Science.gov

Sample records for disaster medical sciences

  1. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  2. The National Disaster Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reutershan, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    The Emergency Mobilization Preparedness Board developed plans for improved national preparedness in case of major catastrophic domestic disaster or the possibility of an overseas conventional conflict. Within the health and medical arena, the working group on health developed the concept and system design for the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). A description of NDMS is presented including the purpose, key components, medical response, patient evacuation, definitive medical care, NDMS activation and operations, and summary and benefits.

  3. Catastrophic disasters and the design of disaster medical care systems.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, L E; Reutershan, T P

    1987-09-01

    The National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) is aimed at medical care needs resulting from catastrophic earthquakes, which may cause thousands of deaths and injuries. Other geophysical events may cause great mortality, but leave few injured survivors. Weather incidents, technological disasters, and common mass casualty incidents cause much less mortality and morbidity. Catastrophic disasters overwhelm the local medical care system. Supplemental care is provided by disaster relief forces; this care should be adapted to prevalent types of injuries. Most care should be provided at the disaster scene through supplemental medical facilities, while some can be provided by evacuating patients to distant hospitals. Medical response teams capable of stabilizing, sorting, and holding victims should staff supplemental medical facilities. The NDMS program includes hospital facilities, evacuation assets, and medical response teams. The structure and capabilities of these elements are determined by the medical care needs of the catastrophic disaster situation. PMID:3631673

  4. MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1959-01-01

    The Federal Civil Defense Administration has been consolidated under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 with the Office of Defense Mobilization. The new organization, the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, should be able to deal more efficiently with the problem of mobilization and management of all resources and production of the nation in time of disaster. As preparation for possible enemy attack, organized plans entailing training, supplies, equipment and communications for use in major peacetime disasters—floods, earthquakes, tornado damage—should be carried forward vigorously. Apathy must be overcome. From the local to the highest level all civil defense and disaster plans must be developed and kept flexible enough to be operable during any kind of emergency. Physicians must learn as much as they can about the mass care of casualties, how to survive under the most trying of circumstances. Drills in dealing with simulated disaster are of utmost importance for finding out ahead of time what must be done and the personnel and supplies needed for doing it. PMID:13651962

  5. Disaster nephrology: medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Atef-Zafarmand, Alireza; Fadem, Steve

    2003-04-01

    Disaster medicine is an extension of emergency medicine involving mass casualties and use of the best available techniques in search and rescue. To achieve the best results extensive predisaster preparedness is mandatory. Earthquakes have caused the loss of more than 1 million lives in the 20th century. Evidence-based medicine confirms that these deaths were mostly preventable based on experience in developed countries. The key to success is implementing building codes and structural reinforcement. In earthquakes as well as in collapse of buildings in bomb blasts, loss of life is either because of the direct effect of trauma or to the metabolic consequences of rhabdomyolysis and complications of its management. Hyperkalemia and infection are the commonest causes of death in victims who survive the direct effect of trauma. Acute renal failure, a grave complication of rhabdomyolysis, is mostly preventable by timely rehydration and bicarbonate therapy. Mannitol therapy can be very efficient in reducing the severity of muscle damage and its sequelae. Fasciotomy can be limb saving if it is done in the early hours, although a firm guideline is still lacking. Although each country is responsible for improving the structure of buildings and organizing an efficient disaster response, national and international organizations in developed countries should give high priority to communicating with developing countries to encourage their preparedness. PMID:12879371

  6. Field Organization and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams.

    PubMed

    Arziman, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a "Field" in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role. A Disaster Medical Team is a trained, mobile, self-contained, self-sufficient, multidisciplinary medical team that can act in the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the affected area. The medical team can include physicians, nurses, paramedics and EMTS, technicians, personnel to manage logistics, security and others. Various models of Disaster Medical Teams can be observed around the world. There is paucity of evidence based literature regarding DMTs. There is a need for epidemiological studies with rigorous designs and sampling. In this section of the special edition of the journal, field organizations in health management during disasters will be summarized, with emphasis on preparedness and response phases, and disaster medical teams will be discussed. PMID:27437527

  7. Science-Driven Approach to Disaster Risk and Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional

  8. Designing a National Disaster Medical System.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, E N; Mayer, W N; Mason, J O; Brown, D E; Mahoney, L E

    1985-01-01

    The National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) is a partnership of private and public sectors to provide care to the victims of great disasters. The system is being developed as a voluntary cooperative effort of four major Federal agencies, State and local governments, and the American professional and hospital communities. A medical response component will include 150 disaster medical assistance units capable of clearing or staging operations in a disaster. Each unit will comprise three 29-person teams containing physicians, nurses, medical technicians, and support personnel and will include a 16-person unit command and support element. An evacuation component will be founded on the military aeromedical evacuation system, augmented by civilian aircraft and other transportation resources. A hospital component will enroll 100,000 pre-committed beds in hospitals throughout the nation. The system is designed to care for up to 100,000 casualties arising from a massive peacetime disaster or an overseas conventional military conflict. The National Disaster Medical System will be implemented over a period of 3 to 5 years. The authors recommend that all parts of the American health care community join in support of the system. PMID:3931158

  9. Promoting Disaster Science and Disaster Science Communities as Part of Sound Disaster Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    During disasters, effectively engaging the vast expertise of the academic community can help responders make timely and critical decisions. A barrier to such engagement, however, is the cultural gap between reward systems in academia and in the disaster response community. Responders often are focused on ending the emergency quickly with minimal damage. Academic scientists often need to produce peer reviewed publications to justify their use of time and money. Each community is used to speaking to different audiences, and delivering answers on their own time scales. One approach to bridge this divide is to foster a cohesive community of interdisciplinary disaster scientists: researchers who focus on crises that severely and negatively disrupt the environment or threaten human health, and are able to apply scientific methods in a timely manner to understand how to prevent, mitigate, respond to, or recover from such events. Once organized, a disaster science community could develop its own unique culture. It is well known in the disaster response community that all the preparation that takes place before an event ever occurs is what truly makes the difference in reducing response time, improving coordination, and ultimately reducing impacts. In the same vein, disaster scientists would benefit from consistently interacting with the response community. The advantage of building a community for all disasters, rather than for just one type, is that it will help researchers maintain momentum between emergencies, which may be decades or more apart. Every disaster poses similar challenges: Knowing when to speak to the press and what to say; how to get rapid, actionable peer review; how to keep proprietary industry information confidential; how to develop "no regrets" actions; and how to communicate with decision makers and the public. During the Deepwater Horizonspill, I personally worked with members of the academic research community who cared not whether they got a peer

  10. Medication supply for people evacuated during disasters.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2015-02-01

    Medication loss is a major problem in disaster settings, and it is crucial for patients to bring their medication and healthcare items with them when they leave their homes during an evacuation. This article is based on a systematic literature review on medication loss, the objectives of which were to identify the extent and implications of medication loss, to identify the burden of prescription refill, and to make recommendations on effective preparedness. The review revealed that medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and the loss of medical aids are a significant burden on the medical relief teams. The medical aids are not limited to drugs, but include routine medications, medical/allergy records, devices for specific care and daily life, and emergency medications. One possible solution is to make a personal emergency pack and for people to carry this with them at all times. To ensure that patients are adequately prepared, stakeholders, especially health professionals, need to be actively involved in the preparation plans. Since our findings have little impact on disaster risk reduction unless shared broadly, we are now taking actions to spread our findings, such as presenting in conferences and via posters, in order to raise awareness among patients and healthcare professionals. As part of these activities, our findings were presented at the Evidence Aid Symposium on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India. PMID:25594870

  11. Hazardous materials. Disaster medical planning and response.

    PubMed

    Levitin, H W; Siegelson, H J

    1996-05-01

    Hazardous materials offer a variety of unique challenges to emergency personnel. These agents have immense economic impact, but when mishandled, they become notorious for turning contained accidents into disasters involving the entire community. During a hazmat accident, the victims often ignore the rules of the disaster plan by seeking out the nearest hospital for medical care, regardless of that institution's capabilities. Health care workers rushing to the aid of contaminated individuals, without taking appropriate precautions (i.e., donning PPE), potentially make themselves victims. Disaster preparedness requires planning, policy, and procedure development, hazard analysis, training, and the availability of personal protective equipment for all responding personnel. Presently, the level of hazmat preparedness varies greatly among different hospitals, EMS and fire services, and disaster response teams. These differences in hazmat preparedness can be linked to a variety of factors (lack of awareness, funding, and support) and controversies (types of PPE and level of training required) which have prevented the establishment of a national hazmat policy for most of these organizations. Despite these difficulties, emergency departments continue to be the primary provider of care to contaminated individuals. As a result, emergency physicians must work with their hospital to implement a hazmat decontamination program in order to appropriately care for these individuals. The appendix to this article presents a list of recommendations for hospital hazmat preparedness. It is modeled after existing CDC and OSHA guidelines. PMID:8635411

  12. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Applied Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the ISEA, predecessor to ISES, held a special roundtable to discuss lessons learned for exposure science during and following environmental disasters, especially the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. Since then, environmental agencies have been involved in responses to...

  13. Role of information technology in disaster medical response.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Harrison, Richard A; Smith, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of information technology (IT) in support of disaster medical response and provides a framework for the use of IT in response to natural disasters or terrorist activities. The appropriate use of IT enhances the effectiveness of the disaster response system, thereby safeguarding the population and the community infrastructure. This study found that most US hospitals have wireless local area networks (LANs) with disaster medical response capabilities. The data indicate that combined with the wireless LAN, many hospitals have acquired personal digital assistants, tablets, and handheld personal computers, which are important disaster medical response resources. This research shows that the wireless LAN networks and remote input devices are in place to ensure a timely medical response to disasters within many US communities. PMID:19011412

  14. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  15. Harnessing Earth Observations for Disaster Application Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth observations have made substantive contributions to the understanding of natural hazards, answering key science questions on the mechanisms, processes and dynamics of changes in the land, air and water. This has been achieved through the ability to advance models and interpret the results through maps and assessments. Disaster application science is focused on the two-way flow of data and information between hazard understanding and the knowledge required for disaster response, relief and recovery. This presentation will examine the integration of results from mature science and technology development in areas including optical imagery, synthetic-aperture radar and geodetic sensors, which together provide new levels of situational awareness. Specific examples will be highlighted from the recent Nepal "Gorkha" earthquake. Optical imagery from a host of satellite missions was used to create a comprehensive mosaic across the region, which when analyzed by a global network of volunteer scientists yielded insight into the extent of induced hazards and impacts. In some cases unique day/night band images provided guidance on areas where energy-dependent infrastructure of livelihoods were disrupted. Earthquake modeling and historical trend analysis revealed areas of potential vulnerability and combined with aftershock analysis to guide areas for urgent analysis and action. The combination of SAR and GPS data, innovative integration and processing approaches and nontraditional data integration approaches resulted in damage proxy maps or where combination with airborne photography, field sightings and crowd sourced reports to assess susceptibility to induced hazards (floods and landslides). Opportunities and challenges to build the science and community relationships, harness the earth observations from multiple agencies and institutions and co-develop timely applications to users will be areas for ongoing collaboration and study.Earth observations have made

  16. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  17. Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD)

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, Leslie; Chan, Theodore C.; Griswold, William; Killeen, James; Palmer, Douglas; Kirsh, David; Mishra, Rajesh; Rao, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD) explores the use of scalable wireless networks to facilitate medical care at the site of a disaster. The focus of the project is care of victims of industrial accidents or terrorist attacks with traumatic injuries complicated by chemical, biological or radiological contamination. We report on developments of new architectures for mesh networks, RFID tracking and telemetry, mobile collaborative work, and command and control informed by deployments in large-scale exercises with the San Diego Regional Metropolitan Medical Strike Team.

  18. Science should warn people of looming disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of special knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, it appears that a few seismic hazard assessment programs and/or methodologies were tested appropriately against real observations before being endorsed for estimation of earthquake related risks. The fatal evidence and aftermath of the past decades prove that many of the existing internationally accepted methodologies are grossly misleading and are evidently unacceptable for any kind of responsible risk evaluation and knowledgeable disaster prevention. In contrast, the confirmed reliability of pattern recognition aimed at earthquake prone areas and times of increased probability, along with realistic earthquake scaling and scenario modeling, allow us to conclude that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering this state-of-the-art knowledge of looming disaster in advance catastrophic events. In a lieu of seismic observations long enough for a reliable probabilistic assessment or a comprehensive physical theory of earthquake recurrence, pattern recognition applied to available geophysical and/or geological data sets remains a broad avenue to follow in seismic hazard forecast/prediction. Moreover, better understanding seismic process in terms of non-linear dynamics of a hierarchical system of blocks-and-faults and deterministic chaos, progress to new approaches in assessing time-dependent seismic hazard based on multiscale analysis of seismic activity and reproducible intermediate-term earthquake prediction technique. The algorithms, which make use of multidisciplinary data available and account for fractal nature of earthquake distributions in space and time, have confirmed their

  19. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  20. Post-disaster medical rescue strategy in tropical regions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-hui; Hou, Shi-ke; Zheng, Jing-chen; Fan, Hao-jun; Song, Jian-qi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earthquakes, floods, droughts, storms, mudslides, landslides, and forest wild fires are serious threats to human lives and properties. The present study aimed to study the environmental characteristics and pathogenic traits, recapitulate experiences, and augment applications of medical reliefs in tropical regions. METHODS: Analysis was made on work and projects of emergency medical rescue, based on information and data collected from 3 emergency medical rescue missions of China International Search and Rescue Team to overseas earthquakes and tsunamis aftermaths in tropical disaster regions — Indonesia-Aceh, Indonesia-Yogyakarta, and Haiti-Port au Prince. RESULTS: Shock, infection and heat stroke were frequently encountered in addition to outbreaks of infectious diseases, skin diseases, and diarrhea during post-disaster emergency medical rescue in tropical regions. CONCLUSIONS: High temperature, high humidity, and proliferation of microorganisms and parasites are the characteristics of tropical climate that impose strict requirements on the preparation of rescue work including selective team members suitable for a particular rescue mission and the provisioning of medical equipment and life support materials. The overseas rescue mission itself needs a scientific, efficient, simple workflow for providing efficient emergency medical assistance. Since shock and infection are major tasks in post-disaster treatment of severely injured victims in tropical regions, the prevention and diagnosis of hyperthermia, insect-borne infectious diseases, tropic skin diseases, infectious diarrhea, and pest harms of disaster victims and rescue team staff should be emphasized during the rescue operations. PMID:25215034

  1. Development of a medical module for disaster information systems.

    PubMed

    Calik, Elif; Atilla, Rıdvan; Kaya, Hilal; Aribaş, Alirıza; Cengiz, Hakan; Dicle, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to improve a medical module which provides a real-time medical information flow about pre-hospital processes that gives health care in disasters; transferring, storing and processing the records that are in electronic media and over internet as a part of disaster information systems. In this study which is handled within the frame of providing information flow among professionals in a disaster case, to supply the coordination of healthcare team and transferring complete information to specified people at real time, Microsoft Access database and SQL query language were used to inform database applications. System was prepared on Microsoft .Net platform using C# language. Disaster information system-medical module was designed to be used in disaster area, field hospital, nearby hospitals, temporary inhabiting areas like tent city, vehicles that are used for dispatch, and providing information flow between medical officials and data centres. For fast recording of the disaster victim data, accessing to database which was used by health care professionals was provided (or granted) among analysing process steps and creating minimal datasets. Database fields were created in the manner of giving opportunity to enter new data and search old data which is recorded before disaster. Web application which provides access such as data entry to the database and searching towards the designed interfaces according to the login credentials access level. In this study, homepage and users' interfaces which were built on database in consequence of system analyses were provided with www.afmedinfo.com web site to the user access. With this study, a recommendation was made about how to use disaster-based information systems in the field of health. Awareness has been developed about the fact that disaster information system should not be perceived only as an early warning system. Contents and the differences of the health care practices of disaster information systems were

  2. Science-Driven Disaster Risk Research and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advancements in knowledge on disaster risks and disasters caused by natural hazards, yet we are not seeing a concomitant decline in disaster impacts and losses. Greater efforts are needed to communicate knowledge on disaster risks via integrated co-productive research and assessments. A way of integration and co-production could be through the maturation of hazard and disaster science and through trans-disciplinary approaches aiming at in-depth investigations using a system analysis and at recommendations for actions to reduce risks and to improve resilience of society. Such approaches offer a practice- and policy-oriented knowledge to mitigate or to prevent potential disasters. A baseline assessment of disaster risks is needed to produce a clear and unambiguous scientific view on the current state of knowledge in disaster risk, the potential socio-economic impacts of natural hazards, and the ways to reduce significant human and economic losses. Such assessments would provide the catalyst for the advancement of not only the science but policy. The need for such an effort is more critical now than ever before because such an effort would provide scientific results to support disaster policy across governments and would present a cross-cutting action in policy and practice related to climate change and sustainability.

  3. A short medical school course on responding to bioterrorism and other disasters.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Alan R; Oliver, Sandra; Jenkins, Donald; Ruscio, Bruce; Green, J Ben; Colenda, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    The events of 9/11 highlighted the limitations of the United States health care system in responding to large-scale public health emergencies. The key for an effective response to any mass casualty event is preparedness; thus, the education of medical students has become a priority. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) recommended that the nation's medical schools should thoroughly educate students about the public health and emergency services systems to ensure coordinated responses to weapons of mass destruction or other public health threats. In response, The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, partnering with the Defense Institute for Medical Operations (DIMO), developed a one-week block of required (but not graded) instruction, the "Leadership Course in Disaster Response," first given in 2003-04 to 72 second-year students and taught by six military experts from DIMO. The course goal is to (1) educate students on resources available for regional disaster response; (2) define principles of resource management in disaster response; (3) identify specific agents associated with bioterrorism; and (4) understand the psychosocial aspects of disasters. The course was well received, and the 2004-05 session was improved, based on student and faculty feedback. The authors describe the details of the course (specifically, how the course was tailored to fit the AAMC guidelines), changes in students' knowledge and attitudes, and how the course was improved. PMID:16123460

  4. Medical outreach following a remote disaster: lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Anne Lang; Isakov, Alexander P; Compton, Michael T; White, Melissa; Nassery, Hogai; Frank, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, many individuals were evacuated to the Atlanta area (1,306 medical evacuees, over 100,000 self-evacuees), placing considerable strain on an already overburdened healthcare system. With the aim of improving future disaster responsiveness, we designed this in-depth case study to identify systemic vulnerabilities and gaps in community responsiveness to an influx of evacuees from a remote disaster. Qualitative methods were used to interview key informants both individually and in focus groups. Coding and content analysis of transcribed interview data were used to identify shared observations and common themes. Twenty-three individuals in leadership roles at the Woodruff Health Sciences Center of Emory University or the Grady Health System completed individual interviews; an additional 24 healthcare providers participated in focus groups. A strategy-based data-coding scheme for interview data was used to identify key foci, including services that met needs of evacuees, unmet needs, service provision that was successful/unsuccessful, underlying reasons for success or failure, and future needs for disaster planning and responsiveness. Analysis of interview data revealed important accomplishments and deficits in the medical community's response in specific domains of community disaster planning and evaluation. For each key component of community disaster planning and evaluation, there are considerations at the institutional, regional, state, and federal levels. In the current study, these considerations were identified as instrumental in effectively meeting the healthcare needs of the evacuated population. PMID:18274045

  5. [Medical and biological consequences of nuclear disasters].

