frequent visits. Most respondents (95%) attended a 'usual' general practitioner (GP) service and about two-fifths had obtained other health care in the last 12 months. The median number of visits was four and most providers offered bulk billing (83%). Less common were visits to the dentist (32%), emergency department (14%), specialists (29%) and the hospital (5%). Providers' skills and traits, physical access and bulk billing were key considerations for men and women when choosing a health care provider. Disadvantaged communities want skilled practitioners who reflect their demographic mix and are located at convenient and accessible clinics, which preferably bulk bill. Apart from GP visits, this group appears to make only moderate use of specialists and emergency departments, and little routine use of other primary health services. PMID:21128574

  3. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged individuals are those who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias within American... contributed to social disadvantage, such as race, ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION...

  5. Effect of an enrichment program on DAT scores of potential dental students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly P; Woolfolk, Marilyn; May, Kenneth B; Inglehart, Marita R

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore whether Dental Admission Test (DAT) training in an enrichment program for potential dental students increases the participants' Perceptual Achievement Test (PAT) and academic average (AA) scores and whether the length of the program and personal factors such as the number of disadvantages correlate with the DAT scores. Data were collected from 361 students in the summer enrichment program at one dental school between 1994 and 2011. Their baseline, midpoint, and end of program PAT and AA DAT scores were collected. Seventy students self-reported official scores. These students' PAT scores increased from 14.40 at baseline to 17.09 at midpoint to 17.84 at program end (p<0.001), and their AA scores increased from 13.53 to 14.09 to 15.12 (p<0.001). Their official scores were higher than the beginning scores (PAT: 14.42 vs. 16.15; p<0.001; AA: 13.61 vs. 16.23; p<0.001). The longer the program, the more the students improved their official scores (PAT: r=0.35; p=0.003; AA: r=0.24; p=0.044). The more disadvantages the students self-reported, the better their official test scores were (PAT: r=0.40; p<0.001; AA: r=0.43; p<0.001). This study found that the DAT training during summer enrichment programs for students from disadvantaged backgrounds led to significant improvements in their DAT scores. The longer the programs, the more the students improved; and the more disadvantages the students had, the more they benefitted. PMID:23929576

  6. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  7. What's in a Name: "Education and the Disadvantaged American" (1962)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    "Education and the Disadvantaged American" represented an attempt by the leaders of the American elementary and secondary education enterprise to come to terms with the failure to learn of a significant portion of the school population. The dimension of race surrounded the discussion leading to publication, but it was never addressed…

  8. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  9. Processes of Curiosity and Exploration in Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia

    This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…

  10. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  11. The Use of Individually Prescribed Instruction for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.; Seay, Donna M.

    The adaptation and use of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in adult basic education for the disadvantaged are discussed. The discussion describes a model IPI system (The Draper Model); recommends certain considerations if it is to be used successfully; and shows that programmed instructional (PI) materials work best in a learning system…

  12. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

  13. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, ROBERT L.

    CURRENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT SCHOOL AND HOME ENVIRONMENTS STRONGLY INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL'S INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, ALTHOUGH CERTAIN VERY BROAD HEREDITARY LIMITATIONS MAY ALSO AFFECT IT. THE ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH EXPERIENCES AN ENVIRONMENT WHICH LACKS STIMULI ESSENTIAL TO POSITIVE INTELLECTUAL GROWTH AND…

  14. 75 FR 25815 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...This notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) would propose to improve the administration of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program by increasing accountability for recipients with respect to good faith efforts to meet overall goals, modifying and updating certification requirements, adjusting the personal net worth (PNW) threshold for inflation, providing for expedited interstate......

  15. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of its... with 13 CFR 124, Subpart B, and a decision on that application is pending, and that no material...

  16. Increasing the Earnings of Disadvantaged Women. Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The National Commission for Employment Policy has examined ways that the United States federal government could improve the economic situation of disadvantaged women. In particular, the Commission examined, during 1980, the role of education and employment and training programs in helping women to prepare for better paying occupations, and then…

  17. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... the Small Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of...

  18. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... the Small Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of...

  19. Health Care of the Elderly in Medically Disadvantaged Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Pearl S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study of three disadvantaged urban areas reports on the relationship between available resources and ambulatory health care. Findings indicate a high proportion of elderly receiving care for serious conditions but a sharp drop in care for less serious but potentially disabling conditions. (Author)

  20. The First National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Ellen J., Ed.; And Others

    Summarized are 19 presentations given at the first annual National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted held March 24-25, 1973. Emphasized is the effect of identification procedures, program provisions, and research and evaluation on (1) economically deprived gifted students, (2) culturally different gifted students, (3) female gifted students,…

  1. Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

  2. Education for All: Compensating for Disadvantage in Mexico. Education Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno

    2004-01-01

    This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education.Education for all means learning for all. It means closing the "advantage" gap--making sure that the children of the poor and disadvantaged achieve the same levels of learning as all other children. This is one of the great…

  3. Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

  4. The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

    2011-01-01

    Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

  5. Head Start Helps Disadvantaged Students Prepare for Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemungal, Emmeline

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlation between the DIAL-3 scores of disadvantaged students from Head Start, students from other preschools, and students that did not attend a preschool. The study consisted of 110 students who were currently attending kindergarten at an elementary school in Rockland County. The instrument used for this study was the…

  6. Access to Postsecondary Education: Can Schools Compensate for Socioeconomic Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frempong, George; Ma, Xin; Mensah, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education. These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main…

  7. Compensatory Education: Programs for Diversified Intervention Experinces for Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Edward K.

    As is enunciated by its policy guidelines, funds for compensatory education are being used to provide a diversity of intervention experiences for disadvantaged children. Difficulty in recognizing these implementation practices and outcomes has arisen because of a more popular, but narrow, view of compensatory education. Instead of attempting to…

  8. THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

    A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

  9. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  10. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  11. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prejudice or cultural bias within American society because of their identities as members of groups and... distinguishing feature that has contributed to social disadvantage, such as race, ethnic origin, gender, physical... the group has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias may petition SBA to...

  12. Motivating Disadvantaged Students toward the Possibility of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin; Kosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of successful strategies to help keep students from disadvantaged backgrounds motivated to persist in school and succeed in college. These strategies draw from scientifically validated theory and research and they typically involve simple, yet careful, implementation techniques and so educators can expect them to be more…

  13. Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2011-01-01

    Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

  14. Theorising Multiply Disadvantaged Young People's Challenges in Accessing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…

  15. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... institutions of higher education, exclusion from social and professional association with students or teachers... DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements for Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.103 Who is socially...

  16. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... institutions of higher education, exclusion from social and professional association with students or teachers... DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements for Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.103 Who is socially...

  17. University Access for Disadvantaged Children: A Comparison across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider whether certain countries are particularly adept (or particularly poor) at getting children from disadvantaged homes to study for a bachelor's degree. A series of university access models are estimated for four English-speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and the USA), which include controls for comparable…

  18. A Concern with Disadvantaged Students: An Interview with Harry Levin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    2001-01-01

    An educational equity expert and outspoken critic of remedial education, Levin says the Accelerated Schools Project he founded serves predominantly disadvantaged neighborhoods and is based on three principles: Successful schools have a unity of purpose; empowerment comes with responsibility; and gifted/talented instructional approaches work best.…

  19. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  20. Introducing Computer Science to Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Tamar; Levy, Dalit

    2005-01-01

    An approach to the teaching and learning of high school computer science (CS) to and by educationally disadvantaged students (EDS) is described, as well as the implementation of six pedagogical principles in two learning environments developed for Israeli schools. Following a brief description of the main characteristics of EDS classes and a…

  1. Non-Traditional Admissions Criteria for Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Kenneth R.; Levine, Daniel U.

    1974-01-01

    Ever since an effort has been made to accommodate students uncomfortably referred to as "minority" or "disadvantaged," traditional admissions criteria have had to be modified or eliminated, leaving the admissions office without a selection formula or guidelines. The authors list ten existing non-cognitive criteria, add five of their own, and…

  2. From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

  3. Practical Problems of Schoolbook Selection for Disadvantaged Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Gertrude

    Every year the purchase of unsuitable books for disadvantaged children wastes millions of dollars. The use of these unsuitable books results in extensive reading failure. In order to overcome this waste of money and human resources, book committees need to employ standards and methods of evaluation to identify books appropriate for disadvantaged…

  4. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  5. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  6. BASIC EDUCATION FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING DISADVANTAGED PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OTT, ELIZABETH H.

    A BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAM HAS BEEN FIELD TESTED IN SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS, IN CLASSES OF DISADVANTAGED MEXICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN. THIS SOUTHWEST EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY (SWEDL) PROGRAM IS ALSO APPLICABLE TO TEACHING FRENCH ACADIANS AND NEGRO AMERICANS. THE STRENGTH OF THE PROGRAM, ACCORDING TO THE AUTHOR, LIES IN WHAT IT DOES TO CHANGE…

  7. Educating the Disadvantaged, 1970-1971. An AMS Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Russell C., Ed.; Hawkins, Maxine, Ed.

    This anthology includes newly published essays by Daniel U. Levine, Robert J. Havighurst, and J. McVicker Hunt, two previously unpublished reports from the National Study of American Indian Education, and a new guide to resource centers. In addition, 35 papers by 55 contributors concerned with educating disadvantaged and culturally different…

  8. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  10. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  11. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  12. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the group has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias may petition SBA to be...? (a) General. Socially disadvantaged individuals are those who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias within American society because of their identities as members of groups...

  14. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

  15. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

  16. Activating the Disadvantaged. Variations in Addressing Youth Transitions across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Axel; Walther, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The term activation refers to a shift in social policies, through which individuals are given more responsibility for their own social inclusion. This article provides a comparative analysis of the different ways in which EU member states interpret and implement the concept of activation by addressing the transitions of disadvantaged young people…

  17. Understanding Disadvantaged Youth: Their Problems and Potentials. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Moira B., Comp.; Tatis, Rita M., Comp.

    Designed as a resource guide for teachers and teacher educators, this annotated bibliography contains 102 citations (e.g., journal articles, program descriptions, research reports) most of them dated between 1968 and 1970. There are five sections: 1) Characteristics and Problems of the Disadvantaged--22 items; 2) Attitudes Toward the…

  18. 78 FR 68016 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...) entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications,'' at 77 FR 54952, that... FR 65164, which corrected minor errors in the NPRM related to the Paperwork Reduction Act and..., 2013, as announced in a September 18, 2013 notice. 78 FR 57336. At that time, the Department...

  19. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 54952). In that.... Correction The Department is making the following correction in FR document number OST-2012-0147, appearing... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise:...

  20. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B. For joint... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of...

  1. Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

  2. Vocational Education for Handicapped, Limited English Proficiency, and Disadvantaged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Materials are presented to assist Illinois educational administrators in providing the necessary programs and services to allow for the attainment of vocational skills by the handicapped, limited English proficiency, and disadvantaged populations. The first section briefly describes such relevant legislation as Title II of the Education Amendments…

  3. Disadvantaged Rural Students: Five Models of School-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Peter; And Others

    This paper describes five models of school-university collaboration designed to maximize academic achievement opportunities for disadvantaged rural students. Project SHAPE (School and Homes As Partners in Education) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Plattsburgh is an extended school day program established in partnership with…

  4. Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, David M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

  5. Toward an Effective Educational Program for Disadvantaged Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusewicz, Russell A.; Higgins, Martin J.

