Science.gov

Sample records for disaster medical sciences

  1. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  2. The National Disaster Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reutershan, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    The Emergency Mobilization Preparedness Board developed plans for improved national preparedness in case of major catastrophic domestic disaster or the possibility of an overseas conventional conflict. Within the health and medical arena, the working group on health developed the concept and system design for the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). A description of NDMS is presented including the purpose, key components, medical response, patient evacuation, definitive medical care, NDMS activation and operations, and summary and benefits.

  3. Catastrophic disasters and the design of disaster medical care systems.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, L E; Reutershan, T P

    1987-09-01

    The National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) is aimed at medical care needs resulting from catastrophic earthquakes, which may cause thousands of deaths and injuries. Other geophysical events may cause great mortality, but leave few injured survivors. Weather incidents, technological disasters, and common mass casualty incidents cause much less mortality and morbidity. Catastrophic disasters overwhelm the local medical care system. Supplemental care is provided by disaster relief forces; this care should be adapted to prevalent types of injuries. Most care should be provided at the disaster scene through supplemental medical facilities, while some can be provided by evacuating patients to distant hospitals. Medical response teams capable of stabilizing, sorting, and holding victims should staff supplemental medical facilities. The NDMS program includes hospital facilities, evacuation assets, and medical response teams. The structure and capabilities of these elements are determined by the medical care needs of the catastrophic disaster situation. PMID:3631673

  4. MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1959-01-01

    The Federal Civil Defense Administration has been consolidated under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 with the Office of Defense Mobilization. The new organization, the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, should be able to deal more efficiently with the problem of mobilization and management of all resources and production of the nation in time of disaster. As preparation for possible enemy attack, organized plans entailing training, supplies, equipment and communications for use in major peacetime disasters—floods, earthquakes, tornado damage—should be carried forward vigorously. Apathy must be overcome. From the local to the highest level all civil defense and disaster plans must be developed and kept flexible enough to be operable during any kind of emergency. Physicians must learn as much as they can about the mass care of casualties, how to survive under the most trying of circumstances. Drills in dealing with simulated disaster are of utmost importance for finding out ahead of time what must be done and the personnel and supplies needed for doing it. PMID:13651962

  5. Disaster nephrology: medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Atef-Zafarmand, Alireza; Fadem, Steve

    2003-04-01

    Disaster medicine is an extension of emergency medicine involving mass casualties and use of the best available techniques in search and rescue. To achieve the best results extensive predisaster preparedness is mandatory. Earthquakes have caused the loss of more than 1 million lives in the 20th century. Evidence-based medicine confirms that these deaths were mostly preventable based on experience in developed countries. The key to success is implementing building codes and structural reinforcement. In earthquakes as well as in collapse of buildings in bomb blasts, loss of life is either because of the direct effect of trauma or to the metabolic consequences of rhabdomyolysis and complications of its management. Hyperkalemia and infection are the commonest causes of death in victims who survive the direct effect of trauma. Acute renal failure, a grave complication of rhabdomyolysis, is mostly preventable by timely rehydration and bicarbonate therapy. Mannitol therapy can be very efficient in reducing the severity of muscle damage and its sequelae. Fasciotomy can be limb saving if it is done in the early hours, although a firm guideline is still lacking. Although each country is responsible for improving the structure of buildings and organizing an efficient disaster response, national and international organizations in developed countries should give high priority to communicating with developing countries to encourage their preparedness. PMID:12879371

  6. Field Organization and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams.

    PubMed

    Arziman, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a "Field" in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role. A Disaster Medical Team is a trained, mobile, self-contained, self-sufficient, multidisciplinary medical team that can act in the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the affected area. The medical team can include physicians, nurses, paramedics and EMTS, technicians, personnel to manage logistics, security and others. Various models of Disaster Medical Teams can be observed around the world. There is paucity of evidence based literature regarding DMTs. There is a need for epidemiological studies with rigorous designs and sampling. In this section of the special edition of the journal, field organizations in health management during disasters will be summarized, with emphasis on preparedness and response phases, and disaster medical teams will be discussed. PMID:27437527

  7. Science-Driven Approach to Disaster Risk and Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional

  8. Designing a National Disaster Medical System.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, E N; Mayer, W N; Mason, J O; Brown, D E; Mahoney, L E

    1985-01-01

    The National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) is a partnership of private and public sectors to provide care to the victims of great disasters. The system is being developed as a voluntary cooperative effort of four major Federal agencies, State and local governments, and the American professional and hospital communities. A medical response component will include 150 disaster medical assistance units capable of clearing or staging operations in a disaster. Each unit will comprise three 29-person teams containing physicians, nurses, medical technicians, and support personnel and will include a 16-person unit command and support element. An evacuation component will be founded on the military aeromedical evacuation system, augmented by civilian aircraft and other transportation resources. A hospital component will enroll 100,000 pre-committed beds in hospitals throughout the nation. The system is designed to care for up to 100,000 casualties arising from a massive peacetime disaster or an overseas conventional military conflict. The National Disaster Medical System will be implemented over a period of 3 to 5 years. The authors recommend that all parts of the American health care community join in support of the system. PMID:3931158

  9. Promoting Disaster Science and Disaster Science Communities as Part of Sound Disaster Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    During disasters, effectively engaging the vast expertise of the academic community can help responders make timely and critical decisions. A barrier to such engagement, however, is the cultural gap between reward systems in academia and in the disaster response community. Responders often are focused on ending the emergency quickly with minimal damage. Academic scientists often need to produce peer reviewed publications to justify their use of time and money. Each community is used to speaking to different audiences, and delivering answers on their own time scales. One approach to bridge this divide is to foster a cohesive community of interdisciplinary disaster scientists: researchers who focus on crises that severely and negatively disrupt the environment or threaten human health, and are able to apply scientific methods in a timely manner to understand how to prevent, mitigate, respond to, or recover from such events. Once organized, a disaster science community could develop its own unique culture. It is well known in the disaster response community that all the preparation that takes place before an event ever occurs is what truly makes the difference in reducing response time, improving coordination, and ultimately reducing impacts. In the same vein, disaster scientists would benefit from consistently interacting with the response community. The advantage of building a community for all disasters, rather than for just one type, is that it will help researchers maintain momentum between emergencies, which may be decades or more apart. Every disaster poses similar challenges: Knowing when to speak to the press and what to say; how to get rapid, actionable peer review; how to keep proprietary industry information confidential; how to develop "no regrets" actions; and how to communicate with decision makers and the public. During the Deepwater Horizonspill, I personally worked with members of the academic research community who cared not whether they got a peer

  10. Medication supply for people evacuated during disasters.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2015-02-01

    Medication loss is a major problem in disaster settings, and it is crucial for patients to bring their medication and healthcare items with them when they leave their homes during an evacuation. This article is based on a systematic literature review on medication loss, the objectives of which were to identify the extent and implications of medication loss, to identify the burden of prescription refill, and to make recommendations on effective preparedness. The review revealed that medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and the loss of medical aids are a significant burden on the medical relief teams. The medical aids are not limited to drugs, but include routine medications, medical/allergy records, devices for specific care and daily life, and emergency medications. One possible solution is to make a personal emergency pack and for people to carry this with them at all times. To ensure that patients are adequately prepared, stakeholders, especially health professionals, need to be actively involved in the preparation plans. Since our findings have little impact on disaster risk reduction unless shared broadly, we are now taking actions to spread our findings, such as presenting in conferences and via posters, in order to raise awareness among patients and healthcare professionals. As part of these activities, our findings were presented at the Evidence Aid Symposium on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India. PMID:25594870

  11. Hazardous materials. Disaster medical planning and response.

    PubMed

    Levitin, H W; Siegelson, H J

    1996-05-01

    Hazardous materials offer a variety of unique challenges to emergency personnel. These agents have immense economic impact, but when mishandled, they become notorious for turning contained accidents into disasters involving the entire community. During a hazmat accident, the victims often ignore the rules of the disaster plan by seeking out the nearest hospital for medical care, regardless of that institution's capabilities. Health care workers rushing to the aid of contaminated individuals, without taking appropriate precautions (i.e., donning PPE), potentially make themselves victims. Disaster preparedness requires planning, policy, and procedure development, hazard analysis, training, and the availability of personal protective equipment for all responding personnel. Presently, the level of hazmat preparedness varies greatly among different hospitals, EMS and fire services, and disaster response teams. These differences in hazmat preparedness can be linked to a variety of factors (lack of awareness, funding, and support) and controversies (types of PPE and level of training required) which have prevented the establishment of a national hazmat policy for most of these organizations. Despite these difficulties, emergency departments continue to be the primary provider of care to contaminated individuals. As a result, emergency physicians must work with their hospital to implement a hazmat decontamination program in order to appropriately care for these individuals. The appendix to this article presents a list of recommendations for hospital hazmat preparedness. It is modeled after existing CDC and OSHA guidelines. PMID:8635411

  12. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Applied Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the ISEA, predecessor to ISES, held a special roundtable to discuss lessons learned for exposure science during and following environmental disasters, especially the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. Since then, environmental agencies have been involved in responses to...

  13. Role of information technology in disaster medical response.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Harrison, Richard A; Smith, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of information technology (IT) in support of disaster medical response and provides a framework for the use of IT in response to natural disasters or terrorist activities. The appropriate use of IT enhances the effectiveness of the disaster response system, thereby safeguarding the population and the community infrastructure. This study found that most US hospitals have wireless local area networks (LANs) with disaster medical response capabilities. The data indicate that combined with the wireless LAN, many hospitals have acquired personal digital assistants, tablets, and handheld personal computers, which are important disaster medical response resources. This research shows that the wireless LAN networks and remote input devices are in place to ensure a timely medical response to disasters within many US communities. PMID:19011412

  14. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  15. Harnessing Earth Observations for Disaster Application Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth observations have made substantive contributions to the understanding of natural hazards, answering key science questions on the mechanisms, processes and dynamics of changes in the land, air and water. This has been achieved through the ability to advance models and interpret the results through maps and assessments. Disaster application science is focused on the two-way flow of data and information between hazard understanding and the knowledge required for disaster response, relief and recovery. This presentation will examine the integration of results from mature science and technology development in areas including optical imagery, synthetic-aperture radar and geodetic sensors, which together provide new levels of situational awareness. Specific examples will be highlighted from the recent Nepal "Gorkha" earthquake. Optical imagery from a host of satellite missions was used to create a comprehensive mosaic across the region, which when analyzed by a global network of volunteer scientists yielded insight into the extent of induced hazards and impacts. In some cases unique day/night band images provided guidance on areas where energy-dependent infrastructure of livelihoods were disrupted. Earthquake modeling and historical trend analysis revealed areas of potential vulnerability and combined with aftershock analysis to guide areas for urgent analysis and action. The combination of SAR and GPS data, innovative integration and processing approaches and nontraditional data integration approaches resulted in damage proxy maps or where combination with airborne photography, field sightings and crowd sourced reports to assess susceptibility to induced hazards (floods and landslides). Opportunities and challenges to build the science and community relationships, harness the earth observations from multiple agencies and institutions and co-develop timely applications to users will be areas for ongoing collaboration and study.Earth observations have made

  16. Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD)

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, Leslie; Chan, Theodore C.; Griswold, William; Killeen, James; Palmer, Douglas; Kirsh, David; Mishra, Rajesh; Rao, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD) explores the use of scalable wireless networks to facilitate medical care at the site of a disaster. The focus of the project is care of victims of industrial accidents or terrorist attacks with traumatic injuries complicated by chemical, biological or radiological contamination. We report on developments of new architectures for mesh networks, RFID tracking and telemetry, mobile collaborative work, and command and control informed by deployments in large-scale exercises with the San Diego Regional Metropolitan Medical Strike Team.

  17. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  18. Science should warn people of looming disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of special knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, it appears that a few seismic hazard assessment programs and/or methodologies were tested appropriately against real observations before being endorsed for estimation of earthquake related risks. The fatal evidence and aftermath of the past decades prove that many of the existing internationally accepted methodologies are grossly misleading and are evidently unacceptable for any kind of responsible risk evaluation and knowledgeable disaster prevention. In contrast, the confirmed reliability of pattern recognition aimed at earthquake prone areas and times of increased probability, along with realistic earthquake scaling and scenario modeling, allow us to conclude that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering this state-of-the-art knowledge of looming disaster in advance catastrophic events. In a lieu of seismic observations long enough for a reliable probabilistic assessment or a comprehensive physical theory of earthquake recurrence, pattern recognition applied to available geophysical and/or geological data sets remains a broad avenue to follow in seismic hazard forecast/prediction. Moreover, better understanding seismic process in terms of non-linear dynamics of a hierarchical system of blocks-and-faults and deterministic chaos, progress to new approaches in assessing time-dependent seismic hazard based on multiscale analysis of seismic activity and reproducible intermediate-term earthquake prediction technique. The algorithms, which make use of multidisciplinary data available and account for fractal nature of earthquake distributions in space and time, have confirmed their

  19. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  20. Post-disaster medical rescue strategy in tropical regions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-hui; Hou, Shi-ke; Zheng, Jing-chen; Fan, Hao-jun; Song, Jian-qi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earthquakes, floods, droughts, storms, mudslides, landslides, and forest wild fires are serious threats to human lives and properties. The present study aimed to study the environmental characteristics and pathogenic traits, recapitulate experiences, and augment applications of medical reliefs in tropical regions. METHODS: Analysis was made on work and projects of emergency medical rescue, based on information and data collected from 3 emergency medical rescue missions of China International Search and Rescue Team to overseas earthquakes and tsunamis aftermaths in tropical disaster regions — Indonesia-Aceh, Indonesia-Yogyakarta, and Haiti-Port au Prince. RESULTS: Shock, infection and heat stroke were frequently encountered in addition to outbreaks of infectious diseases, skin diseases, and diarrhea during post-disaster emergency medical rescue in tropical regions. CONCLUSIONS: High temperature, high humidity, and proliferation of microorganisms and parasites are the characteristics of tropical climate that impose strict requirements on the preparation of rescue work including selective team members suitable for a particular rescue mission and the provisioning of medical equipment and life support materials. The overseas rescue mission itself needs a scientific, efficient, simple workflow for providing efficient emergency medical assistance. Since shock and infection are major tasks in post-disaster treatment of severely injured victims in tropical regions, the prevention and diagnosis of hyperthermia, insect-borne infectious diseases, tropic skin diseases, infectious diarrhea, and pest harms of disaster victims and rescue team staff should be emphasized during the rescue operations. PMID:25215034

  1. Development of a medical module for disaster information systems.

    PubMed

    Calik, Elif; Atilla, Rıdvan; Kaya, Hilal; Aribaş, Alirıza; Cengiz, Hakan; Dicle, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to improve a medical module which provides a real-time medical information flow about pre-hospital processes that gives health care in disasters; transferring, storing and processing the records that are in electronic media and over internet as a part of disaster information systems. In this study which is handled within the frame of providing information flow among professionals in a disaster case, to supply the coordination of healthcare team and transferring complete information to specified people at real time, Microsoft Access database and SQL query language were used to inform database applications. System was prepared on Microsoft .Net platform using C# language. Disaster information system-medical module was designed to be used in disaster area, field hospital, nearby hospitals, temporary inhabiting areas like tent city, vehicles that are used for dispatch, and providing information flow between medical officials and data centres. For fast recording of the disaster victim data, accessing to database which was used by health care professionals was provided (or granted) among analysing process steps and creating minimal datasets. Database fields were created in the manner of giving opportunity to enter new data and search old data which is recorded before disaster. Web application which provides access such as data entry to the database and searching towards the designed interfaces according to the login credentials access level. In this study, homepage and users' interfaces which were built on database in consequence of system analyses were provided with www.afmedinfo.com web site to the user access. With this study, a recommendation was made about how to use disaster-based information systems in the field of health. Awareness has been developed about the fact that disaster information system should not be perceived only as an early warning system. Contents and the differences of the health care practices of disaster information systems were

  2. Science-Driven Disaster Risk Research and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advancements in knowledge on disaster risks and disasters caused by natural hazards, yet we are not seeing a concomitant decline in disaster impacts and losses. Greater efforts are needed to communicate knowledge on disaster risks via integrated co-productive research and assessments. A way of integration and co-production could be through the maturation of hazard and disaster science and through trans-disciplinary approaches aiming at in-depth investigations using a system analysis and at recommendations for actions to reduce risks and to improve resilience of society. Such approaches offer a practice- and policy-oriented knowledge to mitigate or to prevent potential disasters. A baseline assessment of disaster risks is needed to produce a clear and unambiguous scientific view on the current state of knowledge in disaster risk, the potential socio-economic impacts of natural hazards, and the ways to reduce significant human and economic losses. Such assessments would provide the catalyst for the advancement of not only the science but policy. The need for such an effort is more critical now than ever before because such an effort would provide scientific results to support disaster policy across governments and would present a cross-cutting action in policy and practice related to climate change and sustainability.

  3. A short medical school course on responding to bioterrorism and other disasters.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Alan R; Oliver, Sandra; Jenkins, Donald; Ruscio, Bruce; Green, J Ben; Colenda, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    The events of 9/11 highlighted the limitations of the United States health care system in responding to large-scale public health emergencies. The key for an effective response to any mass casualty event is preparedness; thus, the education of medical students has become a priority. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) recommended that the nation's medical schools should thoroughly educate students about the public health and emergency services systems to ensure coordinated responses to weapons of mass destruction or other public health threats. In response, The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, partnering with the Defense Institute for Medical Operations (DIMO), developed a one-week block of required (but not graded) instruction, the "Leadership Course in Disaster Response," first given in 2003-04 to 72 second-year students and taught by six military experts from DIMO. The course goal is to (1) educate students on resources available for regional disaster response; (2) define principles of resource management in disaster response; (3) identify specific agents associated with bioterrorism; and (4) understand the psychosocial aspects of disasters. The course was well received, and the 2004-05 session was improved, based on student and faculty feedback. The authors describe the details of the course (specifically, how the course was tailored to fit the AAMC guidelines), changes in students' knowledge and attitudes, and how the course was improved. PMID:16123460

  4. Medical outreach following a remote disaster: lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Anne Lang; Isakov, Alexander P; Compton, Michael T; White, Melissa; Nassery, Hogai; Frank, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, many individuals were evacuated to the Atlanta area (1,306 medical evacuees, over 100,000 self-evacuees), placing considerable strain on an already overburdened healthcare system. With the aim of improving future disaster responsiveness, we designed this in-depth case study to identify systemic vulnerabilities and gaps in community responsiveness to an influx of evacuees from a remote disaster. Qualitative methods were used to interview key informants both individually and in focus groups. Coding and content analysis of transcribed interview data were used to identify shared observations and common themes. Twenty-three individuals in leadership roles at the Woodruff Health Sciences Center of Emory University or the Grady Health System completed individual interviews; an additional 24 healthcare providers participated in focus groups. A strategy-based data-coding scheme for interview data was used to identify key foci, including services that met needs of evacuees, unmet needs, service provision that was successful/unsuccessful, underlying reasons for success or failure, and future needs for disaster planning and responsiveness. Analysis of interview data revealed important accomplishments and deficits in the medical community's response in specific domains of community disaster planning and evaluation. For each key component of community disaster planning and evaluation, there are considerations at the institutional, regional, state, and federal levels. In the current study, these considerations were identified as instrumental in effectively meeting the healthcare needs of the evacuated population. PMID:18274045

  5. [Medical and biological consequences of nuclear disasters].

    PubMed

    Stalpers, Lukas J A; van Dullemen, Simon; Franken, N A P Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Medical risks of radiation exaggerated; psychological risks underestimated. The discussion about atomic energy has become topical again following the nuclear accident in Fukushima. There is some argument about the gravity of medical and biological consequences of prolonged exposure to radiation. The risk of cancer following a low dose of radiation is usually estimated by linear extrapolation of the incidence of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The radiobiological linear-quadratic model (LQ-model) gives a more accurate description of observed data, is radiobiologically more plausible and is better supported by experimental and clinical data. On the basis of this model there is less risk of cancer being induced following radiation exposure. The gravest consequence of Chernobyl and Fukushima is not the medical and biological damage, but the psychological and economical impact on rescue workers and former inhabitants. PMID:22607840

  6. Disaster preparedness: what training do our interns receive during medical school?

    PubMed

    Jasper, Edward; Berg, Katherine; Reid, Matthew; Gomella, Patrick; Weber, Danielle; Schaeffer, Arielle; Crawford, Albert; Mealey, Kathleen; Berg, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Disaster preparedness training is a critical component of medical student education. Despite recent natural and man-made disasters, there is no national consensus on a disaster preparedness curriculum. The authors designed a survey to assess prior disaster preparedness training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2010, the authors surveyed incoming interns (n = 130) regarding the number of hours of training in disaster preparedness received during medical school, including formal didactic sessions and simulation, and their level of self-perceived proficiency in disaster management. Survey respondents represented 42 medical schools located in 20 states. Results demonstrated that 47% of interns received formal training in disaster preparedness in medical school; 64% of these training programs included some type of simulation. There is a need to improve the level of disaster preparedness training in medical school. A national curriculum should be developed with aspects that promote knowledge retention. PMID:23341470

  7. National Disaster Medical System; medical manpower component establishment--Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. Notice.