    PubMed

    Stalpers, Lukas J A; van Dullemen, Simon; Franken, N A P Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Medical risks of radiation exaggerated; psychological risks underestimated. The discussion about atomic energy has become topical again following the nuclear accident in Fukushima. There is some argument about the gravity of medical and biological consequences of prolonged exposure to radiation. The risk of cancer following a low dose of radiation is usually estimated by linear extrapolation of the incidence of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The radiobiological linear-quadratic model (LQ-model) gives a more accurate description of observed data, is radiobiologically more plausible and is better supported by experimental and clinical data. On the basis of this model there is less risk of cancer being induced following radiation exposure. The gravest consequence of Chernobyl and Fukushima is not the medical and biological damage, but the psychological and economical impact on rescue workers and former inhabitants. PMID:22607840

  6. Disaster preparedness: what training do our interns receive during medical school?

    PubMed

    Jasper, Edward; Berg, Katherine; Reid, Matthew; Gomella, Patrick; Weber, Danielle; Schaeffer, Arielle; Crawford, Albert; Mealey, Kathleen; Berg, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Disaster preparedness training is a critical component of medical student education. Despite recent natural and man-made disasters, there is no national consensus on a disaster preparedness curriculum. The authors designed a survey to assess prior disaster preparedness training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2010, the authors surveyed incoming interns (n = 130) regarding the number of hours of training in disaster preparedness received during medical school, including formal didactic sessions and simulation, and their level of self-perceived proficiency in disaster management. Survey respondents represented 42 medical schools located in 20 states. Results demonstrated that 47% of interns received formal training in disaster preparedness in medical school; 64% of these training programs included some type of simulation. There is a need to improve the level of disaster preparedness training in medical school. A national curriculum should be developed with aspects that promote knowledge retention. PMID:23341470

  7. National Disaster Medical System; medical manpower component establishment--Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. Notice.

    PubMed

    1988-04-20

    This notice announces the creation of the medical manpower component within the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services/Public Health Service (HHS/PHS) as a part of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). The NDMS is an organized resource that may be activated to serve national needs in the event of disasters or other major emergencies requiring extraordinary medical services. The manpower component will contain volunteer medical response personnel and technical staff that will be made available in situations requiring substantial medical services from outside the area affected by the disaster or emergency. The manpower component of NDMS is being established by HRSA/HHS/PHS in cooperation with the Department of Defense (DoD), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the Veterans Administration (VA). PMID:10287019

  8. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  9. Creating a state medical response system for medical disaster management: the North Carolina experience.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Skarote, Mary Beth; Peterson, Jeff; Hubble, Michael W; Winslow, James E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the creation and evolution of the North Carolina state medical response system (SMRS). During the past 30 years, states and local communities have developed a somewhat incongruent patchwork of medical disaster response systems. Several local or regional programs participated in the National Disaster Medical System; however, aside from the Disaster Medical Assistance Teams, most of these local resources lacked national standards and national direction. The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in Washington, DC and New York, and the anthrax-laced letters mailed to prominent individuals in the US media and others (bioterrorism) in the months that followed were tragic, but they served as both a tipping point and a unifying factor to drive preparedness activities on a national level. Each state responded to the September 11, 2001 attacks by escalating planning and preparedness efforts for a medical disaster response. The North Carolina SMRS was created based on the overall national direction and was tailored to meet local needs such as hurricane response. This article reviews the accomplishments to date and examines future aims. From regional medical response teams to specialty programs such as ambulance strike teams, burn surge planning, electronic inventory and tracking systems, and mobile pharmacy resources, the North Carolina SMRS has emerged as a national leader. Each regional coalition, working with state leadership, has developed resources and has used those resources while responding to disasters in North Carolina. The program is an example of how national leadership can work with state and local agencies to develop a comprehensive and effective medical disaster response system. PMID:25188616

  10. Are medical offices prepared for the next disaster?

    PubMed

    Phillipp, Annette; Stokes, Christopher D; Tivis, Rick; Gans, David; Piland, Neill

    2009-01-01

    Disasters have an enormous economic impact on the United States as well as short- and long-term healthcare implications. Federal and state governments are providing billions of dollars to communities across the nation for emergency preparedness activities. An online poll conducted in July 2008 indicated that most medical practices in the United States, even though they believe they will be impacted by a disaster within the next five years, re port themselves to be inadequately prepared. In light of increased funding since 9/11 and hurricane Katrina, the results of the poll show that the very practices that are the foundation of our healthcare system that see and treat patients on a daily basis are not being included in preparedness efforts. PMID:19911544

  11. Utstein-Style Template for Uniform Data Reporting of Acute Medical Response in Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives; Dhondt, Erwin; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Rüter, Anders; Codreanu, Tudor; Koenig, Kristi L.; Schultz, Carl; Peleg, Kobi; Halpern, Pinchas; Stratton, Samuel; Della Corte, Francesco; Delooz, Herman; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Colombo, Davide; Castrèn, Maaret

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Task Force on Quality Control of Disaster Management (WADEM) published guidelines for evaluation and research on health disaster management and recommended the development of a uniform data reporting tool. Standardized and complete reporting of data related to disaster medical response activities will facilitate the interpretation of results, comparisons between medical response systems and quality improvement in the management of disaster victims. Methods: Over a two-year period, a group of 16 experts in the fields of research, education, ethics and operational aspects of disaster medical management from 8 countries carried out a consensus process based on a modified Delphi method and Utstein-style technique. Results: The EMDM Academy Consensus Group produced an Utstein-style template for uniform data reporting of acute disaster medical response, including 15 data elements with indicators, that can be used for both research and quality improvement. Conclusion: It is anticipated that the Utstein-style template will enable better and more accurate completion of reports on disaster medical response and contribute to further scientific evidence and knowledge related to disaster medical management in order to optimize medical response system interventions and to improve outcomes of disaster victims. PMID:23066513

  12. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource

    PubMed Central

    Domres, Bernd D.; Stahl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas; Houser, Christine M.; Himmelseher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Background Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness. Aims We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented. Methods The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development. Results The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training. Conclusions The curriculum offers

  13. [Multi-occupational description of medical cooperation during a disaster].

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    On April 10, 2011, the author was sent to Yugakukan, a general shelter in Ishinomaki, as member of the first Primary Care for All Team (PCAT) mission, which was composed of medical and welfare service-specialists. Although various volunteers, government officials, and local organizations were gathered there, the situation was under control, and individuals cooperated under common goals. In order for all the organizations to cooperate and unify their purpose, PCAT identified all the key individuals and established the importance of conducting advanced meetings. The target of PCAT was to provide continued support until the shelter regained its capabilities as a local medical, welfare, and healthcare facility. We helped convert Yugakukan into a welfare shelter from a general one, with consideration for the needs of the entire disaster-stricken area. Likewise, we planned for the reduction of incidence by the local staff. As a team of pharmacists, we cooperated with the local key pharmacist, Mr. Yoshirou Tanno, to plan how the local pharmacy could be made more useful for revival. I concentrated on the production of a system for three weeks. During this period, I probed into the importance of the connection among people. Sharing information, building cooperation, and organization collaboration facilitated the smooth operations and development of the shelter. The experience of serving at Yugakukan can be used as indicator of pharmacists' role in the comprehensive care system, including supporting the elderly, whose population is currently rising. PMID:24389608

  14. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  15. Human Problems in Major Disasters: A Training Curriculum for Emergency Medical Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health, Rockville, MD. Div. of Education and Service Systems Liaison.

    This training manual on emotional responses to disaster is designed for use by mental health professionals in the training of emergency medical teams whose job is to immediately respond to both large- and small-scale disasters. It is noted that members of these teams are usually not mental health professionals, but they must deal with a range of…

  16. Medical response to a natural disaster: the Barrie tornado.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, B A; Armstrong, T M

    1986-01-01

    On May 31, 1985, a tornado devastated an area of Barrie, Ont. Following a prepared disaster plan, the staff of the local hospital managed 155 casualties, including 16 cases of multiple trauma, over 5 hours. The authors summarize the hospital's experience and give recommendations to help the staff of other hospitals improve their disaster plans. PMID:3948094

  17. Medical science and social values.

    PubMed

    Caton, D

    2004-07-01

    Social Values, no less than medical science, have shaped the medical management of the pain of childbirth. Nineteenth century feminists fought for greater use of anesthesia in obstetrics at a time when physicians held back for fear of its effects on labor, hemorrhage, rates of infection and the condition of the child. A century later, after physicians became comfortable with the use of anesthesia, a new generation of feminists challenged the use of such drugs, once again citing social considerations. The personalities of colorful and charismatic obstetricians such as James Young Simpson and Grantley Dick-Read played a strong part in the outcome of each confrontation. PMID:15321396

  18. [Military medical doctrine and the development of the concept of disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Nechaev, E A; Nazarenko, G I; Zhizin, V N

    1993-04-01

    On the basis of their own experience and literature concerning liquidation of the disaster consequences the authors analyse limitations in the disaster health care system. The article shows the trends towards the improvement of medical aid during catastrophes of peaceful period, taking into account various aspects of military doctrine and, especially, the casualty care staging system. It is stressed that the disaster health care procedures will depend on the structure of sanitary losses, characteristic features of the scene of an accident and the dynamics of medical environment. PMID:8328140

  19. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

  20. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  1. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams After Earthquakes in Iran: Propose a Localized Model

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mohsen; Salehnia, M Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background In the past 10 years, 13 fatal earthquakes have occurred in Iran and led to death of 30,000 people whom most of them were killed in the earlier hours of the disaster. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams are groups of trained medical and non-medical personnel with various combinations that on the optimal conditions are deployed just within 8 hours of notification and are able to work self-sufficiently for at least 72 hours without any outside help and can treat up to 250 patients per day. Currently there are no such rapid-response teams in case of unexpected events in Iran, which causes the responses to such disasters, not to be organized or practiced. For instance, there were many rescue forces in 2003 Bam earthquake but not enough skilled ones to cope with; consequently they themselves became a problem in crisis management instead of solving the problem. Objectives In this study, we have investigated which of the following is more efficient: changing the size and combination of the team depending on the type of disaster and environmental conditions or, determine a fixed combination team. Materials and Methods Totally, several reasons for dynamic combination and size of the teams are presented. later, earthquake disaster is divided into 3 phases in terms of time including the acute phase (1st to 4th day after disaster), the sub-acute phase (5th to 14thday) and the recovery phase (after the 14th day), and finally the appropriate team combinations in every phases are offered. Results Regarding to introduction and considering the existing statistics in different legal Iranian resources and by division of the earthquake disaster to three phases including acute phase (1st to the 4th day after disaster), sub-acute phase (5th to 14th day) and recovery phase (after the 14th day) Conclusions The countries pioneer in disaster medical assistance teams, now are inclined to deploy different teams consistent with each kind of disasters or with other effective components

  2. The Medical Home and Care Coordination in Disaster Recovery: Hypothesis for Interventions and Research.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Robert K; Abramson, David M; Redlener, Irwin; Gracy, Delaney

    2015-08-01

    In postdisaster settings, health care providers encounter secondary surges of unmet primary care and mental health needs that evolve throughout disaster recovery phases. Whatever a community's predisaster adequacy of health care, postdisaster gaps are similar to those of any underserved region. We hypothesize that existing practice and evidence supporting medical homes and care coordination in primary care for the underserved provide a favorable model for improving health in disrupted communities. Elements of medical home services can be offered by local or temporary providers from outside the region, working out of mobile clinics early in disaster recovery. As repairs and reconstruction proceed, local services are restored over weeks or years. Throughout recovery, major tasks include identifying high-risk patients relative to the disaster and underlying health conditions, assisting displaced families as they transition through housing locations, and tracking their evolving access to health care and community services as they are restored. Postdisaster sources of financial assistance for the disaster-exposed population are often temporary and evolving, requiring up-to-date information to cover costs of care until stable services and insurance coverage are restored. Evidence to support disaster recovery health care improvement will require research funding and metrics on structures, processes, and outcomes of the disaster recovery medical home and care coordination, based on adaptation of standard validated methods to crisis environments. PMID:26046492

  3. A fundamental, national, medical disaster management plan: an education-based model.

    PubMed

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Hosseinijenab, Vahid; Hasani, Azadeh; Shirmardi, Kianoush; Castrén, Maaret; Ohlén, Gunnar; Panahi, Farzad

    2009-01-01

    During disasters, especially following earthquakes, health systems are expected to play an essential role in reducing mortality and morbidity. The most significant naturally occurring disaster in Iran is earthquakes; they have killed >180,000 people in the last 90 years. According to the current plan in 2007, the disaster management system of Iran is composed of three main work groups: (1) Prevention and risk management, (2) Education, and (3) Operation. This organizational separation has resulted in lack of necessary training programs for experts of specialized organizations, e.g., the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME).The National Board of MOHME arranged a training program in the field of medical disaster management. A qualified training team was chosen to conduct this program in each collaborating center, based on a predefined schedule. All collaborating centers were asked to recall 5-7 experts from each member university. Working in medical disaster management field for greater than or equal to 2 years was an inclusion criterion. The training programs lasted three days, consisted of all relevant aspects of medical disaster management, and were conducted over a six-month period (November 2007-April 2008). Pre-test and post-tests were used to examine the participants' knowledge regarding disaster management; the mean score on the pretest was 67.1 +/-11.6 and 88.1 +/-6.2, respectively. All participants were asked to hold the same training course for their organizations in order to enhance knowledge of related managers, stakeholders, and workers, and build capacity at the local and provincial levels. The next step was supposed to be developing a comprehensive medical disaster management plan for the entire country. Establishing nine disaster management regional collaborating centers in the health system of Iran has provided an appropriate base for related programs to be rapidly and easily accomplished throughout the country. This tree-shaped model is

  4. National Institute of General Medical Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over Navigation Links National Institute of General Medical Sciences Site Map Staff Search My Order Search the ... NIGMS Website Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS Feature Slides View All Slides ...

  5. [What is good at the laboratory medical technologist in a medium scale hospital in a time of disaster?].

    PubMed

    Takeura, Hisashi

    2011-02-01

    Medical institutes need to prepare for earthquake or severe disasters which may happen at some future date and need to take countermeasures for those situations. Also our laboratory must do the same things. New medical center will be open in March, 2011. At the same time, this hospital will be registered as the one of the centers which contend with disasters to follow the infrastructure outline of disaster caring hospitals of Osaka prefecture. PMID:21476299

  6. Medical emergency rescue in disaster: the international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Cai, Wenwei; Lu, Ye; Xia, Shichang; Chen, Zhiping; Chen, Enfu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Huakun; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Following Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been supporting the Government of the Philippines in coordinating the incoming relief supplies from more than 30 international humanitarian health organizations. During the 10 days in Abuyong, Philippines, the Chinese medical rescue team consisting of 50 experts specialized in clinical medicine and disease prevention and control action was taken including, medical treatment, environmental disinfection and health education. A total of 1,831 cases and 2,144 outpatients were treated, blood tests, B-ultrasound, electrocardiogram (ECG) and other laboratory examinations were carried out for more than 615 patients; a cumulative 90,000 square meters in external environment were disinfected, and more than 500 health education materials were handed out. Besides, measures of purifying drinking water, and rebuilding the local hospital have also been carried out. The international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines contributed to reconstruct the local disaster health system by the activities from international medical emergency rescue. To improve the capacity of international medical emergency rescue in disaster, the special project of foreign medical emergency rescue should be set in countries' medical emergency rescue, and disaster emergency medical rescue should be reserved as a conventional capacity. PMID:25641183

  7. Medical Support for Aircraft Disaster Search and Recovery Operations at Sea: the RSN Experience.

    PubMed

    Teo, Kok Ann Colin; Chong, Tse Feng Gabriel; Liow, Min Han Lincoln; Tang, Kong Choong

    2016-06-01

    The maritime environment presents a unique set of challenges to search and recovery (SAR) operations. There is a paucity of information available to guide provision of medical support for SAR operations for aircraft disasters at sea. The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) took part in two such SAR operations in 2014 which showcased the value of a military organization in these operations. Key considerations in medical support for similar operations include the resultant casualty profile and challenges specific to the maritime environment, such as large distances of area of operations from land, variable sea states, and space limitations. Medical support planning can be approached using well-established disaster management life cycle phases of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery, which all are described in detail. This includes key areas of dedicated training and exercises, force protection, availability of air assets and chamber support, psychological care, and the forensic handling of human remains. Relevant lessons learned by RSN from the Air Asia QZ8501 search operation are also included in the description of these key areas. Teo KAC , Chong TFG , Liow MHL , Tang KC . Medical support for aircraft disaster search and recovery operations at sea: the RSN experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(3):294-299. PMID:27018529

  8. Knowledge Levels and Training Needs of Disaster Medicine among Health Professionals, Medical Students, and Local Residents in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Background Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. Methods A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Results Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001), whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001). In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001). Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. ‘Lecture’ and ‘practical training’ were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001). Conclusions Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and the current

  9. [Challenges of basical sciences in medical education].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Carranza, Rodolfo

    2014-12-01

    The relevance of basic sciences in medical education has been recognized for centuries, and the importance of exposing medical students to science was acknowledged and reinforced by the recommendations of Flexner in 1910. Since then, traditional medical education has been divided into preclinical and clinical subjects; within this scheme, the first terms of undergraduate medical education usually concentrate on basic sciences, while subsequent ones focus on clinical sciences and clinical training. Since 1956, this educational scheme has been questioned and, in some schools, the medical curriculum has undergone significant structural changes; some of these reforms, especially integrated curricula, are associated with important reductions in the time allotted to individual basic science courses or even with their removal. The removal of basic science subjects from the medical curriculum is paradoxical because nowadays the value of biomedical knowledge and the scientific reasoning to make medical decisions is more appreciated than ever. To maintain its relevance in medical education, basic sciences have to confront three challenges: a) increasing its presence in clinical education; b) developing nuclear programs; and c) renewing laboratory instruction. PMID:25643888

  10. Moorgate tube train disaster. Part 1-Response of medical services.

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Experience of the medical staff at a major subterranean accident scene showed that there appeared to be a substantial advantage in using site medical teams that could offer anaesthetic facilities. The need for adequate communication from the accident site to the hospital is emphasized. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1174871

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF IT TRIAGE SYSTEM (TRACY) TO SHARE REGIONAL DISASTER MEDICAL INFORMATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numada, Muneyoshi; Hada, Yasunori; Ohara, Miho; Meguro, Kimiro

    We developed an IT triage system for collecting disaster medical information in real time. FeliCa cards and card readers are used to obtain the number and cond ition of patients. The system is composed of two elements. First, the number of patie nts for each triage level and the accepted number of patients in each diagnosis and treatment department are obtained in real time, including response for changing triage level. Second, this information can be shared among hospitals, the administration, and residents in real time who are searching for their family. A disaster drill utiliz ing this system was held at the University of Yamanashi Hospital with 450 participants.

  12. Development of the Japanese National Disaster Medical System and Experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Masato

    2015-01-01

    After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the Japanese national disaster medical system (NDMS) was developed. It mainly consists of four components, namely, a disaster base hospital, an emergency medical information system, a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), and national aeromedical evacuation (AE). The NDMS was tested for the first time in a real disaster situation during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Two airports and one base were appointed as DMAT gathering places, and approximately 393 DMAT members divided into 78 teams were transported by Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) aircrafts to two AE staging bases the following day. Staging care units were installed at Hanamaki Airport, Fukushima Airport, and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Camp Kasuminome, and 69, 14 and 24 DMAT teams were placed at those locations, respectively. In total, 19 patients were evacuated using JASDF fixed-wing aircraft. Important issues requiring attention became clear through the experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake and will be discussed in this paper. PMID:26306054

  13. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  14. [Information flow between medical and social sciences].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó

    2014-12-28

    In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends. PMID:25528322

  15. 76 FR 30370 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  16. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  17. 38 CFR 17.86 - Provision of hospital care and medical services during certain disasters and emergencies under 38...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency declared by the President under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Disaster Medical System established pursuant to section 2811(b) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision of...