    This study attempted to determine if significant and lasting cognitive gains could be achieved by focusing preschool efforts upon children younger than those now being serviced by traditional programs--children under three years of age. Thirty-six disadvantaged children, 19-28 months of age, were randomly assigned to two groups: a Home Group…

  6. Disrupting Patterns of Educational Inequality and Disadvantage in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, Pat; Jere, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the gap in educational provision for vulnerable learners in Malawi who are at risk of falling behind and dropping out of school due to irregular attendance. It draws on a study in high HIV-prevalence areas that explores the patterns of inequality and disadvantage that disrupt learning and uses this knowledge to design…

  7. Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic…

  8. Association of serum interleukin-6 with mental health problems in children exposed to perinatal complications and social disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Cunha, Graccielle R; Asevedo, Elson; Zugman, André; Rizzo, Lucas B; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Levandowski, Mateus L; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro M; Teixeira, Antônio L; McIntyre, Roger S; Mari, Jair J; Rohde, Luís A; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Brietzke, Elisa

    2016-09-01

    There is consistent evidence that inflammation is involved in mental disorders pathogenesis. Herein, using data from the High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders, we investigated the relationship between parental mood disorders (PMD), environmental factors, serum interleukin-6 (IL6) and mental health problems in children aged 6-12. We measured the serum levels of IL6 in 567 children. Information related to socio-demographic characteristics, mental health problems and multiple risk factors, as well as parent's psychiatric diagnosis, was captured. We evaluated two groups of environmental risk factors (i.e. perinatal complications and social disadvantage) using a cumulative risk model. Results showed that higher serum levels of IL6 were associated with PMD (RR=1.072, p=0.001), perinatal complications (RR=1.022, p=0.013) and social disadvantage (RR=1.024, p=0.021). There was an interaction between PMD and social disadvantage (RR=1.141, p=0.021), as the effect of PMD on IL6 was significantly higher in children exposed to higher levels of social disadvantage. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between IL6 and mental health problems (RR=1.099, p=0.026), which was moderated by exposure to perinatal complications or social disadvantage (RR=1.273, p=0.015 and RR=1.179, p=0.048, respectively). In conclusions, there is evidence of a differential inflammatory activation in children with PMD and exposure to environmental risk factors, when compared to matched peers. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathway linking familial risk and mental health problems. PMID:27258821

  9. Sexual dimorphism of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a striking example of "male disadvantage" in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Lisa D S; Bown, Matthew J; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2012-11-01

    The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localised, dilation of the abdominal aorta that causes death in 80% of patients if left untreated. An apparent male predominance in AAA has been observed in most studies, with a male: female gender ratio of ∼6:1 between the ages 60 years-64 years. The majority of risk factors for AAA exhibit sexual dimorphism but no single risk factor shows a higher magnitude of "male disadvantage" than AAA itself. This in turn suggests that the additive effects of risk factors may better explain the higher prevalence of AAA in men than women compared to each individual factor. Amongst others, sex steroids and sex chromosomes have been hypothesised to act as the drivers of this sexual dimorphism. Future research should focus on the major biological differences between the sexes identifying why men are at more risk of AAA than women. PMID:22840688

  10. Socially Disadvantaged Students in Socially Disadvantaged Schools: Double Jeopardy in Mathematics Achievement in the G8 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas, Traci Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Using the G8 countries' (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States) samples from the 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study aimed to explore the phenomenon of double jeopardy in mathematics achievement for socially disadvantaged students. Double…

  11. Racial disparities in age at time of homicide victimization: a test of the multiple disadvantage model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    This study sought the factors associated with race/ethnicity disparities in the age at which homicide deaths tend to occur. We used the multiple disadvantage model to take race into account as we evaluated associations between age at time of homicide victimization and several social structural, mental health-related, and lifestyle factors. Data were derived from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey, a cross-sectional interview study of spouses, next of kin, other relatives, and close friends of individuals 15 years and older who died in the United States in 1993. Our results showed age at time of homicide mortality to be related to the three types of factors; race moderated some of these relationships. In general, being employed, married, and a homeowner appeared associated with reduced victimization while young. The relationship of victimization age and employment was not uniform across racial groups, nor was the relationship of victimization age and marital status uniform across groups. Among Blacks, using mental health services was associated with longer life. Homicide by firearm proved important for our Black and Hispanic subsamples, while among Whites, alcohol's involvement in homicide exerted significant effects. Our results suggest that programs and policies serving the various racial/ethnic groups can alleviate multiple disadvantages relevant in homicide victimization at an early age. PMID:24811288

  12. Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Disadvantage: The Three Generation Approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tina L; Johnson, Sara B; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities in the United States related to socioeconomic status are persistent and pervasive. This review highlights how social disadvantage, particularly low socioeconomic status and the health burden it brings, is passed from 1 generation to the next. First, we review current frameworks for understanding the intergenerational transmission of health disparities and provide 4 illustrative examples relevant to child health, development, and well-being. Second, the leading strategy to break the cycle of poverty in young families in the United States, the 2-generation approach, is reviewed. Finally, we propose a new 3-generation approach that must combine with the 2-generation approach to interrupt the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage and eliminate health disparities. PMID:27244844

  13. Making it work: preventive mental health care for disadvantaged preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Edlefsen, M; Baird, M

    1994-09-01

    Combining education and mental health services in a preschool setting for disadvantaged children can produce significant benefits for these children and their parents. At a time of fiscal constraints, partnerships between the education and mental health sectors can amplify both systems' achievements in a time-efficient manner. Such partnerships recognize and use each profession's expertise to create a more balanced, efficient, and realistic approach to serving children. This article looks at the technical, interpersonal, theoretical, and philosophical aspects of developing mental health-education partnerships in community preschool programs for disadvantaged children and their families. Issues to be addressed in establishing such partnerships include the referral process and tracking of client status, roles and job definition, communication, mutual respect, space and territory issues, and confidentiality. Family outreach, the parent-therapist partnership, professional boundaries, and benefits of partnership are also discussed. PMID:7939867

  14. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; King, Abby C; Crawford, David

    2010-06-01

    Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains

  15. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged... assistance regarding utilization of small businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by... Business Utilization. The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is headed by a...

  16. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged... assistance regarding utilization of small businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by... Business Utilization. The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is headed by a...

  17. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged... assistance regarding utilization of small businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by... Business Utilization. The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is headed by a...

  18. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged... assistance regarding utilization of small businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by... Business Utilization. The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is headed by a...

  19. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged... assistance regarding utilization of small businesses, including small businesses owned and controlled by... Business Utilization. The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is headed by a...

  20. Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie; Cleland, Verity J; Campbell, Karen J; Timperio, Anna F; Abbott, Gavin; Brug, Johannes; Baur, Louise A; Salmon, Jo A

    2012-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the underlying drivers of obesity-risk behaviours is needed to inform prevention initiatives, particularly for individuals of low socioeconomic position who are at increased risk of unhealthy weight gain. However, few studies have concurrently considered factors in the home and local neighbourhood environments, and little research has examined determinants among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The present study examined home, social and neighbourhood correlates of BMI (kg/m2) in children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were collected from 491 women with children aged 5-12 years living in forty urban and forty rural socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (suburbs) of Victoria, Australia in 2007 and 2008. Mothers completed questionnaires about the home environment (maternal efficacy, perceived importance/beliefs, rewards, rules and access to equipment), social norms and perceived neighbourhood environment in relation to physical activity, healthy eating and sedentary behaviour. Children's height and weight were measured at school or home. Linear regression analyses controlled for child sex and age. In multivariable analyses, children whose mothers had higher efficacy for them doing physical activity tended to have lower BMI z scores (B = - 0·04, 95 % CI - 0·06, - 0·02), and children who had a television (TV) in their bedroom (B = 0·24, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·44) and whose mothers made greater use of food as a reward for good behaviour (B = 0·05, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·09) tended to have higher BMI z scores. Increasing efficacy among mothers to promote physical activity, limiting use of food as a reward and not placing TV in children's bedrooms may be important targets for future obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged communities. PMID:21824445

  1. The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

  2. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2014-11-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

  3. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: A multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    LEI, MAN-KIT; SIMONS, RONALD L.; EDMOND, MARY BOND; SIMONS, LESLIE GORDON; CUTRONA, CAROLYN E.

    2015-01-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene×Environment. The effect of Gene×Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene×Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

  4. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... professional association with students or teachers, denial of educational honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which discouraged the individual from pursuing a professional or business...

  5. 13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Participant must be managed on a full-time basis by one or more disadvantaged individuals who possess requisite management capabilities. (2) A disadvantaged full-time manager must hold the highest officer... disadvantaged individuals who manage the applicant or Participant must devote full-time to the business...

  6. 48 CFR 419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 419.201-70 Section 419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) develops rules, policy, procedures and guidelines for the effective administration of...

  7. 49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.62 Section 1.62 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is...

  8. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  9. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in...

  10. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in...

  11. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in...

  12. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in...

  13. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in...

  14. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  15. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  16. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  17. 13 CFR 124.1010 - What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disadvantaged status protests? 124.1010 Section 124.1010 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1010 What...

  18. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage....

  19. Physical activity influences in a disadvantaged African American community and the communities' proposed solutions.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sarah F; Wilson, Dawn K; Wilcox, Sara; Buck, Jacqueline; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to increase our understanding of how safety and environmental factors influence physical activity among African American residents living in a low-income, high-crime neighborhood and to get input from these residents about how to best design physical activity interventions for their neighborhood. Twenty-seven African American adult residents of a low-income, high-crime neighborhood in a suburban southeastern community participated in three focus groups. Participants were asked questions about perceptions of what would help them, their families, and their neighbors be more physically active. Two independent raters coded the responses into themes. Participants suggested three environmental approaches in an effort to increase physical activity: increasing law enforcement, community connectedness and social support, and structured programs. Findings suggest that safety issues are an important factor for residents living in disadvantaged conditions and that the residents know how they want to make their neighborhoods healthier. PMID:17728204

  20. Innovative strategies to improve diabetes outcomes in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, J S; Poindexter, M; Gary-Webb, T L; Walker, E A; Davis, N J

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes disproportionately affects disadvantaged populations. Eighty percent of deaths directly caused by diabetes occurred in low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, there are marked disparities in diabetes control among racial/ethnic minorities and those with low socio-economic status. Innovative, effective and cost-effective strategies are needed to improve diabetes outcomes in these populations. Technological advances, peer educators and community health workers have expanded methodologies to reach, educate and monitor individuals with diabetes. In the present manuscript we review the outcomes of these strategies, and describe the barriers to and facilitators of these approaches for improving diabetes outcomes. PMID:27194172

  1. The Physical and Social Environment of Sleep in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Design Descriptive, exploratory design. Setting Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge. Participants Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants. Methods Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed three days and nights of sleep diaries at both 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption. Results The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25 percent with the infant, and 20 percent with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eight-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24 percent smoked. Conclusions These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions. PMID:23181913

  2. Associations Between Injection Risk and Community Disadvantage Among Suburban Injection Drug Users in Southwestern Connecticut, USA