    PubMed

    1988-04-20

    This notice announces the creation of the medical manpower component within the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services/Public Health Service (HHS/PHS) as a part of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). The NDMS is an organized resource that may be activated to serve national needs in the event of disasters or other major emergencies requiring extraordinary medical services. The manpower component will contain volunteer medical response personnel and technical staff that will be made available in situations requiring substantial medical services from outside the area affected by the disaster or emergency. The manpower component of NDMS is being established by HRSA/HHS/PHS in cooperation with the Department of Defense (DoD), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the Veterans Administration (VA). PMID:10287019

  8. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  9. Creating a state medical response system for medical disaster management: the North Carolina experience.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Skarote, Mary Beth; Peterson, Jeff; Hubble, Michael W; Winslow, James E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the creation and evolution of the North Carolina state medical response system (SMRS). During the past 30 years, states and local communities have developed a somewhat incongruent patchwork of medical disaster response systems. Several local or regional programs participated in the National Disaster Medical System; however, aside from the Disaster Medical Assistance Teams, most of these local resources lacked national standards and national direction. The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in Washington, DC and New York, and the anthrax-laced letters mailed to prominent individuals in the US media and others (bioterrorism) in the months that followed were tragic, but they served as both a tipping point and a unifying factor to drive preparedness activities on a national level. Each state responded to the September 11, 2001 attacks by escalating planning and preparedness efforts for a medical disaster response. The North Carolina SMRS was created based on the overall national direction and was tailored to meet local needs such as hurricane response. This article reviews the accomplishments to date and examines future aims. From regional medical response teams to specialty programs such as ambulance strike teams, burn surge planning, electronic inventory and tracking systems, and mobile pharmacy resources, the North Carolina SMRS has emerged as a national leader. Each regional coalition, working with state leadership, has developed resources and has used those resources while responding to disasters in North Carolina. The program is an example of how national leadership can work with state and local agencies to develop a comprehensive and effective medical disaster response system. PMID:25188616

  10. Are medical offices prepared for the next disaster?

    PubMed

    Phillipp, Annette; Stokes, Christopher D; Tivis, Rick; Gans, David; Piland, Neill

    2009-01-01

    Disasters have an enormous economic impact on the United States as well as short- and long-term healthcare implications. Federal and state governments are providing billions of dollars to communities across the nation for emergency preparedness activities. An online poll conducted in July 2008 indicated that most medical practices in the United States, even though they believe they will be impacted by a disaster within the next five years, re port themselves to be inadequately prepared. In light of increased funding since 9/11 and hurricane Katrina, the results of the poll show that the very practices that are the foundation of our healthcare system that see and treat patients on a daily basis are not being included in preparedness efforts. PMID:19911544

  11. Utstein-Style Template for Uniform Data Reporting of Acute Medical Response in Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives; Dhondt, Erwin; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Rüter, Anders; Codreanu, Tudor; Koenig, Kristi L.; Schultz, Carl; Peleg, Kobi; Halpern, Pinchas; Stratton, Samuel; Della Corte, Francesco; Delooz, Herman; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Colombo, Davide; Castrèn, Maaret

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Task Force on Quality Control of Disaster Management (WADEM) published guidelines for evaluation and research on health disaster management and recommended the development of a uniform data reporting tool. Standardized and complete reporting of data related to disaster medical response activities will facilitate the interpretation of results, comparisons between medical response systems and quality improvement in the management of disaster victims. Methods: Over a two-year period, a group of 16 experts in the fields of research, education, ethics and operational aspects of disaster medical management from 8 countries carried out a consensus process based on a modified Delphi method and Utstein-style technique. Results: The EMDM Academy Consensus Group produced an Utstein-style template for uniform data reporting of acute disaster medical response, including 15 data elements with indicators, that can be used for both research and quality improvement. Conclusion: It is anticipated that the Utstein-style template will enable better and more accurate completion of reports on disaster medical response and contribute to further scientific evidence and knowledge related to disaster medical management in order to optimize medical response system interventions and to improve outcomes of disaster victims. PMID:23066513

  12. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource

    PubMed Central

    Domres, Bernd D.; Stahl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas; Houser, Christine M.; Himmelseher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Background Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness. Aims We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented. Methods The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development. Results The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training. Conclusions The curriculum offers

  13. [Multi-occupational description of medical cooperation during a disaster].

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    On April 10, 2011, the author was sent to Yugakukan, a general shelter in Ishinomaki, as member of the first Primary Care for All Team (PCAT) mission, which was composed of medical and welfare service-specialists. Although various volunteers, government officials, and local organizations were gathered there, the situation was under control, and individuals cooperated under common goals. In order for all the organizations to cooperate and unify their purpose, PCAT identified all the key individuals and established the importance of conducting advanced meetings. The target of PCAT was to provide continued support until the shelter regained its capabilities as a local medical, welfare, and healthcare facility. We helped convert Yugakukan into a welfare shelter from a general one, with consideration for the needs of the entire disaster-stricken area. Likewise, we planned for the reduction of incidence by the local staff. As a team of pharmacists, we cooperated with the local key pharmacist, Mr. Yoshirou Tanno, to plan how the local pharmacy could be made more useful for revival. I concentrated on the production of a system for three weeks. During this period, I probed into the importance of the connection among people. Sharing information, building cooperation, and organization collaboration facilitated the smooth operations and development of the shelter. The experience of serving at Yugakukan can be used as indicator of pharmacists' role in the comprehensive care system, including supporting the elderly, whose population is currently rising. PMID:24389608

  14. Human Problems in Major Disasters: A Training Curriculum for Emergency Medical Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health, Rockville, MD. Div. of Education and Service Systems Liaison.

    This training manual on emotional responses to disaster is designed for use by mental health professionals in the training of emergency medical teams whose job is to immediately respond to both large- and small-scale disasters. It is noted that members of these teams are usually not mental health professionals, but they must deal with a range of…

  15. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  16. Medical response to a natural disaster: the Barrie tornado.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, B A; Armstrong, T M

    1986-01-01

    On May 31, 1985, a tornado devastated an area of Barrie, Ont. Following a prepared disaster plan, the staff of the local hospital managed 155 casualties, including 16 cases of multiple trauma, over 5 hours. The authors summarize the hospital's experience and give recommendations to help the staff of other hospitals improve their disaster plans. PMID:3948094

  17. [Military medical doctrine and the development of the concept of disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Nechaev, E A; Nazarenko, G I; Zhizin, V N

    1993-04-01

    On the basis of their own experience and literature concerning liquidation of the disaster consequences the authors analyse limitations in the disaster health care system. The article shows the trends towards the improvement of medical aid during catastrophes of peaceful period, taking into account various aspects of military doctrine and, especially, the casualty care staging system. It is stressed that the disaster health care procedures will depend on the structure of sanitary losses, characteristic features of the scene of an accident and the dynamics of medical environment. PMID:8328140

  18. Medical science and social values.

    PubMed

    Caton, D

    2004-07-01

    Social Values, no less than medical science, have shaped the medical management of the pain of childbirth. Nineteenth century feminists fought for greater use of anesthesia in obstetrics at a time when physicians held back for fear of its effects on labor, hemorrhage, rates of infection and the condition of the child. A century later, after physicians became comfortable with the use of anesthesia, a new generation of feminists challenged the use of such drugs, once again citing social considerations. The personalities of colorful and charismatic obstetricians such as James Young Simpson and Grantley Dick-Read played a strong part in the outcome of each confrontation. PMID:15321396

  19. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

  20. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  1. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams After Earthquakes in Iran: Propose a Localized Model

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mohsen; Salehnia, M Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background In the past 10 years, 13 fatal earthquakes have occurred in Iran and led to death of 30,000 people whom most of them were killed in the earlier hours of the disaster. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams are groups of trained medical and non-medical personnel with various combinations that on the optimal conditions are deployed just within 8 hours of notification and are able to work self-sufficiently for at least 72 hours without any outside help and can treat up to 250 patients per day. Currently there are no such rapid-response teams in case of unexpected events in Iran, which causes the responses to such disasters, not to be organized or practiced. For instance, there were many rescue forces in 2003 Bam earthquake but not enough skilled ones to cope with; consequently they themselves became a problem in crisis management instead of solving the problem. Objectives In this study, we have investigated which of the following is more efficient: changing the size and combination of the team depending on the type of disaster and environmental conditions or, determine a fixed combination team. Materials and Methods Totally, several reasons for dynamic combination and size of the teams are presented. later, earthquake disaster is divided into 3 phases in terms of time including the acute phase (1st to 4th day after disaster), the sub-acute phase (5th to 14thday) and the recovery phase (after the 14th day), and finally the appropriate team combinations in every phases are offered. Results Regarding to introduction and considering the existing statistics in different legal Iranian resources and by division of the earthquake disaster to three phases including acute phase (1st to the 4th day after disaster), sub-acute phase (5th to 14th day) and recovery phase (after the 14th day) Conclusions The countries pioneer in disaster medical assistance teams, now are inclined to deploy different teams consistent with each kind of disasters or with other effective components

  2. The Medical Home and Care Coordination in Disaster Recovery: Hypothesis for Interventions and Research.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Robert K; Abramson, David M; Redlener, Irwin; Gracy, Delaney

    2015-08-01

    In postdisaster settings, health care providers encounter secondary surges of unmet primary care and mental health needs that evolve throughout disaster recovery phases. Whatever a community's predisaster adequacy of health care, postdisaster gaps are similar to those of any underserved region. We hypothesize that existing practice and evidence supporting medical homes and care coordination in primary care for the underserved provide a favorable model for improving health in disrupted communities. Elements of medical home services can be offered by local or temporary providers from outside the region, working out of mobile clinics early in disaster recovery. As repairs and reconstruction proceed, local services are restored over weeks or years. Throughout recovery, major tasks include identifying high-risk patients relative to the disaster and underlying health conditions, assisting displaced families as they transition through housing locations, and tracking their evolving access to health care and community services as they are restored. Postdisaster sources of financial assistance for the disaster-exposed population are often temporary and evolving, requiring up-to-date information to cover costs of care until stable services and insurance coverage are restored. Evidence to support disaster recovery health care improvement will require research funding and metrics on structures, processes, and outcomes of the disaster recovery medical home and care coordination, based on adaptation of standard validated methods to crisis environments. PMID:26046492

  3. A fundamental, national, medical disaster management plan: an education-based model.

    PubMed

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Hosseinijenab, Vahid; Hasani, Azadeh; Shirmardi, Kianoush; Castrén, Maaret; Ohlén, Gunnar; Panahi, Farzad

    2009-01-01

    During disasters, especially following earthquakes, health systems are expected to play an essential role in reducing mortality and morbidity. The most significant naturally occurring disaster in Iran is earthquakes; they have killed >180,000 people in the last 90 years. According to the current plan in 2007, the disaster management system of Iran is composed of three main work groups: (1) Prevention and risk management, (2) Education, and (3) Operation. This organizational separation has resulted in lack of necessary training programs for experts of specialized organizations, e.g., the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME).The National Board of MOHME arranged a training program in the field of medical disaster management. A qualified training team was chosen to conduct this program in each collaborating center, based on a predefined schedule. All collaborating centers were asked to recall 5-7 experts from each member university. Working in medical disaster management field for greater than or equal to 2 years was an inclusion criterion. The training programs lasted three days, consisted of all relevant aspects of medical disaster management, and were conducted over a six-month period (November 2007-April 2008). Pre-test and post-tests were used to examine the participants' knowledge regarding disaster management; the mean score on the pretest was 67.1 +/-11.6 and 88.1 +/-6.2, respectively. All participants were asked to hold the same training course for their organizations in order to enhance knowledge of related managers, stakeholders, and workers, and build capacity at the local and provincial levels. The next step was supposed to be developing a comprehensive medical disaster management plan for the entire country. Establishing nine disaster management regional collaborating centers in the health system of Iran has provided an appropriate base for related programs to be rapidly and easily accomplished throughout the country. This tree-shaped model is

  4. [What is good at the laboratory medical technologist in a medium scale hospital in a time of disaster?].

    PubMed

    Takeura, Hisashi

    2011-02-01

    Medical institutes need to prepare for earthquake or severe disasters which may happen at some future date and need to take countermeasures for those situations. Also our laboratory must do the same things. New medical center will be open in March, 2011. At the same time, this hospital will be registered as the one of the centers which contend with disasters to follow the infrastructure outline of disaster caring hospitals of Osaka prefecture. PMID:21476299

  5. National Institute of General Medical Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over Navigation Links National Institute of General Medical Sciences Site Map Staff Search My Order Search the ... NIGMS Website Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS Feature Slides View All Slides ...

  6. Medical emergency rescue in disaster: the international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Cai, Wenwei; Lu, Ye; Xia, Shichang; Chen, Zhiping; Chen, Enfu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Huakun; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Following Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been supporting the Government of the Philippines in coordinating the incoming relief supplies from more than 30 international humanitarian health organizations. During the 10 days in Abuyong, Philippines, the Chinese medical rescue team consisting of 50 experts specialized in clinical medicine and disease prevention and control action was taken including, medical treatment, environmental disinfection and health education. A total of 1,831 cases and 2,144 outpatients were treated, blood tests, B-ultrasound, electrocardiogram (ECG) and other laboratory examinations were carried out for more than 615 patients; a cumulative 90,000 square meters in external environment were disinfected, and more than 500 health education materials were handed out. Besides, measures of purifying drinking water, and rebuilding the local hospital have also been carried out. The international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines contributed to reconstruct the local disaster health system by the activities from international medical emergency rescue. To improve the capacity of international medical emergency rescue in disaster, the special project of foreign medical emergency rescue should be set in countries' medical emergency rescue, and disaster emergency medical rescue should be reserved as a conventional capacity. PMID:25641183

  7. Medical Support for Aircraft Disaster Search and Recovery Operations at Sea: the RSN Experience.

    PubMed

    Teo, Kok Ann Colin; Chong, Tse Feng Gabriel; Liow, Min Han Lincoln; Tang, Kong Choong

    2016-06-01

    The maritime environment presents a unique set of challenges to search and recovery (SAR) operations. There is a paucity of information available to guide provision of medical support for SAR operations for aircraft disasters at sea. The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) took part in two such SAR operations in 2014 which showcased the value of a military organization in these operations. Key considerations in medical support for similar operations include the resultant casualty profile and challenges specific to the maritime environment, such as large distances of area of operations from land, variable sea states, and space limitations. Medical support planning can be approached using well-established disaster management life cycle phases of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery, which all are described in detail. This includes key areas of dedicated training and exercises, force protection, availability of air assets and chamber support, psychological care, and the forensic handling of human remains. Relevant lessons learned by RSN from the Air Asia QZ8501 search operation are also included in the description of these key areas. Teo KAC , Chong TFG , Liow MHL , Tang KC . Medical support for aircraft disaster search and recovery operations at sea: the RSN experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(3):294-299. PMID:27018529

  8. Knowledge Levels and Training Needs of Disaster Medicine among Health Professionals, Medical Students, and Local Residents in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Background Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. Methods A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Results Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001), whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001). In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001). Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. ‘Lecture’ and ‘practical training’ were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001). Conclusions Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and the current

  9. Moorgate tube train disaster. Part 1-Response of medical services.

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Experience of the medical staff at a major subterranean accident scene showed that there appeared to be a substantial advantage in using site medical teams that could offer anaesthetic facilities. The need for adequate communication from the accident site to the hospital is emphasized. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1174871

  10. [Challenges of basical sciences in medical education].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Carranza, Rodolfo

    2014-12-01

    The relevance of basic sciences in medical education has been recognized for centuries, and the importance of exposing medical students to science was acknowledged and reinforced by the recommendations of Flexner in 1910. Since then, traditional medical education has been divided into preclinical and clinical subjects; within this scheme, the first terms of undergraduate medical education usually concentrate on basic sciences, while subsequent ones focus on clinical sciences and clinical training. Since 1956, this educational scheme has been questioned and, in some schools, the medical curriculum has undergone significant structural changes; some of these reforms, especially integrated curricula, are associated with important reductions in the time allotted to individual basic science courses or even with their removal. The removal of basic science subjects from the medical curriculum is paradoxical because nowadays the value of biomedical knowledge and the scientific reasoning to make medical decisions is more appreciated than ever. To maintain its relevance in medical education, basic sciences have to confront three challenges: a) increasing its presence in clinical education; b) developing nuclear programs; and c) renewing laboratory instruction. PMID:25643888

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF IT TRIAGE SYSTEM (TRACY) TO SHARE REGIONAL DISASTER MEDICAL INFORMATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numada, Muneyoshi; Hada, Yasunori; Ohara, Miho; Meguro, Kimiro

    We developed an IT triage system for collecting disaster medical information in real time. FeliCa cards and card readers are used to obtain the number and cond ition of patients. The system is composed of two elements. First, the number of patie nts for each triage level and the accepted number of patients in each diagnosis and treatment department are obtained in real time, including response for changing triage level. Second, this information can be shared among hospitals, the administration, and residents in real time who are searching for their family. A disaster drill utiliz ing this system was held at the University of Yamanashi Hospital with 450 participants.

  12. Development of the Japanese National Disaster Medical System and Experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Masato

    2015-01-01

    After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the Japanese national disaster medical system (NDMS) was developed. It mainly consists of four components, namely, a disaster base hospital, an emergency medical information system, a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), and national aeromedical evacuation (AE). The NDMS was tested for the first time in a real disaster situation during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Two airports and one base were appointed as DMAT gathering places, and approximately 393 DMAT members divided into 78 teams were transported by Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) aircrafts to two AE staging bases the following day. Staging care units were installed at Hanamaki Airport, Fukushima Airport, and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Camp Kasuminome, and 69, 14 and 24 DMAT teams were placed at those locations, respectively. In total, 19 patients were evacuated using JASDF fixed-wing aircraft. Important issues requiring attention became clear through the experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake and will be discussed in this paper. PMID:26306054

  13. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  14. [Information flow between medical and social sciences].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó

    2014-12-28

    In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends. PMID:25528322

  15. 76 FR 30370 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  16. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  17. 38 CFR 17.86 - Provision of hospital care and medical services during certain disasters and emergencies under 38...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency declared by the President under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Disaster Medical System established pursuant to section 2811(b) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision of...

  18. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment. PMID:25441528

  19. Use of an emergency medical pictorial communication book during simulated disaster conditions.

    PubMed

    Behar, Solomon; Benson Ii, Richard; Kurzweil, Ami; Azen, Colleen; Nager, Alan L

    2013-10-01

    During disasters, the needs of victims outstrip available resources. Rapid assessment of patients must be performed; however, language barriers can be an impediment to efficient patient assessment, especially if interpreter resources are limited. Dependency on interpretive services requiring technology such a telephones, cell phones, and video conferencing may be inefficient, as they may be unavailable during disaster conditions. A low-tech, portable tool that aids in communication with non-English speakers would be beneficial. The medical emergency communication (MEC) book, developed at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, has the potential to be a useful tool in this capacity. The goal of this pilot study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed disaster-focused medical history obtained from Spanish-speaking patients or caregivers using the MEC book, compared to a control group with whom no book was used. Our hypothesis was that use of the MEC book improves accuracy of medical history taking between English-only speaking health care workers and Spanish-speaking patients better than a monolingual clinician trying to take a medical history without it. We anticipated a higher overall score in the group of subjects whose histories were taken using the MEC book than in the control group. Patient satisfaction with the MEC book also was measured. PMID:24274127

  20. A novel communications network for the provision of medical care in disaster and emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Dembeyiotis, S; Konnis, G; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    We have designed and developed a novel data communications network targeted at the provision of Emergency Medical Care in disaster situations over wide areas. The network nodes can transmit essential biosignals and in addition, support video and diagnostic quality sound (auscultation) broadcasting for teleconsultation purposes, by using a variety of wireless transports. The medical data acquisition stations are networked dynamically and on demand, with no requirement for an existing communications infrastructure at the disaster sites. The network design allows for limited transmitting station mobility and support for software-based Voice over IP during station roaming. Initial test results, following the hardware and software integration, indicate that the chosen network design meets specifications, and a full-scale field test, utilizing a large number of wireless stations operating under realistic conditions is to take place. PMID:17271008

  1. The national disaster medical system: past, present, and suggestions for the future.

    PubMed

    Franco, Crystal; Toner, Eric; Waldhorn, Richard; Inglesby, Thomas V; O'Toole, Tara

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews the history and structure of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), with an emphasis on its definitive care component. NDMS's capacity to handle very large mass casualty events, such as those included in the National Planning Scenarios, is examined. Following Hurricane Katrina, Congress called for a reevaluation of NDMS. In that context, we make three key suggestions to improve NDMS's capacity to respond to large mass casualty disasters: (1) increase the level of engagement by the private (i.e., nonfederal) healthcare system in preparedness and response efforts; (2) increase the reliance on regional hospital collaborative networks as part of the backbone of the NDMS system; and (3) develop additional, alternative patient transportation systems, linked to the overall NDMS patient tracking effort, to decrease the sole reliance on DoD long-haul air transport in medical evacuation. PMID:18052820

  2. An 802.11 wireless blood pulse-oximetry system for medical response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Douglas A; Rao, Ramesh; Lenert, Leslie A

    2005-01-01

    In a mass casualty situation, medical personnel at the disaster site and other field treatment settings may need to monitor the vital signs of hundreds of seriously injured patients with minimal staffing. The conditions may be primitive and personnel may have to improvise infrastructure. As part of our research to enhance medical response to disasters with Internet-enabled systems, we have developed a prototype Wireless Blood Pulse Oximeter system for mass casualty events designed to operate in WiFi hotspots. Pulse ox units were designed using low-cost embedded system technologies to operate in integrated or stand alone environments. Units can report data to a command post on the scene or any remote location with Internet access. The entire system is potentially capable of tracking and monitoring several hundred patients. PMID:16779359

  3. Emotional Intelligence in Medical Laboratory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Travis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In…

  4. Integrating emerging earth science technologies into disaster risk management: an enterprise architecture approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster risk management has grown to rely on earth observations, multi-source data analysis, numerical modeling, and interagency information sharing. The practice and outcomes of disaster risk management will likely undergo further change as several emerging earth science technologies come of age: mobile devices; location-based services; ubiquitous sensors; drones; small satellites; satellite direct readout; Big Data analytics; cloud computing; Web services for predictive modeling, semantic reconciliation, and collaboration; and many others. Integrating these new technologies well requires developing and adapting them to meet current needs; but also rethinking current practice to draw on new capabilities to reach additional objectives. This requires a holistic view of the disaster risk management enterprise and of the analytical or operational capabilities afforded by these technologies. One helpful tool for this assessment, the GEOSS Architecture for the Use of Remote Sensing Products in Disaster Management and Risk Assessment (Evans & Moe, 2013), considers all phases of the disaster risk management lifecycle for a comprehensive set of natural hazard types, and outlines common clusters of activities and their use of information and computation resources. We are using these architectural views, together with insights from current practice, to highlight effective, interrelated roles for emerging earth science technologies in disaster risk management. These roles may be helpful in creating roadmaps for research and development investment at national and international levels.