  18. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment. PMID:25441528

  19. Use of an emergency medical pictorial communication book during simulated disaster conditions.

    PubMed

    Behar, Solomon; Benson Ii, Richard; Kurzweil, Ami; Azen, Colleen; Nager, Alan L

    2013-10-01

    During disasters, the needs of victims outstrip available resources. Rapid assessment of patients must be performed; however, language barriers can be an impediment to efficient patient assessment, especially if interpreter resources are limited. Dependency on interpretive services requiring technology such a telephones, cell phones, and video conferencing may be inefficient, as they may be unavailable during disaster conditions. A low-tech, portable tool that aids in communication with non-English speakers would be beneficial. The medical emergency communication (MEC) book, developed at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, has the potential to be a useful tool in this capacity. The goal of this pilot study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed disaster-focused medical history obtained from Spanish-speaking patients or caregivers using the MEC book, compared to a control group with whom no book was used. Our hypothesis was that use of the MEC book improves accuracy of medical history taking between English-only speaking health care workers and Spanish-speaking patients better than a monolingual clinician trying to take a medical history without it. We anticipated a higher overall score in the group of subjects whose histories were taken using the MEC book than in the control group. Patient satisfaction with the MEC book also was measured. PMID:24274127

  20. Emotional Intelligence in Medical Laboratory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Travis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In…

  1. An 802.11 wireless blood pulse-oximetry system for medical response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Douglas A; Rao, Ramesh; Lenert, Leslie A

    2005-01-01

    In a mass casualty situation, medical personnel at the disaster site and other field treatment settings may need to monitor the vital signs of hundreds of seriously injured patients with minimal staffing. The conditions may be primitive and personnel may have to improvise infrastructure. As part of our research to enhance medical response to disasters with Internet-enabled systems, we have developed a prototype Wireless Blood Pulse Oximeter system for mass casualty events designed to operate in WiFi hotspots. Pulse ox units were designed using low-cost embedded system technologies to operate in integrated or stand alone environments. Units can report data to a command post on the scene or any remote location with Internet access. The entire system is potentially capable of tracking and monitoring several hundred patients. PMID:16779359

  2. The national disaster medical system: past, present, and suggestions for the future.

    PubMed

    Franco, Crystal; Toner, Eric; Waldhorn, Richard; Inglesby, Thomas V; O'Toole, Tara

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews the history and structure of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), with an emphasis on its definitive care component. NDMS's capacity to handle very large mass casualty events, such as those included in the National Planning Scenarios, is examined. Following Hurricane Katrina, Congress called for a reevaluation of NDMS. In that context, we make three key suggestions to improve NDMS's capacity to respond to large mass casualty disasters: (1) increase the level of engagement by the private (i.e., nonfederal) healthcare system in preparedness and response efforts; (2) increase the reliance on regional hospital collaborative networks as part of the backbone of the NDMS system; and (3) develop additional, alternative patient transportation systems, linked to the overall NDMS patient tracking effort, to decrease the sole reliance on DoD long-haul air transport in medical evacuation. PMID:18052820

  3. A novel communications network for the provision of medical care in disaster and emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Dembeyiotis, S; Konnis, G; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    We have designed and developed a novel data communications network targeted at the provision of Emergency Medical Care in disaster situations over wide areas. The network nodes can transmit essential biosignals and in addition, support video and diagnostic quality sound (auscultation) broadcasting for teleconsultation purposes, by using a variety of wireless transports. The medical data acquisition stations are networked dynamically and on demand, with no requirement for an existing communications infrastructure at the disaster sites. The network design allows for limited transmitting station mobility and support for software-based Voice over IP during station roaming. Initial test results, following the hardware and software integration, indicate that the chosen network design meets specifications, and a full-scale field test, utilizing a large number of wireless stations operating under realistic conditions is to take place. PMID:17271008

  4. Integrating emerging earth science technologies into disaster risk management: an enterprise architecture approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster risk management has grown to rely on earth observations, multi-source data analysis, numerical modeling, and interagency information sharing. The practice and outcomes of disaster risk management will likely undergo further change as several emerging earth science technologies come of age: mobile devices; location-based services; ubiquitous sensors; drones; small satellites; satellite direct readout; Big Data analytics; cloud computing; Web services for predictive modeling, semantic reconciliation, and collaboration; and many others. Integrating these new technologies well requires developing and adapting them to meet current needs; but also rethinking current practice to draw on new capabilities to reach additional objectives. This requires a holistic view of the disaster risk management enterprise and of the analytical or operational capabilities afforded by these technologies. One helpful tool for this assessment, the GEOSS Architecture for the Use of Remote Sensing Products in Disaster Management and Risk Assessment (Evans & Moe, 2013), considers all phases of the disaster risk management lifecycle for a comprehensive set of natural hazard types, and outlines common clusters of activities and their use of information and computation resources. We are using these architectural views, together with insights from current practice, to highlight effective, interrelated roles for emerging earth science technologies in disaster risk management. These roles may be helpful in creating roadmaps for research and development investment at national and international levels.

  5. Task force St. Bernard: operational issues and medical management of a National Guard disaster response operation.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, Carl J; Schock, Tony R; McVaney, Kevin E; Colwell, Christopher B; Depass, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    After Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States on 29 August 2005, it became obvious that the country was facing an enormous national emergency. With local resources overwhelmed, governors across the US responded by deploying thousands of National Guard soldiers and airmen. The National Guard has responded to domestic disasters due to natural hazards since its inception, but an event with the magnitude of Hurricane Katrina was unprecedented. The deployment of >900 Army National Guard soldiers to St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana in the aftermath of the Hurricane was studied to present some of the operational issues involved with providing medical support for this type of operation. In doing so, the authors attempt to address some of the larger issues of how the National Guard can be incorporated into domestic disaster response efforts. A number of unforeseen issues with regards to medical operations, medical supply, communication, preventive medicine, legal issues, and interactions with civilians were encountered and are reviewed. A better understanding of the National Guard and how it can be utilized more effectively in future disaster response operations can be developed. PMID:18087915

  6. Standardizing and personalizing science in medical education.

    PubMed

    Lambert, David R; Lurie, Stephen J; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Ward, Denham S

    2010-02-01

    In the century since the initial publication of the Flexner Report, medical education has emphasized a broad knowledge of science and a fundamental understanding of the scientific method, which medical educators believe are essential to the practice of medicine. The enormous growth of scientific knowledge that underlies clinical practice has challenged medical schools to accommodate this new information within the curricula. Although innovative educational modalities and new curricula have partly addressed this growth, the authors argue for a systematic restructuring of the content and structure of science education from the premedical setting through clinical practice. The overarching goal of science education is to provide students with a broad, solid foundation applicable to medicine, a deep understanding of the scientific method, and the attitudes and skills needed to apply new knowledge to patient care throughout their careers. The authors believe that to accomplish this successfully, the following changes must occur across the three major stages of medical education: (1) a reshaping of the scientific preparation that all students complete before medical school, (2) an increase in individualized science education during medical school, and (3) an emphasis on knowledge acquisition skills throughout graduate medical education and beyond to assure lifelong scientific learning. As students progress through the educational continuum, the balance of standardized and personalized scientific knowledge will shift toward personalization. Greater personalization demands that physicians possess well-refined skills in information acquisition, interpretation, and application for optimal lifelong learning and effective clinical practice. PMID:20107368

  7. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  8. [Basic areas of medical science in Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Abdullakhodzhaeva, M S

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the issues of medicine development in the Republic of Uzbekistan and the contribution made by prominent scientists developing effective methods for diagnosing and treating different diseases in medical science. A great part is assigned to medical science advances in our country. To solve the urgent problems of public health, much attention is given to the training of scientific manpower, the setting up of specialized research and practical medical centers of different profile, research laboratories of medical higher educational establishments as a base for conducting researches and investigations, which will be able to improve the quality of medical care to the population and corresponds to a health care reform program. PMID:27070775

  9. Barriers to Disaster Preparedness among Medical Special Needs Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Leslie; Vatcheva, Kristina; Castellanos, Stephanie; Reininger, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    A medical special needs (MSN) assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%), Hispanic (92.9%), aged >45 years (51%), not insured for health (59.2%), and with an MSN (33.2%). Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild) to level 4 (most severe). Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32)]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness. PMID:26389107

  10. Telemedicine and international disaster response: Medical consultation to Armenia and Russia via a telemedicine spacebridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtchens, Bruce A.; Clemmer, Terry P.; Holloway, Harry C.; Kiselev, Alexander A.; Logan, James S.; Merrell, Ronald C.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Nikogossian, Haik A.; Rayman, Russell B.; Sarkisian, Ashot E.

    1991-01-01

    The Telemedicine Spacebridge, a satellite mediated audio-video-fax link between four U.S. and two Armenian and Russian medical centers, permitted remote American consultants to assist Armenian and Russian physicians in the management of medical problems following the December 1988 earthquake in Armenia and the June 1989 gas explosion near Ufa. During 12 weeks of operations, 247 Armenian and Russian and 175 American medical professionals participated in 34 half-day clinical conferences. 209 patients were discussed, requiring expertise in 20 specialty areas. Telemedicine consultations resulted in altered diagnoses for 54, new diagnostic studies for 70, altered diagnostic processes for 47, and modified treatment plans for 47 of 185 Armenian patients presented. Simultaneous participation of several U.S. medical centers was judged beneficial; quality of data transmission was judged excellent. These results suggest that interactive consultation by remote specialists can provide valuable assistance to onsite physicians and favorably influence clinical decisions in the aftermath of major disasters.

  11. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the development and advancement of...

  12. A web-services architecture designed for intermittent connectivity to support medical response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steve; Griswold, William; Lenert, Leslie A

    2005-01-01

    To support mobile computing systems for first responders at mass casualty sites, as part of the WIISARD (Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters) project, we have developed a data architecture to gracefully handle an environment with frequent network failure and, multiple writers that also supports rapid dissemination of updates that could be critical to the safety of responders. This is accomplished by allowing for a subset of the overall information available in a disaster scene to be cached locally on a responder's device and locally modified with or without network access. When the network is available, the local subset of the model is automatically synchronized with a server that contains the full model, and conflicts are resolved. When changes from a device are committed, the changes are instantly sent to any connected devices where the local subset would be modified by the changes. PMID:16779191

  13. Handling of petroleum tanker disaster upsets Spanish Earth sciences community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Judy

    In Spanish judicial and legislative arenas, and in the national press, investigations and accusations continue to be traded over exactly how the government made its decision to have the leaking petroleum tanker, Prestige, towed to a spot 220 kilometers off Spain's northwest coast—where it broke up—and whether this was the best way to keep the already-leaking tanker from spilling more oil.The incident occurred 19 November 2002; it has created one of Spain's worst environmental and economic disasters.

  14. Emergency/disaster medical support in the restoration project for the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Morimura, Naoto; Asari, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Kazunari; Tase, Choichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Aruga, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) suffered a series of radiation accidents after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. In a situation where halting or delaying restoration work was thought to translate directly into a very serious risk for the entire country, it was of the utmost importance to strengthen the emergency and disaster medical system in addition to radiation emergency medical care for staff at the frontlines working in an environment that posed a risk of radiation exposure and a large-scale secondary disaster. The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) launched the ‘Emergency Task Force on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident’ and sent physicians to the local response headquarters. Thirty-four physicians were dispatched as disaster medical advisors, response guidelines in the event of multitudinous injury victims were created and revised and, along with execution of drills, coordination and advice was given on transport of patients. Forty-nine physicians acted as directing physicians, taking on the tasks of triage, initial treatment and decontamination. A total of 261 patients were attended to by the dispatched physicians. None of the eight patients with external contamination developed acute radiation syndrome. In an environment where the collaboration between organisations in the framework of a vertically bound government and multiple agencies and institutions was certainly not seamless, the participation of the JAAM as the medical academic organisation in the local system presented the opportunity to laterally integrate the physicians affiliated with the respective organisations from the perspective of specialisation. PMID:23184925

  15. Accelerator science in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-12-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  16. Accelerator science in medical physics

    PubMed Central

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  17. Medical Sciences Division report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This year`s Medical Sciences Division (MSD) Report is organized to show how programs in our division contribute to the core competencies of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). ORISE`s core competencies in education and training, environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, occupational and environmental health, and enabling research support the overall mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  18. Emotional intelligence in medical laboratory science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Travis

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In addition to demographic-based questions, the survey contained a list of 16 items, three skills traditionally considered important for successful work in the medical laboratory as well as 13 EI-related items. Laboratory administrators were asked to rate each item for its importance for job performance, their satisfaction with the item's demonstration among currently working medical laboratory scientists (MLS) and the amount of responsibility college-based medical laboratory science programs should assume for the development of each skill or attribute. Participants were also asked about EI training in their laboratories and were given the opportunity to express any thoughts or opinions about EI as it related to medical laboratory science. This study revealed that each EI item, as well as each of the three other items, was considered to be very or extremely important for successful job performance. Administrators conveyed that they were satisfied overall, but indicated room for improvement in all areas, especially those related to EI. Those surveyed emphasized that medical laboratory science programs should continue to carry the bulk of the responsibility for the development of technical skills and theoretical knowledge and expressed support for increased attention to EI concepts at the individual, laboratory, and program levels.

  19. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  20. A two-stage approach for medical supplies intermodal transportation in large-scale disaster responses.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the "helicopters and vehicles" intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  1. Infuriating Tensions: Science and the Medical Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, J. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Contemporary medical students, it is suggested, view science in particular and the intellect in general as difficult allies at best. What emerges are physicians without inquiring minds, physicians who bring to the bedside not curiosity and a desire to understand but a set of reflexes. (MLW)

  2. Recommendations for Modeling Disaster Responses in Public Health and Medicine: A Position Paper of The Society for Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Brandeau, Margaret L.; McCoy, Jessica H.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Holty, Jon-Erik; Bravata, Dena M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mathematical and simulation models are increasingly used to plan for and evaluate health sector responses to disasters, yet no clear consensus exists regarding best practices for the design, conduct, and reporting of such models. We examined a large selection of published health sector disaster response models to generate a set of best practice guidelines for such models. Methods We reviewed a spectrum of published disaster response models addressing public health or healthcare delivery, focusing in particular on the type of disaster and response decisions considered, decision makers targeted, choice of outcomes evaluated, modeling methodology, and reporting format. We developed initial recommendations for best practices for creating and reporting such models and refined these guidelines after soliciting feedback from response modeling experts and from members of the Society for Medical Decision Making. Results We propose six recommendations for model construction and reporting, inspired by the most exemplary models: Health sector disaster response models should address real-world problems; be designed for maximum usability by response planners; strike the appropriate balance between simplicity and complexity; include appropriate outcomes, which extend beyond those considered in traditional cost-effectiveness analyses; and be designed to evaluate the many uncertainties inherent in disaster response. Finally, good model reporting is particularly critical for disaster response models. Conclusions Quantitative models are critical tools for planning effective health sector responses to disasters. The recommendations we propose can increase the applicability and interpretability of future models, thereby improving strategic, tactical, and operational aspects of preparedness planning and response. PMID:19605887

  3. Strategic science: new frameworks to bring scientific expertise to environmental disaster response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoepler, Teresa Michelle; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Science is critical to society’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from environmental crises. Natural and technological disasters such as disease outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, oil spills, and tsunamis require coordinated scientific expertise across a range of disciplines to shape effective policies and protocols. Five years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, new organizational frameworks have arisen for scientists and engineers to apply their expertise to disaster response and recovery in a variety of capacities. Here, we describe examples of these opportunities, including an exciting new collaboration between the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG).

  4. Youth participation in disaster risk reduction through science clubs in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Glenn; Shaw, Rajib

    2015-04-01

    With the UN-led celebration of the International Year of Youth from August 2010 to August 2011 there has been a renewed interest in young people and the vital role they can play in important issues, such as disaster risk reduction (DRR). This study aims to examine the potential of science clubs as a vehicle for youth participation in DRR in the Philippines. A questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 658 science club members from different provinces of the Philippines participated in the survey. The result of the survey is used to explain how the major barriers to youth participation in DRR can be overcome. Through science clubs, the youth can become a link between their school, home and community and can contribute to spreading knowledge about disaster prevention, preparedness and response learned inside and outside the classroom. PMID:25440993

  5. 38 CFR 17.86 - Provision of hospital care and medical services during certain disasters and emergencies under 38...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Training and Health-Care Eligibility Protection for Pension Recipients ... care and medical services during certain disasters and emergencies under 38 U.S.C. 1785. 17.86 Section 17.86 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Care...