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Russell; Palacios, Wilson R.; Nichols, Lisa G.; Grau, Lauretta E.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in drug abuse, injection, and opioid overdoses in suburban communities led us to study injectors residing in suburban communities in southwestern Connecticut, US. We sought to understand the influence of residence on risk and injection-associated diseases. Injectors were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and interviewed about sociodemographics, somatic and mental health, injection risk, and interactions with healthcare, harm reduction, substance abuse treatment, and criminal justice systems. HIV, hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) serological testing was also conducted. Our sample was consistent in geographic distribution and age to the general population and to the patterns of heroin-associated overdose deaths in the suburban towns. High rates of interaction with drug abuse treatment and criminal justice systems contrasted with scant use of harm reduction services. The only factors associated with both dependent variables—residence in less disadvantaged census tracts and more injection risk—were younger age and injecting in one’s own residence. This contrasts with the common association among urban injectors of injection-associated risk behaviors and residence in disadvantaged communities. Poor social support and moderate/severe depression were associated with risky injection practices (but not residence in specific classes of census tracts), suggesting that a region-wide dual diagnosis approach to the expansion of harm reduction services could be effective at reducing the negative consequences of injection drug use. PMID:23921583

  3. Neural correlates of advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions.

    PubMed

    Güroğlu, Berna; Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person's (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person's profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  4. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  5. Green synthesis of nanoparticles: Their advantages and disadvantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Khadeeja; Banse, Viktoria; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-04-01

    The nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with plants. Novel methods of ideally synthesizing NPs are thus thought that are formed at ambient temperatures, neutral pH, low costs and environmentally friendly fashion. Keeping these goals in view nanomaterials have been synthesized using various routes. Among the biological alternatives, plants and plant extracts seem to be the best option. Plants are nature's "chemical factories". They are cost efficient and require low maintenance. The advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology can be easily enumerated. This study attempts to review the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the many advantages and disadvantages of different methods and its application.

  6. International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 2001-2008. An Update to the International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 1931-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Joanne; Panella, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP) Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), published the "International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons." This publication is a seventy year retrospective which chronicles the history of the Section from 1931 to 2001.…

  7. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition

  8. Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-03-01

    The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070

  9. Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance.

    PubMed

    Kelley, M L; Stokes, T F

    1982-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity goals set by mutual agreement between the student and teacher. Contracting and contingent pay procedures were developed with, and implemented by, the classroom teacher. A reversal experimental design showed that student's productivity more than doubled during contracting conditions as compared with their productivity during baseline. PMID:16795661

  10. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  11. Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Mary Lou; Stokes, Trevor F.

    1982-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity goals set by mutual agreement between the student and teacher. Contracting and contingent pay procedures were developed with, and implemented by, the classroom teacher. A reversal experimental design showed that student's productivity more than doubled during contracting conditions as compared with their productivity during baseline. PMID:16795661

  12. Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?

    PubMed Central

    Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly-used teacher-value added estimators recover the rank correlation between true and estimated teacher effects and a parameter representing the distribution of effective teaching. We consider various scenarios of teacher assignment, within-teacher variability in classroom composition, importance of classroom composition effects, and presence of student unobserved heterogeneity. No single model recovers without bias estimates of the distribution parameter in all the scenarios we consider. Models that rank teacher effectiveness most accurately do not necessarily recover distribution parameter estimates with less bias. Since true teacher sorting in real data is seldom known, we recommend that analysts incorporate contextual information into their decisions about model choice and we offer some guidance on how to do so. PMID:26681993

  13. [Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery--advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, advances in techniques and technology led to major changes in cataract surgical practice patterns. In this progression towards ever faster eye rehabilitation after surgery, simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery (SBCS) may be the next and ultimate step. It is not routinely performed: however, there are certain situations in which SBCS might be beneficial to the patients. It has been considered a good option in patients who have significant cataract in both eyes and are not good candidates for having anesthesia and surgery twice. The question is, if the benefits by bilateral surgery justify the risk of simultaneous complications, in particular endophthalmitis. In this perspective we present the clinical, social and economic advantages and disadvantages of such surgical procedures. PMID:17290841

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Dara D.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H.; Amutah, Ndidi N.; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. Methods A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003–2010 (n=55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Results Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55% of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2% lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. Conclusion This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

  15. Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

  16. Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

  17. A longitudinal study of the social and academic competence of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V; Esquivel, Giselle B; Kaliski, Pamela K; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-05-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2 of which were socially competent and 1 of which was vulnerable. Findings revealed profile differences in social competence and a significant relationship between bilingualism and social-emotional development. In Study 2, the authors determined which profiles were associated with later academic achievement and growth of English proficiency. Findings indicated a significant relationship of early social-emotional development to later academic success and English acquisition, highlighting the role of bilingualism. PMID:21219064

  18. Do obesity-promoting food environments cluster around socially disadvantaged schools in Glasgow, Scotland?

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Anne; Macdonald, Laura; Lamb, Karen; Thornton, Lukar; Day, Peter; Pearce, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Increase in the consumption of food and drinks outside the home by adolescents and young people and associations with rising levels of obesity is a significant concern worldwide and it has been suggested that the food environment around schools may be a contributory factor. As few studies have explored this issue in a UK setting, we examined whether different types of food outlets are clustered around public secondary schools in Glasgow, and whether this pattern differed by social disadvantage. We found evidence of clustering of food outlets around schools but a more complex picture in relation to deprivation was observed. Across all schools there were numerous opportunities for pupils to purchase energy dense foods locally and the implications for policy are discussed. PMID:22819370

  19. Doubly Disadvantaged? Bullying Experiences among Disabled Children and Young People in England

    PubMed Central

    Chatzitheochari, Stella; Parsons, Samantha; Platt, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Bullying among school-aged children and adolescents is recognised as an important social problem, and the adverse consequences for victims are well established. However, despite growing interest in the socio-demographic profile of victims, there is limited evidence on the relationship between bullying victimisation and childhood disability. This article enhances our understanding of bullying experiences among disabled children in both early and later childhood, drawing on nationally representative longitudinal data from the Millennium Cohort Study and the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We model the association of disability measured in two different ways with the probability of being bullied at ages seven and 15, controlling for a wide range of known risk factors that vary with childhood disability. Results reveal an independent association of disability with bullying victimisation, suggesting a potential pathway to cumulative disability-related disadvantage, and drawing attention to the school as a site of reproduction of social inequalities.

  20. Serving Special Needs Populations: The Disadvantaged. A Compilation of Papers Presented in a Workshop (Greensboro, North Carolina, July 21-August 7, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Edgar I., Ed.; Smith, Ronald O., Ed.

    This monograph contains seven papers from a workshop for pre- and in-service administrators and teachers serving special needs students. In "Identification Factors and Criteria for Determining Disadvantaged: Definition of Terms" Edgar I. Farmer, Sr., sets workshop parameters and defines terms. Royce Bland, in "Suggested Techniques for Handling…

  1. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Midlife Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Cumulative Disadvantage Across the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Garbarski, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of cumulative disadvantage mechanisms across the life course in the production of racial and ethnic disparities in depressive symptoms at midlife, including the early life exposure to health risk factors, the persistent exposure to health risk factors, and varying mental health returns to health risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. Using data from the over-40 health module of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1979 cohort, this study uses regression decomposition techniques to attend to differences in the composition of health risk factors across racial and ethnic groups, differences by race and ethnicity in the association between depressive symptoms and health risk factors, and how these differences combine within racial and ethnic groups to produce group-specific levels of—and disparities in—depressive symptoms at midlife. While the results vary depending on the groups being compared across race/ethnicity and gender, the study documents how racial and ethnic mental health disparities at midlife stem from life course processes of cumulative disadvantage through both unequal distribution and unequal associations across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:26047842

  2. Traditional Technology of Chromium-Tungsten Steels Facing, its Disadvantages and Suggestions for their Eliminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valuev, D. V.; Malushin, N. N.; Valueva, A. V.; Dariev, R. S.; Mamadaliev, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    To reveal the disadvantages of the traditional technology of facing with chromium-tungsten steels analysis of the given technology was completed. The analysis showed that the main disadvantages of the technology are high-temperature heating and underutilization of high-alloyed metal properties. To eliminate the disadvantages we developed the methods of facing allowing obtaining faced metal which state is close to that of the hardened one without cracks.

  3. 48 CFR 52.219-26 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Incentive Subcontracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-26 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation... American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Industry Subsectors as determined by the Department...

  4. Childhood Disadvantage and Health Problems in Middle and Later Life: Early Imprints on Physical Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks. PMID:27445413

  5. Office of Inspector General audit report on small disadvantaged business program at the Chicago Operations Office

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Office of Inspector General performed audits of the Small Disadvantaged Business Program at five management and operating contractors in FY 1994. The audits disclosed that none of the contractors fully met the intent of the Act and implementing regulations. The contractors awarded some subcontracts to firms of questionable program eligibility. Also, two of the contractors concentrated awards among a limited number of small disadvantaged businesses, and used procurement practices that precluded opportunities for many small disadvantaged businesses to participate. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Chicago was providing the maximum practicable opportunity for small disadvantaged businesses to participate in contract awards.

  6. Marine protected area improves yield without disadvantaging fishers.

    PubMed

    Kerwath, Sven E; Winker, Henning; Götz, Albrecht; Attwood, Colin G

    2013-01-01

    Potential fishery benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely acknowledged, yet seldom demonstrated, as fishery data series that straddle MPA establishment are seldom available. Here we postulate, based on a 15-year time series of nation-wide, spatially referenced catch and effort data, that the establishment of the Goukamma MPA (18 km alongshore; 40 km²) benefited the adjacent fishery for roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps), a South African endemic seabream. Roman-directed catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in the vicinity of the new MPA immediately increased, contradicting trends across this species' distribution. The increase continued after 5 years, the time lag expected for larval export, effectively doubling the pre-MPA CPUE after 10 years. We find no indication that establishing the MPA caused a systematic drop in total catch or increased travel distances for the fleet. Our results provide rare empirical evidence of rapidly increasing catch rates after MPA implementation without measurable disadvantages for fishers. PMID:23962973

  7. [Biomarkers for liver fibrosis: advances, advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Cequera, A; García de León Méndez, M C

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis in Mexico is one of the most important causes of death in persons between the ages of 25 and 50 years. One of the reasons for therapeutic failure is the lack of knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that cause liver disorder and make it irreversible. One of its prevalent anatomical characteristics is an excessive deposition of fibrous tissue that takes different forms depending on etiology and disease stage. Liver biopsy, traditionally regarded as the gold standard of fibrosis staging, has been brought into question over the past decade, resulting in the proposal for developing non-invasive technologies based on different, but complementary, approaches: a biological one that takes the serum levels of products arising from the fibrosis into account, and a more physical one that evaluates scarring of the liver by methods such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography; some of the methods were originally studied and validated in patients with hepatitis C. There is great interest in determining non-invasive markers for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, since at present there is no panel or parameter efficient and reliable enough for diagnostic use. In this paper, we describe the biomarkers that are currently being used for studying liver fibrosis in humans, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the implementation of new-generation technologies and the evaluation of their possible use in the diagnosis of fibrosis. PMID:24954541

  8. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  9. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Design A realist review. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. Analysis An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. Results 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which

  10. Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  11. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  12. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel; Challoo, Linda B.; Kupczynski, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. The population of the study consisted of Texas campuses that served economically disadvantaged students and received a campus rating of Exemplary or Academically…

  13. The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

  14. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  15. Evaluation of the Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) Program: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John E.; Bradford, Clarence

    The results of a 1983 followup survey to assess the long-term impact of the federally-funded Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) program are presented. Educationally or economically disadvantaged students who enrolled in the program during their freshman year, 1979-1980, were studied. Questionnaires investigated respondents'…

  16. 48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519.201-72 Section 1519.201-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business...