  5. Task force St. Bernard: operational issues and medical management of a National Guard disaster response operation.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, Carl J; Schock, Tony R; McVaney, Kevin E; Colwell, Christopher B; Depass, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    After Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States on 29 August 2005, it became obvious that the country was facing an enormous national emergency. With local resources overwhelmed, governors across the US responded by deploying thousands of National Guard soldiers and airmen. The National Guard has responded to domestic disasters due to natural hazards since its inception, but an event with the magnitude of Hurricane Katrina was unprecedented. The deployment of >900 Army National Guard soldiers to St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana in the aftermath of the Hurricane was studied to present some of the operational issues involved with providing medical support for this type of operation. In doing so, the authors attempt to address some of the larger issues of how the National Guard can be incorporated into domestic disaster response efforts. A number of unforeseen issues with regards to medical operations, medical supply, communication, preventive medicine, legal issues, and interactions with civilians were encountered and are reviewed. A better understanding of the National Guard and how it can be utilized more effectively in future disaster response operations can be developed. PMID:18087915

  6. Standardizing and personalizing science in medical education.

    PubMed

    Lambert, David R; Lurie, Stephen J; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Ward, Denham S

    2010-02-01

    In the century since the initial publication of the Flexner Report, medical education has emphasized a broad knowledge of science and a fundamental understanding of the scientific method, which medical educators believe are essential to the practice of medicine. The enormous growth of scientific knowledge that underlies clinical practice has challenged medical schools to accommodate this new information within the curricula. Although innovative educational modalities and new curricula have partly addressed this growth, the authors argue for a systematic restructuring of the content and structure of science education from the premedical setting through clinical practice. The overarching goal of science education is to provide students with a broad, solid foundation applicable to medicine, a deep understanding of the scientific method, and the attitudes and skills needed to apply new knowledge to patient care throughout their careers. The authors believe that to accomplish this successfully, the following changes must occur across the three major stages of medical education: (1) a reshaping of the scientific preparation that all students complete before medical school, (2) an increase in individualized science education during medical school, and (3) an emphasis on knowledge acquisition skills throughout graduate medical education and beyond to assure lifelong scientific learning. As students progress through the educational continuum, the balance of standardized and personalized scientific knowledge will shift toward personalization. Greater personalization demands that physicians possess well-refined skills in information acquisition, interpretation, and application for optimal lifelong learning and effective clinical practice. PMID:20107368

  7. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  8. [Basic areas of medical science in Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Abdullakhodzhaeva, M S

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the issues of medicine development in the Republic of Uzbekistan and the contribution made by prominent scientists developing effective methods for diagnosing and treating different diseases in medical science. A great part is assigned to medical science advances in our country. To solve the urgent problems of public health, much attention is given to the training of scientific manpower, the setting up of specialized research and practical medical centers of different profile, research laboratories of medical higher educational establishments as a base for conducting researches and investigations, which will be able to improve the quality of medical care to the population and corresponds to a health care reform program. PMID:27070775

  9. Barriers to Disaster Preparedness among Medical Special Needs Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Leslie; Vatcheva, Kristina; Castellanos, Stephanie; Reininger, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    A medical special needs (MSN) assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%), Hispanic (92.9%), aged >45 years (51%), not insured for health (59.2%), and with an MSN (33.2%). Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild) to level 4 (most severe). Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32)]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness. PMID:26389107

  10. Telemedicine and international disaster response: Medical consultation to Armenia and Russia via a telemedicine spacebridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtchens, Bruce A.; Clemmer, Terry P.; Holloway, Harry C.; Kiselev, Alexander A.; Logan, James S.; Merrell, Ronald C.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Nikogossian, Haik A.; Rayman, Russell B.; Sarkisian, Ashot E.

    1991-01-01

    The Telemedicine Spacebridge, a satellite mediated audio-video-fax link between four U.S. and two Armenian and Russian medical centers, permitted remote American consultants to assist Armenian and Russian physicians in the management of medical problems following the December 1988 earthquake in Armenia and the June 1989 gas explosion near Ufa. During 12 weeks of operations, 247 Armenian and Russian and 175 American medical professionals participated in 34 half-day clinical conferences. 209 patients were discussed, requiring expertise in 20 specialty areas. Telemedicine consultations resulted in altered diagnoses for 54, new diagnostic studies for 70, altered diagnostic processes for 47, and modified treatment plans for 47 of 185 Armenian patients presented. Simultaneous participation of several U.S. medical centers was judged beneficial; quality of data transmission was judged excellent. These results suggest that interactive consultation by remote specialists can provide valuable assistance to onsite physicians and favorably influence clinical decisions in the aftermath of major disasters.

  11. A web-services architecture designed for intermittent connectivity to support medical response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steve; Griswold, William; Lenert, Leslie A

    2005-01-01

    To support mobile computing systems for first responders at mass casualty sites, as part of the WIISARD (Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters) project, we have developed a data architecture to gracefully handle an environment with frequent network failure and, multiple writers that also supports rapid dissemination of updates that could be critical to the safety of responders. This is accomplished by allowing for a subset of the overall information available in a disaster scene to be cached locally on a responder's device and locally modified with or without network access. When the network is available, the local subset of the model is automatically synchronized with a server that contains the full model, and conflicts are resolved. When changes from a device are committed, the changes are instantly sent to any connected devices where the local subset would be modified by the changes. PMID:16779191

  12. Emergency/disaster medical support in the restoration project for the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Morimura, Naoto; Asari, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Kazunari; Tase, Choichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Aruga, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) suffered a series of radiation accidents after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. In a situation where halting or delaying restoration work was thought to translate directly into a very serious risk for the entire country, it was of the utmost importance to strengthen the emergency and disaster medical system in addition to radiation emergency medical care for staff at the frontlines working in an environment that posed a risk of radiation exposure and a large-scale secondary disaster. The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) launched the ‘Emergency Task Force on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident’ and sent physicians to the local response headquarters. Thirty-four physicians were dispatched as disaster medical advisors, response guidelines in the event of multitudinous injury victims were created and revised and, along with execution of drills, coordination and advice was given on transport of patients. Forty-nine physicians acted as directing physicians, taking on the tasks of triage, initial treatment and decontamination. A total of 261 patients were attended to by the dispatched physicians. None of the eight patients with external contamination developed acute radiation syndrome. In an environment where the collaboration between organisations in the framework of a vertically bound government and multiple agencies and institutions was certainly not seamless, the participation of the JAAM as the medical academic organisation in the local system presented the opportunity to laterally integrate the physicians affiliated with the respective organisations from the perspective of specialisation. PMID:23184925

  13. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the development and advancement of...

  14. Handling of petroleum tanker disaster upsets Spanish Earth sciences community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Judy

    In Spanish judicial and legislative arenas, and in the national press, investigations and accusations continue to be traded over exactly how the government made its decision to have the leaking petroleum tanker, Prestige, towed to a spot 220 kilometers off Spain's northwest coast—where it broke up—and whether this was the best way to keep the already-leaking tanker from spilling more oil.The incident occurred 19 November 2002; it has created one of Spain's worst environmental and economic disasters.

  15. Accelerator science in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-12-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  16. Accelerator science in medical physics

    PubMed Central

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  17. Medical Sciences Division report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This year`s Medical Sciences Division (MSD) Report is organized to show how programs in our division contribute to the core competencies of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). ORISE`s core competencies in education and training, environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, occupational and environmental health, and enabling research support the overall mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  18. A two-stage approach for medical supplies intermodal transportation in large-scale disaster responses.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the "helicopters and vehicles" intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  19. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  20. Emotional intelligence in medical laboratory science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Travis

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In addition to demographic-based questions, the survey contained a list of 16 items, three skills traditionally considered important for successful work in the medical laboratory as well as 13 EI-related items. Laboratory administrators were asked to rate each item for its importance for job performance, their satisfaction with the item's demonstration among currently working medical laboratory scientists (MLS) and the amount of responsibility college-based medical laboratory science programs should assume for the development of each skill or attribute. Participants were also asked about EI training in their laboratories and were given the opportunity to express any thoughts or opinions about EI as it related to medical laboratory science. This study revealed that each EI item, as well as each of the three other items, was considered to be very or extremely important for successful job performance. Administrators conveyed that they were satisfied overall, but indicated room for improvement in all areas, especially those related to EI. Those surveyed emphasized that medical laboratory science programs should continue to carry the bulk of the responsibility for the development of technical skills and theoretical knowledge and expressed support for increased attention to EI concepts at the individual, laboratory, and program levels.

  1. Recommendations for Modeling Disaster Responses in Public Health and Medicine: A Position Paper of The Society for Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Brandeau, Margaret L.; McCoy, Jessica H.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Holty, Jon-Erik; Bravata, Dena M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mathematical and simulation models are increasingly used to plan for and evaluate health sector responses to disasters, yet no clear consensus exists regarding best practices for the design, conduct, and reporting of such models. We examined a large selection of published health sector disaster response models to generate a set of best practice guidelines for such models. Methods We reviewed a spectrum of published disaster response models addressing public health or healthcare delivery, focusing in particular on the type of disaster and response decisions considered, decision makers targeted, choice of outcomes evaluated, modeling methodology, and reporting format. We developed initial recommendations for best practices for creating and reporting such models and refined these guidelines after soliciting feedback from response modeling experts and from members of the Society for Medical Decision Making. Results We propose six recommendations for model construction and reporting, inspired by the most exemplary models: Health sector disaster response models should address real-world problems; be designed for maximum usability by response planners; strike the appropriate balance between simplicity and complexity; include appropriate outcomes, which extend beyond those considered in traditional cost-effectiveness analyses; and be designed to evaluate the many uncertainties inherent in disaster response. Finally, good model reporting is particularly critical for disaster response models. Conclusions Quantitative models are critical tools for planning effective health sector responses to disasters. The recommendations we propose can increase the applicability and interpretability of future models, thereby improving strategic, tactical, and operational aspects of preparedness planning and response. PMID:19605887

  2. 38 CFR 17.86 - Provision of hospital care and medical services during certain disasters and emergencies under 38...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Training and Health-Care Eligibility Protection for Pension Recipients ... care and medical services during certain disasters and emergencies under 38 U.S.C. 1785. 17.86 Section 17.86 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Care...

  3. Infuriating Tensions: Science and the Medical Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, J. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Contemporary medical students, it is suggested, view science in particular and the intellect in general as difficult allies at best. What emerges are physicians without inquiring minds, physicians who bring to the bedside not curiosity and a desire to understand but a set of reflexes. (MLW)

  4. Strategic science: new frameworks to bring scientific expertise to environmental disaster response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoepler, Teresa Michelle; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Science is critical to society’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from environmental crises. Natural and technological disasters such as disease outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, oil spills, and tsunamis require coordinated scientific expertise across a range of disciplines to shape effective policies and protocols. Five years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, new organizational frameworks have arisen for scientists and engineers to apply their expertise to disaster response and recovery in a variety of capacities. Here, we describe examples of these opportunities, including an exciting new collaboration between the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG).

  5. Youth participation in disaster risk reduction through science clubs in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Glenn; Shaw, Rajib

    2015-04-01

    With the UN-led celebration of the International Year of Youth from August 2010 to August 2011 there has been a renewed interest in young people and the vital role they can play in important issues, such as disaster risk reduction (DRR). This study aims to examine the potential of science clubs as a vehicle for youth participation in DRR in the Philippines. A questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 658 science club members from different provinces of the Philippines participated in the survey. The result of the survey is used to explain how the major barriers to youth participation in DRR can be overcome. Through science clubs, the youth can become a link between their school, home and community and can contribute to spreading knowledge about disaster prevention, preparedness and response learned inside and outside the classroom. PMID:25440993

  6. Medical Countermeasures for Children in Public Health Emergencies, Disasters, or Terrorism.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Significant strides have been made over the past 10 to 15 years to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to address potential disaster hazards, including chemical, biological, radiologic, and nuclear threats. Significant and effective collaboration between the pediatric health community, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, and federal partners, such as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, and other federal agencies, over the past 5 years has resulted in substantial gains in addressing the needs of children related to disaster preparedness in general and MCMs in particular. Yet, major gaps still remain related to MCMs for children, a population highly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to such threats, because many vaccines and pharmaceuticals approved for use by adults as MCMs do not yet have pediatric formulations, dosing information, or safety information. As a result, the nation's stockpiles and other caches (designated supply of MCMs) where pharmacotherapeutic and other MCMs are stored are less prepared to address the needs of children compared with those of adults in the event of a disaster. This policy statement provides recommendations to close the remaining gaps for the development and use of MCMs in children during public health emergencies or disasters. The progress made by federal agencies to date to address the needs of children and the shared commitment of collaboration that characterizes the current relationship between the pediatric health community and the federal agencies responsible for MCMs should encourage all child advocates to invest the necessary energy and resources now to complete the process of remedying the remaining significant gaps in preparedness. PMID:26729737

  7. The use of classroom training and simulation in the training of medical responders for airport disaster.

    PubMed

    Idrose, A M; Adnan, W A W; Villa, G F; Abdullah, A H A

    2007-01-01

    There is a dire need to have complementary form of disaster training which is cost effective, relatively easy to conduct, comprehensive, effective and acceptable. This will complement field drills training. A classroom-based training and simulation module was built by combining multiple tools: Powerpoint lectures, simulations utilising the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) schematic module into 'floortop' model and video show of previous disaster drill. 76 participants made up of medical responders, categorised as Level 1 (specialists and doctors), Level 2 (paramedics), Level 3 (assistant paramedics) and Level 4 (health attendants and drivers) were trained using this module. A pre-test with validated questions on current airport disaster plans was carried out before the training. At the end of training, participants answered similar questions as post-test. Participants also answered questionnaire for assessment of training's acceptance. There was a mean rise from 47.3 (18.8%) to 84.0 (18.7%) in post-test (p<0.05). For Levels 1, 2, 3 and 4 the scores were 94.8 (6.3)%, 90.1 (11)%, 80.3 (20.1)% and 65 (23.4)% respectively. Nevertheless Level 4 group gained most increase in knowledge rise from baseline pre-test score (51.4%). Feedback from the questionnaire showed that the training module was highly acceptable. A classroom-based training can be enhanced with favourable results. The use of classroom training and simulation effectively improves the knowledge of disaster plan significantly on the back of its low cost, relatively-easy to conduct, fun and holistic nature. All Levels of participants (from specialists to drivers) can be grouped together for training. Classroom training and simulation can overcome the problem of "dead-document" phenomenon or "paper-plan syndrome". PMID:17183034

  8. Post-traumatic Stress and Growth Among Medical Student Volunteers After the March 2011 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan: Implications for Student Involvement with Future Disasters.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David; Prioleau, Phoebe; Taku, Kanako; Naruse, Yu; Sekine, Hideharu; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Katz, Craig; Yanagisawa, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The March 2011 "triple disaster" (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident) had a profound effect on northern Japan. Many medical students at Fukushima Medical University volunteered in the relief effort. We aimed to investigate the nature of students' post-disaster involvement and examine the psychological impact of their experiences using a survey containing elements from the Davidson Trauma Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. We collected 494 surveys (70 % response rate), of which 132 students (26.7 %) had volunteered. Volunteers were more likely to be older, have witnessed the disaster in person, had their hometowns affected, and had a family member or close friend injured. In the month after 3/11, volunteers were more likely to want to help, feel capable of helping, and report an increased desire to become a physician. Both in the month after 3/11 and the most recent month before the survey, there were no significant differences in distressing symptoms, such as confusion, anger, or sadness, between volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers reported a significantly higher level of posttraumatic growth than non-volunteers. Participating in a greater variety of volunteer activities was associated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth, particularly in the Personal Strength domain. There may be self-selection in some criteria, since students who were likely to be resistant to confusion/anxiety/sadness may have felt more capable of helping and been predisposed to volunteer. However, participation in post-disaster relief efforts did not appear to have a harmful effect on medical students, an important consideration for mobilizing volunteers after future disasters. PMID:26169115

  9. Basic medical science education must include medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath

    2004-10-01

    Medical Informatics is the science and art of processing medical information. In this age of "Information Explosion" choosing the useful one is rather difficult, and there lies the scope of electronic database management. However, still many outstanding personnel related to the healthcare sector take pride in being "computer illiterate". The onus of the best use lies on the end-user health care providers only. Another term tele-health encompasses all the e-health and telemedicine services. Computer aided or assisted learning (CAL) is a computer based tutorial method that uses the computer to pose questions, provide remedial information and chart a student through a course. Now the emphasis in medical education, is on problem based learning (PBL) and there CAL could be of utmost help if used judiciously. Basic Medical Education and Research lays the foundation for advancing and applying proper healthcare delivery systems. There is no doubt that deep knowledge of anatomy is mandatory for successful surgery. Also, comprehensive knowledge of physiology is essential for grasping the principles of pathology and pharmacology adequately, to avoid incorrect and inadequate practice of medicine. Similarly, medical informatics is not just a subject to be learnt and forgotten after the first professional MBBS examination. The final aim of every student should not only be to become a good user but also an expert for advancing medical knowledge base through medical informatics. In view of the fast changing world of medical informatics, it is of utmost necessity to formulate a flexible syllabus rather than a rigid one. PMID:15907048

  10. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST) Yoshiyuki KANEDA Disaster mitigation center Nagoya University/ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Mustafa ELDIK Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and       Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project The target of this project is the Marmara Sea earthquake after the Izmit (Kocaeli) Earthquake 1999 along to the North Anatolian fault. According to occurrences of historical Earthquakes, epicenters have moved from East to West along to the North Anatolian Fault. There is a seismic gap in the Marmara Sea. In Marmara region, there is Istanbul with high populations such as Tokyo. Therefore, Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large Earthquakes and Tsunamis in cooperation with each other in SATREPS project. This project is composed of Multidisciplinary research project including observation researches, simulation researches, educational researches, and goals are as follows, ① To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on Multidisciplinary research activities. ② To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. ③ To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. ④ To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate Multidisciplinary research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey.