  6. Medical Countermeasures for Children in Public Health Emergencies, Disasters, or Terrorism.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Significant strides have been made over the past 10 to 15 years to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to address potential disaster hazards, including chemical, biological, radiologic, and nuclear threats. Significant and effective collaboration between the pediatric health community, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, and federal partners, such as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, and other federal agencies, over the past 5 years has resulted in substantial gains in addressing the needs of children related to disaster preparedness in general and MCMs in particular. Yet, major gaps still remain related to MCMs for children, a population highly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to such threats, because many vaccines and pharmaceuticals approved for use by adults as MCMs do not yet have pediatric formulations, dosing information, or safety information. As a result, the nation's stockpiles and other caches (designated supply of MCMs) where pharmacotherapeutic and other MCMs are stored are less prepared to address the needs of children compared with those of adults in the event of a disaster. This policy statement provides recommendations to close the remaining gaps for the development and use of MCMs in children during public health emergencies or disasters. The progress made by federal agencies to date to address the needs of children and the shared commitment of collaboration that characterizes the current relationship between the pediatric health community and the federal agencies responsible for MCMs should encourage all child advocates to invest the necessary energy and resources now to complete the process of remedying the remaining significant gaps in preparedness. PMID:26729737

  7. The use of classroom training and simulation in the training of medical responders for airport disaster.

    PubMed

    Idrose, A M; Adnan, W A W; Villa, G F; Abdullah, A H A

    2007-01-01

    There is a dire need to have complementary form of disaster training which is cost effective, relatively easy to conduct, comprehensive, effective and acceptable. This will complement field drills training. A classroom-based training and simulation module was built by combining multiple tools: Powerpoint lectures, simulations utilising the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) schematic module into 'floortop' model and video show of previous disaster drill. 76 participants made up of medical responders, categorised as Level 1 (specialists and doctors), Level 2 (paramedics), Level 3 (assistant paramedics) and Level 4 (health attendants and drivers) were trained using this module. A pre-test with validated questions on current airport disaster plans was carried out before the training. At the end of training, participants answered similar questions as post-test. Participants also answered questionnaire for assessment of training's acceptance. There was a mean rise from 47.3 (18.8%) to 84.0 (18.7%) in post-test (p<0.05). For Levels 1, 2, 3 and 4 the scores were 94.8 (6.3)%, 90.1 (11)%, 80.3 (20.1)% and 65 (23.4)% respectively. Nevertheless Level 4 group gained most increase in knowledge rise from baseline pre-test score (51.4%). Feedback from the questionnaire showed that the training module was highly acceptable. A classroom-based training can be enhanced with favourable results. The use of classroom training and simulation effectively improves the knowledge of disaster plan significantly on the back of its low cost, relatively-easy to conduct, fun and holistic nature. All Levels of participants (from specialists to drivers) can be grouped together for training. Classroom training and simulation can overcome the problem of "dead-document" phenomenon or "paper-plan syndrome". PMID:17183034

  8. Post-traumatic Stress and Growth Among Medical Student Volunteers After the March 2011 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan: Implications for Student Involvement with Future Disasters.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David; Prioleau, Phoebe; Taku, Kanako; Naruse, Yu; Sekine, Hideharu; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Katz, Craig; Yanagisawa, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The March 2011 "triple disaster" (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident) had a profound effect on northern Japan. Many medical students at Fukushima Medical University volunteered in the relief effort. We aimed to investigate the nature of students' post-disaster involvement and examine the psychological impact of their experiences using a survey containing elements from the Davidson Trauma Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. We collected 494 surveys (70 % response rate), of which 132 students (26.7 %) had volunteered. Volunteers were more likely to be older, have witnessed the disaster in person, had their hometowns affected, and had a family member or close friend injured. In the month after 3/11, volunteers were more likely to want to help, feel capable of helping, and report an increased desire to become a physician. Both in the month after 3/11 and the most recent month before the survey, there were no significant differences in distressing symptoms, such as confusion, anger, or sadness, between volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers reported a significantly higher level of posttraumatic growth than non-volunteers. Participating in a greater variety of volunteer activities was associated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth, particularly in the Personal Strength domain. There may be self-selection in some criteria, since students who were likely to be resistant to confusion/anxiety/sadness may have felt more capable of helping and been predisposed to volunteer. However, participation in post-disaster relief efforts did not appear to have a harmful effect on medical students, an important consideration for mobilizing volunteers after future disasters. PMID:26169115

  9. Basic medical science education must include medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath

    2004-10-01

    Medical Informatics is the science and art of processing medical information. In this age of "Information Explosion" choosing the useful one is rather difficult, and there lies the scope of electronic database management. However, still many outstanding personnel related to the healthcare sector take pride in being "computer illiterate". The onus of the best use lies on the end-user health care providers only. Another term tele-health encompasses all the e-health and telemedicine services. Computer aided or assisted learning (CAL) is a computer based tutorial method that uses the computer to pose questions, provide remedial information and chart a student through a course. Now the emphasis in medical education, is on problem based learning (PBL) and there CAL could be of utmost help if used judiciously. Basic Medical Education and Research lays the foundation for advancing and applying proper healthcare delivery systems. There is no doubt that deep knowledge of anatomy is mandatory for successful surgery. Also, comprehensive knowledge of physiology is essential for grasping the principles of pathology and pharmacology adequately, to avoid incorrect and inadequate practice of medicine. Similarly, medical informatics is not just a subject to be learnt and forgotten after the first professional MBBS examination. The final aim of every student should not only be to become a good user but also an expert for advancing medical knowledge base through medical informatics. In view of the fast changing world of medical informatics, it is of utmost necessity to formulate a flexible syllabus rather than a rigid one. PMID:15907048

  10. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST) Yoshiyuki KANEDA Disaster mitigation center Nagoya University/ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Mustafa ELDIK Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and       Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project The target of this project is the Marmara Sea earthquake after the Izmit (Kocaeli) Earthquake 1999 along to the North Anatolian fault. According to occurrences of historical Earthquakes, epicenters have moved from East to West along to the North Anatolian Fault. There is a seismic gap in the Marmara Sea. In Marmara region, there is Istanbul with high populations such as Tokyo. Therefore, Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large Earthquakes and Tsunamis in cooperation with each other in SATREPS project. This project is composed of Multidisciplinary research project including observation researches, simulation researches, educational researches, and goals are as follows, ① To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on Multidisciplinary research activities. ② To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. ③ To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. ④ To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate Multidisciplinary research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey.

  11. Disaster preparedness of Canadian trauma centres: the perspective of medical directors of trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, David; Haas, Barbara; Ahmed, Najma; Tien, Homer; Nathens, Avery

    2011-01-01

    Background Owing to their constant readiness to treat injured patients, trauma centres are essential to regional responses to mass casualty incidents (MCIs). Reviews of recent MCIs suggest that trauma centre preparedness has frequently been limited. We set out to evaluate Canadian trauma centre preparedness and the extent of their integration into a regional response to MCIs. Methods We conducted a survey of Canadian level-1 trauma centres (n = 29) to characterize their existing disaster-response plans and to identify areas where pre-paredness could be improved. The survey was directed to the medical director of trauma at each centre. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. Results Twenty-three (79%) trauma centres in 5 provinces responded. Whereas most (83%) reported the presence of a committee dedicated to disaster preparedness, only half of the medical directors of trauma were members of these committees. Almost half (43%) the institutions had not run any disaster drill in the previous 2 years. Only 70% of trauma centres used communications assets designed to function during MCIs. Additionally, more than half of the trauma directors (59%) did not know if their institutions had the ability to sustain operations for at least 72 hours during MCIs. Conclusion The results of this study suggest important opportunities to better prepare Canadian trauma centers to respond to an MCI. The main areas identified for potential improvement include the need for the standardization of MCI planning and response at a regional level and the implementation of strategies such as stockpiling of resources and novel communication strategies to avoid functional collapse during an MCI. PMID:21251427

  12. Incertitude in disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities: A case study of the L'Aquila earthquake trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Oki, Satoko

    2015-04-01

    What disaster sciences are expected by the society is to prevent or mitigate future natural disasters, and therefore it is necessary to foresee natural disasters. However, various constraints often make the foreseeing difficult so that there is a high incertitude in the social contribution of disaster sciences. If scientists overstep this limitation, they will be held even criminally responsible. The L'Aquila trial in Italy is such a recent example and so we have performed data collections, hearing investigations, analyses of the reasons for the initial court's judgment, etc., to explore the incertitude of disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities. As a result, we concluded that the casualties during the L'Aquila earthquake were mainly due to a careless "safety declaration" by the vice-director of the Civil Protection Agency, where the incertitude of disaster sciences had never been considered. In addition, news media which reported only this "safety declaration" were also seriously responsible for the casualties. The accused other than the vice-director were only morally responsible, because their meeting remarks included poor risk communication in disaster sciences but those were not reported to the citizens in advance to the L'Aquila earthquake. In the presentation, we will also discuss the similarities and differences between our conclusions above and the reasons for the appeals court's judgement, which will be published in February.

  13. Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

  14. Ethnomedical science and African medical practice.

    PubMed

    Matthe, D S

    1989-01-01

    The ethnomedical sciences are ethnobotany, ethnobiology, ethnopharmacology and phytotherapy. These fields are concerned with medicinal plants only, and the traditional medicines are mostly used. The author has extended the ethnomedical sciences by using traditional medicines in ethnomedicine, bacteriology, ethnobotany, and biochemistry, and thus ethnomedical sciences can be studied by a modern approach. The traditional doctors play a significant part in health care. They have both black and white patients, and they treat about 60%-70% of black patients in the country. Though they have been treating patients for many years, the patients' employers do not accept traditional doctors' medical certificates when they go back to work after treatment. In this case they first go to the traditional doctor for treatment and then go to an academically qualified medical practitioner solely because they need a medical certificate for their employers. Traditional doctors have been practising for centuries. In this country they are known as inyanga or ngaka and these designations mean doctor. Umthakathi or moloi means witch. Witchdoctor translates as Inyanga-mthakathi of ngaka-moloi. PMID:2493558

  15. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E

    2007-09-17

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  16. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-26

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  17. Integration of foreign and local medical staff in a disaster area: the Honduras and El Salvador experiences.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Yehezkel

    2003-06-01

    International medical aid after natural disasters may take various forms, ranging from self-sufficient military forces to single experts or specialists who function primarily as advisers. A model integrating foreign and local medical staff has not previously been reported. In response to the call for international aid by the Honduran and El Salvadorian governments in the wake of Hurricane Mitch in November 1998 and the San Salvador earthquake in January 2001, Israel sent medical supplies and 10 member teams of medical professionals to each country. The aim of the present paper is to describe the unique Israeli approach to providing healthcare in disaster areas by integrating foreign and local medical staff, and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages. The paper focuses on the experience of the two emergency medicine physicians on the team who were assigned to the Atlantida General Hospital in La Ceiba, Honduras. The same team in San Salvador subsequently applied the same approach. PMID:12789069

  18. Science Diplomacy: U.S. Response to the LUSI Disaster, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, C. R.; Loree, J.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. is recognized globally for its leadership in science and technology. Scientific cooperation is an important tool in the application of "smart power" to create partnerships with countries around the world. The State Department's Office of the Science Advisor works to increase the number of scientists engaged in diplomacy through coordination with the American Association of the Advancement of Science, Science Diplomacy Fellows, Jefferson Science Fellowships, and the Embassy Science Fellows Program. In addition, scientific cooperation occurs at all levels through relationships between science faculties, scientific institutions, and technical assistance programs. President Obama made increased collaboration on science and technology, the appointment of new science envoys, and the opening of new scientific centers of excellence in Africa, and the Middle East, and Southeast Asia a central component of his Cairo speech. Indonesia, science diplomacy crosses myriad programs. Negotiations on a bilateral Science and Technology Agreement between the U.S. and Indonesia will begin in September. USAID provides assistance in volcano/earthquake monitoring, forest management and reduction of illegal logging with DOJ, clean water and sanitation, the Coral Triangle Initiative to sustain Indonesia's marine biodiversity, coastal resilience with NOAA, clean energy, clean air initiatives with EPA, and emergency disaster response. The LUSI mudflow disaster, located just 27 km south of the U.S. Consulate in Surabaya, has already displaced thousands, has contributed to environmental degradation, and threatens critical transportation infrastructure. U.S. assistance to Indonesia to mitigate the impact of the LUSI mudflow on surrounding communities and the environment was complicated by questions surrounding the cause of the mud: industrial accident or natural disaster. But, the devastating impact on the local environment, population, and businesses was unquestioned. Experts from the

  19. Retrospection-Simulation-Revision: Approach to the Analysis of the Composition and Characteristics of Medical Waste at a Disaster Relief Site

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Lihua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A large amount of medical waste is produced during disaster relief, posing a potential hazard to the habitat and the environment. A comprehensive understanding of the composition and characteristics of medical waste that requires management is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for medical waste management. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the characteristics of the medical waste that is generated at disaster relief sites. This paper discusses the analysis of the composition and characteristics of medical waste at a disaster relief site using the retrospection-simulation-revision method. For this study, we obtained 35 medical relief records of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, May 2008 from a field cabin hospital. We first present a retrospective analysis of the relief medical records, and then, we simulate the medical waste generated in the affected areas. We ultimately determine the composition and characteristics of medical waste in the affected areas using untreated medical waste to revise the composition of the simulated medical waste. The results from 35 cases showed that the medical waste generated from disaster relief consists of the following: plastic (43.2%), biomass (26.3%), synthetic fiber (15.3%), rubber (6.6%), liquid (6.6%), inorganic salts (0.3%) and metals (1.7%). The bulk density of medical relief waste is 249 kg/m3, and the moisture content is 44.75%. The data should be provided to assist the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, disposal and contamination control of medical waste in affected areas. In this paper, we wish to introduce this research method of restoring the medical waste generated in disaster relief to readers and researchers. In addition, we hope more disaster relief agencies will become aware of the significance of medical case recording and storing. This may be very important for the environmental evaluation of medical waste in disaster areas, as

  20. Retrospection-Simulation-Revision: Approach to the Analysis of the Composition and Characteristics of Medical Waste at a Disaster Relief Site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Lihua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A large amount of medical waste is produced during disaster relief, posing a potential hazard to the habitat and the environment. A comprehensive understanding of the composition and characteristics of medical waste that requires management is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for medical waste management. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the characteristics of the medical waste that is generated at disaster relief sites. This paper discusses the analysis of the composition and characteristics of medical waste at a disaster relief site using the retrospection-simulation-revision method. For this study, we obtained 35 medical relief records of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, May 2008 from a field cabin hospital. We first present a retrospective analysis of the relief medical records, and then, we simulate the medical waste generated in the affected areas. We ultimately determine the composition and characteristics of medical waste in the affected areas using untreated medical waste to revise the composition of the simulated medical waste. The results from 35 cases showed that the medical waste generated from disaster relief consists of the following: plastic (43.2%), biomass (26.3%), synthetic fiber (15.3%), rubber (6.6%), liquid (6.6%), inorganic salts (0.3%) and metals (1.7%). The bulk density of medical relief waste is 249 kg/m3, and the moisture content is 44.75%. The data should be provided to assist the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, disposal and contamination control of medical waste in affected areas. In this paper, we wish to introduce this research method of restoring the medical waste generated in disaster relief to readers and researchers. In addition, we hope more disaster relief agencies will become aware of the significance of medical case recording and storing. This may be very important for the environmental evaluation of medical waste in disaster areas, as

  1. 78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science...) Regulatory Science Symposium. The symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the...

  2. Risk communication, geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Issues in Japan's disaster management system were revealed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, and by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident. Many important decisions were based on scientific data, but appear not to have sufficiently considered the uncertainties of the data and the societal aspects of the problems. The issues that arose show the need for scientists to appropriately deal with risk communication and geoethics and issues. This paper discusses necessity of education for risk communication, geoethics and decisions science in school before students become sicentific decision makers in future.

  3. Medical care provided during a disaster should be immune from liability or criminal prosecution.

    PubMed

    Rolfsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast and resulted in widespread devastation. The collapse of social services including medical care was followed by chaos and resulted in many deaths. In this aftermath, a physician and two nurses were charged with homicide in the deaths of four patients who were under their care at a New Orleans Hospital. The circumstances surrounding these deaths are unclear, and causation far from proven. But in any disaster setting, if healthcare providers contribute to a patient's death, there are a limited number of possible scenarios. The actions may be done with criminal intent, may be the result of medical errors, may involve the principle of double effect, or finally, and most problematic, the deaths may involve euthanasia (either voluntary or involuntary). This review discusses each possibility and the ethical and legal basis for immunity in these situations. Because the circumstances were so unique, no comparison to routine practice can be made, but an interesting comparison to battlefield ethics can be made. Finally the rationale for immunity is explored, including a utilitarian approach, the good Samaritan laws, and various existing immunity statutes. PMID:17987961

  4. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  5. Medical treatment at Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport after hurricane Katrina: the experience of disaster medical assistance teams WA-1 and OR-2.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher; Jui, Jonathan; Miller, Helen C; Jobe, Kathleen A

    2007-07-01

    In the week following Hurricane Katrina, over 3000 patients were evacuated by air from a triage and medical treatment station at the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport. This represents the largest air evacuation in history. Over 24,000 additional evacuees were transported from the airport to shelters. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) from several US states were deployed to the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport to provide medical care to those evacuated from New Orleans. Despite warning from the US National Weather Service of catastrophic damage to New Orleans, adequate medical staffing was not attained at the airport triage station until 6 days after the hurricane struck. Organizational lapses, including inadequate medical and operational planning, understaffing of medical personnel, and failure to utilize Incident Command System, diminished the effectiveness of the Hurricane Katrina New Orleans Medical Operation. PMID:17574144

  6. Medicine and medical sciences in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gathiram, Prem; Hänninen, Osmo

    2014-06-01

    The year 2014 is an important year because it will mark the 25th Anniversary of the founding of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS) and initial talks to launch the International Society for Pathophysiology (ISP). Both these organizations had a foothold in Finland and both occurred during the IUPS Centennial Celebration Congress in 1989. The congress was hosted by the Finnish Physiological Society in Helsinki, Finland in July 1989. For both organizations, Prof OsmoHänninen was instrumental in the launching and inauguration of AAPS and also to initiate the creation of ISP. In order to celebrate the 25th Anniversaries of both organizations it was decided to hold the ISP2014 congress on the African soil. Hence in 2004, at the 4th international congress of AAPS held in Morocco, Wail Benjeloun.the then secretary general of AAPS, submitted successfully a bid to host ISP2014 in Morocco. Following the inauguration of AAPS in Helsinki, the 1st Congress of AAPS was held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1992 where the Constitution of AAPS was drawn up. The Constitution was adopted at the 2nd congress of AAPS in Durban, South Africa in 1997. Following this congress, the next congress, as scheduled, was held in Pretoria, South Africa in 2000. The last congress (6th) of AAPS was held on 1-5 September 2012 in Ismailia, Egypt. This was an historical congress because of many reasons and amongst these was the appointment of Anthony B. Ebeigbe, Department of Physiology, University of Benin, Nigeria as its first Editor-in-Chief of its official journal, the Journal of the African association of Physiological Sciences (JAAPS). He successfully published the first issue in June 2013, as mandated in Ismailia. The World's medicine has its initial root in Africa and in fact it was in Memphis, Egypt as early as 2700 BC. During the Ptulomaic period the seat of medicine was in Alexandria, Egypt and Medical knowledge then spread to the Greeks 330 BC. Many western medical scientists

  7. Paper 8775 - Integrating Natural Resources and Ecological Science into the Disaster Risk CYCLE: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosnan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Familiar to disaster risk reduction (DRR) scientists and professionals, the disaster cycle is an adaptive approach that involves planning, response and learning for the next event. It has proven effective in saving lives and helping communities around the world deal with natural and other hazards. But it has rarely been applied to natural resource and ecological science, despite the fact that many communities are dependent on these resources. This presentation will include lessons learned from applying science to tackle ecological consequences in several disasters in the US and globally, including the Colorado Floods, the SE Asia tsunami, the Montserrat volcanic eruption, and US SAFRR tsunami scenario. The presentation discusses the role that science and scientists can play at each phase of the disaster cycle. The consequences of not including disaster cycles in the management of natural systems leaves these resources and the huge investments made to protect highly vulnerable. The presentation discusses how The presentation discusses how science can help government and communities in planning and responding to these events. It concludes with a set of lessons learned and guidlines for moving forward.