  17. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE encourages the participation in financial assistance awards of small businesses, including those owned by... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned...

  18. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE encourages the participation in financial assistance awards of small businesses, including those owned by... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned...

  19. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors of American Youth with an Emphasis on Youth from Disadvantaged Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.

    The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation commissioned a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviors of disadvantaged youth in America to identify the critical gaps in environmental education so that resources can be targeted more effectively. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative research among disadvantaged students through…

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

  1. Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

    2014-01-01

    To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of…

  2. Disadvantages of Minority Group Membership: The Perspective of a "Nondeprived" Minority Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Abraham D.

    1975-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of Jewish undergraduate students, evidence is presented to indicate that a minority group which is not deprived materially can nonetheless perceive itself as receiving disadvantages from its minority group status. The most frequently perceived disadvantages (as well as advantages) are enumerated and discussed. (EH)

  3. Where Are the Gaps in Environmental Education? Disadvantaged Kids Have Different Needs and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockland, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents results of a national survey on students' environmental concerns, education, and actions with a special focus on disadvantaged youth. Results indicate that nondisadvantaged youth have a more altruistic focus on environmental problems and are more concerned about plants, animals, and future generations while youth from disadvantaged areas…

  4. Expanding Services to Young Disadvantaged Adults. Public Library Training Institutes Library Service Guide No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Barbara

    After descriptions of some problems encountered by disadvantaged youths and some general services libraries can provide, specific guidelines for library services to young disadvantaged adults are given. These include services both inside and outside the library: the selection of staff to work with the young adults, cooperation between the library…

  5. Educational Differentiation Policies and the Performance of Disadvantaged Students across OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castejón, Alba; Zancajo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on analysing the effect of educational differentiation policies of OECD educational systems on socioeconomically disadvantaged students, based on data from PISA 2009. The analysis is conducted on the basis of a definition of two subgroups of disadvantaged students: those that achieve high scores, and those obtaining scores…

  6. 48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... business utilization specialists. 1519.201-72 Section 1519.201-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a) Small Business Specialists (SBS) shall be appointed in... prescribed from time to time in furtherance of overall small and small disadvantaged business...

  7. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

  8. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  9. 48 CFR 1519.201-71 - Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1519.201-71 Section 1519.201-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director, OSDBU, provides guidance and advice,...

  10. The Effect of Home Learning Kits on the Reading Readiness of Disadvantaged Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mari Gumm

    The Kindergarten Home Learning Kit was developed to ameliorate the educational deficit of disadvantaged kindergarten children by providing toys and learning materials to work with in the home. Each of the eight sequential kits also contains an illustrated instructional letter to the parents. Two groups of 25 disadvantaged kindergarten children…

  11. A Career and Learning Transitional Model for Those Experiencing Labour Market Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the learning and career transitions of those disadvantaged in the labour market has resulted in the development of a four-component model to enable disadvantaged groups to navigate learning and career transitions. The four components of the model include: the self-concept; learning and recognition; career and life planning;…

  12. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600.7 Section 600.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600.7 Section 600.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of... population in the State who are members of such socially disadvantaged groups. (2) County is equal to the percent of rural population in the county who are members of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c)...

  15. Leading in Disadvantaged Zimbabwean School Contexts: Female School Heads' Experiences of Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zikhali, Joyce; Perumal, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study explored the sources of emotional stress experienced by 12 female Zimbabwean primary heads leading in socio-economic disadvantaged schools in Masvingo District and their attempts to alleviate the challenges that the children from these disadvantaged contexts presented them with. Data was generated through…

  16. A PARENT EDUCATION APPROACH TO PROVISION OF EARLY STIMULATION FOR THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORDON, IRA J.

    AN INTERVENTION PILOT PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE DISADVANTAGED INFANTS WITH STIMULATING EXPERIENCES TO HLEP THEM ACHIEVE HIGHER LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT THAN MIGHT NORMALLY BE EXPECTED IN CHILDREN FROM DEPRIVED HOMES. FIFTEEN DISADVANTAGED WOMEN TRAINED AS "PARENT EDUCATORS" WENT INTO 100 HOMES ONCE A WEEK FOR 40 WEEKS AND TAUGHT…

  17. CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN OF HIGHER POTENTIAL, INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARNES, MERLE B.; AND OTHERS

    A RESEARCH STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-POTENTIAL CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE CHARACTERISTICS FOR AN EFFECTIVE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM. INTELLIGENCE TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO CHILDREN FROM SIX ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS WITHIN A DISADVANTAGED SCHOOL DISTRICT, AND THE 203…

  18. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery ® on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…

  19. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  20. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  1. State Planning for the Disadvantaged. A Report of the National Dissemination Project for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis; Das, Deb

    Major elements in a general process model for state and local planning for minority and disadvantaged education are discussed. These elements are: (1) needs assessment and public discussion of issues, (2) state goals and objectives for disadvantaged education, (3) local community college goals, objectives, and commitments, (4) provision of…

  2. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  3. Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

  4. Pilot Evaluation of a Home Visit Parent Training Program in Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…

  5. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  6. Selection of Advantaged and Disadvantaged South African Students for University Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuy, Mervin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A South African study explored predictors of success among 18 educationally disadvantaged and 8 advantaged students in a University of Witwatersrand developmental studies program. Results showed academic success was considerably less predictable among disadvantaged students. Universally-used admission criteria were not predictive for either group;…

  7. What Helps Children Eat Well? A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience among Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…

  8. Research and Teaching Reading to Disadvantaged Learners: Implications for Further Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan

    Research on the teaching of reading to disadvantaged children often places too much emphasis on etiology rather than on pedagogy. The student's behavior, not the etiology, is the key to change. Suggestions that disadvantaged children have initial reading problems because of auditory, vocabulary, and visual discrimination deficits or articulatory…

  9. Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students in 29 School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent federal policy initiatives are aimed at improving disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching. These efforts, including Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, arise from concerns that disadvantaged students are taught by less effective teachers. A growing body of research uses value-added analysis to measure teacher…

  10. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Primary School Children with and without a Social Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…

  11. The Impact of Disadvantage on VET Completion and Employment Gaps. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVicar, Duncan; Tabasso, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Increasing educational attainment is generally tied to better employment outcomes. The vocational education and training (VET) sector is often used as an entry point into post-compulsory education for individuals who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. But does increasing participation in VET by disadvantaged individuals necessarily lead…

  12. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  13. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  14. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  15. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  16. 75 FR 5535 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 8, 2009, the Department published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 15910, a... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AD76 Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises... overall disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) goal for federally funded contracting opportunities....

  17. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  18. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (iii) It is... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application...

  19. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (iii) It is... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application...

  20. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (iii) It is... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application...

  1. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (iii) It is... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application...

  2. Theorizing Alternative Pathways through Adulthood: Unequal Social Arrangements in the Lives of Young Disadvantaged Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition…

  3. Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students: Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…

  4. Creating More Responsive Student Evaluation Systems for Disadvantaged Students. Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary; And Others

    This paper examines the evaluation of student performance (SP) in schools in order to develop a set of strategies for creating more responsive systems for its evaluation, focusing on disadvantaged students. Problems involved in the evaluation of the performance of disadvantaged students are examined, including: evaluation purposes (direction,…

  5. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  6. 13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant? 124.106 Section 124.106 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a)...

  7. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (iii) It is... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application...

  8. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. The Foreign Assistance Act calls for USAID to give...

  9. 13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)? 124.1002 Section 124.1002 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification,...

  10. 13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... status of a concern? 124.1007 Section 124.1007 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1007 Who may...

  11. 13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... status of a concern? 124.1007 Section 124.1007 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1007 Who may...

  12. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. The Foreign Assistance Act calls for USAID to give...

  13. 13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)? 124.1002 Section 124.1002 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification,...

  14. 13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... status of a concern? 124.1007 Section 124.1007 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1007 Who may...

  15. 13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... status of a concern? 124.1007 Section 124.1007 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1007 Who may...

  16. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. The Foreign Assistance Act calls for USAID to give...

  17. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. The Foreign Assistance Act calls for USAID to give...

  18. 13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)? 124.1002 Section 124.1002 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification,...

  19. 13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)? 124.1002 Section 124.1002 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification,...

  20. 13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... status of a concern? 124.1007 Section 124.1007 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1007 Who may...

  1. The Self-Concept of Disadvantaged Children: An Exploratory Study in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Mary; Phillips, Shelley

    1981-01-01

    The self-concepts of 2,100 children (ages 6 to 11.5 years) from disadvantaged schools in New South Wales, Australia, was explored. Comparison with a nondisadvantaged group suggests that while disadvantaged children have a more externalized, concrete, less differentiated, and less future-oriented view of self, they do not have a totally negative…

  2. The Role of School in the Upward Mobility of Disadvantaged Immigrants’ Children

    PubMed Central

    HAO, LINGXIN; PONG, SUET-LING

    2014-01-01

    How can we explain exceptional advancement by disadvantaged immigrants’ children? Extending segmented assimilation theory, this article traces the structural and relational attributes of high schools attended by young adults who reached their late twenties in 2000. Hypotheses are derived from theories in sociology of education and tested with four waves of data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS). The authors offer three major findings. First, an overwhelming majority of disadvantaged students attend public schools; some relational attributes are typical in public schools attended by disadvantaged students. Second, children’s upward mobility is shaped by the structural and relational attributes of their high schools. Most school effects are the same for disadvantaged and advantaged youngsters, and student-educator bonds and curriculum structure have even stronger positive effects for the disadvantaged. Finally, mobility patterns differ widely among Chinese, Mexicans, and whites. Mexicans are less likely to be exposed to favorable school attributes. PMID:25418989

  3. Harder than Expected: Increased Conflict in Clearly Disadvantageous Delayed Choices in a Computer Game

    PubMed Central

    Leiberg, Susanne; Goschke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyzing mouse movements. The larger amount of participants’ choices was classified as advantageous and the disadvantageous choices were biased towards choosing sooner/smaller rewards. The deflection of mouse movements indicated more conflict in disadvantageous choices compared with advantageous choices when the utilities of the options differed clearly. Further process oriented analysis revealed that disadvantageous choices were biased by a tendency for choice-repetition and an undervaluation of the value information in favour of the delay information, making rather simple choices harder than could be expected from the properties of the decision situation. PMID:24260192

  4. Family and School Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Interactive Influences on Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of soecioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males’ physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males’ victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207

  5. Identifying the "Truly Disadvantaged": A Comprehensive Biosocial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Connolly, Eric J.; Schwartz, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been significant interest in examining the developmental factors that predispose individuals to chronic criminal offending. This body of research has identified some social-environmental risk factors as potentially important. At the same time, the research producing these results has generally failed to employ genetically sensitive…

  6. Beyond Income Poverty: Measuring Disadvantage in Terms of Material Hardship and Health.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line. PMID:27044702

  7. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-01-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008–2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  8. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  9. Gender disparities in HIV health care utilization among the severely disadvantaged: can we determine the reasons?