  11. Disaster preparedness of Canadian trauma centres: the perspective of medical directors of trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, David; Haas, Barbara; Ahmed, Najma; Tien, Homer; Nathens, Avery

    2011-01-01

    Background Owing to their constant readiness to treat injured patients, trauma centres are essential to regional responses to mass casualty incidents (MCIs). Reviews of recent MCIs suggest that trauma centre preparedness has frequently been limited. We set out to evaluate Canadian trauma centre preparedness and the extent of their integration into a regional response to MCIs. Methods We conducted a survey of Canadian level-1 trauma centres (n = 29) to characterize their existing disaster-response plans and to identify areas where pre-paredness could be improved. The survey was directed to the medical director of trauma at each centre. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. Results Twenty-three (79%) trauma centres in 5 provinces responded. Whereas most (83%) reported the presence of a committee dedicated to disaster preparedness, only half of the medical directors of trauma were members of these committees. Almost half (43%) the institutions had not run any disaster drill in the previous 2 years. Only 70% of trauma centres used communications assets designed to function during MCIs. Additionally, more than half of the trauma directors (59%) did not know if their institutions had the ability to sustain operations for at least 72 hours during MCIs. Conclusion The results of this study suggest important opportunities to better prepare Canadian trauma centers to respond to an MCI. The main areas identified for potential improvement include the need for the standardization of MCI planning and response at a regional level and the implementation of strategies such as stockpiling of resources and novel communication strategies to avoid functional collapse during an MCI. PMID:21251427

  12. Incertitude in disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities: A case study of the L'Aquila earthquake trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Oki, Satoko

    2015-04-01

    What disaster sciences are expected by the society is to prevent or mitigate future natural disasters, and therefore it is necessary to foresee natural disasters. However, various constraints often make the foreseeing difficult so that there is a high incertitude in the social contribution of disaster sciences. If scientists overstep this limitation, they will be held even criminally responsible. The L'Aquila trial in Italy is such a recent example and so we have performed data collections, hearing investigations, analyses of the reasons for the initial court's judgment, etc., to explore the incertitude of disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities. As a result, we concluded that the casualties during the L'Aquila earthquake were mainly due to a careless "safety declaration" by the vice-director of the Civil Protection Agency, where the incertitude of disaster sciences had never been considered. In addition, news media which reported only this "safety declaration" were also seriously responsible for the casualties. The accused other than the vice-director were only morally responsible, because their meeting remarks included poor risk communication in disaster sciences but those were not reported to the citizens in advance to the L'Aquila earthquake. In the presentation, we will also discuss the similarities and differences between our conclusions above and the reasons for the appeals court's judgement, which will be published in February.

  13. Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

  14. Ethnomedical science and African medical practice.

    PubMed

    Matthe, D S

    1989-01-01

    The ethnomedical sciences are ethnobotany, ethnobiology, ethnopharmacology and phytotherapy. These fields are concerned with medicinal plants only, and the traditional medicines are mostly used. The author has extended the ethnomedical sciences by using traditional medicines in ethnomedicine, bacteriology, ethnobotany, and biochemistry, and thus ethnomedical sciences can be studied by a modern approach. The traditional doctors play a significant part in health care. They have both black and white patients, and they treat about 60%-70% of black patients in the country. Though they have been treating patients for many years, the patients' employers do not accept traditional doctors' medical certificates when they go back to work after treatment. In this case they first go to the traditional doctor for treatment and then go to an academically qualified medical practitioner solely because they need a medical certificate for their employers. Traditional doctors have been practising for centuries. In this country they are known as inyanga or ngaka and these designations mean doctor. Umthakathi or moloi means witch. Witchdoctor translates as Inyanga-mthakathi of ngaka-moloi. PMID:2493558

  15. Integration of foreign and local medical staff in a disaster area: the Honduras and El Salvador experiences.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Yehezkel

    2003-06-01

    International medical aid after natural disasters may take various forms, ranging from self-sufficient military forces to single experts or specialists who function primarily as advisers. A model integrating foreign and local medical staff has not previously been reported. In response to the call for international aid by the Honduran and El Salvadorian governments in the wake of Hurricane Mitch in November 1998 and the San Salvador earthquake in January 2001, Israel sent medical supplies and 10 member teams of medical professionals to each country. The aim of the present paper is to describe the unique Israeli approach to providing healthcare in disaster areas by integrating foreign and local medical staff, and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages. The paper focuses on the experience of the two emergency medicine physicians on the team who were assigned to the Atlantida General Hospital in La Ceiba, Honduras. The same team in San Salvador subsequently applied the same approach. PMID:12789069

  16. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-26

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  17. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E

    2007-09-17

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  18. Science Diplomacy: U.S. Response to the LUSI Disaster, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, C. R.; Loree, J.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. is recognized globally for its leadership in science and technology. Scientific cooperation is an important tool in the application of "smart power" to create partnerships with countries around the world. The State Department's Office of the Science Advisor works to increase the number of scientists engaged in diplomacy through coordination with the American Association of the Advancement of Science, Science Diplomacy Fellows, Jefferson Science Fellowships, and the Embassy Science Fellows Program. In addition, scientific cooperation occurs at all levels through relationships between science faculties, scientific institutions, and technical assistance programs. President Obama made increased collaboration on science and technology, the appointment of new science envoys, and the opening of new scientific centers of excellence in Africa, and the Middle East, and Southeast Asia a central component of his Cairo speech. Indonesia, science diplomacy crosses myriad programs. Negotiations on a bilateral Science and Technology Agreement between the U.S. and Indonesia will begin in September. USAID provides assistance in volcano/earthquake monitoring, forest management and reduction of illegal logging with DOJ, clean water and sanitation, the Coral Triangle Initiative to sustain Indonesia's marine biodiversity, coastal resilience with NOAA, clean energy, clean air initiatives with EPA, and emergency disaster response. The LUSI mudflow disaster, located just 27 km south of the U.S. Consulate in Surabaya, has already displaced thousands, has contributed to environmental degradation, and threatens critical transportation infrastructure. U.S. assistance to Indonesia to mitigate the impact of the LUSI mudflow on surrounding communities and the environment was complicated by questions surrounding the cause of the mud: industrial accident or natural disaster. But, the devastating impact on the local environment, population, and businesses was unquestioned. Experts from the

  19. Retrospection-Simulation-Revision: Approach to the Analysis of the Composition and Characteristics of Medical Waste at a Disaster Relief Site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Lihua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A large amount of medical waste is produced during disaster relief, posing a potential hazard to the habitat and the environment. A comprehensive understanding of the composition and characteristics of medical waste that requires management is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for medical waste management. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the characteristics of the medical waste that is generated at disaster relief sites. This paper discusses the analysis of the composition and characteristics of medical waste at a disaster relief site using the retrospection-simulation-revision method. For this study, we obtained 35 medical relief records of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, May 2008 from a field cabin hospital. We first present a retrospective analysis of the relief medical records, and then, we simulate the medical waste generated in the affected areas. We ultimately determine the composition and characteristics of medical waste in the affected areas using untreated medical waste to revise the composition of the simulated medical waste. The results from 35 cases showed that the medical waste generated from disaster relief consists of the following: plastic (43.2%), biomass (26.3%), synthetic fiber (15.3%), rubber (6.6%), liquid (6.6%), inorganic salts (0.3%) and metals (1.7%). The bulk density of medical relief waste is 249 kg/m3, and the moisture content is 44.75%. The data should be provided to assist the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, disposal and contamination control of medical waste in affected areas. In this paper, we wish to introduce this research method of restoring the medical waste generated in disaster relief to readers and researchers. In addition, we hope more disaster relief agencies will become aware of the significance of medical case recording and storing. This may be very important for the environmental evaluation of medical waste in disaster areas, as

  20. Retrospection-Simulation-Revision: Approach to the Analysis of the Composition and Characteristics of Medical Waste at a Disaster Relief Site

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Lihua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A large amount of medical waste is produced during disaster relief, posing a potential hazard to the habitat and the environment. A comprehensive understanding of the composition and characteristics of medical waste that requires management is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for medical waste management. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the characteristics of the medical waste that is generated at disaster relief sites. This paper discusses the analysis of the composition and characteristics of medical waste at a disaster relief site using the retrospection-simulation-revision method. For this study, we obtained 35 medical relief records of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, May 2008 from a field cabin hospital. We first present a retrospective analysis of the relief medical records, and then, we simulate the medical waste generated in the affected areas. We ultimately determine the composition and characteristics of medical waste in the affected areas using untreated medical waste to revise the composition of the simulated medical waste. The results from 35 cases showed that the medical waste generated from disaster relief consists of the following: plastic (43.2%), biomass (26.3%), synthetic fiber (15.3%), rubber (6.6%), liquid (6.6%), inorganic salts (0.3%) and metals (1.7%). The bulk density of medical relief waste is 249 kg/m3, and the moisture content is 44.75%. The data should be provided to assist the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, disposal and contamination control of medical waste in affected areas. In this paper, we wish to introduce this research method of restoring the medical waste generated in disaster relief to readers and researchers. In addition, we hope more disaster relief agencies will become aware of the significance of medical case recording and storing. This may be very important for the environmental evaluation of medical waste in disaster areas, as

  1. Medical care provided during a disaster should be immune from liability or criminal prosecution.

    PubMed

    Rolfsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast and resulted in widespread devastation. The collapse of social services including medical care was followed by chaos and resulted in many deaths. In this aftermath, a physician and two nurses were charged with homicide in the deaths of four patients who were under their care at a New Orleans Hospital. The circumstances surrounding these deaths are unclear, and causation far from proven. But in any disaster setting, if healthcare providers contribute to a patient's death, there are a limited number of possible scenarios. The actions may be done with criminal intent, may be the result of medical errors, may involve the principle of double effect, or finally, and most problematic, the deaths may involve euthanasia (either voluntary or involuntary). This review discusses each possibility and the ethical and legal basis for immunity in these situations. Because the circumstances were so unique, no comparison to routine practice can be made, but an interesting comparison to battlefield ethics can be made. Finally the rationale for immunity is explored, including a utilitarian approach, the good Samaritan laws, and various existing immunity statutes. PMID:17987961

  2. 78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science...) Regulatory Science Symposium. The symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the...

  3. Risk communication, geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Issues in Japan's disaster management system were revealed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, and by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident. Many important decisions were based on scientific data, but appear not to have sufficiently considered the uncertainties of the data and the societal aspects of the problems. The issues that arose show the need for scientists to appropriately deal with risk communication and geoethics and issues. This paper discusses necessity of education for risk communication, geoethics and decisions science in school before students become sicentific decision makers in future.

  4. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  5. Medical treatment at Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport after hurricane Katrina: the experience of disaster medical assistance teams WA-1 and OR-2.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher; Jui, Jonathan; Miller, Helen C; Jobe, Kathleen A

    2007-07-01

    In the week following Hurricane Katrina, over 3000 patients were evacuated by air from a triage and medical treatment station at the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport. This represents the largest air evacuation in history. Over 24,000 additional evacuees were transported from the airport to shelters. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) from several US states were deployed to the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport to provide medical care to those evacuated from New Orleans. Despite warning from the US National Weather Service of catastrophic damage to New Orleans, adequate medical staffing was not attained at the airport triage station until 6 days after the hurricane struck. Organizational lapses, including inadequate medical and operational planning, understaffing of medical personnel, and failure to utilize Incident Command System, diminished the effectiveness of the Hurricane Katrina New Orleans Medical Operation. PMID:17574144

  6. Post-Nargis medical care: experience of a Korean Disaster Relief Team in Myanmar after the cyclone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Han, Seung Baik; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Jun Sig; Hong, EunSeog

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and clinical data of patients observed by the Korean Disaster Relief Team, during its deployment in Myanmar, from 6 to 12 June 2008. A cross-sectional, medical record-based study in the Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic, established a month after the cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar. Data collected included demographic variables, and whether or not the problem was acute or chronic, and traumatic or medical. We included 2641 patients in the study. Of those, 57.6% presented with an acute condition, and the rest had chronic conditions. Approximately 5% of the patients presented with trauma/injury; and in 29% of the trauma cases, the problem was directly related to the cyclone. The most common diagnostic category was musculoskeletal problems (21.5%), followed by respiratory (15.3%), and digestive (14.6%) abnormalities. A little over 5% of patients had posttraumatic stress disorder, and the odds ratio was 2.62 (95% confidence interval 1.63-4.21) for women to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Most of the patients (97.5%) had minor problems and were sent home. In conclusion, a huge unmet medical need in at-risk populations and a relatively large proportion of chronic medical conditions should be considered in any future planning of a similar type of disaster. PMID:19654547

  7. Paper 8775 - Integrating Natural Resources and Ecological Science into the Disaster Risk CYCLE: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosnan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Familiar to disaster risk reduction (DRR) scientists and professionals, the disaster cycle is an adaptive approach that involves planning, response and learning for the next event. It has proven effective in saving lives and helping communities around the world deal with natural and other hazards. But it has rarely been applied to natural resource and ecological science, despite the fact that many communities are dependent on these resources. This presentation will include lessons learned from applying science to tackle ecological consequences in several disasters in the US and globally, including the Colorado Floods, the SE Asia tsunami, the Montserrat volcanic eruption, and US SAFRR tsunami scenario. The presentation discusses the role that science and scientists can play at each phase of the disaster cycle. The consequences of not including disaster cycles in the management of natural systems leaves these resources and the huge investments made to protect highly vulnerable. The presentation discusses how The presentation discusses how science can help government and communities in planning and responding to these events. It concludes with a set of lessons learned and guidlines for moving forward.

  8. Medicine and medical sciences in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gathiram, Prem; Hänninen, Osmo

    2014-06-01

    The year 2014 is an important year because it will mark the 25th Anniversary of the founding of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS) and initial talks to launch the International Society for Pathophysiology (ISP). Both these organizations had a foothold in Finland and both occurred during the IUPS Centennial Celebration Congress in 1989. The congress was hosted by the Finnish Physiological Society in Helsinki, Finland in July 1989. For both organizations, Prof OsmoHänninen was instrumental in the launching and inauguration of AAPS and also to initiate the creation of ISP. In order to celebrate the 25th Anniversaries of both organizations it was decided to hold the ISP2014 congress on the African soil. Hence in 2004, at the 4th international congress of AAPS held in Morocco, Wail Benjeloun.the then secretary general of AAPS, submitted successfully a bid to host ISP2014 in Morocco. Following the inauguration of AAPS in Helsinki, the 1st Congress of AAPS was held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1992 where the Constitution of AAPS was drawn up. The Constitution was adopted at the 2nd congress of AAPS in Durban, South Africa in 1997. Following this congress, the next congress, as scheduled, was held in Pretoria, South Africa in 2000. The last congress (6th) of AAPS was held on 1-5 September 2012 in Ismailia, Egypt. This was an historical congress because of many reasons and amongst these was the appointment of Anthony B. Ebeigbe, Department of Physiology, University of Benin, Nigeria as its first Editor-in-Chief of its official journal, the Journal of the African association of Physiological Sciences (JAAPS). He successfully published the first issue in June 2013, as mandated in Ismailia. The World's medicine has its initial root in Africa and in fact it was in Memphis, Egypt as early as 2700 BC. During the Ptulomaic period the seat of medicine was in Alexandria, Egypt and Medical knowledge then spread to the Greeks 330 BC. Many western medical scientists

  9. Perceptions of Medical Sciences Students Towards Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Payahoo, Laleh; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge of people particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic products is important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of medical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different faculty majors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the one was about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge as well as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoring of 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable and good, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the students across different gender, major and degree groups. Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD) of knowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low, 48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and their health effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use of efficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial. PMID:24688923

  10. Science and Technology in Regional Flood Disaster Pilots: A GEOSS Capacity Building Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, S. W.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Mandl, D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes activities and results of melding basic scientific research in remote sensing with applied science and technology development and infusion to implement regional flood pilot programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean Region. These regional flood pilots support local and national agency involvement in emergency response and humanitarian assistance activities using orbital, sub-orbital, and in-situ sensors combined with predictive models and socio-economic data to form a cohesive, interoperable set of systems that cover the full cycle of disaster mitigation, warning, response, and recovery for societal benefit. Global satellite coverage is coordinated through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) in conjunction with the United Nations Space Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). Other international non-government organizations plus regional and local agencies all play individual roles in exploring the science results, applying the observations and model outputs to form geo-referenced maps that provide improved situational awareness and environmental intelligence for disaster management. The improvements to flood forecast and nowcast outputs include higher resolution drainage and hydrology mapping, improved retrievals for microwave data for soil moisture, plus improved validation from regional ground truth databases. Flow gauge and river depth archive data from local assets provide improved validation of flood model results. Incorporation of atmospheric correction using ground truth data from calibration and validation sites enables better detection and classification of plant species identification and plant stress. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) are implemented to provide internet access to satellite tasking, data processing, and distribution/notification in addition to model outputs and other local and regional data sets

  11. Foreign medical teams: what role can they play in response to a catastrophic disaster in the US?

    PubMed

    Hanfling, Dan; Bouri, Nidhi

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that a catastrophic event in the continental United States (US) can overwhelm domestic medical response capabilities. The recent focus on response planning for a catastrophic earthquake in the New Madrid Seismic Zone and the detonation of an improvised nuclear device also underscore the need for improved plans. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the potential role of foreign medical teams (FMTs) in providing medical response to a catastrophic event in the US. We reviewed existing policies and frameworks that address medical response to catastrophic events and humanitarian emergencies and assess current response capabilities by a variety of FMTs. While several policies and plans outline the role of the US in providing medical assistance during foreign disasters, further planning is necessary to identify how the US will integrate foreign medical assistance during a domestic catastrophic event. We provide an overview of considerations related to federal roles and responsibilities for managing and integrating FMTs into the overarching domestic medical response to a catastrophic disaster occurring in the continental US. PMID:24112384

  12. Medical students' participation in the 2009 Novel H1N1 influenza vaccination administration: policy alternatives for effective student utilization to enhance surge capacity in disasters.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Heather E; Barnett, Daniel J; Hayanga, Awori J; Brown, Meghan E; Filak, Andrew T

    2011-06-01

    As cases of 2009 novel H1N1 influenza became prevalent in Cincinnati, Ohio, Hamilton County Public Health called upon the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine to enhance its surge capacity in vaccination administration. Although the collaboration was well organized, it became evident that a system should exist for medical students' involvement in disaster response and recovery efforts in advance of a disaster. Therefore, 5 policy alternatives for effective utilization of medical students in disaster-response efforts have been examined: maintaining the status quo, enhancing the Medical Reserve Corps, creating medical school-based disaster-response units, using students within another selected disaster-response organization, or devising an entirely new plan for medical students' utilization. The intent of presenting these policy alternatives is to foster a policy dialogue around creating a more formalized approach for integrating medical students into disaster surge capacity-enhancement strategies. Using medical students to supplement the current and future workforce may help substantially in achieving goals related to workforce requirements. Discussions will be necessary to translate policy into practice. PMID:21482704

  13. RealityFlythrough: Enhancing Situational Awareness for Medical Response to Disasters Using Ubiquitous Video

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Neil J.; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    The first moments at a disater scene are chaotic. The command center initially operates with little knowledge of hazards, geography and casualties, building up knowledge of the event slowly as information trickles in by voice radio channels. RealityFlythrough is a tele-presence system that stitches together live video feeds in real-time, using the principle of visual closure, to give command center personnel the illusion of being able to explore the scene interactively by moving smoothly between the video feeds. Using RealityFlythrough, medical, fire, law enforcement, hazardous materials, and engineering experts may be able to achieve situational awareness earlier, and better manage scarce resources. The RealityFlythrough system is composed of camera units with off-the-shelf GPS and orientation systems and a server/viewing station that offers access to images collected by the camera units in real time by position/orientation. In initial field testing using an experimental mesh 802.11 wireless network, two camera unit operators were able to create an interactive image of a simulated disaster scene in about five minutes. PMID:16779092

  14. 802.11 wireless infrastructure to enhance medical response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Arisoylu, Mustafa; Mishra, Rajesh; Rao, Ramesh; Lenert, Leslie A

    2005-01-01

    802.11 (WiFi) is a well established network communications protocol that has wide applicability in civil infrastructure. This paper describes research that explores the design of 802.11 networks enhanced to support data communications in disaster environments. The focus of these efforts is to create network infrastructure to support operations by Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) units and Federally-sponsored regional teams that respond to mass casualty events caused by a terrorist attack with chemical, biological, nuclear or radiological weapons or by a hazardous materials spill. In this paper, we describe an advanced WiFi-based network architecture designed to meet the needs of MMRS operations. This architecture combines a Wireless Distribution Systems for peer-to-peer multihop connectivity between access points with flexible and shared access to multiple cellular backhauls for robust connectivity to the Internet. The architecture offers a high bandwidth data communications infrastructure that can penetrate into buildings and structures while also supporting commercial off-the-shelf end-user equipment such as PDAs. It is self-configuring and is self-healing in the event of a loss of a portion of the infrastructure. Testing of prototype units is ongoing. PMID:16778990

  15. The medical association activity and pediatric care after the earthquake disaster in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shintaro; Kikuchi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a gigantic earthquake struck eastern Japan. Utilities such as electricity, water, gas and telecommunication were interrupted. In Koriyama, the City Hall collapsed and government administration offices had to be moved to a nearby baseball stadium that had been designed to include facilities for use during a pandemic. An operations center was set up in this stadium. As members of the Koriyama Medical Association, we following the disaster protocol and set up our operations center in the Koriyama Medical Care Hospital. One large hospital with 280 inpatients and another hospital with 150 inpatients had been heavily damaged. Transfer of those patients to other hospitals without the use of telecommunications was extremely difficult. Many doctors in member hospitals and clinics went out of their way to cooperate throughout the crisis. Up to 5,000 people from the radiation evacuation zone were rushed to Koriyama. They stayed in schools and community centers, where we provided them with healthcare. Even in Koriyama, which is 60 km away from the Fukushima nuclear power plant, radiation levels were high, especially for the first few weeks. Citizens were advised to stay at home and keep their doors and windows closed. These drastic measures and frequent earthquake aftershocks were very stressful, especially for children. To help prevent children from developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a project team composed of various groups caring for children was developed, and this team took action to protect children. Through these efforts we hoped to provide children with an appropriate environment to grow normally, even in a zone of persistent low-level radiation. We demonstrated once again that our members' long history of mutual assistance and cooperation with the administration was the main cornerstone to overcome the crisis. PMID:22410536