  8. Perceptions of Medical Sciences Students Towards Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Payahoo, Laleh; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge of people particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic products is important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of medical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different faculty majors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the one was about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge as well as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoring of 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable and good, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the students across different gender, major and degree groups. Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD) of knowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low, 48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and their health effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use of efficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial. PMID:24688923

  9. Science and Technology in Regional Flood Disaster Pilots: A GEOSS Capacity Building Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, S. W.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Mandl, D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes activities and results of melding basic scientific research in remote sensing with applied science and technology development and infusion to implement regional flood pilot programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean Region. These regional flood pilots support local and national agency involvement in emergency response and humanitarian assistance activities using orbital, sub-orbital, and in-situ sensors combined with predictive models and socio-economic data to form a cohesive, interoperable set of systems that cover the full cycle of disaster mitigation, warning, response, and recovery for societal benefit. Global satellite coverage is coordinated through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) in conjunction with the United Nations Space Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). Other international non-government organizations plus regional and local agencies all play individual roles in exploring the science results, applying the observations and model outputs to form geo-referenced maps that provide improved situational awareness and environmental intelligence for disaster management. The improvements to flood forecast and nowcast outputs include higher resolution drainage and hydrology mapping, improved retrievals for microwave data for soil moisture, plus improved validation from regional ground truth databases. Flow gauge and river depth archive data from local assets provide improved validation of flood model results. Incorporation of atmospheric correction using ground truth data from calibration and validation sites enables better detection and classification of plant species identification and plant stress. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) are implemented to provide internet access to satellite tasking, data processing, and distribution/notification in addition to model outputs and other local and regional data sets

  10. Post-Nargis medical care: experience of a Korean Disaster Relief Team in Myanmar after the cyclone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Han, Seung Baik; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Jun Sig; Hong, EunSeog

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and clinical data of patients observed by the Korean Disaster Relief Team, during its deployment in Myanmar, from 6 to 12 June 2008. A cross-sectional, medical record-based study in the Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic, established a month after the cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar. Data collected included demographic variables, and whether or not the problem was acute or chronic, and traumatic or medical. We included 2641 patients in the study. Of those, 57.6% presented with an acute condition, and the rest had chronic conditions. Approximately 5% of the patients presented with trauma/injury; and in 29% of the trauma cases, the problem was directly related to the cyclone. The most common diagnostic category was musculoskeletal problems (21.5%), followed by respiratory (15.3%), and digestive (14.6%) abnormalities. A little over 5% of patients had posttraumatic stress disorder, and the odds ratio was 2.62 (95% confidence interval 1.63-4.21) for women to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Most of the patients (97.5%) had minor problems and were sent home. In conclusion, a huge unmet medical need in at-risk populations and a relatively large proportion of chronic medical conditions should be considered in any future planning of a similar type of disaster. PMID:19654547

  11. Foreign medical teams: what role can they play in response to a catastrophic disaster in the US?

    PubMed

    Hanfling, Dan; Bouri, Nidhi

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that a catastrophic event in the continental United States (US) can overwhelm domestic medical response capabilities. The recent focus on response planning for a catastrophic earthquake in the New Madrid Seismic Zone and the detonation of an improvised nuclear device also underscore the need for improved plans. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the potential role of foreign medical teams (FMTs) in providing medical response to a catastrophic event in the US. We reviewed existing policies and frameworks that address medical response to catastrophic events and humanitarian emergencies and assess current response capabilities by a variety of FMTs. While several policies and plans outline the role of the US in providing medical assistance during foreign disasters, further planning is necessary to identify how the US will integrate foreign medical assistance during a domestic catastrophic event. We provide an overview of considerations related to federal roles and responsibilities for managing and integrating FMTs into the overarching domestic medical response to a catastrophic disaster occurring in the continental US. PMID:24112384

  12. Medical students' participation in the 2009 Novel H1N1 influenza vaccination administration: policy alternatives for effective student utilization to enhance surge capacity in disasters.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Heather E; Barnett, Daniel J; Hayanga, Awori J; Brown, Meghan E; Filak, Andrew T

    2011-06-01

    As cases of 2009 novel H1N1 influenza became prevalent in Cincinnati, Ohio, Hamilton County Public Health called upon the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine to enhance its surge capacity in vaccination administration. Although the collaboration was well organized, it became evident that a system should exist for medical students' involvement in disaster response and recovery efforts in advance of a disaster. Therefore, 5 policy alternatives for effective utilization of medical students in disaster-response efforts have been examined: maintaining the status quo, enhancing the Medical Reserve Corps, creating medical school-based disaster-response units, using students within another selected disaster-response organization, or devising an entirely new plan for medical students' utilization. The intent of presenting these policy alternatives is to foster a policy dialogue around creating a more formalized approach for integrating medical students into disaster surge capacity-enhancement strategies. Using medical students to supplement the current and future workforce may help substantially in achieving goals related to workforce requirements. Discussions will be necessary to translate policy into practice. PMID:21482704

  13. 802.11 wireless infrastructure to enhance medical response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Arisoylu, Mustafa; Mishra, Rajesh; Rao, Ramesh; Lenert, Leslie A

    2005-01-01

    802.11 (WiFi) is a well established network communications protocol that has wide applicability in civil infrastructure. This paper describes research that explores the design of 802.11 networks enhanced to support data communications in disaster environments. The focus of these efforts is to create network infrastructure to support operations by Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) units and Federally-sponsored regional teams that respond to mass casualty events caused by a terrorist attack with chemical, biological, nuclear or radiological weapons or by a hazardous materials spill. In this paper, we describe an advanced WiFi-based network architecture designed to meet the needs of MMRS operations. This architecture combines a Wireless Distribution Systems for peer-to-peer multihop connectivity between access points with flexible and shared access to multiple cellular backhauls for robust connectivity to the Internet. The architecture offers a high bandwidth data communications infrastructure that can penetrate into buildings and structures while also supporting commercial off-the-shelf end-user equipment such as PDAs. It is self-configuring and is self-healing in the event of a loss of a portion of the infrastructure. Testing of prototype units is ongoing. PMID:16778990

  14. RealityFlythrough: Enhancing Situational Awareness for Medical Response to Disasters Using Ubiquitous Video

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Neil J.; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    The first moments at a disater scene are chaotic. The command center initially operates with little knowledge of hazards, geography and casualties, building up knowledge of the event slowly as information trickles in by voice radio channels. RealityFlythrough is a tele-presence system that stitches together live video feeds in real-time, using the principle of visual closure, to give command center personnel the illusion of being able to explore the scene interactively by moving smoothly between the video feeds. Using RealityFlythrough, medical, fire, law enforcement, hazardous materials, and engineering experts may be able to achieve situational awareness earlier, and better manage scarce resources. The RealityFlythrough system is composed of camera units with off-the-shelf GPS and orientation systems and a server/viewing station that offers access to images collected by the camera units in real time by position/orientation. In initial field testing using an experimental mesh 802.11 wireless network, two camera unit operators were able to create an interactive image of a simulated disaster scene in about five minutes. PMID:16779092

  15. The medical association activity and pediatric care after the earthquake disaster in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shintaro; Kikuchi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a gigantic earthquake struck eastern Japan. Utilities such as electricity, water, gas and telecommunication were interrupted. In Koriyama, the City Hall collapsed and government administration offices had to be moved to a nearby baseball stadium that had been designed to include facilities for use during a pandemic. An operations center was set up in this stadium. As members of the Koriyama Medical Association, we following the disaster protocol and set up our operations center in the Koriyama Medical Care Hospital. One large hospital with 280 inpatients and another hospital with 150 inpatients had been heavily damaged. Transfer of those patients to other hospitals without the use of telecommunications was extremely difficult. Many doctors in member hospitals and clinics went out of their way to cooperate throughout the crisis. Up to 5,000 people from the radiation evacuation zone were rushed to Koriyama. They stayed in schools and community centers, where we provided them with healthcare. Even in Koriyama, which is 60 km away from the Fukushima nuclear power plant, radiation levels were high, especially for the first few weeks. Citizens were advised to stay at home and keep their doors and windows closed. These drastic measures and frequent earthquake aftershocks were very stressful, especially for children. To help prevent children from developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a project team composed of various groups caring for children was developed, and this team took action to protect children. Through these efforts we hoped to provide children with an appropriate environment to grow normally, even in a zone of persistent low-level radiation. We demonstrated once again that our members' long history of mutual assistance and cooperation with the administration was the main cornerstone to overcome the crisis. PMID:22410536

  16. Psychiatric and Medical Disorders in the after Math of the Uttarakhand Disaster: Assessment, Approach, and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Channaveerachari, Naveen Kumar; Raj, Aneel; Joshi, Suvarna; Paramita, Prajna; Somanathan, Revathi; Chandran, Dhanya; Kasi, Sekar; Bangalore, N. Roopesh; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the descriptive data on the frequency of medical and psychiatric morbidity and also to discuss various pertinent issues relevant to the disaster management, the future challenges and psychosocial needs of the 2013 floods in Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Observation was undertaken by the disaster management team of National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in the worst affected four districts of Uttarakhand. Qualified psychiatrists diagnosed the patients using the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Data were collected by direct observation, interview of the survivors, group sessions, individual key-informant interview, individual session, and group interventions. Results: Patients with physical health problems formed the majority of treatment seekers (39.6%) in this report. Only about 2% had disaster induced psychiatric diagnoses. As was expected, minor mental disorders in the form of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders formed majority of the psychiatric morbidity. Substance use disorders appear to be very highly prevalent in the community; however, we were not able to assess the morbidity systematically. Conclusions: The mental health infrastructure and manpower is abysmally inadequate. There is an urgent need to implement the National Mental Health Program to increase the mental health infrastructure and services in the four major disaster-affected districts. PMID:25969596

  17. Determinants of intention to leave among non-medical employees after a nuclear disaster: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Saeka; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey among non-medical employees working at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, in order to determine the factors associated with their intentions to leave their jobs during the nuclear disaster. Participants We asked 287 employees (166 men and 121 women) in the study. Methods We asked about their intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. We also asked about relevant factors, including the participants’ demographic factors, living situations and working environments. Results We found that in employees younger than 40 (OR=4.73, 95% CI 1.74 to 12.85, p=0.002), being married (OR=3.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 9.79, p=0.044), measurements of the ambient dose rates in their homes after the accident (OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.65 to 17.14, p=0.005), anxiety about their relationships with their colleagues after the accident (OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 10.16, p=0.005) and the influence of radiation on the workplace (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p=0.014) were independently associated with the non-medical employees’ intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. Conclusions Our results suggest the need for continuous risk communication regarding such factors and the provision of information about the health effects of radiation exposure to non-medical employees after nuclear disasters. PMID:27436669

  18. Medical Laboratory Science: An International Comparison for Credentials Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Solveig M.; Karlsson, Britta

    Information is presented to help medical technology schools abroad evaluate their credentials in comparison to U.S. requirements. After defining the subfields of medical technology, also called medical laboratory science, a summary is provided of the educational requirements, the professional titles, and the certification recognition of medical…

  19. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  20. The effective factors on library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Sajad, Maryam Sadat; Rahmani, Sedigheh; Bahrami, Susan; Papi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The efficient use of libraries can be an important factor in determining the educational quality of Universities. Therefore, investigation and identification of factors affecting library anxiety becomes increasingly necessary. The purpose of this research is to determine the factors effecting library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was an applied survey research using Bostick's Library Anxiety questionnaire as data gathering tool. The statistical population consisted of all students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (15011 students) with the sample size of 375 using stratified random sampling. The validity of data gathering tool was confirmed by experts in the library and information science and its reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.92). Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA) were used for data analysis using SPSS 18 software. Results: Findings showed that the mean of library anxiety score was 2.68 and 2.66 for students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences respectively which is above average (2.5). Furthermore, age and gender had no meaningful effect on the library anxiety of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, but gender had a meaningful effect on library anxiety of students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences while age had no such effect. Conclusion: The results showed that the mean of factors effecting library anxiety in students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is higher than average and therefore not satisfactory and only factors relating to feeling comfortable in the library is lower than average and somewhat satisfactory. PMID:25250358

  1. Factors influencing readiness to deploy in disaster response: findings from a cross-sectional survey of the Department of Veterans Affairs Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System (DEMPS) program provides a system of volunteers whereby active or retired Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) personnel can register to be deployed to support other VA facilities or the nation during national emergencies or disasters. Both early and ongoing volunteer training is required to participate. Methods This study aims to identify factors that impact willingness to deploy in the event of an emergency. This analysis was based on responses from 2,385 survey respondents (response rate, 29%). Latent variable path models were developed and tested using the EQS structural equations modeling program. Background demographic variables of education, age, minority ethnicity, and female gender were used as predictors of intervening latent variables of DEMPS Volunteer Experience, Positive Attitude about Training, and Stress. The model had acceptable fit statistics, and all three intermediate latent variables significantly predicted the outcome latent variable Readiness to Deploy. Results DEMPS Volunteer Experience and a Positive Attitude about Training were associated with Readiness to Deploy. Stress was associated with decreased Readiness to Deploy. Female gender was negatively correlated with Readiness to Deploy; however, there was an indirect relationship between female gender and Readiness to Deploy through Positive Attitude about Training. Conclusions These findings suggest that volunteer emergency management response programs such as DEMPS should consider how best to address the factors that may make women less ready to deploy than men in order to ensure adequate gender representation among emergency responders. The findings underscore the importance of training opportunities to ensure that gender-sensitive support is a strong component of emergency response, and may apply to other emergency response programs such as the Medical Reserve Corps and the American Red Cross. PMID:25038628

  2. A Medical School--Elementary School Science Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Houston Elementary Science Alliance. This program uses medical school resources and personnel to provide elementary school science teachers with scientific information and hands-on activities that stress the doing of science and develops teachers to serve as a resource for their colleagues. (MDH)

  3. Citizen Science for Earth Observation: Applications in Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotovirta, V.; Toivanen, T.; Tergujeff, R.; Hame, T.; Molinier, M.

    2015-04-01

    Citizen science is a promising way to increase temporal and spatial coverages of in-situ data, and to aid in data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present how citizen science can be used together with Earth observation, and demonstrate its value through three pilot projects focusing on forest biomass analysis, data management in emergencies and water quality monitoring. We also provide recommendations and ideas for follow-up activities. In the forest biomass analysis pilot, in the state of Durango (Mexico), local volunteers make in-situ forest inventory measurements with mobile devices. The collected data is combined with Landsat-8 imagery to derive forest biomass map of the area. The study area includes over 390 permanent sampling plots that will provide reference data for concept validation and verification. The emergency data management pilot focuses in the Philippines, in the areas affected by the typhoons Haiyan in November 2013 and Hagupit in December 2014. Data collected by emergency workers and citizens are combined with satellite data (Landsat-8, VHR if available) to intensify the disaster recovery activities and the coordination efforts. Simple processes for citizens, nongovernmental organisations and volunteers are developed to find and utilize up to date and freely available satellite imagery for coordination purposes and for building new not-for-profit services in disaster situations. In the water quality monitoring pilot, citizens around the Baltic Sea area contribute to the algae situation awareness by collecting algae observations using a mobile application. In-situ observations are compared with surface algal bloom products based on the satellite imagery, e.g. Aqua MODIS images with 500 meter resolution. As an outcome, the usability of the citizen observations together with satellite data in the algae monitoring will be evaluated.

  4. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Medical Students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddigh, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the use of vocabulary learning strategies among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) in Iran as an EFL context. A questionnaire was administered to 120 medical students (53 males, 67 females) to identify; 1) the effective types of vocabulary learning strategies used by the learners and 2)…

  5. 77 FR 39714 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Complex... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  6. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

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  7. 78 FR 35942 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  12. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-06-15

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  13. 78 FR 11658 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 1 Democracy Plaza,...

  14. 78 FR 66367 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group; Training and... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  15. Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Katrina Inspired Disaster Screenings (KIDS): Psychometric Testing of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Hurricane Assessment and Referral Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Post disaster psychosocial surveillance procedures are important for guiding effective and efficient recovery. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Katrina Inspired Disaster Screenings (KIDS) is a model designed with the goal of assisting recovering communities in understanding the needs of and targeting services…

  16. Essential key indicators for disaster medical response suggested to be included in a national uniform protocol for documentation of major incidents: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Registration of data from a major incident or disaster serves several purposes such as to record data for evaluation of response as well as for research. Data needed can often be retrieved after an incident while other must be recorded during the incident. There is a need for a consensus on what is essential to record from a disaster response. The aim of this study was to identify key indicators essential for initial disaster medical response registration. By this is meant nationally accepted processes involved, from the time of the emergency call to the emergency medical communication centre until medical care is provided at the emergency department. Methods A three round Delphi study was conducted. Thirty experts with a broad knowledge in disaster and emergency response and medical management were invited. In this study we estimated 30 experts to be approximately one third of the number in Sweden eligible for recruitment. Process, structure and outcome indicators for the initial disaster medical response were identified. These were based on previous research and expressed as statements and were grouped into eight categories, and presented to the panel of experts. The experts were instructed to score each statement, using a five point Likert scale, and were also invited to include additional statements. Statements reaching a predefined consensus level of 80% were considered as essential to register. Results In total 97 statements were generated, 77 statements reached consensus. The 77 statements covered parts of all relevant aspects involved in the initial disaster medical response. The 20 indicators that did not reach consensus mostly concerned patient related times in hospital, types of support systems and security for health care staff. Conclusions The Delphi technique can be used for reaching consensus of data, comprising process, structure and outcome indicators, identified as essential for recording from major incidents and disasters. PMID

  17. Response capabilities of the National Guard: a focus on domestic disaster medical response.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The National Guard has a 373-year history of responding to the nation's call to duty for service both at home and abroad (The National Guard Bureau Web site: Available at http://www.ngb.army.mil/default. aspx.). The National Guard (NG) is a constitutionally unique organization (United States Constitution, US Government Printing Office Web site: Available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/constitution/index.html.). Today's Guard conducts domestic disaster response and civilian assistance missions on a daily basis. Yet, the NG's role, mission, and capabilities are not well-known or understood. The National Response Framework (NRF) places significant responsibility on the local and state disaster planners (Department of Homeland Security: National Response Framework. US Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC, January 2008). The public health professionals are an integral component of the disaster planning community. It is critical that the public health community be knowledgeable of types and capabilities of all the response assets at their disposal. PMID:20349703

  18. Discontinuity and disaster: gaps and the negotiation of culpability in medication delivery.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Sidney

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how discontinuities in the process of drug delivery enable but also underdetermine the isolation of a culprit in adverse medication events. A case example illustrates how we are forced to abandon conceptualizations of blame that assume a dichotomy (either culpable or not), and shift instead to a more nuanced version that estimates the degree to which an actor desired, generated, or could have foreseen the harmful outcome, and the extent to which constraints external to the actor altered the event. The paper concludes that meaningful safety interventions in a system as diverse, socially embedded and complex as health care delivery cannot just build on "good science" (e.g., good methods) to generate "root" causes. Rather, they need to somehow be sensitive to how and which narratives of success and failure are created, as these constrain which countermeasures are likely to be encouraged, funded, and accepted. PMID:17714255

  19. Scientific Production of Medical Sciences Universities in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Siamian, Hasan; Firooz, Mousa Yamin; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction The study of the scientific evidence citation production by famous databases of the world is one of the important indicators to evaluate and rank the universities. The study at investigating the scientific production of Northern Iran Medical Sciences Universities in Scopus from 2005 through 2010. Method This survey used scientometrics technique. The samples under studies were the scientific products of four northern Iran Medical universities. Results Viewpoints quantity of the Scientific Products Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences stands first and of Babol University of Medical Sciences ranks the end, but from the viewpoints of quality of scientific products of considering the H-Index and the number of cited papers the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences is a head from the other universities under study. From the viewpoints of subject of the papers, the highest scientific products belonged to the faculty of Pharmacy affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medial Sciences, but the three other universities for the genetics and biochemistry. Conclusion Results showed that the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences as compared to the other understudies universities ranks higher for the number of articles, cited articles, number of hard work authors and H-Index of Scopus database from 2005 through 2010. PMID:24058251

  20. Japanese medical students' interest in basic sciences: a questionnaire survey of a medical school in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using χ(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent. PMID:23337622

  1. Medical science, nursing, and the future.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, J

    1998-09-01

    Drawing on the work of Evelyn Fox Keller, this paper examines the notion of 'objectivism' and suggests that medicine as a science is premised upon the denial of common mortality. Alternative models for medicine are then examined, including the 'romantic science' of Oliver Sacks, and the paper concludes with a brief discussion of nursing as a key concept in the articulation of a more comprehensive medicine of the future. PMID:9923316

  2. An international perspective on behavioral science education in medical schools.

    PubMed

    Chur-Hansen, Anna; Carr, John E; Bundy, Christine; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Tapanya, Sombat; Wahass, Saeed H

    2008-03-01

    The behavioral sciences are taught in medical curricula around the world. In the current paper psychologists teaching in medical schools in Australia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States share their experience and reflections. Whilst direct comparisons between countries are not made, the themes that are evident within and between accounts are instructive. As behavioral scientists around the globe are struggling to maintain a presence in medical education many of the reasons behind this are shared, regardless of the country. Challenges discussed include those related to the impact of unrealized potential contributions of psychologists as health care professionals, teaching of behavioral sciences by other professions, domination of the biomedical model without a corresponding recognition of psychology as science, and modern medical pedagogies such as problem-based learning, which favor biomedicine. Systemic and political barriers over which we as a discipline may have little control are also highlighted. PMID:19104953

  3. [Alternative therapies, homeopathy and medical science].