    PubMed

    Sohler, Nancy L; Li, Xuan; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2009-09-01

    Data repeatedly demonstrate that HIV-infected people who regularly utilize primary health care services are more likely to have access to lifesaving treatments (including antiretroviral medications); have better indicators of health status; survive longer; and use acute care services far less. Women tend to have poorer HIV outcomes than men, which is likely due to gender disparities in optimal utilization of HIV primary care services. To understand the relationship between gender and the HIV health care system, we collected interview and medical record data between August 12, 2004 and June 7, 2005 from 414 severely marginalized, HIV-infected people in New York City and examined whether gender-related disparities in HIV health care utilization existed, and, if so, whether these patterns were explained by patient sociodemographic/behavioral characteristics and/or attitudes toward the health care system and providers. Women were significantly less likely to have optimal HIV health care services utilization, including lower use of HIV primary care services (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35, 0.90) and greater use of the emergency department (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.31, 3.46). Although we identified several factors associated with suboptimal HIV health care services utilization patterns in addition to female gender (low education, insurance status, mistrust of the health care system, and poor trust in health care providers), we were unable to identify factors that explained the observed gender disparities. We conclude that gender disparities in HIV health care utilization are due to a complex array of factors, which require more qualitative and quantitative research attention. Development of intervention strategies that specifically target severely disadvantaged women's HIV health care utilization is in great need. PMID:19663745

  10. In Vitro Tumor Models: Advantages, Disadvantages, Variables, and Selecting the Right Platform

    PubMed Central

    Katt, Moriah E.; Placone, Amanda L.; Wong, Andrew D.; Xu, Zinnia S.; Searson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro tumor models have provided important tools for cancer research and serve as low-cost screening platforms for drug therapies; however, cancer recurrence remains largely unchecked due to metastasis, which is the cause of the majority of cancer-related deaths. The need for an improved understanding of the progression and treatment of cancer has pushed for increased accuracy and physiological relevance of in vitro tumor models. As a result, in vitro tumor models have concurrently increased in complexity and their output parameters further diversified, since these models have progressed beyond simple proliferation, invasion, and cytotoxicity screens and have begun recapitulating critical steps in the metastatic cascade, such as intravasation, extravasation, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, and tumor cell dormancy. Advances in tumor cell biology, 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, biomaterials, microfabrication, and microfluidics have enabled rapid development of new in vitro tumor models that often incorporate multiple cell types, extracellular matrix materials, and spatial and temporal introduction of soluble factors. Other innovations include the incorporation of perfusable microvessels to simulate the tumor vasculature and model intravasation and extravasation. The drive toward precision medicine has increased interest in adapting in vitro tumor models for patient-specific therapies, clinical management, and assessment of metastatic potential. Here, we review the wide range of current in vitro tumor models and summarize their advantages, disadvantages, and suitability in modeling specific aspects of the metastatic cascade and drug treatment. PMID:26904541

  11. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  12. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  13. No man is an island: living in a disadvantaged neighborhood influences chronic pain development after motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Ulirsch, Jacob C; Weaver, Mark A; Bortsov, Andrey V; Soward, April C; Swor, Robert A; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey S; Rathlev, Niels K; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert M; Hendry, Phyllis L; McLean, Samuel A

    2014-10-01

    Living in a lower socioeconomic status neighborhood has been shown to alter stress system function and is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, but its influence on musculoskeletal pain (MSP) outcomes after traumatic stress exposures such as motor vehicle collision (MVC) has not been assessed. We performed a multicenter, prospective study that enrolled 948 European-American individuals within 24 hours of MVC who were discharged home after emergency department evaluation. Follow-up evaluations were completed via telephone or Internet survey 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after MVC on 91%, 89%, and 91% of participants, respectively. A robust aggregate measure of census tract neighborhood disadvantage was derived, and individual-level characteristics assessed included socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, pain prior to MVC, litigation status, and opioid use. MSP was assessed in the emergency department; MSP and pain interference with daily activity were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. After adjustment for individual-level factors, living in more disadvantaged neighborhoods was associated with increased MSP (P=0.0009) and increased pain interference with daily function (P<0.0001). The relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and MSP was moderated by a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2817038, 5' of the gene encoding FKBP5, a functional regulator of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity (interaction P-value=0.0015). These data support the hypothesis that low neighborhood socioeconomic status increases the likelihood of worse MSP outcomes after traumatic stress exposures such as MVC, and that this influence is mediated in part via its influence on stress system function. PMID:25107859

  14. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 4,211), we examine neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. We find that: (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial assistance, from family and friends; (b) residential stability is associated with stronger personal safety nets irrespective of neighborhood quality; and (c) mothers who move to a more disadvantaged neighborhood experience a small but significant decline in perceived instrumental support compared to those who do not move. In interpreting these results, we suggest instrumental support may be either a cause or consequence of living in an advantaged neighborhood, but, in either case, neighborhood and social network disadvantages go hand in hand. PMID:22102766

  15. 48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-24 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets. As... value, for SDB participation in any of the North American Industry Classification System...

  16. 48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-24 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets. As... value, for SDB participation in any of the North American Industry Classification System...

  17. Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350

  18. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence – early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior. We found that caregiver hostility was positively associated with early sex and sex with multiple partners in neighborhoods characterized by high levels of disadvantage, but inversely associated with both sex outcomes in neighborhoods characterized by low levels of disadvantage. Caregiver warmth, on the other hand, was inversely associated with early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners in all neighborhoods regardless of neighborhood disadvantage. PMID:22408364

  19. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  20. Manifest Needs of High Ability Achieving and Underachieving Elementary School Children in a Culturally Disadvantaged Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masih, Lalit K.

    1974-01-01

    This study, conducted in conjunction with a larger project entitled "Project Able" (part of the Madison Area Project), compared manifest needs of high ability achieving and underachieving elementary school children in a culturally disadvantaged setting. (EAK)

  1. Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of Minority Adults from Educationally Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  2. Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: cross-fertilizing age and social science theory.

    PubMed

    Dannefer, Dale

    2003-11-01

    Age and cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory have obvious logical, theoretical, and empirical connections, because both are inherently and irreducibly related to the passage of time. Over the past 15 years, these connections have resulted in the elaboration and application of the cumulative advantage-disadvantage perspective in social gerontology, especially in relation to issues of heterogeneity and inequality. However, its theoretical origins, connections, and implications are not widely understood. This article reviews the genesis of the cumulative advantage/disadvantage perspective in studies of science, its initial articulation with structural-functionalism, and its expanding importance for gerontology. It discusses its intellectual relevance for several other established theoretical paradigms in sociology, psychology, and economics. On the basis of issues deriving from these perspectives and from the accumulating body of work on cumulative advantage and disadvantage, I identify several promising directions for further research in gerontology. PMID:14614120

  3. 75 FR 5369 - Approved Information Collection Extension Request; Disadvantaged Business Enterprise

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Approved Information Collection Extension Request; Disadvantaged Business Enterprise AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY:...

  4. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment Among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results generally provided support for the theoretical model although the relationships of neighborhood disadvantage to stressful life events and adjustment were weaker than expected. Additional research is needed to corroborate these results and determine why neighborhood disadvantage may have different relationships to adjustment for Mexican American early adolescents than for others. PMID:20711521

  5. 48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB is responsible for administering, implementing, and coordinating the Agency's small business (including...

  6. 48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB is responsible for administering, implementing, and coordinating the Agency's small business (including...

  7. 48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB is responsible for administering, implementing, and coordinating the Agency's small business (including...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

  9. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... institutions of higher education, exclusion from social and professional association with students or teachers... individual from pursuing a professional or business education. (B) Employment. SBA considers such factors as unequal treatment in hiring, promotions and other aspects of professional advancement, pay and...

  10. Job Sprawl, Spatial Mismatch, and Black Employment Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between job sprawl and the spatial mismatch between blacks and jobs. Using data from a variety of sources, including the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and U.S. Department of Commerce's ZIP Code Business Patterns, I control extensively for metropolitan area characteristics and other factors. In addition, I use…

  11. Leadership in Disadvantaged Primary Schools: Two Narratives of Contrasting Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Marietjie; Engelbrecht, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Research has indicated that schools should be developed as inclusive learning communities that would support collaborative learning and problem solving in order to address learner diversity more effectively. This article explores school leadership as one determining factor which either affords or constrains collaborative teacher learning for…

  12. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and 30 Day Rehospitalizations: An Analysis of Medicare Data

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Amy JH; Jencks, Steve; Brock, Jane; Yu, Menggang; Bartels, Christie; Ehlenbach, William; Greenberg, Caprice; Smith, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures of socioeconomic disadvantage may enable improved targeting of programs to prevent rehospitalizations, but obtaining such information directly from patients can be difficult. Measures of US neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage are more readily available, although rarely employed clinically. Objective To evaluate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage at the census block-group level, as measured by Singh’s validated Area Deprivation Index (ADI), and 30-day rehospitalization. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting United States Patients Random 5% national sample of fee-for-service Medicare patients discharged with congestive heart failure, pneumonia or myocardial infarction, 2004–2009 (N = 255,744) Measurements 30-day rehospitalizations. Medicare data were linked to 2000 Census data to construct an ADI for each patient’s census block-group, which were then sorted into percentiles by increasing ADI. Relationships between neighborhood ADI grouping and rehospitalization were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for patient sociodemographics, comorbidities/severity, and index hospital characteristics. Results The 30-day rehospitalization rate did not vary significantly across the least disadvantaged 85% of neighborhoods, which had an average rehospitalization rate=21%. However, within the most disadvantaged 15% of neighborhoods, rehospitalization rates rose from 22% to 27% with worsening ADI. This relationship persisted after full adjustment, with the most disadvantaged neighborhoods having a rehospitalization risk (adjusted risk ratio = 1.09, confidence interval 1.05–1.12) similar to that of chronic pulmonary disease (1.06, 1.04–1.08) and greater than that of diabetes (0.95, 0.94–0.97). Limitations No direct markers of care quality, access Conclusions Residence within a disadvantaged US neighborhood is a rehospitalization predictor of magnitude similar to chronic pulmonary

  13. Vocational Programs for Disadvantaged in Illinois; A Statewide Assessment of Secondary and Post-Secondary Programs for Disadvantaged, 1972/73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Lawrence

    The programs cited in the report are presented as elements of a total system of services to help the disadvantaged student complete vocational education programs. The report opens with summary findings and recommendations for Chapters 2-7. Chapter 1 provides information on the scope of the report, development of a multivariable model, a discussion…

  14. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Structural Disadvantage and Crime: White, Black, and Hispanic Comparisons*

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to advance knowledge on racial/ethnic disparities in violence and the structural sources of those disparities. We do so by extending scarce and limited research exploring the relationship between race/ethnic gaps in disadvantage and differences in violent crime across groups. Methods Using census place-level data from California and New York, we construct White, Black, and Hispanic “gap” measures that take as a given the existence of disparities across race/ethnic groups in structural disadvantage and crime and subsequently utilize seemingly unrelated regression models to assess the extent to which gaps in disadvantage are predictive of gaps in homicide and index violence. Results Our results suggest that (1) there is considerable heterogeneity in the size of White-Black, White-Hispanic, and Black-Hispanic gaps in structural disadvantage and crime and (2) that race/ethnic disparities in structural disadvantage, particularly poverty and female headship, are positively associated with race/ethnic gaps in homicide and index violence. Conclusion In light of recent scholarship on the racial invariance hypothesis and on the relationship between structural inequality and crime, the current study demonstrates that disparities in disadvantage, particularly family structure and poverty, are important in driving racial and ethnic disparities in crime. PMID:25035523