  16. Psychiatric and Medical Disorders in the after Math of the Uttarakhand Disaster: Assessment, Approach, and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Channaveerachari, Naveen Kumar; Raj, Aneel; Joshi, Suvarna; Paramita, Prajna; Somanathan, Revathi; Chandran, Dhanya; Kasi, Sekar; Bangalore, N. Roopesh; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the descriptive data on the frequency of medical and psychiatric morbidity and also to discuss various pertinent issues relevant to the disaster management, the future challenges and psychosocial needs of the 2013 floods in Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Observation was undertaken by the disaster management team of National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in the worst affected four districts of Uttarakhand. Qualified psychiatrists diagnosed the patients using the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Data were collected by direct observation, interview of the survivors, group sessions, individual key-informant interview, individual session, and group interventions. Results: Patients with physical health problems formed the majority of treatment seekers (39.6%) in this report. Only about 2% had disaster induced psychiatric diagnoses. As was expected, minor mental disorders in the form of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders formed majority of the psychiatric morbidity. Substance use disorders appear to be very highly prevalent in the community; however, we were not able to assess the morbidity systematically. Conclusions: The mental health infrastructure and manpower is abysmally inadequate. There is an urgent need to implement the National Mental Health Program to increase the mental health infrastructure and services in the four major disaster-affected districts. PMID:25969596

  17. Determinants of intention to leave among non-medical employees after a nuclear disaster: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Saeka; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey among non-medical employees working at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, in order to determine the factors associated with their intentions to leave their jobs during the nuclear disaster. Participants We asked 287 employees (166 men and 121 women) in the study. Methods We asked about their intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. We also asked about relevant factors, including the participants’ demographic factors, living situations and working environments. Results We found that in employees younger than 40 (OR=4.73, 95% CI 1.74 to 12.85, p=0.002), being married (OR=3.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 9.79, p=0.044), measurements of the ambient dose rates in their homes after the accident (OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.65 to 17.14, p=0.005), anxiety about their relationships with their colleagues after the accident (OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 10.16, p=0.005) and the influence of radiation on the workplace (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p=0.014) were independently associated with the non-medical employees’ intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. Conclusions Our results suggest the need for continuous risk communication regarding such factors and the provision of information about the health effects of radiation exposure to non-medical employees after nuclear disasters. PMID:27436669

  18. Medical Laboratory Science: An International Comparison for Credentials Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Solveig M.; Karlsson, Britta

    Information is presented to help medical technology schools abroad evaluate their credentials in comparison to U.S. requirements. After defining the subfields of medical technology, also called medical laboratory science, a summary is provided of the educational requirements, the professional titles, and the certification recognition of medical…

  19. Factors influencing readiness to deploy in disaster response: findings from a cross-sectional survey of the Department of Veterans Affairs Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System (DEMPS) program provides a system of volunteers whereby active or retired Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) personnel can register to be deployed to support other VA facilities or the nation during national emergencies or disasters. Both early and ongoing volunteer training is required to participate. Methods This study aims to identify factors that impact willingness to deploy in the event of an emergency. This analysis was based on responses from 2,385 survey respondents (response rate, 29%). Latent variable path models were developed and tested using the EQS structural equations modeling program. Background demographic variables of education, age, minority ethnicity, and female gender were used as predictors of intervening latent variables of DEMPS Volunteer Experience, Positive Attitude about Training, and Stress. The model had acceptable fit statistics, and all three intermediate latent variables significantly predicted the outcome latent variable Readiness to Deploy. Results DEMPS Volunteer Experience and a Positive Attitude about Training were associated with Readiness to Deploy. Stress was associated with decreased Readiness to Deploy. Female gender was negatively correlated with Readiness to Deploy; however, there was an indirect relationship between female gender and Readiness to Deploy through Positive Attitude about Training. Conclusions These findings suggest that volunteer emergency management response programs such as DEMPS should consider how best to address the factors that may make women less ready to deploy than men in order to ensure adequate gender representation among emergency responders. The findings underscore the importance of training opportunities to ensure that gender-sensitive support is a strong component of emergency response, and may apply to other emergency response programs such as the Medical Reserve Corps and the American Red Cross. PMID:25038628

  20. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  1. The effective factors on library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Sajad, Maryam Sadat; Rahmani, Sedigheh; Bahrami, Susan; Papi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The efficient use of libraries can be an important factor in determining the educational quality of Universities. Therefore, investigation and identification of factors affecting library anxiety becomes increasingly necessary. The purpose of this research is to determine the factors effecting library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was an applied survey research using Bostick's Library Anxiety questionnaire as data gathering tool. The statistical population consisted of all students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (15011 students) with the sample size of 375 using stratified random sampling. The validity of data gathering tool was confirmed by experts in the library and information science and its reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.92). Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA) were used for data analysis using SPSS 18 software. Results: Findings showed that the mean of library anxiety score was 2.68 and 2.66 for students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences respectively which is above average (2.5). Furthermore, age and gender had no meaningful effect on the library anxiety of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, but gender had a meaningful effect on library anxiety of students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences while age had no such effect. Conclusion: The results showed that the mean of factors effecting library anxiety in students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is higher than average and therefore not satisfactory and only factors relating to feeling comfortable in the library is lower than average and somewhat satisfactory. PMID:25250358

  2. A Medical School--Elementary School Science Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Houston Elementary Science Alliance. This program uses medical school resources and personnel to provide elementary school science teachers with scientific information and hands-on activities that stress the doing of science and develops teachers to serve as a resource for their colleagues. (MDH)

  3. Citizen Science for Earth Observation: Applications in Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotovirta, V.; Toivanen, T.; Tergujeff, R.; Hame, T.; Molinier, M.

    2015-04-01

    Citizen science is a promising way to increase temporal and spatial coverages of in-situ data, and to aid in data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present how citizen science can be used together with Earth observation, and demonstrate its value through three pilot projects focusing on forest biomass analysis, data management in emergencies and water quality monitoring. We also provide recommendations and ideas for follow-up activities. In the forest biomass analysis pilot, in the state of Durango (Mexico), local volunteers make in-situ forest inventory measurements with mobile devices. The collected data is combined with Landsat-8 imagery to derive forest biomass map of the area. The study area includes over 390 permanent sampling plots that will provide reference data for concept validation and verification. The emergency data management pilot focuses in the Philippines, in the areas affected by the typhoons Haiyan in November 2013 and Hagupit in December 2014. Data collected by emergency workers and citizens are combined with satellite data (Landsat-8, VHR if available) to intensify the disaster recovery activities and the coordination efforts. Simple processes for citizens, nongovernmental organisations and volunteers are developed to find and utilize up to date and freely available satellite imagery for coordination purposes and for building new not-for-profit services in disaster situations. In the water quality monitoring pilot, citizens around the Baltic Sea area contribute to the algae situation awareness by collecting algae observations using a mobile application. In-situ observations are compared with surface algal bloom products based on the satellite imagery, e.g. Aqua MODIS images with 500 meter resolution. As an outcome, the usability of the citizen observations together with satellite data in the algae monitoring will be evaluated.

  4. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Medical Students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddigh, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the use of vocabulary learning strategies among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) in Iran as an EFL context. A questionnaire was administered to 120 medical students (53 males, 67 females) to identify; 1) the effective types of vocabulary learning strategies used by the learners and 2)…

  5. 75 FR 13557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Eureka Meeting... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  6. 75 FR 35077 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

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    2012-06-15

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  9. 78 FR 11658 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-02-19

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  12. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  13. 78 FR 35942 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  14. 78 FR 28600 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

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  15. Essential key indicators for disaster medical response suggested to be included in a national uniform protocol for documentation of major incidents: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Registration of data from a major incident or disaster serves several purposes such as to record data for evaluation of response as well as for research. Data needed can often be retrieved after an incident while other must be recorded during the incident. There is a need for a consensus on what is essential to record from a disaster response. The aim of this study was to identify key indicators essential for initial disaster medical response registration. By this is meant nationally accepted processes involved, from the time of the emergency call to the emergency medical communication centre until medical care is provided at the emergency department. Methods A three round Delphi study was conducted. Thirty experts with a broad knowledge in disaster and emergency response and medical management were invited. In this study we estimated 30 experts to be approximately one third of the number in Sweden eligible for recruitment. Process, structure and outcome indicators for the initial disaster medical response were identified. These were based on previous research and expressed as statements and were grouped into eight categories, and presented to the panel of experts. The experts were instructed to score each statement, using a five point Likert scale, and were also invited to include additional statements. Statements reaching a predefined consensus level of 80% were considered as essential to register. Results In total 97 statements were generated, 77 statements reached consensus. The 77 statements covered parts of all relevant aspects involved in the initial disaster medical response. The 20 indicators that did not reach consensus mostly concerned patient related times in hospital, types of support systems and security for health care staff. Conclusions The Delphi technique can be used for reaching consensus of data, comprising process, structure and outcome indicators, identified as essential for recording from major incidents and disasters. PMID

  16. Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Katrina Inspired Disaster Screenings (KIDS): Psychometric Testing of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Hurricane Assessment and Referral Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Post disaster psychosocial surveillance procedures are important for guiding effective and efficient recovery. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Katrina Inspired Disaster Screenings (KIDS) is a model designed with the goal of assisting recovering communities in understanding the needs of and targeting services…

  17. Response capabilities of the National Guard: a focus on domestic disaster medical response.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The National Guard has a 373-year history of responding to the nation's call to duty for service both at home and abroad (The National Guard Bureau Web site: Available at http://www.ngb.army.mil/default. aspx.). The National Guard (NG) is a constitutionally unique organization (United States Constitution, US Government Printing Office Web site: Available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/constitution/index.html.). Today's Guard conducts domestic disaster response and civilian assistance missions on a daily basis. Yet, the NG's role, mission, and capabilities are not well-known or understood. The National Response Framework (NRF) places significant responsibility on the local and state disaster planners (Department of Homeland Security: National Response Framework. US Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC, January 2008). The public health professionals are an integral component of the disaster planning community. It is critical that the public health community be knowledgeable of types and capabilities of all the response assets at their disposal. PMID:20349703

  18. Discontinuity and disaster: gaps and the negotiation of culpability in medication delivery.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Sidney

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how discontinuities in the process of drug delivery enable but also underdetermine the isolation of a culprit in adverse medication events. A case example illustrates how we are forced to abandon conceptualizations of blame that assume a dichotomy (either culpable or not), and shift instead to a more nuanced version that estimates the degree to which an actor desired, generated, or could have foreseen the harmful outcome, and the extent to which constraints external to the actor altered the event. The paper concludes that meaningful safety interventions in a system as diverse, socially embedded and complex as health care delivery cannot just build on "good science" (e.g., good methods) to generate "root" causes. Rather, they need to somehow be sensitive to how and which narratives of success and failure are created, as these constrain which countermeasures are likely to be encouraged, funded, and accepted. PMID:17714255

  19. Scientific Production of Medical Sciences Universities in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Siamian, Hasan; Firooz, Mousa Yamin; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction The study of the scientific evidence citation production by famous databases of the world is one of the important indicators to evaluate and rank the universities. The study at investigating the scientific production of Northern Iran Medical Sciences Universities in Scopus from 2005 through 2010. Method This survey used scientometrics technique. The samples under studies were the scientific products of four northern Iran Medical universities. Results Viewpoints quantity of the Scientific Products Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences stands first and of Babol University of Medical Sciences ranks the end, but from the viewpoints of quality of scientific products of considering the H-Index and the number of cited papers the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences is a head from the other universities under study. From the viewpoints of subject of the papers, the highest scientific products belonged to the faculty of Pharmacy affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medial Sciences, but the three other universities for the genetics and biochemistry. Conclusion Results showed that the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences as compared to the other understudies universities ranks higher for the number of articles, cited articles, number of hard work authors and H-Index of Scopus database from 2005 through 2010. PMID:24058251

  20. Japanese medical students' interest in basic sciences: a questionnaire survey of a medical school in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using χ(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent. PMID:23337622

  1. Medical science, nursing, and the future.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, J

    1998-09-01

    Drawing on the work of Evelyn Fox Keller, this paper examines the notion of 'objectivism' and suggests that medicine as a science is premised upon the denial of common mortality. Alternative models for medicine are then examined, including the 'romantic science' of Oliver Sacks, and the paper concludes with a brief discussion of nursing as a key concept in the articulation of a more comprehensive medicine of the future. PMID:9923316

  2. An international perspective on behavioral science education in medical schools.

    PubMed

    Chur-Hansen, Anna; Carr, John E; Bundy, Christine; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Tapanya, Sombat; Wahass, Saeed H

    2008-03-01

    The behavioral sciences are taught in medical curricula around the world. In the current paper psychologists teaching in medical schools in Australia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States share their experience and reflections. Whilst direct comparisons between countries are not made, the themes that are evident within and between accounts are instructive. As behavioral scientists around the globe are struggling to maintain a presence in medical education many of the reasons behind this are shared, regardless of the country. Challenges discussed include those related to the impact of unrealized potential contributions of psychologists as health care professionals, teaching of behavioral sciences by other professions, domination of the biomedical model without a corresponding recognition of psychology as science, and modern medical pedagogies such as problem-based learning, which favor biomedicine. Systemic and political barriers over which we as a discipline may have little control are also highlighted. PMID:19104953

  3. [Alternative therapies, homeopathy and medical science].

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    1990-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the impact of regularly promoted alternative therapies within portuguese society. The origins, attractions and acceptance of alternative therapies, homeopathic included, are discussed. Recent homeopathic studies published in renowned scientific journals provoked comments and reports claiming for more objective explanations and better criticism. Accordingly, homeopathy is presently an unacceptable system with no physical basis, supported by inexplicable observations and a mixture of magic effects. Also alternatives therapies may provide an area of conflict with health and medical care, particularly in most severe diseases that require advanced resources of orthodox medicine. Improved education of the population, more qualified medical personal, and better understanding of medical problems, difficulties and progress by the media are final recommendations. PMID:2077840

  4. [Men as a medical role. A blind spot in science].

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2006-01-01

    While historians of science have demonstrated that in the late eighteenth century the emergence of the human sciences went along with the sexualization and medicalization of women, they paid almost no attention to the development of a medical knowledge on male (in)fertility. This paper argues that in the early twentieth century, the scientific investigation of the male role in reproduction was due to the rise of eugenics and the racial sciences. In order to illustrate this relation, I will discuss how in the context of the Nazi population and racial policy new research outcomes in the field of male (in)fertiliy research were achieved. More generally, I want to show that the transformation of man into a reproductive being and an object of medical knowledge is not only relevant for the history of reproductive medicine, but also for the history of the human sciences in the twentieth century. PMID:17992859

  5. Medical Informatics in Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisse, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the state of medical informatics, the application of computer and information technology to biomedicine, looks at trends and concerns, including integration of traditionally distinct enterprises (clinical information systems, financial information, scholarly support activities, infrastructures); informatics career choice and…

  6. Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralla, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

  7. The place of behavioral science in medical education and practice.

    PubMed

    Bolman, W M

    1995-10-01

    Medicine and medical practice have undergone dramatic changes in the recent past. Technological advances have exceeded the norms of social thought (e.g., frozen embryos, surrogate motherhood, assisted suicide, and the right to die), and there has been a loss of professional control of the provision of medical services because of an inability to control the costs of technology and the patterns of practice. These and related changes find the profession of medicine, including medical education, without the necessary theory and content to adapt. The author explains why this situation makes it more necessary than ever to develop and upgrade the teaching of behavioral sciences in the medical curriculum, even though these disciplines' breadth and comparative lack of definition create special problems for the teaching and learning of behavioral concepts and their application to medical practice. The behavioral sciences are needed in medicine because their role is not that of a technologically defined knowledge area but rather that of a process or functional area that mediates between the patient as a person and the delivery of medical care. The author presents concepts, a diagram, and teaching examples that explain the characteristics of behavioral sciences and illustrate the necessity for including them in the curriculum. He concludes by urging the leaders of academic medicine to find practical ways to transmit an awareness of behavioral sciences' crucial role in patient care so that tomorrow's physicians can function more fully in the complex arena of clinical reality. PMID:7575917

  8. Moving Forward after Sendai: How Countries Want to Use Science, Evidence and Technology for Disaster Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event, the global community adopted the UN Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) for Disaster Risk Reduction 2005-2015, which set out priorities to help countries achieve disaster resilience by encouraging the establishment of national platforms and strengthening disaster governance. In March 2015, UN member states adopted the successor to HFA, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: 2015-2030 (SFDRR). The SFDRR recognises the cross-cutting nature of DRR policy and calls on stakeholders to help governments. Over the following months, the international science community as a stakeholder will contribute by outlining guidance, research opportunities and partnerships to help countries implement the new framework. To inform this process, this study examines government’ and national scientists’ perspectives about the needs to use science, evidence and technology to achieve disaster risk reduction (DRR) and put the words of the new framework into action. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis and quantifiable survey results. Data was collected via extraction from published statements and online survey responses. For statement content analysis, search terms were determined iteratively in a sample of statements until no new terms emerged. Additionally, 167 national scientists were recruited to participate in the online survey with a response rate of 26.3% (44/167). Findings: Country priorities are clustered and clear, showing that there is a demand for greater science in DRR decision-making and solutions. The main themes highlighted by countries were promoting research and practitioner engagement; increase technology transfer mechanisms; open data; communication of usable evidence and user’s needs; education and training; and lastly, international cooperation all contributing to national capacity building. As identified, the main difficulties with existing delivery

  9. Neuroscience and Brain Science Special Issue begins in the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences and the Orient Neuron Nexus have amalgated to publish a yearly special issue based on neuro- and brain sciences. This will hopefully improve the quality of peer-reviewed manuscripts in the field of fundamental, applied, and clinical neuroscience and brain science from Asian countries. One focus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia is to strengthen neuroscience and brain science, especially in the field of neuroinformatics. PMID:25941457

  10. Secondary Surge Capacity: A Framework for Understanding Long-Term Access to Primary Care for Medically Vulnerable Populations in Disaster Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Brock-Martin, Amy; Karmaus, Wilfried; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2012-01-01

    Disasters create a secondary surge in casualties because of the sudden increased need for long-term health care. Surging demands for medical care after a disaster place excess strain on an overtaxed health care system operating at maximum or reduced capacity. We have applied a health services use model to identify areas of vulnerability that perpetuate health disparities for at-risk populations seeking care after a disaster. We have proposed a framework to understand the role of the medical system in modifying the health impact of the secondary surge on vulnerable populations. Baseline assessment of existing needs and the anticipation of ballooning chronic health care needs following the acute response for at-risk populations are overlooked vulnerability gaps in national surge capacity plans. PMID:23078479

  11. Health Science Libraries of National, State, and Local Medical Organizations

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    This second survey of medical society-sponsored libraries has been expanded to include national association libraries in allied medical fields, as well as special libraries which do not fall into categories established for the MLA survey of health science libraries. A total of fifty-eight libraries in this subset have been identified, and selected characteristics have been measured. Observations are made concerning methodology, user population, and services. PMID:6041830

  12. Regulatory science based approach in development of novel medical devices.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    For development rational evaluation method for medical devices' safety and efficacy, regulatory science studies are important. Studies on regulatory affairs related to a medical device under development should be conducted as well as its technological development. Clinical performance of a medical device is influenced by performance of the device, medical doctors' skill, pathological condition of a patient, and so on. Thus it is sometimes difficult to demonstrate superiority of the device in terms of clinical outcome although its efficacy as a medical device is accepted. Setting of appropriate end points is required to evaluate a medical device appropriately. Risk assessment and risk management are the basis of medical device safety assurance. In case of medical device software, there are difficulties in identifying the risk due to its complexity of user environment and different design and manufacturing procedure compared with conventional hardware based medical devices. Recent technological advancement such as information and communication technologies (ICT) for medical devices and wireless network has raised new issue on risk management: cybersecurity. We have to watch closely the progress of safety standard development. PMID:26736611

  13. Abstracting and indexing in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Welt, I D

    1962-07-01

    Abstracts and indexes constitute the most popular means of assuring adequate retrieval of the many thousands of papers published every year in the ever expanding field of medicine. Different types of abstracts and indexes are available for different purposes and to meet varying user requirements. The problem of "keeping up" with developments in one's own field of endeavour can usually be solved by qualified abstractors. Most indexes serve the purpose of assuring the retrieval of pertinent documents. However, in order to retrieve specific pieces of information which are absolutely indispensible to the medical practitioner or scientist, a new approach is needed. This technique, which is termed the "combined index-abstract" method, has been employed successfully for the handling of a large body of specific items of information in a restricted area of experimental and clinical pharmacology. PMID:21735878

  14. Exercising privacy rights in medical science

    PubMed Central

    Hillmer, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Privacy laws are intended to preserve human well-being and improve medical outcomes. We used the Sportstats website, a repository of competitive athletic data, to test how easily these laws can be circumvented. We designed a haphazard, unrepresentative case-series analysis and applied unscientific methods based on an Internet connection and idle time. We found it both feasible and titillating to breach anonymity, stockpile personal information and generate misquotations. We extended our methods to snoop on celebrities, link to outside databases and uncover refusal to participate. Throughout our study, we evaded capture and public humiliation despite violating these 6 privacy fundamentals. We suggest that the legitimate principle of safeguarding personal privacy is undermined by the natural human tendency toward showing off. PMID:18056619

  15. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    PubMed Central

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  16. "We're All Gonna' Die": Using Human Interest in Disasters to Promote Student Interest and Research in Introductory Science Classes for Non-Science Majors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prueher, L.