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    1990-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the impact of regularly promoted alternative therapies within portuguese society. The origins, attractions and acceptance of alternative therapies, homeopathic included, are discussed. Recent homeopathic studies published in renowned scientific journals provoked comments and reports claiming for more objective explanations and better criticism. Accordingly, homeopathy is presently an unacceptable system with no physical basis, supported by inexplicable observations and a mixture of magic effects. Also alternatives therapies may provide an area of conflict with health and medical care, particularly in most severe diseases that require advanced resources of orthodox medicine. Improved education of the population, more qualified medical personal, and better understanding of medical problems, difficulties and progress by the media are final recommendations. PMID:2077840

  4. [Men as a medical role. A blind spot in science].

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2006-01-01

    While historians of science have demonstrated that in the late eighteenth century the emergence of the human sciences went along with the sexualization and medicalization of women, they paid almost no attention to the development of a medical knowledge on male (in)fertility. This paper argues that in the early twentieth century, the scientific investigation of the male role in reproduction was due to the rise of eugenics and the racial sciences. In order to illustrate this relation, I will discuss how in the context of the Nazi population and racial policy new research outcomes in the field of male (in)fertiliy research were achieved. More generally, I want to show that the transformation of man into a reproductive being and an object of medical knowledge is not only relevant for the history of reproductive medicine, but also for the history of the human sciences in the twentieth century. PMID:17992859

  5. Medical Informatics in Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisse, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the state of medical informatics, the application of computer and information technology to biomedicine, looks at trends and concerns, including integration of traditionally distinct enterprises (clinical information systems, financial information, scholarly support activities, infrastructures); informatics career choice and…

  6. Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralla, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

  7. The place of behavioral science in medical education and practice.

    PubMed

    Bolman, W M

    1995-10-01

    Medicine and medical practice have undergone dramatic changes in the recent past. Technological advances have exceeded the norms of social thought (e.g., frozen embryos, surrogate motherhood, assisted suicide, and the right to die), and there has been a loss of professional control of the provision of medical services because of an inability to control the costs of technology and the patterns of practice. These and related changes find the profession of medicine, including medical education, without the necessary theory and content to adapt. The author explains why this situation makes it more necessary than ever to develop and upgrade the teaching of behavioral sciences in the medical curriculum, even though these disciplines' breadth and comparative lack of definition create special problems for the teaching and learning of behavioral concepts and their application to medical practice. The behavioral sciences are needed in medicine because their role is not that of a technologically defined knowledge area but rather that of a process or functional area that mediates between the patient as a person and the delivery of medical care. The author presents concepts, a diagram, and teaching examples that explain the characteristics of behavioral sciences and illustrate the necessity for including them in the curriculum. He concludes by urging the leaders of academic medicine to find practical ways to transmit an awareness of behavioral sciences' crucial role in patient care so that tomorrow's physicians can function more fully in the complex arena of clinical reality. PMID:7575917

  8. Moving Forward after Sendai: How Countries Want to Use Science, Evidence and Technology for Disaster Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event, the global community adopted the UN Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) for Disaster Risk Reduction 2005-2015, which set out priorities to help countries achieve disaster resilience by encouraging the establishment of national platforms and strengthening disaster governance. In March 2015, UN member states adopted the successor to HFA, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: 2015-2030 (SFDRR). The SFDRR recognises the cross-cutting nature of DRR policy and calls on stakeholders to help governments. Over the following months, the international science community as a stakeholder will contribute by outlining guidance, research opportunities and partnerships to help countries implement the new framework. To inform this process, this study examines government’ and national scientists’ perspectives about the needs to use science, evidence and technology to achieve disaster risk reduction (DRR) and put the words of the new framework into action. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis and quantifiable survey results. Data was collected via extraction from published statements and online survey responses. For statement content analysis, search terms were determined iteratively in a sample of statements until no new terms emerged. Additionally, 167 national scientists were recruited to participate in the online survey with a response rate of 26.3% (44/167). Findings: Country priorities are clustered and clear, showing that there is a demand for greater science in DRR decision-making and solutions. The main themes highlighted by countries were promoting research and practitioner engagement; increase technology transfer mechanisms; open data; communication of usable evidence and user’s needs; education and training; and lastly, international cooperation all contributing to national capacity building. As identified, the main difficulties with existing delivery

  9. Neuroscience and Brain Science Special Issue begins in the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences and the Orient Neuron Nexus have amalgated to publish a yearly special issue based on neuro- and brain sciences. This will hopefully improve the quality of peer-reviewed manuscripts in the field of fundamental, applied, and clinical neuroscience and brain science from Asian countries. One focus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia is to strengthen neuroscience and brain science, especially in the field of neuroinformatics. PMID:25941457

  10. Health Science Libraries of National, State, and Local Medical Organizations

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    This second survey of medical society-sponsored libraries has been expanded to include national association libraries in allied medical fields, as well as special libraries which do not fall into categories established for the MLA survey of health science libraries. A total of fifty-eight libraries in this subset have been identified, and selected characteristics have been measured. Observations are made concerning methodology, user population, and services. PMID:6041830

  11. Secondary Surge Capacity: A Framework for Understanding Long-Term Access to Primary Care for Medically Vulnerable Populations in Disaster Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Brock-Martin, Amy; Karmaus, Wilfried; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2012-01-01

    Disasters create a secondary surge in casualties because of the sudden increased need for long-term health care. Surging demands for medical care after a disaster place excess strain on an overtaxed health care system operating at maximum or reduced capacity. We have applied a health services use model to identify areas of vulnerability that perpetuate health disparities for at-risk populations seeking care after a disaster. We have proposed a framework to understand the role of the medical system in modifying the health impact of the secondary surge on vulnerable populations. Baseline assessment of existing needs and the anticipation of ballooning chronic health care needs following the acute response for at-risk populations are overlooked vulnerability gaps in national surge capacity plans. PMID:23078479

  12. Regulatory science based approach in development of novel medical devices.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    For development rational evaluation method for medical devices' safety and efficacy, regulatory science studies are important. Studies on regulatory affairs related to a medical device under development should be conducted as well as its technological development. Clinical performance of a medical device is influenced by performance of the device, medical doctors' skill, pathological condition of a patient, and so on. Thus it is sometimes difficult to demonstrate superiority of the device in terms of clinical outcome although its efficacy as a medical device is accepted. Setting of appropriate end points is required to evaluate a medical device appropriately. Risk assessment and risk management are the basis of medical device safety assurance. In case of medical device software, there are difficulties in identifying the risk due to its complexity of user environment and different design and manufacturing procedure compared with conventional hardware based medical devices. Recent technological advancement such as information and communication technologies (ICT) for medical devices and wireless network has raised new issue on risk management: cybersecurity. We have to watch closely the progress of safety standard development. PMID:26736611

  13. Exercising privacy rights in medical science

    PubMed Central

    Hillmer, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Privacy laws are intended to preserve human well-being and improve medical outcomes. We used the Sportstats website, a repository of competitive athletic data, to test how easily these laws can be circumvented. We designed a haphazard, unrepresentative case-series analysis and applied unscientific methods based on an Internet connection and idle time. We found it both feasible and titillating to breach anonymity, stockpile personal information and generate misquotations. We extended our methods to snoop on celebrities, link to outside databases and uncover refusal to participate. Throughout our study, we evaded capture and public humiliation despite violating these 6 privacy fundamentals. We suggest that the legitimate principle of safeguarding personal privacy is undermined by the natural human tendency toward showing off. PMID:18056619

  14. Abstracting and indexing in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Welt, I D

    1962-07-01

    Abstracts and indexes constitute the most popular means of assuring adequate retrieval of the many thousands of papers published every year in the ever expanding field of medicine. Different types of abstracts and indexes are available for different purposes and to meet varying user requirements. The problem of "keeping up" with developments in one's own field of endeavour can usually be solved by qualified abstractors. Most indexes serve the purpose of assuring the retrieval of pertinent documents. However, in order to retrieve specific pieces of information which are absolutely indispensible to the medical practitioner or scientist, a new approach is needed. This technique, which is termed the "combined index-abstract" method, has been employed successfully for the handling of a large body of specific items of information in a restricted area of experimental and clinical pharmacology. PMID:21735878

  15. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    PubMed Central

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  16. "We're All Gonna' Die": Using Human Interest in Disasters to Promote Student Interest and Research in Introductory Science Classes for Non-Science Majors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prueher, L.

    2008-12-01

    Humans are fascinated by disasters. Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other natural disasters capture the public interest and provide educators a venue in which to present scientific information and dispel common misconceptions. Presenting scientific information via the vehicle of a disaster can attract even the most science-phobic student, capturing their interest in a way that more traditional methods of presentation cannot or do not. People are inundated with scientific data through the popular media yet little is done to provide non-scientists with the information needed to distinguish between fact and fiction. Docudramas such as, "Supervolcano", blur the boundary between reality and fiction. Human interest in disasters can be used as an educational tool to foster scientific literacy among non-science majors. "We're All Gonna' Die", is an inquiry-based research project used in introductory geology classes at Arapahoe Community College and the University of Northern Colorado. Most students taking this class have no college science background. The project introduces students to geological and environmental hazards. Students choose a city of interest, analyze the potential geologic and environmental hazards in the area, and determine what can be done to minimize potential damage and fatalities. Students are more interested in a topic and delve deeper into the subject matter when researching a project of their own choosing. Students have incorporated demonstrations, skits, student-made videos, games, current geologic events, and research results into their projects. Perhaps as important, the students have fun, become excited about their project and topic, and disseminate the information to family and friends.

  17. Higher education initiatives for disaster and emergency health in iran.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Iran's health system is expanding the disaster and emergency higher education programs over the country to enhance the capacity of human resources for effective and efficient disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In this article we present an overview about the initiatives and progress of disaster and emergency health higher education in Iran. Following the Bam earthquake, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health & Medical Education and National Institute of Health Research, School of Public Health at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran took the initiative to develop a Master of Public Health (MPH) with disaster concentration in 2006, a PhD in disaster and emergency health in 2011, and a well constructed certificate course in 2008 entitled Disaster Health Management and Risk Reduction (DHMR). Iran, Kerman and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation are other academia that joined this initiative. Regarding the importance of programs evaluation, we have planned for a comprehensive evaluation of MPH and DHMR programs in 2013-4 and the Accreditation and Evaluation Board of Disaster & Emergency Health, based in MOH&ME, is responsible for evaluation of the PhD program in 3-5 years from initiation. PMID:23967432

  18. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  19. A Graduate Academic Program in Medical Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blois, Marsden S., Jr.; Wasserman, Anthony I.

    A graduate academic program in medical information science has been established at the University of California, San Francisco, for the education of scientists capable of performing research and development in information technology in the health care setting. This interdisciplinary program, leading to a Doctor of Philosophy degree, consists of an…

  20. Disaster-Driven Evacuation and Medication Loss: a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the extent and implications of medication loss and the burden of prescription refill on medical relief teams following extreme weather events and other natural hazards. METHOD: The search strategy followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Key health journal databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC)) were searched via the OvidSP search engine. Search terms were identified by consulting MeSH terms. The inclusion criteria comprised articles published from January 2003 to August 2013, written in English and containing an abstract. The exclusion criteria included abstracts for conferences or dissertations, book chapters and articles written in a language other than English. A total of 70 articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: All relevant information was collated regarding medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and medical aids loss which indicated a significant burden on the medical relief teams. Data also showed the difficulty in filling prescriptions due to lack of information from the evacuees. People with chronic conditions are most at risk when their medication is not available. This systematic review also showed that medical aids such as eye glasses, hearing aids as well as dental treatment are a high necessity among evacuees. DISCUSSION: This systematic review revealed that a considerable number of patients lose their medication during evacuation, many lose essential medical aids such as insulin pens and many do not bring prescriptions with them when evacuated.. Since medication loss is partly a responsibility of evacuees, understanding the impact of medication loss may lead to raising awareness and better preparations among the patients and health care professionals. People who are not prepared could have

  1. [The cares and anxiety of those involved in the Bijlmermeer aviation disaster did not diminish following the medical investigations].

    PubMed

    van Dijk, F J H

    2005-06-01

    On October 4, 1992 a cargo jet crashed in the Bijlmermeer district in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, killing 43 people and making hundreds homeless. Many years of confusion and prolonged media attention followed, including public debates and even a Parliamentary Inquiry as to the causes, exposure to various chemical, physical and biological risk factors, and related diseases. Two comprehensive large-scale medical investigations were carried out: a comparative epidemiological study analysing the long-term effects in involved and uninvolved care providers, and an individual medical examination of both residents and care providers with medical or psychological complaints. Later, an effects study was added analysing the effects of both medical investigations on the feelings of anxiety and the attribution of symptoms among the people involved. The epidemiological study revealed more physical and mental symptoms among the involved care providers. Blood, urine and saliva tests, however, revealed no differences. Although the studywas carried out with great care, the findings may have been biased to some extent by an evoked feeling of anxiety and by attention toward health problems brought about by the investigation itself. Another comment is the technical impossibility of stating, after so long a delay, that chemical exposure, e.g. to depleted uranium, could not have been a cause of adverse health effects. The effects study demonstrated that the medical investigations generally did not provide reassurance or decrease the anxiety about health problems. There was even a small increase in complaints. Residents with health problems that had been involved in the disaster still attribute their complaints to harmful chemical exposure. PMID:15960130

  2. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Biological and Medical Science Libraries Section. Social Science Libraries Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…

  3. Study for Teaching Behavioral Sciences in Schools of Medicine, Volume III: Behavioral Science Perspectives in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC. Medical Sociology Council.

    Volume III of a study of teaching behavioral sciences in medical school presents perspectives on medical behavioral science from the viewpoints of the several behavioral disciplines (anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, behavioral biology and medical education). In addition, there is a discussion of translating…

  4. Medical Sciences Division Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Research programs from the medical science division of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) are briefly described in the following areas: Biochemistry, cytogenetics, microbiology, center for epidemiologic research, radiation medicine, radiation internal dose information center, center for human reliability studies, facility safety, occupational medicine, and radiation emergency assistance center/training site.

  5. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: Educational and Science-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer…

  6. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    PubMed

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  7. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  8. Computer Literacy Among Students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Robabi, Hassan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The need for medical students to be computer literate is vital. With the rapid integration of information technology (IT) in the health care field, equipping students of medical universities withcomputer competencies to effectively use are needed. The purpose of this study was to assess computer literacy (CL) needs of medical sciences students. Methods: This is descriptive-analytic. The population of the study comprised all students at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. 385 students from allschools (Medicine, dentistry, paramedics, health, rehabilitation, nursing and midwifery) were selected through randomized- classified sampling. For data collecting, the Lin Tung- Cheng questionnaire was used which it contained 24 items in six sections. The obtained data analyzed by SPSS 15. Results: The results showed that the 77.1% had personal computer. The total mean of students’ computer literacy around six domains was 141.9±49.5 out of 240. The most familiarity with computers was the ability to it in internet (29.0±11.4) and the lowest was familiarity and using ability of hard ware (17.5±10.6). There was a significant relationship between passing the Computer lesson (P=0.001), passing Computer course (P=0.05) and having personal computer (P=0.001) with the mean of computer literacy. Discussion: In sum, the medical sciences students’ familiarity with computer literacy was not satisfactory and they had not appropriate familiarity with computer literacy skills. The researchers suggest the officials and in-charges to plan educational program for improving computer literacy skills in medical sciences students. PMID:25946919

  9. E-DECIDER: Using Earth Science Data and Modeling Tools to Develop Decision Support for Earthquake Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Stough, T. M.; Burl, M. C.; Pierce, M.; Wang, J.; Ma, Y.; Rundle, J. B.; yoder, M. R.; Bawden, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing new capabilities for decision-making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. Geodetic imaging data, including from inteferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS, have a rich scientific heritage for use in earthquake research. Survey grade GPS was developed in the 1980s and the first InSAR image of an earthquake was produced for the 1992 Landers event. As more of these types of data have become increasingly available they have also shown great utility for providing key information for disaster response. Work has been done to translate these data into useful and actionable information for decision makers in the event of an earthquake disaster. In addition to observed data, modeling tools provide essential preliminary estimates while data are still being collected and/or processed, which can be refined as data products become available. Now, with more data and better models, we are able apply these to responders who need easy tools and routinely produced data products. E-DECIDER incorporates the earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools allows us to provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). E-DECIDER has taken advantage of the legacy of Earth science data, including MODIS, Landsat, SCIGN, PBO, UAVSAR, and modeling tools such as the ones developed by QuakeSim, in order to deliver successful decision support products for earthquake disaster response. The project has

  10. Forensic medical lessons learned from the Victorian Bushfire Disaster: recommendations from the Phase 5 debrief.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard; Leditschke, Jodie

    2011-02-25

    The February 7th 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia, resulted in the deaths of 173 individuals, of whom 164 were included in the subsequent DVI operation. The final stage of the International DVI protocol is a debrief, referred to as Phase 5. The Phase 5 operational debrief process conducted in the wake of this disaster was designed for the purpose of developing new strategies in light of this experience. The agencies involved included the Coroners Court of Victoria, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, the Department of Justice, and Victoria Police. During the course of this debriefing process strategies and protocols were developed which aim to improve the capacity of all agencies to respond and resolve future incidents. This paper outlines the Phase 5 debrief carried out in the 6 months following the final coronial identification board, and details the findings and recommendations made by the agencies involved. PMID:20650575

  11. The Medical Science Research and Development Supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin; Kim, Seong-Yong; Rhee, Byoung-Doo; Kim, Myung-Suk

    2005-01-01

    This study examined ways of promoting research in the medical sciences by evaluating trends in research funding, and the present status of research funding by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF). This study analyzed statistics from KOSEF from 1978 to 2003 to examine support for research. In medical science field, group-based programs receive more funding than do individual-based programs. The proportion of research funds allocated to the medical sciences has increased markedly each year. Researchers in the medical sciences have submitted more articles to Science Citation Index (SCI) journals than to non-SCI journals, relative to other fields. Researchers supported by the Mission-Oriented Basic Grants program have published the majority of these papers, followed by those supported by the Programs for Leading Scientists, Regional Scientists, Leading Women Scientists, Young Scientists, and Promising Women Scientists, in that order. Funding by KOSEF reflects many decades of government support for research and development, the development and maintenance of necessary infrastructure, and the education and training of medical scientists. PMID:15953851

  12. Development of a planning methodology for the medical protection of European civilian populations in time of war or major civil disasters. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, P.B.