  15. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy

  16. Wanting to attend isn’t just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. Methods In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Results Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions (“frequent attenders”), and those who missed more than two sessions (“infrequent attenders”). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Conclusion Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged

  17. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Methods Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Results Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (p<.05). African American (ORAdj =3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.4), Hispanic (ORAdj=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and White (ORAdj=3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-8.9) students attending high ED schools were more likely to be obese as counterparts at low ED schools (p<.05). Gender-stratified findings were similar to findings for total sample, although fewer results reached significance. While

  18. Ecological context, concentrated disadvantage, and youth reoffending: identifying the social mechanisms in a sample of serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin A; Kim, Byungbae; Chassin, Laurie; Losoya, Sandra H; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-10-01

    Serious youthful offenders are presented with a number of significant challenges when trying to make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. One of the biggest obstacles for these youth to overcome concerns their ability to desist from further antisocial behavior, and although an emerging body of research has documented important risk and protective factors associated with desistance, the importance of the neighborhoods within which these youth reside has been understudied. Guided by the larger neighborhood effects on crime literature, the current study examines the direct and indirect effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending among a sample of highly mobile, serious youthful offenders. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of serious youthful offenders (N = 1,354; 13.6% female; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic, 20.2% White), matched up with 2000 Census data on neighborhood conditions for youth's main residence location during waves 7 and 8 of the study. These waves represent the time period in which youth are navigating the transition to adulthood (aged 18-22; average age = 20). We estimate structural equation models to determine direct effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending and also to examine the possible indirect effects working through individual-level mechanisms as specified by theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., unsupervised peer activities), strain (e.g., exposure to violence), and learning (e.g., exposure to antisocial peers). Additionally, we estimate models that take into account the impact that a change in neighborhood conditions may have on the behavior of youth who move to new residences during the study period. Our results show that concentrated disadvantage is indirectly associated with youth reoffending primarily through its association with exposure to deviant peers. Taking into account youth mobility during the study period produced an additional

  19. Residential Selection across the Life Course: Adolescent Contextual and Individual Determinants of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Per E.; San Sebastian, Miguel; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have examined neighborhood effects on health. Residential selection in adulthood has been stressed as an important cause of selection bias but has received little empirical attention, particularly its determinants from the earlier life course. The present study aims to examine whether neighborhood, family, school, health behaviors and health in adolescence are related to socioeconomic disadvantage of one's neighborhood of residence in adulthood. Methods Based on the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort (analytical N = 971, 90.6% retention rate), information was collected at age 16 years concerning family circumstances, school adjustment, health behaviors and mental and physical health. Neighborhood register data was linked to the cohort and used to operationalize aggregated measures of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) at age 16 and 42. Data was analyzed with linear mixed models, with ND in adulthood regressed on adolescent predictors and neighborhood of residence in adolescence as the level-2 unit. Results Neighborhood disadvantage in adulthood was clustered by neighborhood of residence in adolescence (ICC = 8.6%). The clustering was completely explained by ND in adolescence. Of the adolescent predictors, ND (b = .14 (95% credible interval = .07–.22)), final school marks (b = −.18 (−.26–−.10)), socioeconomic disadvantage (b = .07 (.01–.14)), and, with borderline significance, school peer problems (b = .07 (−.00–.13)), were independently related to adulthood ND in the final adjusted model. In sex-stratified analyses, the most important predictors were school marks (b = −.21 (−.32–−.09)) in women, and neighborhood of residence (ICC = 15.5%) and ND (b = .20 (.09–.31)) in men. Conclusions These findings show that factors from adolescence – which also may impact on adult health – could influence the neighborhood context in which one will live in adulthood. This

  20. Piloting proactive marketing to recruit disadvantaged adults to a community-wide obesity prevention program.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John

    2015-01-01

    Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist

  1. Racial Differences in Follow-up of Abnormal Mammography Findings Among Economically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Smith, Emily Rose; Hardin, James; Das, Irene Prabhu; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United States and particularly South Carolina, African-American women suffer disproportionately higher mortality rates than do European-American women. The timeliness of patient adherence to the follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may influence prognosis and survival. Consequently, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine racial differences in the completion and completion time of a diagnostic work-up following a finding of a suspicious breast abnormality. Methods Study participants of the Best Chance Network, a state-wide service program that provides free mammography screenings to economically disadvantaged and medically underserved women, were included in the study. Racial differences in tumor characteristics and adherence to recommended work-up were tested using Chi-square and t-tests. Logistic and Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between work-up completion and other factors among African-American and European-American women. Results Completion of the work-up was associated with the number of previous procedures and income, with no significant differences noted by race. The amount of time to completion of the work-up was influenced by previous procedures, income, and race. After accounting for completion time, African-American women were 12% less likely than European-American women to complete the recommended work-up (HR=0.88, p-value=0.01). Conclusion This study established a racial disparity in the time to completion of a diagnostic work-up among Best Chance Network participants. These findings highlight the importance of understanding factors associated with delays and adherence in completion of recommended work-up when breast abnormalities are detected in mammograms. PMID:19859902

  2. Racial Disparities in Intimate Partner Violence Examined Through the Multiple Disadvantage Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2016-07-01

    This research adopted the perspective of the multiple disadvantage model to explore racial disparities in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and IPV's links to social structural factors, social relationships, substance use, and health/mental health and access to related services. The study used data from 6,588 women who completed the National Violence Against Women Survey; linear regression was conducted separately for four ethnic groups. Results consistently showed physical assaults to increase with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For African Americans, increases in assaults were linked to injury, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as medical professionals, Medicaid use, and drug use; decreases, in turn, were linked to past assault by ex-partners. For Latinas, increases in assaults were associated with eight factors: being married, number of ex-partners, depression, disclosing IPV to friends/family and disclosing to mental-health professionals, drug use, alcohol abstinence, and partner's frequent alcohol use. For European Americans, increases in assaults were linked to number of ex-partners, injury, low income, Medicaid use, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as mental-health professionals, and alcohol abstinence; decreases were associated with age and with other health insurance coverages. For women of other ethnicity, increases were linked to number of ex-partners, disclosing IPV to mental-health professionals, Medicaid use, drug use, and woman's own as well as partner's alcohol abstinence; decreases in this ethnicity category were linked to past assault by ex-partners. Intervention and policy implications are discussed. PMID:25716196

  3. Imi Ho'ola: an educational model for disadvantaged students at the University of Hawai''i School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Judd, Nanette L K; Sakamoto, Karen K; Hishinuma, Earl S; DeCambra, Chessa; Malate, Agnes R

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes an educational model that provides opportunities in medicine to students from disadvantaged backgrounds that have a commitment to serve in areas of need, and it presents guidelines on how this model could be adapted to various settings. From 1973 to 2002, the Imi Ho'ola Program (Hawaiian for "Those Who Seek to Heal") of the University of Hawai'i John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) has provided opportunities in medicine to 379 students from disadvantaged backgrounds. In 1995-1996, Imi Ho'ola underwent a transformation from a pre-medical enrichment program to a post-baccalaureate program that included provisional acceptance and financial support into JABSOM for students who successfully completed the program. As a result, the acceptance rate increased from 47.6% to 98.0%. In addition to provisional acceptance to JABSOM and financial support, the program's educational model incorporates five components, the key factors of the program's success: 1) JABSOM commitment and the institutionalization of the program; 2) emphasis placed on a comprehensive approach and the implementation of a curriculum and learning process that are aligned with JABSOM curricula; 3) faculty and staff who support the instructional methodology and work as a team to address students' needs; 4) assessment of students and systematic feedback regarding individualized education plans and academic and non-academic progress; and 5) a positive learning environment for students. Guidelines are provided in this article for consideration in adapting this educational model to other academic settings. PMID:19772159

  4. Self-Exempting Beliefs and Intention to Quit Smoking within a Socially Disadvantaged Australian Sample of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D’Este, Catherine; Twyman, Laura; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of beliefs used to rationalise smoking will have important implications for the content of anti-smoking programs targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who show the lowest rates of cessation in the population. This study aimed to assess the types of self-exempting beliefs reported by a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, and identify associations between these beliefs and other smoking-related factors with quit intentions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March–December 2012 with smokers seeking welfare assistance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (n = 354; response rate 79%). Responses to a 16-item self-exempting beliefs scale and intention to quit, smoker identity, and enjoyment of smoking were assessed. Most participants earned

  5. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  6. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: Results from a focus groups assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n=28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3±8.9 years; BMI 40.4±8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g. from children, people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  7. Sociopolitical development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Darren; Lemelin, Nathalie; Bencze, John Lawrence

    2015-12-01

    A contemporary focus on democratic decision-making has occurred in school science through curricular developments such as socioscientific issues (SSIs) and Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE), creates opportunities for inclusion of activist education. However, it appears these components are often taught, if at all, as simply add-on content. Private schools represent a domain of education that has received relatively little attention in research literature regarding sociopolitical activism for addressing SSIs. In this study, we aimed to document the extent to which private school students were able to implement socioscientific activism and to map their socio-political development in the context of a project on child labour. Data collected from student projects and interviews indicate, in many cases, dramatic development of socially critical views and activist orientations that took place over time, and in various steps. A discussion of the factors enabling students' activist development, such as the school culture, the curriculum, and their teacher, are discussed.

  8. Socioeconomic Disadvantage as a Social Determinant of Teen Childbearing in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Carter, Marion; Snead, M. Christine; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed the literature focused on socioeconomic influences on teen childbearing and suggested directions for future research and practice related to this important indicator of teen sexual health. Methods We conducted an electronic search of Medline, ERIC, PsychLit, and Sociological Abstracts databases for articles published from January 1995 to November 2011. Selected articles from peer-reviewed journals included original quantitative analyses addressing socioeconomic influences on first birth among teen women in the U.S. Articles were abstracted for key information, ranked for quality according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines, assessed for bias, and synthesized. Results We selected articles with a range of observational study designs. Risk for bias varied across studies. All 12 studies that considered socioeconomic factors as influences on teen childbearing (vs. moderators or mediators of other effects) reported at least one statistically significant association relating low socioeconomic status, underemployment, low income, low education levels, neighborhood disadvantage, neighborhood physical disorder, or neighborhood-level income inequality to teen birth. Few reports included any associations contradicting this pattern. Conclusions This review suggests that unfavorable socioeconomic conditions experienced at the community and family levels contribute to the high teen birth rate in the U.S. Future research into social determinants of sexual health should include multiple levels of measurement whenever possible. Root causes of teen childbearing should be evaluated in various populations and contexts. Interventions that address socioeconomic influences at multiple levels could positively affect large numbers of teens and help eliminate disparities in teen childbearing. PMID:23450881

  9. Safety and Security Technologies of Importance to Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations Using Public Transit

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, Lorena Faith; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2006-01-01

    All travelers have concerns about safety and security. For transportation-disadvantaged persons (i.e., older adults, persons with disabilities, and low-income individuals), these concerns are amplified by the vulnerability of the individuals. Safety and security can be improved for transportation-disadvantaged populations through the use of technology. Specific technologies include vehicle tracking systems, silent alarm systems, security cameras, and way-finding navigation systems. Other innovative safety devices and programs provide additional safety and security. Five sites across the United States were visited to determine how agencies of different sizes using different approaches meet the needs of these special populations. The agencies noted that technologies of benefit to the transportation-disadvantaged communities generally benefit all users of public transportation.