    2008-12-01

    Humans are fascinated by disasters. Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other natural disasters capture the public interest and provide educators a venue in which to present scientific information and dispel common misconceptions. Presenting scientific information via the vehicle of a disaster can attract even the most science-phobic student, capturing their interest in a way that more traditional methods of presentation cannot or do not. People are inundated with scientific data through the popular media yet little is done to provide non-scientists with the information needed to distinguish between fact and fiction. Docudramas such as, "Supervolcano", blur the boundary between reality and fiction. Human interest in disasters can be used as an educational tool to foster scientific literacy among non-science majors. "We're All Gonna' Die", is an inquiry-based research project used in introductory geology classes at Arapahoe Community College and the University of Northern Colorado. Most students taking this class have no college science background. The project introduces students to geological and environmental hazards. Students choose a city of interest, analyze the potential geologic and environmental hazards in the area, and determine what can be done to minimize potential damage and fatalities. Students are more interested in a topic and delve deeper into the subject matter when researching a project of their own choosing. Students have incorporated demonstrations, skits, student-made videos, games, current geologic events, and research results into their projects. Perhaps as important, the students have fun, become excited about their project and topic, and disseminate the information to family and friends.

  17. Higher education initiatives for disaster and emergency health in iran.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Iran's health system is expanding the disaster and emergency higher education programs over the country to enhance the capacity of human resources for effective and efficient disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In this article we present an overview about the initiatives and progress of disaster and emergency health higher education in Iran. Following the Bam earthquake, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health & Medical Education and National Institute of Health Research, School of Public Health at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran took the initiative to develop a Master of Public Health (MPH) with disaster concentration in 2006, a PhD in disaster and emergency health in 2011, and a well constructed certificate course in 2008 entitled Disaster Health Management and Risk Reduction (DHMR). Iran, Kerman and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation are other academia that joined this initiative. Regarding the importance of programs evaluation, we have planned for a comprehensive evaluation of MPH and DHMR programs in 2013-4 and the Accreditation and Evaluation Board of Disaster & Emergency Health, based in MOH&ME, is responsible for evaluation of the PhD program in 3-5 years from initiation. PMID:23967432

  18. Disaster-Driven Evacuation and Medication Loss: a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the extent and implications of medication loss and the burden of prescription refill on medical relief teams following extreme weather events and other natural hazards. METHOD: The search strategy followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Key health journal databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC)) were searched via the OvidSP search engine. Search terms were identified by consulting MeSH terms. The inclusion criteria comprised articles published from January 2003 to August 2013, written in English and containing an abstract. The exclusion criteria included abstracts for conferences or dissertations, book chapters and articles written in a language other than English. A total of 70 articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: All relevant information was collated regarding medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and medical aids loss which indicated a significant burden on the medical relief teams. Data also showed the difficulty in filling prescriptions due to lack of information from the evacuees. People with chronic conditions are most at risk when their medication is not available. This systematic review also showed that medical aids such as eye glasses, hearing aids as well as dental treatment are a high necessity among evacuees. DISCUSSION: This systematic review revealed that a considerable number of patients lose their medication during evacuation, many lose essential medical aids such as insulin pens and many do not bring prescriptions with them when evacuated.. Since medication loss is partly a responsibility of evacuees, understanding the impact of medication loss may lead to raising awareness and better preparations among the patients and health care professionals. People who are not prepared could have

  19. [The cares and anxiety of those involved in the Bijlmermeer aviation disaster did not diminish following the medical investigations].

    PubMed

    van Dijk, F J H

    2005-06-01

    On October 4, 1992 a cargo jet crashed in the Bijlmermeer district in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, killing 43 people and making hundreds homeless. Many years of confusion and prolonged media attention followed, including public debates and even a Parliamentary Inquiry as to the causes, exposure to various chemical, physical and biological risk factors, and related diseases. Two comprehensive large-scale medical investigations were carried out: a comparative epidemiological study analysing the long-term effects in involved and uninvolved care providers, and an individual medical examination of both residents and care providers with medical or psychological complaints. Later, an effects study was added analysing the effects of both medical investigations on the feelings of anxiety and the attribution of symptoms among the people involved. The epidemiological study revealed more physical and mental symptoms among the involved care providers. Blood, urine and saliva tests, however, revealed no differences. Although the studywas carried out with great care, the findings may have been biased to some extent by an evoked feeling of anxiety and by attention toward health problems brought about by the investigation itself. Another comment is the technical impossibility of stating, after so long a delay, that chemical exposure, e.g. to depleted uranium, could not have been a cause of adverse health effects. The effects study demonstrated that the medical investigations generally did not provide reassurance or decrease the anxiety about health problems. There was even a small increase in complaints. Residents with health problems that had been involved in the disaster still attribute their complaints to harmful chemical exposure. PMID:15960130

  20. A Graduate Academic Program in Medical Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blois, Marsden S., Jr.; Wasserman, Anthony I.

    A graduate academic program in medical information science has been established at the University of California, San Francisco, for the education of scientists capable of performing research and development in information technology in the health care setting. This interdisciplinary program, leading to a Doctor of Philosophy degree, consists of an…

  1. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  2. Forensic medical lessons learned from the Victorian Bushfire Disaster: recommendations from the Phase 5 debrief.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard; Leditschke, Jodie

    2011-02-25

    The February 7th 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia, resulted in the deaths of 173 individuals, of whom 164 were included in the subsequent DVI operation. The final stage of the International DVI protocol is a debrief, referred to as Phase 5. The Phase 5 operational debrief process conducted in the wake of this disaster was designed for the purpose of developing new strategies in light of this experience. The agencies involved included the Coroners Court of Victoria, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, the Department of Justice, and Victoria Police. During the course of this debriefing process strategies and protocols were developed which aim to improve the capacity of all agencies to respond and resolve future incidents. This paper outlines the Phase 5 debrief carried out in the 6 months following the final coronial identification board, and details the findings and recommendations made by the agencies involved. PMID:20650575

  3. Study for Teaching Behavioral Sciences in Schools of Medicine, Volume III: Behavioral Science Perspectives in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC. Medical Sociology Council.

    Volume III of a study of teaching behavioral sciences in medical school presents perspectives on medical behavioral science from the viewpoints of the several behavioral disciplines (anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, behavioral biology and medical education). In addition, there is a discussion of translating…

  4. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Biological and Medical Science Libraries Section. Social Science Libraries Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…

  5. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  6. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    PubMed

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  7. Medical Sciences Division Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Research programs from the medical science division of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) are briefly described in the following areas: Biochemistry, cytogenetics, microbiology, center for epidemiologic research, radiation medicine, radiation internal dose information center, center for human reliability studies, facility safety, occupational medicine, and radiation emergency assistance center/training site.

  8. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: Educational and Science-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer…

  9. E-DECIDER: Using Earth Science Data and Modeling Tools to Develop Decision Support for Earthquake Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Stough, T. M.; Burl, M. C.; Pierce, M.; Wang, J.; Ma, Y.; Rundle, J. B.; yoder, M. R.; Bawden, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing new capabilities for decision-making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. Geodetic imaging data, including from inteferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS, have a rich scientific heritage for use in earthquake research. Survey grade GPS was developed in the 1980s and the first InSAR image of an earthquake was produced for the 1992 Landers event. As more of these types of data have become increasingly available they have also shown great utility for providing key information for disaster response. Work has been done to translate these data into useful and actionable information for decision makers in the event of an earthquake disaster. In addition to observed data, modeling tools provide essential preliminary estimates while data are still being collected and/or processed, which can be refined as data products become available. Now, with more data and better models, we are able apply these to responders who need easy tools and routinely produced data products. E-DECIDER incorporates the earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools allows us to provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). E-DECIDER has taken advantage of the legacy of Earth science data, including MODIS, Landsat, SCIGN, PBO, UAVSAR, and modeling tools such as the ones developed by QuakeSim, in order to deliver successful decision support products for earthquake disaster response. The project has

  10. Computer Literacy Among Students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Robabi, Hassan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The need for medical students to be computer literate is vital. With the rapid integration of information technology (IT) in the health care field, equipping students of medical universities withcomputer competencies to effectively use are needed. The purpose of this study was to assess computer literacy (CL) needs of medical sciences students. Methods: This is descriptive-analytic. The population of the study comprised all students at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. 385 students from allschools (Medicine, dentistry, paramedics, health, rehabilitation, nursing and midwifery) were selected through randomized- classified sampling. For data collecting, the Lin Tung- Cheng questionnaire was used which it contained 24 items in six sections. The obtained data analyzed by SPSS 15. Results: The results showed that the 77.1% had personal computer. The total mean of students’ computer literacy around six domains was 141.9±49.5 out of 240. The most familiarity with computers was the ability to it in internet (29.0±11.4) and the lowest was familiarity and using ability of hard ware (17.5±10.6). There was a significant relationship between passing the Computer lesson (P=0.001), passing Computer course (P=0.05) and having personal computer (P=0.001) with the mean of computer literacy. Discussion: In sum, the medical sciences students’ familiarity with computer literacy was not satisfactory and they had not appropriate familiarity with computer literacy skills. The researchers suggest the officials and in-charges to plan educational program for improving computer literacy skills in medical sciences students. PMID:25946919

  11. Development of a planning methodology for the medical protection of European civilian populations in time of war or major civil disasters. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, P.B.

    1983-12-30

    This is a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using simulation models to develop plans for the medical protection of European civilian populations in time of war or other major disasters. First, the functions required of a planning methodology were identified, such as estimating resource requirements, predicting casualty dispositions, and evaluating alternative disaster response procedures. Next, for each of two disaster management scenarios, the study described the basic elements or factors which describe the disaster management system: the primary action required of the system, criteria of success, quantifiable measures of success, and relevant data. Both scenarios considered ground and air assault by the enemy, using conventional weapons. In the first scenario, the civilian response is to stay-put, i.e., the civilian population remains in place. The second scenario considers the controlled temporary dispersal or relocation of civilians residing in high-risk areas. Both scenarios appear to be amenable to detailed study using the concepts of the U.S. Navy's NAMES (Navy Amphibious Medical Evacuation Simulation) model and WWMMSS (World-Wide Military Medical Support System) model, in concert with wargaming models and traffic network models.

  12. The Medical Science Research and Development Supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin; Kim, Seong-Yong; Rhee, Byoung-Doo; Kim, Myung-Suk

    2005-01-01

    This study examined ways of promoting research in the medical sciences by evaluating trends in research funding, and the present status of research funding by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF). This study analyzed statistics from KOSEF from 1978 to 2003 to examine support for research. In medical science field, group-based programs receive more funding than do individual-based programs. The proportion of research funds allocated to the medical sciences has increased markedly each year. Researchers in the medical sciences have submitted more articles to Science Citation Index (SCI) journals than to non-SCI journals, relative to other fields. Researchers supported by the Mission-Oriented Basic Grants program have published the majority of these papers, followed by those supported by the Programs for Leading Scientists, Regional Scientists, Leading Women Scientists, Young Scientists, and Promising Women Scientists, in that order. Funding by KOSEF reflects many decades of government support for research and development, the development and maintenance of necessary infrastructure, and the education and training of medical scientists. PMID:15953851

  13. Ghosts in the machine: publication planning in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Publication of pharmaceutical company-sponsored research in medical journals, and its presentation at conferences and meetings, is mostly governed by 'publication plans' that extract the maximum amount of scientific and commercial value out of data and analyses through carefully constructed and placed papers. Clinical research is typically performed by contract research organizations, analyzed by company statisticians, written up by independent medical writers, approved and edited by academic researchers who then serve as authors, and the whole process organized and shepherded through to journal publication by publication planners. This paper reports on a conference of an international association of publication planners. It describes and analyzes their work in an ecological framework that relates it to marketing departments of pharmaceutical companies, medical journals and publishers, academic authors, and potential audiences. The medical research described here forms a new kind of corporate science, designed to look like traditional academic work, but performed largely to market products. PMID:19831220

  14. [The medical legal grounds of the dispanserization of children dwelling on the radiation polluted territories in the issue of Tchernobyl disaster].

    PubMed

    Fetisov, S N; Dubovoĭ, I I

    2008-01-01

    The data related to the dynamics of health conditions of children dwelling on the radiation polluted territories in the issue of Tchernobyl disaster in the Briansk Oblast during last post-disaster twenty years. The main normative documents adopted during the after-disaster period on the federal and regulating the implementation of the specialized dispanserization of population. The stages of children dispanserization during 1986-2005 are defined. The proposals related to the enhancement of the quality of children's dispanserization are brought in. The emphasis is made upon the consolidation of public health activities during the specialized dispanserization and medical checkups of population within the framework of the national project "Health". PMID:19256001

  15. Logistic support provided to Australian disaster medical assistance teams: results of a national survey of team members

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Background It is likely that calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, the present study was designed to evaluate the Australian DMAT experience and the need for logistic support. Methods Data were collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 Asian Tsunami disaster. Results The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118). Most of the personnel had deployed to the South East Asian Tsunami affected areas. The DMAT members had significant clinical and international experience. There was unanimous support for dedicated logistic support with 80% (47/59) strongly agreeing. Only one respondent (2%) disagreed with teams being self sufficient for a minimum of 72 hours. Most felt that transport around the site was not a problem (59%; 35/59), however, 34% (20/59) felt that transport to the site itself was problematic. Only 37% (22/59) felt that pre-deployment information was accurate. Communication with local health providers and other agencies was felt to be adequate by 53% (31/59) and 47% (28/59) respectively, while only 28% (17/59) felt that documentation methods were easy to use and reliable. Less than half (47%; 28/59) felt that equipment could be moved easily between areas by team members and 37% (22/59) that packaging enabled materials to be found easily. The maximum safe container weight was felt to be between 20 and 40 kg by 58% (34/59). Conclusions This study emphasises the importance of dedicated logistic support for DMAT and the need for teams to be self sufficient for a minimum period of 72 hours. There is a need for accurate pre deployment information to guide resource prioritisation with clearly labelled pre packaging to assist access on site. Container weights should be restricted to between

  16. Climate change and natural disasters – integrating science and practice to protect health

    PubMed Central

    Sauerborn, Rainer; Ebi, Kristie

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydro-meteorological disasters are the focus of this paper. The authors examine, to which extent climate change increases their frequency and intensity. Methods Review of IPCC-projections of climate-change related extreme weather events and related literature on health effects. Results Projections show that climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of a range of extreme weather events over coming decades. Conclusions There is a need for strengthened collaboration between climate scientists, the health researchers and policy-makers as well as the disaster community to jointly develop adaptation strategies to protect human. PMID:23273248

  17. Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, Jennifer D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Brock-Martin, Amy; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2012-01-01

    Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters) to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster. PMID:23202752

  18. Study habits and attitude of medical students of basic sciences.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Kshitiz Upadhyay; Prajapati, Rajesh; Pramanik, Tapas; Ghosh, Arijit; Roychowdhury, Paresh

    2007-06-01

    Study habits and attitude for learning of Basic Medical Sciences amongst 133 students of first and second year MBBS course were analyzed (through questionnaires). The study revealed that the most of the students desired to be physicians to serve the patient/society. They preferred to learn more through self study (48.0%) and lecture classes (43.0%), less through group discussion (8.0%) and PBL (1.0%). Only 5.0% use to surf the internet regularly for their study matter and 79.0% students had never consulted any medical journals. PMID:17899965

  19. Citizen Science for Post-disaster Sustainable Community Development in Ecologically Fragiel Regions - A Case from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ming, Meng; Lu, Ye; Jin, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The world's mountains host some of the most complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems and are also hotspots for natural disasters, such as earthquake, landslide and flood. One factor that limits the mountain communities to recover from disasters and pursue sustainable development is the lack of locally relevant scientific knowledge, which is hard to gain from global and regional scale observations and models. The rapid advances in ICT, computing, communication technologies and the emergence of citizen science is changing the situation. Here we report a case from Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary World Natural Heritage in China on the application of citizen science in a community reconstruction project. Dahe, a mountainous community (ca. 8000 ha in size) is located covering part of the World Heritage's core and buffer zones, with an elevation range of 1000-3000 meters. The community suffered from two major earthquakes of 7.9 and 6.9 Mw in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Landslides and flooding threat the community and significantly limit their livelihood options. We integrated participatory disaster risk mapping (e.g., community vulnerability and capacity assessment) and mobile assisted natural hazards and natural resources mapping (e.g., using free APP GeoODK) into more conventional community reconstruction and livelihood building activities. We showed that better decisions are made based on results from these activities and local residents have a high level of buy-in in these new knowledge. We suggest that initiatives like this, if successfully scale-up, can also help generate much needed data and knowledge in similar less-developed and data deficient regions of the world.

  20. Collaborative Science: Human Sensor Networks for Real-time Natural Disaster Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Aulov, O.; Martineau, J.; Brown, S.; Conte, T.; CenterHybrid Multicore Productivity Research

    2010-12-01

    processing systems used to extract the physical quantifiable data from the “human sensor network” such as natural language tools, the semantic web, image analysis techniques which can be employed to form a collaborative framework for other real time situation analysis undergoing similar natural or human caused disasters. We believe this innovative approach of extracting geophysical data from the social media sources is unprecedented in bridging geosciences with social sciences. In the near future, we plan on expanding the collaboration with researchers from University of Minnesota (U/MN) and Florida International University(FIU). Currently U/MN is working on a project of deploying aquabots (aquatic robots) in the Gulf in order to sample water properties at different depths as well as on the surface and FIU has developed a real time Terrafly processing system incorporating high resolution commercial and gov’t satellites and aircraft data.

  1. NASA technology utilization applications. [transfer of medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The work is reported from September 1972 through August 1973 by the Technology Applications Group of the Science Communication Division (SCD), formerly the Biological Sciences Communication Project (BSCP) in the Department of Medical and Public Affairs of the George Washington University. The work was supportive of many aspects of the NASA Technology Utilization program but in particular those dealing with Biomedical and Technology Application Teams, Applications Engineering projects, new technology reporting and documentation and transfer activities. Of particular interest are detailed reports on the progress of various hardware projects, and suggestions and criteria for the evaluation of candidate hardware projects. Finally some observations about the future expansion of the TU program are offered.

  2. The science of medical librarianship: investing in the future.

    PubMed Central

    Love, E

    1987-01-01

    Information science is changing from an applied service-oriented activity to a basic research discipline. The library profession must earn a central place in this endeavor, and must address a number of important issues. These include ownership and intellectual property rights, a stronger research component for the profession, development of quality assurance systems for health information services, and a conceptual framework for training and career development of health sciences library technicians. The future of medical librarianship as a profession depends on a lasting commitment to research, a clear vision of the profession's fundamental mission and of the library's place in society. PMID:3450341

  3. Geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system: case study in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Megumi

    2015-04-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its tsunami killed 18,508 people, including the missing (National Police Agency report as of April 2014) and raise the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in Japan. The problems revealed can be viewed as due to a combination of risk-management, risk-communication, and geoethics issues. Japan's preparations for earthquakes and tsunamis are based on the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake for each region. The government organization coordinating the estimation of anticipated earthquakes is the "Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion" (HERP), which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan's disaster mitigation system is depicted schematically as consisting of three layers: seismology, civil engineering, and disaster mitigation planning. This research explains students in geoscience should study geoethics as part of their education related Tohoku earthquake and the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Only when they become practicing professionals, they will be faced with real geoethical dilemmas. A crisis such as the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, will force many geoscientists to suddenly confront previously unanticipated geoethics and risk-communication issues. One hopes that previous training will help them to make appropriate decisions under stress. We name it "decision science".

  4. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated Through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of 'big ideas', in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward resilience and sustainability. The framework draws together competences familiarly expressed as cognitive knowledge and skills, plus dispositions and adds connectedness and action-related behaviors, and applies this by means of a progression shift associated with NH&DRR from abilities to capabilities. The target is enhanced scientific literacy approached through an education through science focus, amplified through the study of a big idea, promotion of sustained resilience in the face of disaster and the taking of responsibilities for behavioral actions. The framework is applied to a learning progression for each interrelated education dimension, thus serving as a guide for both the development of abilities and as a platform for stimulating student capabilities within instruction and assessment.