    1983-12-30

    This is a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using simulation models to develop plans for the medical protection of European civilian populations in time of war or other major disasters. First, the functions required of a planning methodology were identified, such as estimating resource requirements, predicting casualty dispositions, and evaluating alternative disaster response procedures. Next, for each of two disaster management scenarios, the study described the basic elements or factors which describe the disaster management system: the primary action required of the system, criteria of success, quantifiable measures of success, and relevant data. Both scenarios considered ground and air assault by the enemy, using conventional weapons. In the first scenario, the civilian response is to stay-put, i.e., the civilian population remains in place. The second scenario considers the controlled temporary dispersal or relocation of civilians residing in high-risk areas. Both scenarios appear to be amenable to detailed study using the concepts of the U.S. Navy's NAMES (Navy Amphibious Medical Evacuation Simulation) model and WWMMSS (World-Wide Military Medical Support System) model, in concert with wargaming models and traffic network models.

  13. Ghosts in the machine: publication planning in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Publication of pharmaceutical company-sponsored research in medical journals, and its presentation at conferences and meetings, is mostly governed by 'publication plans' that extract the maximum amount of scientific and commercial value out of data and analyses through carefully constructed and placed papers. Clinical research is typically performed by contract research organizations, analyzed by company statisticians, written up by independent medical writers, approved and edited by academic researchers who then serve as authors, and the whole process organized and shepherded through to journal publication by publication planners. This paper reports on a conference of an international association of publication planners. It describes and analyzes their work in an ecological framework that relates it to marketing departments of pharmaceutical companies, medical journals and publishers, academic authors, and potential audiences. The medical research described here forms a new kind of corporate science, designed to look like traditional academic work, but performed largely to market products. PMID:19831220

  14. Climate change and natural disasters – integrating science and practice to protect health

    PubMed Central

    Sauerborn, Rainer; Ebi, Kristie

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydro-meteorological disasters are the focus of this paper. The authors examine, to which extent climate change increases their frequency and intensity. Methods Review of IPCC-projections of climate-change related extreme weather events and related literature on health effects. Results Projections show that climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of a range of extreme weather events over coming decades. Conclusions There is a need for strengthened collaboration between climate scientists, the health researchers and policy-makers as well as the disaster community to jointly develop adaptation strategies to protect human. PMID:23273248

  15. [The medical legal grounds of the dispanserization of children dwelling on the radiation polluted territories in the issue of Tchernobyl disaster].

    PubMed

    Fetisov, S N; Dubovoĭ, I I

    2008-01-01

    The data related to the dynamics of health conditions of children dwelling on the radiation polluted territories in the issue of Tchernobyl disaster in the Briansk Oblast during last post-disaster twenty years. The main normative documents adopted during the after-disaster period on the federal and regulating the implementation of the specialized dispanserization of population. The stages of children dispanserization during 1986-2005 are defined. The proposals related to the enhancement of the quality of children's dispanserization are brought in. The emphasis is made upon the consolidation of public health activities during the specialized dispanserization and medical checkups of population within the framework of the national project "Health". PMID:19256001

  16. Logistic support provided to Australian disaster medical assistance teams: results of a national survey of team members

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Background It is likely that calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, the present study was designed to evaluate the Australian DMAT experience and the need for logistic support. Methods Data were collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 Asian Tsunami disaster. Results The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118). Most of the personnel had deployed to the South East Asian Tsunami affected areas. The DMAT members had significant clinical and international experience. There was unanimous support for dedicated logistic support with 80% (47/59) strongly agreeing. Only one respondent (2%) disagreed with teams being self sufficient for a minimum of 72 hours. Most felt that transport around the site was not a problem (59%; 35/59), however, 34% (20/59) felt that transport to the site itself was problematic. Only 37% (22/59) felt that pre-deployment information was accurate. Communication with local health providers and other agencies was felt to be adequate by 53% (31/59) and 47% (28/59) respectively, while only 28% (17/59) felt that documentation methods were easy to use and reliable. Less than half (47%; 28/59) felt that equipment could be moved easily between areas by team members and 37% (22/59) that packaging enabled materials to be found easily. The maximum safe container weight was felt to be between 20 and 40 kg by 58% (34/59). Conclusions This study emphasises the importance of dedicated logistic support for DMAT and the need for teams to be self sufficient for a minimum period of 72 hours. There is a need for accurate pre deployment information to guide resource prioritisation with clearly labelled pre packaging to assist access on site. Container weights should be restricted to between

  17. Study habits and attitude of medical students of basic sciences.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Kshitiz Upadhyay; Prajapati, Rajesh; Pramanik, Tapas; Ghosh, Arijit; Roychowdhury, Paresh

    2007-06-01

    Study habits and attitude for learning of Basic Medical Sciences amongst 133 students of first and second year MBBS course were analyzed (through questionnaires). The study revealed that the most of the students desired to be physicians to serve the patient/society. They preferred to learn more through self study (48.0%) and lecture classes (43.0%), less through group discussion (8.0%) and PBL (1.0%). Only 5.0% use to surf the internet regularly for their study matter and 79.0% students had never consulted any medical journals. PMID:17899965

  18. Citizen Science for Post-disaster Sustainable Community Development in Ecologically Fragiel Regions - A Case from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ming, Meng; Lu, Ye; Jin, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The world's mountains host some of the most complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems and are also hotspots for natural disasters, such as earthquake, landslide and flood. One factor that limits the mountain communities to recover from disasters and pursue sustainable development is the lack of locally relevant scientific knowledge, which is hard to gain from global and regional scale observations and models. The rapid advances in ICT, computing, communication technologies and the emergence of citizen science is changing the situation. Here we report a case from Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary World Natural Heritage in China on the application of citizen science in a community reconstruction project. Dahe, a mountainous community (ca. 8000 ha in size) is located covering part of the World Heritage's core and buffer zones, with an elevation range of 1000-3000 meters. The community suffered from two major earthquakes of 7.9 and 6.9 Mw in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Landslides and flooding threat the community and significantly limit their livelihood options. We integrated participatory disaster risk mapping (e.g., community vulnerability and capacity assessment) and mobile assisted natural hazards and natural resources mapping (e.g., using free APP GeoODK) into more conventional community reconstruction and livelihood building activities. We showed that better decisions are made based on results from these activities and local residents have a high level of buy-in in these new knowledge. We suggest that initiatives like this, if successfully scale-up, can also help generate much needed data and knowledge in similar less-developed and data deficient regions of the world.

  19. Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, Jennifer D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Brock-Martin, Amy; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2012-01-01

    Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters) to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster. PMID:23202752

  20. NASA technology utilization applications. [transfer of medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The work is reported from September 1972 through August 1973 by the Technology Applications Group of the Science Communication Division (SCD), formerly the Biological Sciences Communication Project (BSCP) in the Department of Medical and Public Affairs of the George Washington University. The work was supportive of many aspects of the NASA Technology Utilization program but in particular those dealing with Biomedical and Technology Application Teams, Applications Engineering projects, new technology reporting and documentation and transfer activities. Of particular interest are detailed reports on the progress of various hardware projects, and suggestions and criteria for the evaluation of candidate hardware projects. Finally some observations about the future expansion of the TU program are offered.

  1. The science of medical librarianship: investing in the future.

    PubMed Central

    Love, E

    1987-01-01

    Information science is changing from an applied service-oriented activity to a basic research discipline. The library profession must earn a central place in this endeavor, and must address a number of important issues. These include ownership and intellectual property rights, a stronger research component for the profession, development of quality assurance systems for health information services, and a conceptual framework for training and career development of health sciences library technicians. The future of medical librarianship as a profession depends on a lasting commitment to research, a clear vision of the profession's fundamental mission and of the library's place in society. PMID:3450341

  2. Collaborative Science: Human Sensor Networks for Real-time Natural Disaster Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Aulov, O.; Martineau, J.; Brown, S.; Conte, T.; CenterHybrid Multicore Productivity Research

    2010-12-01

    processing systems used to extract the physical quantifiable data from the “human sensor network” such as natural language tools, the semantic web, image analysis techniques which can be employed to form a collaborative framework for other real time situation analysis undergoing similar natural or human caused disasters. We believe this innovative approach of extracting geophysical data from the social media sources is unprecedented in bridging geosciences with social sciences. In the near future, we plan on expanding the collaboration with researchers from University of Minnesota (U/MN) and Florida International University(FIU). Currently U/MN is working on a project of deploying aquabots (aquatic robots) in the Gulf in order to sample water properties at different depths as well as on the surface and FIU has developed a real time Terrafly processing system incorporating high resolution commercial and gov’t satellites and aircraft data.

  3. Geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system: case study in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Megumi

    2015-04-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its tsunami killed 18,508 people, including the missing (National Police Agency report as of April 2014) and raise the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in Japan. The problems revealed can be viewed as due to a combination of risk-management, risk-communication, and geoethics issues. Japan's preparations for earthquakes and tsunamis are based on the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake for each region. The government organization coordinating the estimation of anticipated earthquakes is the "Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion" (HERP), which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan's disaster mitigation system is depicted schematically as consisting of three layers: seismology, civil engineering, and disaster mitigation planning. This research explains students in geoscience should study geoethics as part of their education related Tohoku earthquake and the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Only when they become practicing professionals, they will be faced with real geoethical dilemmas. A crisis such as the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, will force many geoscientists to suddenly confront previously unanticipated geoethics and risk-communication issues. One hopes that previous training will help them to make appropriate decisions under stress. We name it "decision science".

  4. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated Through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of 'big ideas', in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward resilience and sustainability. The framework draws together competences familiarly expressed as cognitive knowledge and skills, plus dispositions and adds connectedness and action-related behaviors, and applies this by means of a progression shift associated with NH&DRR from abilities to capabilities. The target is enhanced scientific literacy approached through an education through science focus, amplified through the study of a big idea, promotion of sustained resilience in the face of disaster and the taking of responsibilities for behavioral actions. The framework is applied to a learning progression for each interrelated education dimension, thus serving as a guide for both the development of abilities and as a platform for stimulating student capabilities within instruction and assessment.

  5. Ideology in medical science: class in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U

    1989-01-01

    The class character of medicine is most easily discerned in the inequitable organization of health services. Capital's shaping of the patterns of disease and our medical/scientific responses is less apparent but equally strong. We illustrate this point by reviewing some recent history of cardiovascular diseases and therapies. Hitherto unknown afflictions have become commonplace. Our diagnostic and therapeutic concepts are the crystallization of a long history of scientific effort--an effort dominated and directed by capitalist imperatives. The work of the clinician rests on this scientific substrate, and recognition or rejection of its class nature provides a potential basis for a new medical science but not the needed results. The socialist transformation of medicine will require a recognition of the capitalist specificity of current science, and the painstaking construction of alternative modes of thought. PMID:2660277

  6. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...

  7. Five Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents It ... anniversary of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), known to many as NIH's "basic research ...

  8. Biomarkers in the ontology for general medical science.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, Werner; Smith, Barry

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of recent work has been devoted to the topic of biomarkers as aids to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment evaluation. Basing our work on the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) and on the specifications provided by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), we propose definitions for biomarkers of various types. These definitions provide a formal representation of what biomarkers are in a way that allows us to remove certain ambiguities and inconsistencies in the documentation provided by the IOM. PMID:25991121

  9. Acute post-disaster medical needs of patients with diabetes: emergency department use in New York City by diabetic adults after Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David C; Gupta, Vibha K; Carr, Brendan G; Malik, Sidrah; Ferguson, Brandy; Wall, Stephen P; Smith, Silas W; Goldfrank, Lewis R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acute impact of disasters on diabetic patients, we performed a geospatial analysis of emergency department (ED) use by New York City diabetic adults in the week after Hurricane Sandy. Research design and methods Using an all-payer claims database, we retrospectively analyzed the demographics, insurance status, and medical comorbidities of post-disaster ED patients with diabetes who lived in the most geographically vulnerable areas. We compared the patterns of ED use among diabetic adults in the first week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall to utilization before the disaster in 2012. Results In the highest level evacuation zone in New York City, postdisaster increases in ED visits for a primary or secondary diagnosis of diabetes were attributable to a significantly higher proportion of Medicare patients. Emergency visits for a primary diagnosis of diabetes had an increased frequency of certain comorbidities, including hypertension, recent procedure, and chronic skin ulcers. Patients with a history of diabetes visited EDs in increased numbers after Hurricane Sandy for a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction, prescription refills, drug dependence, dialysis, among other conditions. Conclusions We found that diabetic adults aged 65 years and older are especially at risk for requiring postdisaster emergency care compared to other vulnerable populations. Our findings also suggest that there is a need to support diabetic adults particularly in the week after a disaster by ensuring access to medications, aftercare for patients who had a recent procedure, and optimize their cardiovascular health to reduce the risk of heart attacks. PMID:27547418

  10. Association between shelter crowding and incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees: a retrospective medical chart review study

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Takahisa; Nishiyama, Kei; Morita, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Osamu; Hiraide, Atsuchi; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined whether crowding at emergency shelters is associated with a higher incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees and identified the minimum required personal space at shelters. Design Retrospective review of medical charts. Setting 30 shelter-based medical clinics in Ishinomaki, Japan, during the 46 days following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011. Participants Shelter residents who visited eligible clinics. Outcome measures Based on the result of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique assessing the relationship between the mean space per evacuee and cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance at the shelter, eligible shelters were classified into crowded and non-crowded shelters. The cumulative incidence per 1000 evacuees was compared between groups, using a Mann-Whitney U test. To assess the association between shelter crowding and the daily incidence of sleep disturbance per 1000 evacuees, quasi–least squares method adjusting for potential confounders was used. Results The 30 shelters were categorised as crowded (mean space per evacuee <5.0 m2, 9 shelters) or non-crowded (≥5.0 m2, 21 shelters). The study included 9031 patients. Among the eligible patients, 1079 patients (11.9%) were diagnosed with sleep disturbance. Mean space per evacuee during the study period was 3.3 m2 (SD, 0.8 m2) at crowded shelters and 8.6 m2 (SD, 4.3 m2) at non-crowded shelters. The median cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance did not differ between the crowded shelters (2.3/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.6–5.4)) and non-crowded shelters (1.9/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.0–2.8); p=0.20). In contrast, after adjusting for potential confounders, crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence of sleep disturbance (2.6 per 1000 person-days; 95% CI 0.2 to 5.0/1000 person-days, p=0.03) compared to that at non-crowded shelters. Conclusions Crowding at shelters may exacerbate sleep disruptions in disaster

  11. Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimirova, Tetyana

    2006-12-01

    A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson’s strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program’s point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include physics, calculus, biology, chemistry, and introduction to computing. In addition to the foundation courses, the first-year studies include an orientation course that supports the students in making a successful transition to university studies. The courses beyond the first year include such topics as radiation therapy, image analysis, medical diagnostics and computer modeling techniques. In the final year the students will undertake an independent, faculty-supervised thesis project in an area of personal research interest. Co-op and industrial internship options are available. Our program promotes natural interaction between physics, life sciences, mathematics and computing. The flexibility built into our curriculum will open a variety of career options for our graduates.

  12. Medical student perceptions of a behavioural and social science curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Oregon Health & Science University began implementing changes to better integrate mental health and social science into the curriculum by addressing the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 2004 recommendation for the inclusion of six behavioural and social science (BSS) domains: health policy and economics, patient behaviour, physician–patient interaction, mind–body interactions, physician role and behaviour, and social and cultural issues. Methods We conducted three focus groups with a purposive sample of 23 fourth-year medical students who were exposed to 4 years of the new curriculum. Students were asked to reflect upon the adequacy of their BSS training specifically as it related to the six IOM domains. The 90-minute focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed. Results Students felt the MS1 and MS2 years of the curriculum presented a strong didactic orientation to behavioural and social science precepts. However, they reported that these principles were not well integrated into clinical care during the second two years. Students identified three opportunities to further the inclusion of BSS in their clinical training: presentation of BSS concepts prior to relevant clinical exposure, consistent BSS skills mentoring in the clinical setting, and improving cultural congruence between aspects of BSS and biomedicine. Conclusions Students exposed to the revised BSS curriculum tend to value its principles; however, modelling and practical training in the application of these principles during the second two years of medical school are needed to reinforce this learning and demonstrate methods of integrating BSS principles into practice. PMID:23205062

  13. 75 FR 7484 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Minority Programs... General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD...

  14. 78 FR 63231 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel P20 INBRE... of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An.22,...

  15. 78 FR 28601 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Initial Review Group, Training and..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room...

  16. 78 FR 66369 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-11-05

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  17. 75 FR 8979 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

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  18. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; MBRS SCORE. Date..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room...

  19. 75 FR 5601 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

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  20. 75 FR 18218 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-04-09

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  1. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of T32... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

  2. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of R01... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  3. 75 FR 71713 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; K99 Pathway to..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room...

  4. 75 FR 35820 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Review of... General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18B, Bethesda, MD...

  5. [The system of readiness to take care of medical consequences in disaster situations].

    PubMed

    Solov'ev, A N

    1995-01-01

    The main task of regional catastrophe medicine service in liquidation of medical consequences of emergency situations is the immediate adequate reaction which is aimed at minimizing the sanitary loss. This task can be effectively solved only on condition of permanent improvement of interaction between the managing and managed systems of public health and coordination of their actions with those of nonmedical services. An important role is played by the actualized (constantly renewed) data bases "Potentially Hazardous Objects", "Regional Infrastructure", "Medicosanitary Means", etc., which help simulate various emergency situations with due consideration for the season, time of the day, and socioeconomic features of a region in order to create variants of effective work of all services engaged in the liquidation of medical consequences. PMID:7486204

  6. Medical reserve corps volunteers in disasters: a survey of their roles, experiences, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew; Selck, Frederic; Rambhia, Kunal; Morhard, Ryan; Franco, Crystal; Toner, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) was established in the Office of the Surgeon General in response to the spontaneous but disorganized outpouring of medical volunteers following the terrorist attacks of 2001. The mission of the federal MRC office is to provide organizational structure and guidance to the nearly 1,000 locally organized and funded MRC units that have grown up across the country and the more than 200,000 volunteer health professionals that staff these units. Despite the large size of this program and its numerous activations over the past decade, including in the Boston Marathon bombing and Hurricane Sandy, relatively little is known about the MRC, including the make-up of the units, the ways units have been used, and the challenges faced by MRC units and their volunteers. Here we report the results of a mixed-methods investigation of MRC unit organization, activities, and challenges. PMID:24697751

  7. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  8. Emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, educators pay attention to emotional intelligence which is defined as the ability to monitor and explain one's own and other's emotional experience and feelings to differentiate between them as well as applying necessary information for determining thoughts and actions. The goal of this study was to determine emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. By means of two stage cluster sampling, 98 medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version of Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Seventy two filled-up questionnaires were returned (RR=73%). Mean EI score of all participants was 319.94 ± 32.4. Mean EI score was not significantly different between male and female also, single and married participants. EI did not differ significantly in residents in respect to their discipline. Mean responsibility subscale differ significantly between male and female participants (P=0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that happiness subscale is a predictive factor for total EI score (B=-0.32, P=0.009). Responsibility subscale differed significantly between men and women participants and happiness subscale was a good predictor for emotional intelligence score. These factors should be considered in education of medical residents. PMID:23605604

  9. What are the implications of implementation science for medical education?

    PubMed Central

    Price, David W.; Wagner, Dianne P.; Krane, N. Kevin; Rougas, Steven C.; Lowitt, Nancy R.; Offodile, Regina S.; Easdown, L. Jane; Andrews, Mark A. W.; Kodner, Charles M.; Lypson, Monica; Barnes, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Derived from multiple disciplines and established in industries outside of medicine, Implementation Science (IS) seeks to move evidence-based approaches into widespread use to enable improved outcomes to be realized as quickly as possible by as many as possible. Methods This review highlights selected IS theories and models, chosen based on the experience of the authors, that could be used to plan and deliver medical education activities to help learners better implement and sustain new knowledge and skills in their work settings. Results IS models, theories and approaches can help medical educators promote and determine their success in achieving desired learner outcomes. We discuss the importance of incorporating IS into the training of individuals, teams, and organizations, and employing IS across the medical education continuum. Challenges and specific strategies for the application of IS in educational settings are also discussed. Conclusions Utilizing IS in medical education can help us better achieve changes in competence, performance, and patient outcomes. IS should be incorporated into curricula across disciplines and across the continuum of medical education to facilitate implementation of learning. Educators should start by selecting, applying, and evaluating the teaching and patient care impact one or two IS strategies in their work. PMID:25911282

  10. A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.

    PubMed

    De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

  11. History of Disaster Medicine.

    PubMed

    Suner, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations. PMID:27437524

  12. [Cardiology was born with the modern medical science].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical science was born in the post-Renaissance age and began to consolidate towards the middle of the XVII century thanks to physicists, physiologists and biologists, most of whom were direct or indirect pupils of Galileo. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey is now considered the only progress in physiology at the beginning of the XVII century, comparable to the current advances seen in physical sciences. The history of this exploit could be written from view point of the progressive advance in knowledge. In his experiments, Harvey referred to the authentic not imaginary experiments, and put forward irrefutable quantitative arguments. We can therefore claim that his discovery of blood circulation was the first proper explanation of an organic process and the starting point leading to experimental physiology. So it seems justified to assert that modern medical science did not all rise suddenly, but was gradually structured starting from the middle of the XVII century following the path traced by William Harvey in light of Galileo's thought. PMID:25554458

  13. International disaster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Martin Elliot

    1991-01-01

    No existing telecommunications system can be expected to provide strategy and tactics appropriate to the complex, many faceted problem of disaster. Despite the exciting capabilities of space, communications, remote sensing, and the miracles of modern medicine, complete turnkey transfers to the disaster problem do not make the fit, and cannot be expected to do so. In 1980, a Presidential team assigned the mission of exploring disaster response within the U.S. Federal Government encountered an unanticipated obstacle: disaster was essentially undefined. In the absence of a scientifically based paradigm of disaster, there can be no measure of cost effectiveness, optimum design of manpower structure, or precise application of any technology. These problems spawned a 10-year, multidisciplinary study designed to define the origins, anatomy, and necessary management techniques for catastrophes. The design of the study necessarily reflects interests and expertise in disaster medicine, emergency medicine, telecommunications, computer communications, and forencsic sciences. This study is described.