  10. Rethinking the Cultural Context of Schooling Decisions in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: From Deviant Subculture to Cultural Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on neighborhood effects on schooling theorizes that neighborhood cultural context is an important mechanism generating such effects. However, explanations that rely on subcultural theories, such as oppositional culture, have met with considerable criticism on empirical grounds, and no alternative account of the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods has been developed in the education literature. This study develops a new account of the cultural context of schooling decisions in disadvantaged neighborhoods based on the concept of cultural heterogeneity, defined as the presence of a wide array of competing and conflicting cultural models. It applies this concept to neighborhood effects on college enrollment. Using survey data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study shows that disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater heterogeneity in college goals and that adolescents in more heterogeneous neighborhoods are less likely to act in concert with the college goals that they articulate. PMID:22879683

  11. Discourses of disease, discourses of disadvantage: a critical analysis of National Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plans.

    PubMed

    Garoon, Joshua P; Duggan, Patrick S

    2008-10-01

    Growing recognition of the threat of pandemic influenza to global health has led to increased emphasis on pandemic influenza preparedness planning. Previous analysis of national pandemic preparedness plans has revealed that those plans paid scant attention to the needs and interests of the disadvantaged. This paper investigates those findings via critical discourse analysis of the same plans as well as World Health Organization guidance documents. The analysis reveals that the texts operate within and as parts of an ordered universe of discourse. Among the six discourses which emerge from the analysis the scientific, political, and legal dominate the social, cultural, and ethical. This order of discourse delineates a specific regime of truths within which the lives, needs, and interests of the disadvantaged are masked or neglected. Unless the plans recognize their discursive construction, implementation of the policies and practices they prescribe runs the risk of further disadvantaging those very populations most likely to require protection. PMID:18656294

  12. Consequences of socioeconomic disadvantage across three generations: parenting behavior and child externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Scaramella, Laura V; Neppl, Tricia K; Ontai, Lenna L; Conger, Rand D

    2008-10-01

    This study considers the intergenerational consequences of experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage within the family of origin. Specifically, the influence of socioeconomic disadvantage experienced during adolescence on the timing of parenthood and the association between early parenthood and risk for harsh parenting and emerging child problem behavior was evaluated. Participants included 154 3-generation families, followed prospectively over a 12-year period. Results indicated that exposure to poverty during adolescence, not parents' (first generation, or G1) education, predicted an earlier age of parenthood in G2. Younger G2 parents were observed to be harsher during interactions with their own 2-year-old child (G3), and harsh parenting predicted increases in G3 children's externalizing problems from age 2 to age 3. Finally, G3 children's externalizing behavior measured at age 3 predicted increases in harsh parenting from ages 3 to 4, suggesting that G3 children's behavior may exacerbate the longitudinal effects of socioeconomic disadvantage. PMID:18855508

  13. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence. PMID:26519366

  14. Is the onset of disabling chronic conditions in later childhood associated with exposure to social disadvantage in earlier childhood? a prospective cohort study using the ONS Longitudinal Study for England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aetiology of disabling chronic conditions in childhood in high income countries is not fully understood, particularly the association with socio-economic status (SES). Very few studies have used longitudinal datasets to examine whether exposure to social disadvantage in early childhood increases the risk of developing chronic conditions in later childhood. Here we examine this association, and its temporal ordering, with onset of all-cause disabling chronic later childhood in children reported as free from disability in early childhood. Methods The study comprised a prospective cohort study, using data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (ONSLS) for England and Wales. The study sample included 52,839 children with complete data born between 1981–1991 with no disabling chronic condition/s in 1991. Index cases were children with disability recorded in 2001. Comparison cases were children with no recorded disability in 1991. A socio-economic disadvantage index (SDI) was constructed from data on social class, housing tenure and car/van access. Associations were explored with logistic regression modelling controlling sequentially for potentially confounding factors; age, gender, ethnicity and lone parenthood. Results By 2001, 2049 (4%) had at least one disability. Socio-economic disadvantage, age, gender and lone parenthood but not ethnicity were significantly associated with onset of disabling chronic conditions. The SDI showed a finely graded association with onset of disabling chronic conditions in the index group (most disadvantaged OR 2·11 [CI 1·76 to 2·53]; disadvantaged in two domains OR 1·45 [CI 1·20 to 1·75]; disadvantaged in one domain OR 1·14 [CI 0·93 to 1·39] that was unaffected by age, gender and ethnicity and slightly attenuated by lone parenthood. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify socio-economic disadvantage in earlier childhood as a predisposing factor for onset of all

  15. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required

  16. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  17. The Impact of Neighborhood, Family, and Individual Risk Factors on Toddlers’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Amy E.; Thomas, Yolanda M.; Wagmiller, Robert L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for behavior problems in school aged children but their impact in toddlerhood is unknown. Relations between toddlers’ disruptive behavior and neighborhood disadvantage, family disadvantage, violence or conflict exposure, parent depressive symptoms, and parenting behavior were examined using multilevel, multi-group (girl/boy) models. Participants were 1204 families (mean child age = 24.7 months). Unique associations between disruptive behavior and all risk factors were observed, but the effect of neighborhood disadvantage was negligible when all of the more proximal factors were accounted for. The results suggest both that children in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at greater risk of behavior problems than children in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods and that optimal prevention/intervention work with these children will attend to proximal risk factors. PMID:24773306

  18. Do Girls Have a Nutritional Disadvantage Compared with Boys? Statistical Models of Breastfeeding and Food Consumption Inequalities among Indian Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Agrawal, Sutapa; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Basu, Sanjay; Campbell, Oona; Doyle, Pat; Ebrahim, Shah; Stuckler, David

    2014-01-01

    the role of additional factors driving India’s female survival disadvantage. PMID:25229235

  19. Question Number Two: How Many Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis involves five key decisions. The second decision, how many factors to retain, is the focus of the current paper. Extracting too many or too few factors often leads to devastating effects on study results. The advantages and disadvantages of the most effective and/or most utilized strategies to determine the number of…

  20. Walker Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Pre-School Children; Forms A and B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Wanda

    This instrument assesses readiness for school in preschool disadvantaged children. Two forms, A and B, are available and it is recommended that one be used as a diagnostic pretest and the other as a progress measure. The test is an individually administered, non-verbal, untimed, but paced instrument. The child responds to questions, given in…

  1. Crossing the Bridge: Overcoming Entrenched Disadvantage through Student-centred Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rosalyn

    2007-01-01

    A quality school education is essential if young people are to have access to the greatest possible opportunities in life, but it is not a universal experience in Australia. Instead, too many young people are disengaged from school, especially those in the middle years of schooling and those living in disadvantaged areas. This study examined the…

  2. Special Environmental Education Project for Disadvantaged Gifted Primary Grade Students: 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballagas, Linda D.

    The Outdoor Activity Center (Atlanta, Georgia) provides enriched experiences in a natural environment for economically disadvantaged gifted primary grade students and has developed materials incorporating creative activities used at the Center to expand the elementary science curriculum of the Atlanta Public Schools. Fifty-eight gifted students…

  3. Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Disadvantaged Children: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia P.

    In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…

  4. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  5. "Medicus Interruptus" in the Behaviour of Children in Disadvantaged Contexts in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Harwood, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The medicalisation of the behaviour of children is a phenomenon that is attracting growing attention, with particular concern about the increased likelihood of children living in disadvantaged contexts receiving a medical diagnosis, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and treatment. This paper reports on a study of professionals…

  6. Adult Basic Education for the Disadvantaged; Procedures used to Raise the Basic Educational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    In working with a disadvantaged population, such as the young adult prisoners at Draper Correctional Center, one of the first considerations in motivating them to acquire academic skills is to aid them in establishing reasonable and attainable education goals. After a meaningful goal has been accepted, the learner's specific deficiencies must be…

  7. 48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... historically black college or university, as designated by the Secretary of Education pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2... business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121. (6) Small disadvantaged business, as... India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, or Nepal. (c) Qualified groups. The offeror...

  8. 48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... historically black college or university, as designated by the Secretary of Education pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2... business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121. (6) Small disadvantaged business, as... India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, or Nepal. (c) Qualified groups. The offeror...

  9. 48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... historically black college or university, as designated by the Secretary of Education pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2... business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121. (6) Small disadvantaged business, as... India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, or Nepal. (c) Qualified groups. The offeror...

  10. Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondence in Beginning Reading of Disadvantaged Five Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle

    In order to determine the effect of grapheme-phoneme correspondence on beginning reading, word acquisition as related to the degree of regularity of the word was used as a measurement. Twenty children enrolled in a preschool project for culturally disadvantaged children at Peabody College were randomly assigned to two groups. One group used the…

  11. Relationship between Success in Extracurricular Programs and Student Academic Performance in Economically Disadvantaged High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgo, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the common characteristics of economically disadvantaged schools that demonstrate success in academics and extracurricular activities. Mixed-method design was used for this study. The quantitative portion of the study determined the correlation between a school's performance in extracurricular activities,…

  12. The Educational Problem That MOOCs Could Solve: Professional Development for Teachers of Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The demographics of massive open online course (MOOC) analytics show that the great majority of learners are highly qualified professionals, and not, as originally envisaged, the global community of disadvantaged learners who have no access to good higher education. MOOC pedagogy fits well with the combination of instruction and peer community…

  13. An Attempt to Make a Difference: Overlooked Disadvantaged Gifted Appalachian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Bobbie

    1993-01-01

    Thirty disadvantaged gifted children in Appalachian regions of Tennessee were provided scholarship money to attend a special summer camp program. Home visits before and after the camp experience demonstrated that these children benefited from both the social and academic aspects of the enrichment program. (DB)

  14. The Relationship Between the Cognitive, Conceptual, Emotional, and Perceptual-Motor Development in Disadvantaged Kindergarteners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sheila; Strum, Irene

    The study was undertaken to determine the possibility of a relationship between the selected traits of cognitive ability, conceptual development, emotional maturity, and perceptual-motor development in disadvantaged kindergarten children, since the knowledge of the relationship between traits might make it possible to strengthen a child's…

  15. A Language Development Program to Improve the Receptive Language Skills of Disadvantaged Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trushin, Barbara Y.

    In a primary school in Dade County, Florida, disadvantaged kindergarten children were entering first grade without the receptive language and listening skills necessary to succeed academically. A practicum attempted to remedy this problem by stimulating kindergarten children's receptive language skills in vocabulary and listening comprehension.…

  16. Evaluation of the Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) Program: 1979-80 Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John E.; And Others

    The federally funded Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) program is examined for the 1979-80 academic year in 58 institutions; the program's short-term impact on participating freshmen is summarized. Up to 200 students at each site were studied to determine whether program participation levels correlated with outcomes and whether…

  17. Figurative Language of Disadvantaged Blacks as Related to Poverty, Music, Poetry, Language and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.