  5. Acute post-disaster medical needs of patients with diabetes: emergency department use in New York City by diabetic adults after Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David C; Gupta, Vibha K; Carr, Brendan G; Malik, Sidrah; Ferguson, Brandy; Wall, Stephen P; Smith, Silas W; Goldfrank, Lewis R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acute impact of disasters on diabetic patients, we performed a geospatial analysis of emergency department (ED) use by New York City diabetic adults in the week after Hurricane Sandy. Research design and methods Using an all-payer claims database, we retrospectively analyzed the demographics, insurance status, and medical comorbidities of post-disaster ED patients with diabetes who lived in the most geographically vulnerable areas. We compared the patterns of ED use among diabetic adults in the first week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall to utilization before the disaster in 2012. Results In the highest level evacuation zone in New York City, postdisaster increases in ED visits for a primary or secondary diagnosis of diabetes were attributable to a significantly higher proportion of Medicare patients. Emergency visits for a primary diagnosis of diabetes had an increased frequency of certain comorbidities, including hypertension, recent procedure, and chronic skin ulcers. Patients with a history of diabetes visited EDs in increased numbers after Hurricane Sandy for a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction, prescription refills, drug dependence, dialysis, among other conditions. Conclusions We found that diabetic adults aged 65 years and older are especially at risk for requiring postdisaster emergency care compared to other vulnerable populations. Our findings also suggest that there is a need to support diabetic adults particularly in the week after a disaster by ensuring access to medications, aftercare for patients who had a recent procedure, and optimize their cardiovascular health to reduce the risk of heart attacks. PMID:27547418

  6. Association between shelter crowding and incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees: a retrospective medical chart review study

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Takahisa; Nishiyama, Kei; Morita, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Osamu; Hiraide, Atsuchi; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined whether crowding at emergency shelters is associated with a higher incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees and identified the minimum required personal space at shelters. Design Retrospective review of medical charts. Setting 30 shelter-based medical clinics in Ishinomaki, Japan, during the 46 days following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011. Participants Shelter residents who visited eligible clinics. Outcome measures Based on the result of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique assessing the relationship between the mean space per evacuee and cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance at the shelter, eligible shelters were classified into crowded and non-crowded shelters. The cumulative incidence per 1000 evacuees was compared between groups, using a Mann-Whitney U test. To assess the association between shelter crowding and the daily incidence of sleep disturbance per 1000 evacuees, quasi–least squares method adjusting for potential confounders was used. Results The 30 shelters were categorised as crowded (mean space per evacuee <5.0 m2, 9 shelters) or non-crowded (≥5.0 m2, 21 shelters). The study included 9031 patients. Among the eligible patients, 1079 patients (11.9%) were diagnosed with sleep disturbance. Mean space per evacuee during the study period was 3.3 m2 (SD, 0.8 m2) at crowded shelters and 8.6 m2 (SD, 4.3 m2) at non-crowded shelters. The median cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance did not differ between the crowded shelters (2.3/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.6–5.4)) and non-crowded shelters (1.9/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.0–2.8); p=0.20). In contrast, after adjusting for potential confounders, crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence of sleep disturbance (2.6 per 1000 person-days; 95% CI 0.2 to 5.0/1000 person-days, p=0.03) compared to that at non-crowded shelters. Conclusions Crowding at shelters may exacerbate sleep disruptions in disaster

  7. Ideology in medical science: class in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U

    1989-01-01

    The class character of medicine is most easily discerned in the inequitable organization of health services. Capital's shaping of the patterns of disease and our medical/scientific responses is less apparent but equally strong. We illustrate this point by reviewing some recent history of cardiovascular diseases and therapies. Hitherto unknown afflictions have become commonplace. Our diagnostic and therapeutic concepts are the crystallization of a long history of scientific effort--an effort dominated and directed by capitalist imperatives. The work of the clinician rests on this scientific substrate, and recognition or rejection of its class nature provides a potential basis for a new medical science but not the needed results. The socialist transformation of medicine will require a recognition of the capitalist specificity of current science, and the painstaking construction of alternative modes of thought. PMID:2660277

  8. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...

  9. Five Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents It ... anniversary of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), known to many as NIH's "basic research ...

  10. Biomarkers in the ontology for general medical science.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, Werner; Smith, Barry

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of recent work has been devoted to the topic of biomarkers as aids to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment evaluation. Basing our work on the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) and on the specifications provided by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), we propose definitions for biomarkers of various types. These definitions provide a formal representation of what biomarkers are in a way that allows us to remove certain ambiguities and inconsistencies in the documentation provided by the IOM. PMID:25991121

  11. Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimirova, Tetyana

    2006-12-01

    A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson’s strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program’s point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include physics, calculus, biology, chemistry, and introduction to computing. In addition to the foundation courses, the first-year studies include an orientation course that supports the students in making a successful transition to university studies. The courses beyond the first year include such topics as radiation therapy, image analysis, medical diagnostics and computer modeling techniques. In the final year the students will undertake an independent, faculty-supervised thesis project in an area of personal research interest. Co-op and industrial internship options are available. Our program promotes natural interaction between physics, life sciences, mathematics and computing. The flexibility built into our curriculum will open a variety of career options for our graduates.

  12. Medical reserve corps volunteers in disasters: a survey of their roles, experiences, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew; Selck, Frederic; Rambhia, Kunal; Morhard, Ryan; Franco, Crystal; Toner, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) was established in the Office of the Surgeon General in response to the spontaneous but disorganized outpouring of medical volunteers following the terrorist attacks of 2001. The mission of the federal MRC office is to provide organizational structure and guidance to the nearly 1,000 locally organized and funded MRC units that have grown up across the country and the more than 200,000 volunteer health professionals that staff these units. Despite the large size of this program and its numerous activations over the past decade, including in the Boston Marathon bombing and Hurricane Sandy, relatively little is known about the MRC, including the make-up of the units, the ways units have been used, and the challenges faced by MRC units and their volunteers. Here we report the results of a mixed-methods investigation of MRC unit organization, activities, and challenges. PMID:24697751

  13. [The system of readiness to take care of medical consequences in disaster situations].

    PubMed

    Solov'ev, A N

    1995-01-01

    The main task of regional catastrophe medicine service in liquidation of medical consequences of emergency situations is the immediate adequate reaction which is aimed at minimizing the sanitary loss. This task can be effectively solved only on condition of permanent improvement of interaction between the managing and managed systems of public health and coordination of their actions with those of nonmedical services. An important role is played by the actualized (constantly renewed) data bases "Potentially Hazardous Objects", "Regional Infrastructure", "Medicosanitary Means", etc., which help simulate various emergency situations with due consideration for the season, time of the day, and socioeconomic features of a region in order to create variants of effective work of all services engaged in the liquidation of medical consequences. PMID:7486204

  14. Medical student perceptions of a behavioural and social science curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Oregon Health & Science University began implementing changes to better integrate mental health and social science into the curriculum by addressing the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 2004 recommendation for the inclusion of six behavioural and social science (BSS) domains: health policy and economics, patient behaviour, physician–patient interaction, mind–body interactions, physician role and behaviour, and social and cultural issues. Methods We conducted three focus groups with a purposive sample of 23 fourth-year medical students who were exposed to 4 years of the new curriculum. Students were asked to reflect upon the adequacy of their BSS training specifically as it related to the six IOM domains. The 90-minute focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed. Results Students felt the MS1 and MS2 years of the curriculum presented a strong didactic orientation to behavioural and social science precepts. However, they reported that these principles were not well integrated into clinical care during the second two years. Students identified three opportunities to further the inclusion of BSS in their clinical training: presentation of BSS concepts prior to relevant clinical exposure, consistent BSS skills mentoring in the clinical setting, and improving cultural congruence between aspects of BSS and biomedicine. Conclusions Students exposed to the revised BSS curriculum tend to value its principles; however, modelling and practical training in the application of these principles during the second two years of medical school are needed to reinforce this learning and demonstrate methods of integrating BSS principles into practice. PMID:23205062

  15. 78 FR 66369 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

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  16. 75 FR 8979 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of... General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD...

  17. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-06-15

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  1. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

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    2013-10-23

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  7. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

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  8. Emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, educators pay attention to emotional intelligence which is defined as the ability to monitor and explain one's own and other's emotional experience and feelings to differentiate between them as well as applying necessary information for determining thoughts and actions. The goal of this study was to determine emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. By means of two stage cluster sampling, 98 medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version of Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Seventy two filled-up questionnaires were returned (RR=73%). Mean EI score of all participants was 319.94 ± 32.4. Mean EI score was not significantly different between male and female also, single and married participants. EI did not differ significantly in residents in respect to their discipline. Mean responsibility subscale differ significantly between male and female participants (P=0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that happiness subscale is a predictive factor for total EI score (B=-0.32, P=0.009). Responsibility subscale differed significantly between men and women participants and happiness subscale was a good predictor for emotional intelligence score. These factors should be considered in education of medical residents. PMID:23605604

  9. What are the implications of implementation science for medical education?

    PubMed Central

    Price, David W.; Wagner, Dianne P.; Krane, N. Kevin; Rougas, Steven C.; Lowitt, Nancy R.; Offodile, Regina S.; Easdown, L. Jane; Andrews, Mark A. W.; Kodner, Charles M.; Lypson, Monica; Barnes, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Derived from multiple disciplines and established in industries outside of medicine, Implementation Science (IS) seeks to move evidence-based approaches into widespread use to enable improved outcomes to be realized as quickly as possible by as many as possible. Methods This review highlights selected IS theories and models, chosen based on the experience of the authors, that could be used to plan and deliver medical education activities to help learners better implement and sustain new knowledge and skills in their work settings. Results IS models, theories and approaches can help medical educators promote and determine their success in achieving desired learner outcomes. We discuss the importance of incorporating IS into the training of individuals, teams, and organizations, and employing IS across the medical education continuum. Challenges and specific strategies for the application of IS in educational settings are also discussed. Conclusions Utilizing IS in medical education can help us better achieve changes in competence, performance, and patient outcomes. IS should be incorporated into curricula across disciplines and across the continuum of medical education to facilitate implementation of learning. Educators should start by selecting, applying, and evaluating the teaching and patient care impact one or two IS strategies in their work. PMID:25911282

  10. A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.

    PubMed

    De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

  11. History of Disaster Medicine.

    PubMed

    Suner, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations. PMID:27437524

  12. International disaster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Martin Elliot

    1991-01-01

    No existing telecommunications system can be expected to provide strategy and tactics appropriate to the complex, many faceted problem of disaster. Despite the exciting capabilities of space, communications, remote sensing, and the miracles of modern medicine, complete turnkey transfers to the disaster problem do not make the fit, and cannot be expected to do so. In 1980, a Presidential team assigned the mission of exploring disaster response within the U.S. Federal Government encountered an unanticipated obstacle: disaster was essentially undefined. In the absence of a scientifically based paradigm of disaster, there can be no measure of cost effectiveness, optimum design of manpower structure, or precise application of any technology. These problems spawned a 10-year, multidisciplinary study designed to define the origins, anatomy, and necessary management techniques for catastrophes. The design of the study necessarily reflects interests and expertise in disaster medicine, emergency medicine, telecommunications, computer communications, and forencsic sciences. This study is described.

  13. [Cardiology was born with the modern medical science].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical science was born in the post-Renaissance age and began to consolidate towards the middle of the XVII century thanks to physicists, physiologists and biologists, most of whom were direct or indirect pupils of Galileo. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey is now considered the only progress in physiology at the beginning of the XVII century, comparable to the current advances seen in physical sciences. The history of this exploit could be written from view point of the progressive advance in knowledge. In his experiments, Harvey referred to the authentic not imaginary experiments, and put forward irrefutable quantitative arguments. We can therefore claim that his discovery of blood circulation was the first proper explanation of an organic process and the starting point leading to experimental physiology. So it seems justified to assert that modern medical science did not all rise suddenly, but was gradually structured starting from the middle of the XVII century following the path traced by William Harvey in light of Galileo's thought. PMID:25554458

  14. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences: five decades of collaborative medical research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Arthur; Nitayaphan, Sorachai

    2011-05-01

    The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) is a 50-year-old joint institute of the US and Royal Thai Army Medical Departments located in Bangkok, Thailand. Investigators from the Institute have carried out research in Thailand and the region, in collaboration with many partners, focused on a large number of tropical infectious diseases. In celebration of the 50th anniversary, this paper summarizes highlights of this research, focusing on malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, diarrhea and HIV. In addition, research done in support of the medical problems of refugees and of the health of Thai peace-keeping forces are summarized. The research carried out by AFRIMS and added to the scientific literature has contributed significantly to advancement in multiple areas of tropical infectious disease. PMID:21706925

  15. Flexner revisited: the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Edward P; Chauvin, Sheila; Bonaminio, Giulia; Andrews, Mark; Carroll, Robert G; Pangaro, Louis N

    2010-02-01

    A central tenet of Flexner's report was the fundamental role of science in medical education. Today, there is tension between the time needed to teach an ever-expanding knowledge base in science and the time needed for increased instruction in clinical application and in the behavioral, ethical, and managerial knowledge and skills needed to prepare for clinical experiences. One result has been at least a perceived reduction in time and focus on the foundational sciences. In this context, the International Association of Medical Science Educators initiated a study to address the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education by seeking perspectives from various groups of medical educators to five questions: (1) What are the sciences that constitute the foundation for medical practice? (2) What is the value and role of the foundational sciences in medical education? (3) When and how should these foundational sciences be incorporated into the medical education curriculum? (4) What sciences should be prerequisite to entering the undergraduate medical curriculum? (5) What are examples of the best practices for incorporating the foundational sciences into the medical education curriculum? The results suggest a broad group of experts believes that an understanding of basic science content remains essential to clinical practice and that teaching should be accomplished across the entire undergraduate medical education experience and integrated with clinical applications. Learning the sciences also plays a foundational role in developing discipline and rigor in learners' thinking skills, including logical reasoning, critical appraisal, problem solving, decision making, and creativity. PMID:20107367

  16. [Institutional Biobank as a pillar of medical science].

    PubMed

    Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Monsivais-Ovalle, Daniela Estefanía; Velázquez-Vadillo, Juan Francisco; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto

    2016-08-01

    A biobank facility is one of the most valuable means that academic medical organizations have to offer researchers for improving the competitiveness of their medical research. We describe the implementation of our institutional biobank. Our efforts focused on the design and equipment of work areas, staff training, quality control, bioethical and regulatory issues, generating research collaborations and developing funding strategies. We implemented an institutional biobank at the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico. The biobank has supported more than a dozen research protocols with over 3 000 individuals enrolled and almost 6 000 sampled biospecimens stored. The institutional biobank has become an essential bridge and effective catalyst for research synergies between basic and clinical sciences and it is on its way to becoming a National Laboratory. PMID:27599083

  17. Attitude of Basic Science Medical Students Toward Interprofessional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Neelam R; Nandy, Atanu; Balasubramanium, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and interprofessional education (IPE) are increasingly emphasized in the education of health professions. Xavier University School of Medicine, a Caribbean medical school admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical course. The present study was carried out to obtain information about the attitude toward IPC among basic science medical students and note differences, if any, among different subgroups. Methods: The study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during July 2015 using the previously validated Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Collaboration (JeffSATIC). Gender, age, semester, and nationality were noted. Participants’ agreement with a set of 20 statements was studied. Mean total scores, working relationship, and accountability scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents (p<0.05). Results: Sixty-seven of the 71 students (94.4%) participated. Cronbach’s alpha value of the questionnaire was 0.827, indicating good internal consistency. The mean total score was 104.48 (maximum score 140) while the working relationship and accountability scores were 63.51 (maximum score 84) and 40.97 (maximum score 56), respectively. Total scores were significantly higher among third-semester students and students of Canadian nationality. Working relationship and accountability scores were higher among first and third-semester students. Conclusion: The total working relationship and accountability scores were lower compared to those obtained in a previous study. Opportunities for IPE and IPC during the basic science years should be strengthened. Longitudinal studies in the institution may be helpful. Similar studies in other Caribbean medical schools are required. PMID:26543691

  18. Intriguing Connections Between Economic Geology, the Environment, Human Health, and Disasters: Observations from my Career(s) in Transdisciplinary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    I have been fortunate to be able to follow a varied career path from economic geology, to environmental geochemistry, to geochemistry and human health, to environmental disasters. I have been privileged to collaborate with many exceptional scientists from across and well beyond the earth sciences (e.g., public heath, engineering, economics, emergency response, microbiology). Much of this transdisciplinary work has intriguing links back to economic geology/geochemistry. Geological characteristics of different ore deposit types predictably influence the environmental and health impacts of mining, and so can help anticipate and prevent adverse impacts before they occur. Geologic maps showing potential for natural occurrences of asbestos or erionite are analogous to permissive tract maps used for mineral-resource assessments, and can be correlated with epidemiological data to help understand whether living on or near such rocks poses a risk for developing asbestos-related diseases. Mineral particles that are taken up by the human body along inhalation or incidental ingestion exposure routes are "weathered" by reactions with diverse body fluids that differ greatly in composition between and along the different exposure routes. These in vivo chemical reactions (e.g., dissolution, alteration, metal complexation, oxidation/reduction, reprecipitation) are in ways analogous to processes of ore deposit formation and weathering, and some can be shown (in collaboration with toxicologists) to play a role in toxicity. Concepts of ore petrography and paragenesis can be applied to interpret (in collaboration with pathologists) the origin, physiological implications, and toxicity effects of mineral matter in human tissue samples obtained by biopsy, transplant or autopsy. Some disaster materials can originate from mining- or mineral-processing sources, and methods originally developed to study ore deposits or mining-environmental issues can also be applied to understand many disaster

  19. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h(-1) to 0.520 μGy h(-1), and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h(-1), which is close to 0.04 μGy h(-1), which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected. PMID:26911302

  20. Recovery and Resilience After a Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Medical Decision model for Managing an Effective, Timely, and Balanced Response

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C. Norman; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-05-01

    Based on experiences in Tokyo responding to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant crisis, a real-time, medical decision model is presented by which to make key health-related decisions given the central role of health and medical issues in such disasters. Focus is on response and recovery activities that are safe, timely, effective, and well-organized. This approach empowers on-site decision makers to make interim decisions without undue delay using readily available and high-level scientific, medical, communication, and policy expertise. Key features of this approach include ongoing assessment, consultation, information, and adaption to the changing conditions. This medical decision model presented is compatible with the existing US National Response Framework structure.

  1. Life science must go on: standing up after the 311 disaster.

    PubMed

    Osumi, Noriko

    2011-07-01

    Just 1 month has passed since the biggest earthquake ever recorded in Japan occurred in the Tohoku-Kanto area. The earthquake was followed soon afterwards by an unexpected huge tsunami that destroyed many villages and towns near the coast. Perhaps even more seriously, nuclear power plants in Fukushima were damaged, resulting in electricity interruptions and radioactive contamination. It is sad that nearly thirty thousand people died or are still missing as a result of this disaster. I wish to express my deepest sympathy to all the victims and for those that are still being affected by what happened. The 311 earthquake and the ensuing problems have shaken us to the bottom of our hearts, not only physically but also mentally. As one of the persons present in the area at the time of the earthquake, I would like to report how I experienced the 311 disaster in our laboratory in Tohoku University and how this experience has changed my outlook on many things. PMID:21672092

  2. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey. (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Erdik, M. O.; Takahashi, N.; Meral Ozel, N.; Hori, T.; Hori, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Ozel, A. O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Nurlu, M.; Tanircan, G.; Citak, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Necmioglu, O.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes occurred in Turkey, with a total affected population of ~7 million and direct estimated losses of ~25 billion USD. About half the lives lost were due to two earthquakes associated with the North Anatolian Fault in 1939 and 1999. During this time, seven large westward-migrating earthquakes created a 900-km-long continuous surface rupture along the fault zone from Erzincan to the Marmara Sea, stopping just short of Istanbul. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) = 7.4, Parsons concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw >7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years. This high probability is shared by Tokyo and San Francisco; however, the earthquake fragility of the pre-2000 building stock in Turkey is much higher than that of California or Japan. (Erdik, 2013). All of the arguments described above provide a sound basis for a Japanese-Turkish partnership enabling each partner to share experiences gained from past destructive earthquakes and prepare for expected large earthquakes. The SATREPS project aims to address this need, also focusing on the tsunami hazard. The project's main objectives are i) to develop disaster mitigation policies and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities; ii) to provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations; iii) to organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey; iv) to contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. To achieve successfully these objectives, 4 research groups have been set specializing on observations, simulations, civil engineering and disaster education and the results will be integrated for disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey.