    The unjustified assumption that black children have limited verbal or articulation skills stems from the fact that blacks use figurative, nonliteral, and nonstandard language in the classroom. The language that most disadvantaged blacks learn at home and bring to the classroom is a restricted form born out of poverty and limited exposure to good…

  18. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  19. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

  20. An Empirical Survey on Domestication of ICT in Schools in Disadvantaged Communities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigona, Agnes; Chigona, Wallace; Kayongo, Patrick; Kausa, Moses

    2010-01-01

    The potential of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to enhance curriculum delivery can only be realised when the technologies have been well-appropriated in the school. This belief has led to an increase in government- or donor-funded projects aimed at providing ICTs to schools in disadvantaged communities. Previous research shows that…

  1. 41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information, assistance, and counseling to business concerns, including small businesses, small socially and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-4 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business... Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, established in each Federal agency...

  2. 41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information, assistance, and counseling to business concerns, including small businesses, small socially and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-4 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business... Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, established in each Federal agency...

  3. 41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information, assistance, and counseling to business concerns, including small businesses, small socially and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-4 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business... Business Act and the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, established in each Federal agency...

  4. 48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... small businesses with respect to the financial assistance available under existing laws and regulations... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a) Small Business Specialists (SBS) shall be appointed...

  5. 48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... small businesses with respect to the financial assistance available under existing laws and regulations... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a) Small Business Specialists (SBS) shall be appointed...

  6. 48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... small businesses with respect to the financial assistance available under existing laws and regulations... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a) Small Business Specialists (SBS) shall be appointed...

  7. Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: A Case Study of Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishimine, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of young children spend significant amounts of time in early childhood educational settings. Concerns about the quality of this experience have increased substantially in recent years. Further, as social inequalities in Australia continue to grow the gap between disadvantage and advantage widens despite overall levels of increased…

  8. The Role of Scanning in Positional Response Sets in Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Jack

    In this research project, the problems studied were as follows: (1) Are there differences in scanning patterns between preschool children who show Positional Response Sets (PRS) and normal adults? (2) Do the techniques utilized in "An Exploration of PRS in Disadvantaged children and a Technique for Reduction of Such Sets" change scanning patterns?…

  9. Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of…

  10. Report of Distributive Teacher-Coordinator Leadership Development Seminar Concerning the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimpe, Adrian, Ed.; Dannenberg, Raymond A., Ed.

    This seminar, which involved 32 distributive teacher coordinators, was planned to help distributive eductors identify the disadvantaged and their problems and to provide practical solutions for their needs, both in the classroom and in the business community. During the 1-week seminar, participants were divided into five subgroups to discuss each…

  11. Massachusetts One-Stop Career Centers: Job Placement for Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matrundola, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the services provided to students' participating in career preparation programs (e.g., career counseling, mentoring, apprenticeships, work-based learning, or GED programs) provided by the Massachusetts One-Stop Career Centers. A study conducted by the President's Task Force for Disadvantaged Students (2003) found that…

  12. The Disadvantaged Woman in America. How Adult Education Can Promote Her Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetz, Greta N.

    Educationally, economically, or psychologically disadvantaged women suffer from even more social and economic injustices than do other women. Although a woman's ability to provide for herself rises with her educational level, approximately half of all American women lack a high school diploma. Family relationships, religious tradition, school…

  13. Effect of Dropout Prevention Programs on the Attitudes toward School of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Earl F., II.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds drop out of school and attempt to enter the work force without any specialized training. The purpose of this study was to understand if dropout prevention programs change a potential dropout's attitude toward school in a public school district. A quantitative, quasi-experimental…

  14. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  15. STTEPping in the Right Direction? Western Classical Music in an Orchestral Programme for Disadvantaged African Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…

  16. Bridging the Gap between Minority Disadvantaged High Potential Children and Anglo Middle Class Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines reasons for the underrepresentation of minority groups in programs for gifted students and describes Project STEP-UP (Systematic Training for Educational Programs for Underserved Pupils), a program to train teachers, administrators, and parents of high potential minority economically disadvantaged students in 12 school…

  17. RETENTION IN READING OF DISADVANTAGED MEXICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARNOLD, RICHARD D.

    THREE GROUPS OF DISADVANTAGED MEXICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN WERE TESTED TO DETERMINE CHANGES IN READING ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN SECOND AND THIRD GRADE. DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR, AN ORAL-AURAL ENGLISH GROUP OF 102 CHILDREN WERE GIVEN INTENSIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION WHILE AN ORAL-AURAL SPANISH GROUP OF 67 CHILDREN WERE GIVEN INTENSIVE SPANISH LANGUAGE…

  18. Life Paths and Educational and Employment Outcomes of Disadvantaged Aboriginal Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Wallace, Lori; Levin, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 23 disadvantaged and aboriginal postsecondary students in Canada addressed academic motivation; study barriers and supports; knowledge, skills, and abilities; career goals; and definitions of success. Most had a high need for achievement, encountered situational barriers, were goal oriented, and believed postsecondary education…

  19. Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of…

  20. During Threaded Discussions Are Non-Native English Speakers Always at a Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer Willner, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    When participating in threaded discussions, under what conditions might non¬native speakers of English (NNSE) be at a comparative disadvantage to their classmates who are native speakers of English (NSE)? This study compares the threaded discussion perspectives of closely-matched NNSE and NSE adult students having different levels of threaded…

  1. Counseling the Disadvantaged about Engineering and Related Technology: A Counselor Educator's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, William C.

    Three of the variables which counselors need to attend to in helping disadvantaged youth to consider occupations such as engineering are: (1) knowledge of opportunities; (2) knowledge of self; and (3) procedures related to entry. With regard to knowledge of opportunities, it is suggested that counselors' energies would be better spent in…

  2. The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

  3. 75 FR 77737 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... contracts to self-represent their status as SDBs to prime contractors. SBA published an interim final rule in the Federal Register at 73 FR 57490, October 3, 2008, to allow SDB subcontractors to provide... RIN 9000-AL77 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification...

  4. 76 FR 68026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    .... Background DoD, GSA, and NASA published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 75 FR 77737 on December 13... 2, 19, and 52, which was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 77737 on December 13, 2010, is... Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense...

  5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Native- and Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers: Student Perceptions in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lai Ping Florence

    2012-01-01

    The Native English Teachers (NETs) Scheme has been in place for over 20 years in secondary schools in Hong Kong and yet how students perceive these teachers is under-researched. This article reports a study which analyses student perceptions of the advantage and disadvantages of learning English from NETs and their non-native counterparts, local…

  6. The Influence of Family Size on Learning Readiness Patterns of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschool Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ralph; Kobes, David A.

    Preschool readiness measures were secured on 35 pairs of disadvantaged 2- to 3-year-old lower SES black children, representing large and small families, to determine the impact of family size on readiness profiles. The findings reveal that blacks from small families achieved significantly higher scores on 3 of the 9 skill areas: Visual Memory,…

  7. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Gifted and Developmental Potential in Women and the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    In the first of four papers dealing with gifted and developmental potential in women and the disadvantaged, Alexinia Y. Baldwin describes a curriculum package entitled Ecology the Web of Life, designed for high potential students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. It is intended to develop higher level thought processes, features several methods…

  8. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Racial Concentration and the Birthweight of Infants born to Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Harville, Emily Wheeler; Xie, Yiqiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between neighborhood demographic characteristics (disadvantage, racial concentration) and the birthweight of infants born to adolescent mothers, potentially as mediated by smoking, prenatal care use, or perceptions of neighborhood safety. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Birthweight (continuous) and low birthweight (<2.5 kg) of singleton infants born to non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers (<20 years) after Wave I were examined as outcomes. Neighborhood demographic characteristics included Census Block Group socioeconomic disadvantage and Black racial concentration. Possible mediators (smoking during pregnancy, early initiation of prenatal care, and perceptions of safety) were also examined. Controls for adolescent baseline age, age at pregnancy, body mass index (BMI) and parental education were included. Analyses were run stratified on race. Results Baseline continuous birthweight, BMI and neighborhood demographics varied significantly between non-Hispanic Black and White adolescent mothers, with Black adolescent mothers evidencing lower birthweight and higher BMI, neighborhood disadvantage and Black racial concentration. In multivariable analyses among Black adolescent mothers, Black racial concentration was positively associated with birthweight, and negatively associated with low birthweight; no mediators were supported. Neighborhood disadvantage and Black racial concentration were unassociated with birthweight outcomes among White adolescent mothers. Conclusions Infants born to Black adolescent mothers evidenced higher birthweight with increasing Black neighborhood concentration. Further exploration of mechanisms by which Black racial concentration may positively impact birthweight is warranted. PMID:23771237

  9. The Association of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Alternative Explanations and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Methods: Secondary…

  10. Effects of Preschool Stimulation Upon Subsequent School Performance Among the Culturally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Walter T.; Southern, Mara L.

    This document reports the rationale, design, and execution of a longitudinal investigation of the intellectual achievement effects of a cognitively oriented preschool for disadvantaged Mexican-American children in San Jose, California. Seven groups of children ages 3-5 were studied. Two groups were exposed to two ten-week successive summer…

  11. A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

  12. 7 CFR 2.88 - Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Utilization. 2.88 Section 2.88 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY... Utilization. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.24 (a)(3), the following delegations of authority are made by... Utilization: (1) The Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, under the...

  13. Pilot Evaluation of Parent and Child Enhancement Program for Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Leung, Iona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was a pilot evaluation of the effectiveness of the Parent and Child Enhancement (PACE) program in enhancing child development for disadvantaged families with children aged 2 to 3. Method: Participants included 23 parent-child dyads who attended 2-hr sessions twice weekly for 20 weeks. Parents and children were assessed…

  14. Developments in UK Early Years Policy and Practice: Can They Improve Outcomes for Disadvantaged Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite strenuous attempts made by the New Labour government in the UK to progress towards its goal of eradicating child poverty by 2020, educational outcomes for disadvantaged children remain depressed compared to those of more advantaged children. The fact that children from poorer socio-economic backgrounds are at much greater risk of language…

  15. Educating the Disadvantaged: School Year 1968-1969. Volume 1, Part 1; Volume 1, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C., Ed.

    This yearbook is a compilation of journal and magazine articles with an interdisciplinary approach toward the problem of educating the disadvantaged. The readings are considered as supplementary reference material designed for professors, school administrators, civil rights workers, and other interested investigators who often lack sufficient time…

  16. The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Curtis F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

  17. The Silent Politics of Educational Disadvantage and the National Anti-Poverty Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tormey, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Educational disadvantage is an essentially contested, political concept. At the same time there is a "phoney consensus" surrounding the issue, i.e., policy debates on the topic often fail to reflect this contestation. This lack of awareness of the political context to the debate is evident in relation to the targets and measures set for addressing…

  18. Mature Age Workers: Are They a Disadvantaged Group in the Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenHeuvel, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    Although a majority work full time, many mature-age workers (45 and older) are clearly at a disadvantage in the Australian labor market. Average unemployment duration is long, many unwillingly work part time or are underemployed, and their likelihood of unemployment is very high, especially for older women. (JOW)

  19. Compensatory Early Childhood Education for Educationally Disadvantaged Children in Germany and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, T.

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the relevance of compensatory education for educationally disadvantaged children of preschool age in Germany and beyond The article is a shortened, adapted and translated version of the paper Schmidt, T., & Smidt, W. (2014). "Kompensatorische Förderung benachteiligter Kinder--Entwicklungslinien, Forschungsbefunde und…

  20. Empowering Educationally Disadvantaged Mathematics Students through a Strategies-Based Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…