  3. Surge Capacity and Capability. A Review of the History and Where the Science is Today Regarding Surge Capacity during a Mass Casualty Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Randy D.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Cairns, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Disasters which include countless killed and many more injured, have occurred throughout recorded history. Many of the same reports of disaster also include numerous accounts of individuals attempting to rescue those in great peril and render aid to the injured and infirmed. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the transition through several periods of time with managing a surge of many patients. This review will focus on the triggering event, injury and illness, location where the care is provided and specifically discuss where the science is today. PMID:24795873

  4. Quality of life of medical students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Pasalar, Parvin; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the quality of life (QOL) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences' (TUMS) medical students at different educational levels and specify the most important factors related to this quality. A sample of 242 medical students was selected randomly, given their number in three educational levels (basic sciences, physiopathology-stager and intern). The QOL was measured by WHOQOL-BREF. The students obtained average high score in two psychological and environmental health domains, and low score in physical health and social relationship domains. As the educational level of students increased their quality of life decreased at all four domains. At social relationship domain, the female students had overall better situation as compared to males (p=0.009). The female and male students had opposite condition at the level of basic sciences and internship, in a way that the female students earned higher marks at basic sciences level and the males at internship level (P= 0.008). The condition of female students in terms of environmental, physical and psychological health became static while their education rose. However, only environmental health of the male students reduced as their education level increased (P= 0.05). The students were of undesirable conditions in two domains of social relationship and physical health. Internship is a specific level in both groups which has a negative impact on the dimensions of quality of life and naturally needs more care for the students. Married status improved the students' QOL and could moderate the undesired effects of internship. PMID:24902021

  5. Virtual Disaster Simulation: Lesson Learned from an International Collaboration That Can Be Leveraged for Disaster Education in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Akbarisari, Ali; Djalali, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    Disaster education needs innovative educational methods to be more effective compared to traditional approaches. This can be done by using virtual simulation method. This article presents an experience about using virtual simulation methods to teach health professional on disaster medicine in Iran. The workshop on the "Application of New Technologies in Disaster Management Simulation" was held in Tehran in January 2015. It was co-organized by the Disaster and Emergency Health Academy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Emergency and the Research Center in Disaster Medicine and Computer Science applied to Medicine (CRIMEDIM), Università del Piemonte Orientale. Different simulators were used by the participants, who were from the health system and other relevant fields, both inside and outside Iran. As a result of the workshop, all the concerned stakeholders are called on to support this new initiative of incorporating virtual training and exercise simulation in the field of disaster medicine, so that its professionals are endowed with field-based and practical skills in Iran and elsewhere. Virtual simulation technology is recommended to be used in education of disaster management. This requires capacity building of instructors, and provision of technologies. International collaboration can facilitate this process. PMID:26236561

  6. The integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Flynn, Brian W; Schonfeld, David; Brown, Lisa M; Jacobs, Gerard A; Dodgen, Daniel; Donato, Darrin; Kaul, Rachel E; Stone, Brook; Norwood, Ann E; Reissman, Dori B; Herrmann, Jack; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Jones, Russell T; Ruzek, Josef I; Ursano, Robert J; Taylor, Robert J; Lindley, David

    2012-03-01

    The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioral health considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioral health into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioral health as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice. PMID:22490938

  7. Concerns of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members about troubles at the nuclear power plant: experience from the Niigata Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, 16 July 2007, in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Makoto; Kumagaya, Ken; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hirose, Yasuo

    2010-06-01

    An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the Niigata-Chuetsu region of Japan at 10:13 on 16 July 2007. The earthquake was followed by the sustained occurrence of numerous aftershocks, delaying the reconstruction of community lifelines. The earthquake affected the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plants (NPPs), the biggest NPP site in the world. The earthquake caused damage to NPPs, resulting in a small amount of radioactive materials being released into the air and the sea. However, no significant effects were detected in the public and the environment. As medical response to this earthquake, 42 Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) were sent to hospitals and first-aid care centers at the NPP site. In order to evaluate the perceptions of the deployed DMAT personnel regarding concerns about the health effects of radiation and information about the damage to NPPs, questionnaires were sent to 40 facilities that dispatched DMATs to the earthquake area. Most of them were concerned with the effects of radiation, and adequate information about the problems at the NPPs was not communicated to them. This preliminary study suggests that communication of information is extremely important for DMAT members in the case of disasters, in particular if there exists a possibility of radiation exposure, since radiation cannot be detected by our senses. DMAT members are critical to any mass casualty incident, whether caused by humans or nature. We have learned from this earthquake that there is urgent need for an all-hazards approach, including a "combined disaster" strategy, which should be emphasized for current disaster planning and response. This is the first report on DMATs deployed to an earthquake site with damage to NPPs. PMID:20445385

  8. Citation analysis in journal rankings: medical informatics in the library and information science literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanatham, R

    1998-01-01

    Medical informatics is an interdisciplinary field. Medical informatics articles will be found in the literature of various disciplines including library and information science publications. The purpose of this study was to provide an objectively ranked list of journals that publish medical informatics articles relevant to library and information science. Library Literature, Library and Information Science Abstracts, and Social Science Citation Index were used to identify articles published on the topic of medical informatics and to identify a ranked list of journals. This study also used citation analysis to identify the most frequently cited journals relevant to library and information science. PMID:9803294

  9. [The Pangenetic theory in the tradition of Greek medical science].

    PubMed

    Imai, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The Pangenetic theory which holds that sperm comes from all the body seems to have been one of the most remarkable doctrines in Greek biology in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, since Aristotle gives a detailed description of the theory and criticizes it severely. The main sources of information about the Pangenetic theory are several medical treatises in the Hippocratic Corpus. There are only some mentions of it in the extant fragments ascribed to Democritus. It would be probable, therefore, that the theory had the origin of its theoretical form in the tradition of Greek medical science, and then came to the focus of attention among the Presocratic philosophers. Some scholars, on the other hand, claim that Democritus had a decisive role in the formation and development of the theory, which was then taken over by the Hippocratic doctors in their attempt to give a systematic explanation for some of the important genetic issues, such as the inheritance of similarities from parents to their children. It must be kept in mind, however, that Hippocratic doctors thought of particular fluids or humours with their inherent powers (delta upsilon nu alpha mu epsilon iotas) as the essential constituents of human body. This fact leads us to have an idea that the doctors had a completely different view of matter from the corpuscular theory, although Lesky (1950) and Lonie (1981) assume them to have been almost dependent on the atomism of Democritus. We can conclude that the Pangenetic theory came originally from Greek medical science, and then developed into the most influential doctrine before Aristotle. PMID:19824316

  10. The Prevalence and Affecting Factors on Self-Medication Among Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Science in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Sayed Mojtaba; Sadeghi, Khirollah; Abdi, Alireza; Vahid, Mansour Pashaie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-medication is an increasingly growing health problem, which has many adverse effects on human and the cost used in the production of medications. Aim The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among student of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Materials and Methods In a descriptive-cross-sectional study, 364 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were recruited through stratified random sampling method. Data collection was done by researcher-made questionnaire, entered to SPSS22 software and analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Of the 364 students, prevalence of self-medication was 123 (33.7%) the mean age was 21.63±1.92, among them 64.2% took the medication from the pharmacy and 34.95% have faced complications of self-medication. The main cause of self-medication among students were the history of a disease of taking medication (44.71%), deemed no importance of the disease (34.95%), and easy accessibility of the medication (20.32%). Conclusion With regard to the high prevalence of self-medication among the students, it is suggested to provide educational programs on the adverse effects of self-medication, and appropriate measures to control and prevent easy access to the medications. PMID:27437242

  11. Medical and Health Sciences Division research report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Medical and Health Sciences Division conducts research programs relevant to neoplastic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular diseases. Basic biological science, nuclear medicine, and epidemiology provide an integrated approach to solving biomedical problems directly related to occupational medicine and environmental health effects. The central theme of this research is focused on both the mechanisms and risk assessments of diseases caused by accidental exposure to chemical toxicants derived from fossil and synthetic fuels or to radiation. A major reorganizational change made this past year restructured the division into two branches. The environmental and health sciences branch contains a cancer and pulmonary research section, an interdisciplinary task group section, a cardiovascular research section, and a research support section. The radiation and nuclear medicine branch consists of a radiation and nuclear medicine section and an occupational epidemiology section. In addition, special task groups have been created to provide an interdisciplinary team approach in certain research efforts. Information included in this booklet summarizes research results and related activities for the period from October 1, 1979, to September 30, 1980.

  12. The (human) science of medical virtual learning environments

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The uptake of virtual simulation technologies in both military and civilian surgical contexts has been both slow and patchy. The failure of the virtual reality community in the 1990s and early 2000s to deliver affordable and accessible training systems stems not only from an obsessive quest to develop the ‘ultimate’ in so-called ‘immersive’ hardware solutions, from head-mounted displays to large-scale projection theatres, but also from a comprehensive lack of attention to the needs of the end users. While many still perceive the science of simulation to be defined by technological advances, such as computing power, specialized graphics hardware, advanced interactive controllers, displays and so on, the true science underpinning simulation—the science that helps to guarantee the transfer of skills from the simulated to the real—is that of human factors, a well-established discipline that focuses on the abilities and limitations of the end user when designing interactive systems, as opposed to the more commercially explicit components of technology. Based on three surgical simulation case studies, the importance of a human factors approach to the design of appropriate simulation content and interactive hardware for medical simulation is illustrated. The studies demonstrate that it is unnecessary to pursue real-world fidelity in all instances in order to achieve psychological fidelity—the degree to which the simulated tasks reproduce and foster knowledge, skills and behaviours that can be reliably transferred to real-world training applications. PMID:21149363

  13. The (human) science of medical virtual learning environments.

    PubMed

    Stone, Robert J

    2011-01-27

    The uptake of virtual simulation technologies in both military and civilian surgical contexts has been both slow and patchy. The failure of the virtual reality community in the 1990s and early 2000s to deliver affordable and accessible training systems stems not only from an obsessive quest to develop the 'ultimate' in so-called 'immersive' hardware solutions, from head-mounted displays to large-scale projection theatres, but also from a comprehensive lack of attention to the needs of the end users. While many still perceive the science of simulation to be defined by technological advances, such as computing power, specialized graphics hardware, advanced interactive controllers, displays and so on, the true science underpinning simulation--the science that helps to guarantee the transfer of skills from the simulated to the real--is that of human factors, a well-established discipline that focuses on the abilities and limitations of the end user when designing interactive systems, as opposed to the more commercially explicit components of technology. Based on three surgical simulation case studies, the importance of a human factors approach to the design of appropriate simulation content and interactive hardware for medical simulation is illustrated. The studies demonstrate that it is unnecessary to pursue real-world fidelity in all instances in order to achieve psychological fidelity--the degree to which the simulated tasks reproduce and foster knowledge, skills and behaviours that can be reliably transferred to real-world training applications. PMID:21149363

  14. In search of the soul in science: medical ethics' appropriation of philosophy of science in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Aronova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the deployment of science studies within the field of medical ethics. For a short time, the discourse of medical ethics became a fertile ground for a dialogue between philosophically minded bioethicists and the philosophers of science who responded to Thomas Kuhn's challenge. In their discussion of the validity of Kuhn's work, these bioethicists suggested a distinct interpretation of Kuhn, emphasizing the elements in his account that had been independently developed by Michael Polanyi, and propelling a view of science that retreated from idealizations of scientific method without sacrificing philosophical realism. Appropriating Polanyi, they extended his account of science to biology and medicine. The contribution of Karl Popper to the debate on the applicability of philosophy of science to the issues of medical ethics provides the opportunity to discuss the ways in which political agendas of different epistemologies of science intertwined with questions of concern to medical ethics. PMID:19835265

  15. Medical information, health sciences librarians, and professional liability.

    PubMed

    Hafner, A W

    1990-01-01

    As a gatekeeper to medical literature and a critical link in the delivery of information to physicians, the librarian's role raises the issue of the librarian's professional liability. The paper suggests several ways in which liability may attach to the librarian or the librarian's employers. Although the librarian's personal risk is negligible, the physician's exposure due to ineffective library work is substantial since the courts have held that a physician must keep abreast of progress in his field. Librarians can also become associated with professional liability actions as part of a case against a physician or hospital through the legal doctrine of vicarious liability. The paper concludes by suggesting several proactive steps for health sciences librarians to pursue to insulate themselves from professional liability and to insulate physicians and institutions from vicarious liability. PMID:10107630

  16. Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010–2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees’ tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations. PMID:23908760

  17. [Switch from emergency medicine to disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Kentaro; Shimizu, Keiki

    2016-02-01

    Disaster medical system in Japan has been changing after huge disaster attack. Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) was established on 1995 after the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and played important role in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on 2011. The action of DMAT is specialized within acute phase. Continual medical aid activity is required from acute phase to chronic phase. After DMAT evacuation, Japan Medical Association Team (JMAT), Japanese Red Cross Teams, Medical university teams and many other medical teams work sequentially in the disaster area. On the other hand, unbalance in the disaster area is occurred. Disaster medical coordinator accommodates that unbalance situation. Development of receive system for many medical assistance teams will be required. PMID:26915255

  18. THE IMPACT OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES ON THE COLLECTING POLICY OF MEDICAL SCHOOL LIBRARIES.

    PubMed

    MACKENZIE, R C; BLOOMQUIST, H

    1964-01-01

    The scope of medical science has broadened to embrace subject areas in the behavioral and social sciences. Medical school curricula have responded to this trend, and the response is inevitably making itself felt in the medical school library. One medical school library's efforts to identify significant library materials in this area are presented as an example of a technique and as an indication of an order of magnitude. A master list of appropriate journal titles is appended. PMID:14119295

  19. 76 FR 10381 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Genetics and... Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics...

  20. 76 FR 7573 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; MBRS Chemistry..., Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental...

  1. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief mission by a tripartite medical team led by the Singapore Armed Forces after the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming Li Leonard; Lim, Jonathan Zhao Min; Tan, Mark Zhong Wei; Kok, Wai Leong; Zhang, Jun Ren; Tan, Mian Yi; Tan, Adrian Chong Beng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Upon arrival in Kathmandu, Nepal, the SAF medical team was assigned to the Gokarna district by the local health authorities. In addition to providing primary healthcare, the medical facility was equipped to perform resuscitation and minor procedures. We also assembled mobile medical teams (MMTs) that travelled to various remote areas of the country to deliver medical aid. RESULTS A total of 3,014 patients were managed by the SAF medical team. Of these patients, 1,286 (42.7%) were men. 574 (19.0%) patients sustained earthquake-related injuries or illnesses, while 2,440 (81.0%) sustained non-earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. The team treated a total of 447 (77.9%) adults and 127 (22.1%) paediatric patients with earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. A significant number of patients developed exacerbations of underlying medical conditions. 2,161 (71.7%) patients were treated in our main facility in Gokarna, while 853 patients (28.3%) were treated by our MMTs. CONCLUSION The ability to transport healthcare personnel and essential medical equipment within a short time allowed the SAF medical team to provide crucial medical care in the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquake. PMID:27549187

  2. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  3. Knowledge of triage in the senior medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOODIAN, HOSSEIN; EGHTESADI, RAZIE; GHAREGHANI, ATEFE; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triage is a response to the problem of overcrowding in Emergency Departments (EDs) and accuracy of decisions made by the triage unit affects the ultimate outcome of EDs. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of triage among last year medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a cross-sectional analytical study whose subjects were all the senior students of medicine (62) in the last year of medicine from January to June 2013 who attended emergency medicine course in the screen room of 2 University Hospitals. This questionnaire was designed in 3 sections including personal data, 15 questions on knowledge of triage and 10 case scenarios for triage decision making and completed by the students. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS statistical software (version 14) using independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient (p≤0.001). Results The total mean score of the participants was 10.6±1.5, ranging from 7 to 13. 58(93.5%) students had poor triage knowledge. In the scenario’s section, the percentage of correct triage by students was 49.2% and those of over and under triage were 28.1% and 22.7%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the triage accuracy and level of triage (ESI 4) (p≤0.001). Conclusion The level of knowledge of triage in the last year medical students was poor, although most of them had passed a course in the screen room. It is recommended that medical students’ educational courses should include sections on the knowledge of triage in emergency rooms. PMID:27382582

  4. Preparing for Catastrophic Disasters: Application of Earth Science and Engineering Data, and Loss Scenarios for Emergency Management and Disaster Recovery Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, R.

    2006-12-01

    Catastrophic disasters, either man or nature caused, pose unique challenges to federal, state and local governments. The complex interactions of lifeline disruption, structural damage, and population displacement are difficult to comprehend or predict. As the preparation for and response to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 illustrated, forecasting the occurrence of the event does not adequately define the complexity of the consequences. Preparing for the occurrence of a rapid onset disaster that occurs without warning creates additional challenges to the emergency management community. If the event is catastrophic, it will quickly overwhelm local, regional and state resources. The ability to comprehend the magnitude and complexity of such a disruption will also be overwhelmed. The State of California, in order to gain insights into the complexity and demands of a catastrophic earthquake event (historic events include Central California [1906, 1868], Southern California [1857], and possible future events), has partnered with the United States Geological Survey, Charles Kircher and Associates, PBS&J and FEMA to exercise and test the State's response to a catastrophic recurrence of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. As Kircher notes in his paper, USGS ground motions, enhanced structure inventories, and FEMA' loss estimation tool, HAZUS, are used to define the impact on the San Francisco Bay Region infrastructure, resources and economy. In November of 2006, this scenario will serve as the structure of a 10-county response exercise that will be played out over 36 continuous hours, replicating lifeline, communications and transportation disruption. The exercise, funded by the California Office of Homeland Security, is the first statewide catastrophic disaster response to be carried out in the State and should serve as both a model for integration of natural hazard information into homeland security planning and for developing training that addresses the complex

  5. Development of the science of mass casualty incident management: reflection on the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-bing; Jiang, Guan-yu; Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; He, Xiao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The following key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the

  6. Revitalising Evidence-based Policy for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030: Lessons from Existing International Science Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Carabine, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The convergence of agreements on disaster risk reduction (DRR), development finance, sustainable development and climate change in 2015 presents a unique opportunity for coherence across these inter-related policy areas. At the same time, demand is growing for a more prominent and effective role for science and technology in providing evidence for policy, with the international community recognising that successful disaster risk reduction (DRR) depends on it. Reflecting this ambition, science is included as a core aspect of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, although the ways in which this will be implemented in practice is still unclear. This paper aims to inform the implementation of international science coordination for DRR by examining a number of existing international science partnerships used across other relevant areas of policy to understand best practice, options for coordination and lessons identified. In the field of DRR, the science-policy interface needs to be strengthened in line with the best practice described in this review. An enhanced UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group will be given the mandate for to enhance the evidence base for DRR and mobilise science and technical work in coordination with a broad range of stakeholders. The structure and function of an enhanced STAG must be as open, as inclusive and as participatory as possible in order to build trust in new and existing institutions at local, national, regional and global levels. The challenge for the international community is to facilitate evidence-based policy making by formally recognising the links between DRR, development finance, sustainable development and climate change in the upcoming post-2015 agreements. PMID:25969796

  7. Revitalising Evidence-based Policy for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030: Lessons from Existing International Science Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Carabine, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The convergence of agreements on disaster risk reduction (DRR), development finance, sustainable development and climate change in 2015 presents a unique opportunity for coherence across these inter-related policy areas. At the same time, demand is growing for a more prominent and effective role for science and technology in providing evidence for policy, with the international community recognising that successful disaster risk reduction (DRR) depends on it. Reflecting this ambition, science is included as a core aspect of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, although the ways in which this will be implemented in practice is still unclear. This paper aims to inform the implementation of international science coordination for DRR by examining a number of existing international science partnerships used across other relevant areas of policy to understand best practice, options for coordination and lessons identified. In the field of DRR, the science-policy interface needs to be strengthened in line with the best practice described in this review. An enhanced UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group will be given the mandate for to enhance the evidence base for DRR and mobilise science and technical work in coordination with a broad range of stakeholders. The structure and function of an enhanced STAG must be as open, as inclusive and as participatory as possible in order to build trust in new and existing institutions at local, national, regional and global levels. The challenge for the international community is to facilitate evidence-based policy making by formally recognising the links between DRR, development finance, sustainable development and climate change in the upcoming post-2015 agreements. PMID:25969796

  8. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings. PMID:22420229

  9. The Webometric Status of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Behjat; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Zahed, Arash; Otroj, Zahra; Mazaheri, Elahe; Soleimanzade-Najafi, Nayere-Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Webometrics refers to the quantitative study of science production, application, structure and technology in the cyber environment. Impact analysis, website collaboration, and recognition of core websites are regarded as the most practical advantages of webometrics. Furthermore, webometrics is applied in ranking studies for universities and academic institutes. This serves as an internationally approved means of academic ranking worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the webometric status of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) and its place in the Webometric Ranking of World Universities. We also tried to comment on how to improve the university’s webometric rank at national, regional, and international levels. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study including all websites of Iranian universities. Census sampling was applied to cover all Iranian university websites. Then the websites were evaluated according to the latest criteria for the international webometric ranking methodology (Cyberometric Lab, July 2012) and their webometric rank at the international level as well as the changes in the rank between July 2012 and January 2013 were analyzed. The webometric rank of IUMS was compared with other medical universities at different levels as well. Findings: According to the findings, from July 2012 to January 2013, IUMS webometric rank improved by 707, 5 and 2 at international, national and ministerial levels, respectively. Moreover, the rank of IUMS for openness rose from 4477 to 193 during the mentioned period (∆ 4284). In excellence, the university rank did not change sensibly (1537 /1538). In the same period, the rank in presence shifted from 1137 to 1091. Meanwhile, growth in website impact was negative as the university impact rank declined from 3369 to 3393. Conclusion: It seems that impact as the most influential ranking indicator fails to grow proportionately as other factors of IUMS website. This is

  10. 75 FR 71712 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Initial.... Craig Hyde, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of...