  14. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences: five decades of collaborative medical research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Arthur; Nitayaphan, Sorachai

    2011-05-01

    The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) is a 50-year-old joint institute of the US and Royal Thai Army Medical Departments located in Bangkok, Thailand. Investigators from the Institute have carried out research in Thailand and the region, in collaboration with many partners, focused on a large number of tropical infectious diseases. In celebration of the 50th anniversary, this paper summarizes highlights of this research, focusing on malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, diarrhea and HIV. In addition, research done in support of the medical problems of refugees and of the health of Thai peace-keeping forces are summarized. The research carried out by AFRIMS and added to the scientific literature has contributed significantly to advancement in multiple areas of tropical infectious disease. PMID:21706925

  15. Flexner revisited: the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Edward P; Chauvin, Sheila; Bonaminio, Giulia; Andrews, Mark; Carroll, Robert G; Pangaro, Louis N

    2010-02-01

    A central tenet of Flexner's report was the fundamental role of science in medical education. Today, there is tension between the time needed to teach an ever-expanding knowledge base in science and the time needed for increased instruction in clinical application and in the behavioral, ethical, and managerial knowledge and skills needed to prepare for clinical experiences. One result has been at least a perceived reduction in time and focus on the foundational sciences. In this context, the International Association of Medical Science Educators initiated a study to address the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education by seeking perspectives from various groups of medical educators to five questions: (1) What are the sciences that constitute the foundation for medical practice? (2) What is the value and role of the foundational sciences in medical education? (3) When and how should these foundational sciences be incorporated into the medical education curriculum? (4) What sciences should be prerequisite to entering the undergraduate medical curriculum? (5) What are examples of the best practices for incorporating the foundational sciences into the medical education curriculum? The results suggest a broad group of experts believes that an understanding of basic science content remains essential to clinical practice and that teaching should be accomplished across the entire undergraduate medical education experience and integrated with clinical applications. Learning the sciences also plays a foundational role in developing discipline and rigor in learners' thinking skills, including logical reasoning, critical appraisal, problem solving, decision making, and creativity. PMID:20107367

  16. [Institutional Biobank as a pillar of medical science].

    PubMed

    Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Monsivais-Ovalle, Daniela Estefanía; Velázquez-Vadillo, Juan Francisco; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto

    2016-08-01

    A biobank facility is one of the most valuable means that academic medical organizations have to offer researchers for improving the competitiveness of their medical research. We describe the implementation of our institutional biobank. Our efforts focused on the design and equipment of work areas, staff training, quality control, bioethical and regulatory issues, generating research collaborations and developing funding strategies. We implemented an institutional biobank at the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico. The biobank has supported more than a dozen research protocols with over 3 000 individuals enrolled and almost 6 000 sampled biospecimens stored. The institutional biobank has become an essential bridge and effective catalyst for research synergies between basic and clinical sciences and it is on its way to becoming a National Laboratory. PMID:27599083

  17. Attitude of Basic Science Medical Students Toward Interprofessional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Neelam R; Nandy, Atanu; Balasubramanium, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and interprofessional education (IPE) are increasingly emphasized in the education of health professions. Xavier University School of Medicine, a Caribbean medical school admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical course. The present study was carried out to obtain information about the attitude toward IPC among basic science medical students and note differences, if any, among different subgroups. Methods: The study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during July 2015 using the previously validated Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Collaboration (JeffSATIC). Gender, age, semester, and nationality were noted. Participants’ agreement with a set of 20 statements was studied. Mean total scores, working relationship, and accountability scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents (p<0.05). Results: Sixty-seven of the 71 students (94.4%) participated. Cronbach’s alpha value of the questionnaire was 0.827, indicating good internal consistency. The mean total score was 104.48 (maximum score 140) while the working relationship and accountability scores were 63.51 (maximum score 84) and 40.97 (maximum score 56), respectively. Total scores were significantly higher among third-semester students and students of Canadian nationality. Working relationship and accountability scores were higher among first and third-semester students. Conclusion: The total working relationship and accountability scores were lower compared to those obtained in a previous study. Opportunities for IPE and IPC during the basic science years should be strengthened. Longitudinal studies in the institution may be helpful. Similar studies in other Caribbean medical schools are required. PMID:26543691

  18. Intriguing Connections Between Economic Geology, the Environment, Human Health, and Disasters: Observations from my Career(s) in Transdisciplinary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    I have been fortunate to be able to follow a varied career path from economic geology, to environmental geochemistry, to geochemistry and human health, to environmental disasters. I have been privileged to collaborate with many exceptional scientists from across and well beyond the earth sciences (e.g., public heath, engineering, economics, emergency response, microbiology). Much of this transdisciplinary work has intriguing links back to economic geology/geochemistry. Geological characteristics of different ore deposit types predictably influence the environmental and health impacts of mining, and so can help anticipate and prevent adverse impacts before they occur. Geologic maps showing potential for natural occurrences of asbestos or erionite are analogous to permissive tract maps used for mineral-resource assessments, and can be correlated with epidemiological data to help understand whether living on or near such rocks poses a risk for developing asbestos-related diseases. Mineral particles that are taken up by the human body along inhalation or incidental ingestion exposure routes are "weathered" by reactions with diverse body fluids that differ greatly in composition between and along the different exposure routes. These in vivo chemical reactions (e.g., dissolution, alteration, metal complexation, oxidation/reduction, reprecipitation) are in ways analogous to processes of ore deposit formation and weathering, and some can be shown (in collaboration with toxicologists) to play a role in toxicity. Concepts of ore petrography and paragenesis can be applied to interpret (in collaboration with pathologists) the origin, physiological implications, and toxicity effects of mineral matter in human tissue samples obtained by biopsy, transplant or autopsy. Some disaster materials can originate from mining- or mineral-processing sources, and methods originally developed to study ore deposits or mining-environmental issues can also be applied to understand many disaster

  19. Life science must go on: standing up after the 311 disaster.

    PubMed

    Osumi, Noriko

    2011-07-01

    Just 1 month has passed since the biggest earthquake ever recorded in Japan occurred in the Tohoku-Kanto area. The earthquake was followed soon afterwards by an unexpected huge tsunami that destroyed many villages and towns near the coast. Perhaps even more seriously, nuclear power plants in Fukushima were damaged, resulting in electricity interruptions and radioactive contamination. It is sad that nearly thirty thousand people died or are still missing as a result of this disaster. I wish to express my deepest sympathy to all the victims and for those that are still being affected by what happened. The 311 earthquake and the ensuing problems have shaken us to the bottom of our hearts, not only physically but also mentally. As one of the persons present in the area at the time of the earthquake, I would like to report how I experienced the 311 disaster in our laboratory in Tohoku University and how this experience has changed my outlook on many things. PMID:21672092

  20. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey. (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Erdik, M. O.; Takahashi, N.; Meral Ozel, N.; Hori, T.; Hori, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Ozel, A. O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Nurlu, M.; Tanircan, G.; Citak, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Necmioglu, O.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes occurred in Turkey, with a total affected population of ~7 million and direct estimated losses of ~25 billion USD. About half the lives lost were due to two earthquakes associated with the North Anatolian Fault in 1939 and 1999. During this time, seven large westward-migrating earthquakes created a 900-km-long continuous surface rupture along the fault zone from Erzincan to the Marmara Sea, stopping just short of Istanbul. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) = 7.4, Parsons concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw >7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years. This high probability is shared by Tokyo and San Francisco; however, the earthquake fragility of the pre-2000 building stock in Turkey is much higher than that of California or Japan. (Erdik, 2013). All of the arguments described above provide a sound basis for a Japanese-Turkish partnership enabling each partner to share experiences gained from past destructive earthquakes and prepare for expected large earthquakes. The SATREPS project aims to address this need, also focusing on the tsunami hazard. The project's main objectives are i) to develop disaster mitigation policies and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities; ii) to provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations; iii) to organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey; iv) to contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. To achieve successfully these objectives, 4 research groups have been set specializing on observations, simulations, civil engineering and disaster education and the results will be integrated for disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey.

  1. Surge Capacity and Capability. A Review of the History and Where the Science is Today Regarding Surge Capacity during a Mass Casualty Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Randy D.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Cairns, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Disasters which include countless killed and many more injured, have occurred throughout recorded history. Many of the same reports of disaster also include numerous accounts of individuals attempting to rescue those in great peril and render aid to the injured and infirmed. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the transition through several periods of time with managing a surge of many patients. This review will focus on the triggering event, injury and illness, location where the care is provided and specifically discuss where the science is today. PMID:24795873

  2. Quality of life of medical students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Pasalar, Parvin; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the quality of life (QOL) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences' (TUMS) medical students at different educational levels and specify the most important factors related to this quality. A sample of 242 medical students was selected randomly, given their number in three educational levels (basic sciences, physiopathology-stager and intern). The QOL was measured by WHOQOL-BREF. The students obtained average high score in two psychological and environmental health domains, and low score in physical health and social relationship domains. As the educational level of students increased their quality of life decreased at all four domains. At social relationship domain, the female students had overall better situation as compared to males (p=0.009). The female and male students had opposite condition at the level of basic sciences and internship, in a way that the female students earned higher marks at basic sciences level and the males at internship level (P= 0.008). The condition of female students in terms of environmental, physical and psychological health became static while their education rose. However, only environmental health of the male students reduced as their education level increased (P= 0.05). The students were of undesirable conditions in two domains of social relationship and physical health. Internship is a specific level in both groups which has a negative impact on the dimensions of quality of life and naturally needs more care for the students. Married status improved the students' QOL and could moderate the undesired effects of internship. PMID:24902021

  3. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h(-1) to 0.520 μGy h(-1), and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h(-1), which is close to 0.04 μGy h(-1), which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected. PMID:26911302

  4. Recovery and Resilience After a Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Medical Decision model for Managing an Effective, Timely, and Balanced Response

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C. Norman; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-05-01

    Based on experiences in Tokyo responding to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant crisis, a real-time, medical decision model is presented by which to make key health-related decisions given the central role of health and medical issues in such disasters. Focus is on response and recovery activities that are safe, timely, effective, and well-organized. This approach empowers on-site decision makers to make interim decisions without undue delay using readily available and high-level scientific, medical, communication, and policy expertise. Key features of this approach include ongoing assessment, consultation, information, and adaption to the changing conditions. This medical decision model presented is compatible with the existing US National Response Framework structure.

  5. Virtual Disaster Simulation: Lesson Learned from an International Collaboration That Can Be Leveraged for Disaster Education in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Akbarisari, Ali; Djalali, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    Disaster education needs innovative educational methods to be more effective compared to traditional approaches. This can be done by using virtual simulation method. This article presents an experience about using virtual simulation methods to teach health professional on disaster medicine in Iran. The workshop on the "Application of New Technologies in Disaster Management Simulation" was held in Tehran in January 2015. It was co-organized by the Disaster and Emergency Health Academy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Emergency and the Research Center in Disaster Medicine and Computer Science applied to Medicine (CRIMEDIM), Università del Piemonte Orientale. Different simulators were used by the participants, who were from the health system and other relevant fields, both inside and outside Iran. As a result of the workshop, all the concerned stakeholders are called on to support this new initiative of incorporating virtual training and exercise simulation in the field of disaster medicine, so that its professionals are endowed with field-based and practical skills in Iran and elsewhere. Virtual simulation technology is recommended to be used in education of disaster management. This requires capacity building of instructors, and provision of technologies. International collaboration can facilitate this process. PMID:26236561

  6. The integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Flynn, Brian W; Schonfeld, David; Brown, Lisa M; Jacobs, Gerard A; Dodgen, Daniel; Donato, Darrin; Kaul, Rachel E; Stone, Brook; Norwood, Ann E; Reissman, Dori B; Herrmann, Jack; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Jones, Russell T; Ruzek, Josef I; Ursano, Robert J; Taylor, Robert J; Lindley, David

    2012-03-01

    The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioral health considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioral health into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioral health as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice. PMID:22490938

  7. Citation analysis in journal rankings: medical informatics in the library and information science literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanatham, R

    1998-01-01

    Medical informatics is an interdisciplinary field. Medical informatics articles will be found in the literature of various disciplines including library and information science publications. The purpose of this study was to provide an objectively ranked list of journals that publish medical informatics articles relevant to library and information science. Library Literature, Library and Information Science Abstracts, and Social Science Citation Index were used to identify articles published on the topic of medical informatics and to identify a ranked list of journals. This study also used citation analysis to identify the most frequently cited journals relevant to library and information science. PMID:9803294

  8. [The Pangenetic theory in the tradition of Greek medical science].

    PubMed

    Imai, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The Pangenetic theory which holds that sperm comes from all the body seems to have been one of the most remarkable doctrines in Greek biology in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, since Aristotle gives a detailed description of the theory and criticizes it severely. The main sources of information about the Pangenetic theory are several medical treatises in the Hippocratic Corpus. There are only some mentions of it in the extant fragments ascribed to Democritus. It would be probable, therefore, that the theory had the origin of its theoretical form in the tradition of Greek medical science, and then came to the focus of attention among the Presocratic philosophers. Some scholars, on the other hand, claim that Democritus had a decisive role in the formation and development of the theory, which was then taken over by the Hippocratic doctors in their attempt to give a systematic explanation for some of the important genetic issues, such as the inheritance of similarities from parents to their children. It must be kept in mind, however, that Hippocratic doctors thought of particular fluids or humours with their inherent powers (delta upsilon nu alpha mu epsilon iotas) as the essential constituents of human body. This fact leads us to have an idea that the doctors had a completely different view of matter from the corpuscular theory, although Lesky (1950) and Lonie (1981) assume them to have been almost dependent on the atomism of Democritus. We can conclude that the Pangenetic theory came originally from Greek medical science, and then developed into the most influential doctrine before Aristotle. PMID:19824316

  9. Concerns of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members about troubles at the nuclear power plant: experience from the Niigata Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, 16 July 2007, in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Makoto; Kumagaya, Ken; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hirose, Yasuo

    2010-06-01

    An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the Niigata-Chuetsu region of Japan at 10:13 on 16 July 2007. The earthquake was followed by the sustained occurrence of numerous aftershocks, delaying the reconstruction of community lifelines. The earthquake affected the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plants (NPPs), the biggest NPP site in the world. The earthquake caused damage to NPPs, resulting in a small amount of radioactive materials being released into the air and the sea. However, no significant effects were detected in the public and the environment. As medical response to this earthquake, 42 Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) were sent to hospitals and first-aid care centers at the NPP site. In order to evaluate the perceptions of the deployed DMAT personnel regarding concerns about the health effects of radiation and information about the damage to NPPs, questionnaires were sent to 40 facilities that dispatched DMATs to the earthquake area. Most of them were concerned with the effects of radiation, and adequate information about the problems at the NPPs was not communicated to them. This preliminary study suggests that communication of information is extremely important for DMAT members in the case of disasters, in particular if there exists a possibility of radiation exposure, since radiation cannot be detected by our senses. DMAT members are critical to any mass casualty incident, whether caused by humans or nature. We have learned from this earthquake that there is urgent need for an all-hazards approach, including a "combined disaster" strategy, which should be emphasized for current disaster planning and response. This is the first report on DMATs deployed to an earthquake site with damage to NPPs. PMID:20445385

  10. The (human) science of medical virtual learning environments

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The uptake of virtual simulation technologies in both military and civilian surgical contexts has been both slow and patchy. The failure of the virtual reality community in the 1990s and early 2000s to deliver affordable and accessible training systems stems not only from an obsessive quest to develop the ‘ultimate’ in so-called ‘immersive’ hardware solutions, from head-mounted displays to large-scale projection theatres, but also from a comprehensive lack of attention to the needs of the end users. While many still perceive the science of simulation to be defined by technological advances, such as computing power, specialized graphics hardware, advanced interactive controllers, displays and so on, the true science underpinning simulation—the science that helps to guarantee the transfer of skills from the simulated to the real—is that of human factors, a well-established discipline that focuses on the abilities and limitations of the end user when designing interactive systems, as opposed to the more commercially explicit components of technology. Based on three surgical simulation case studies, the importance of a human factors approach to the design of appropriate simulation content and interactive hardware for medical simulation is illustrated. The studies demonstrate that it is unnecessary to pursue real-world fidelity in all instances in order to achieve psychological fidelity—the degree to which the simulated tasks reproduce and foster knowledge, skills and behaviours that can be reliably transferred to real-world training applications. PMID:21149363

  11. The (human) science of medical virtual learning environments.

    PubMed

    Stone, Robert J

    2011-01-27

    The uptake of virtual simulation technologies in both military and civilian surgical contexts has been both slow and patchy. The failure of the virtual reality community in the 1990s and early 2000s to deliver affordable and accessible training systems stems not only from an obsessive quest to develop the 'ultimate' in so-called 'immersive' hardware solutions, from head-mounted displays to large-scale projection theatres, but also from a comprehensive lack of attention to the needs of the end users. While many still perceive the science of simulation to be defined by technological advances, such as computing power, specialized graphics hardware, advanced interactive controllers, displays and so on, the true science underpinning simulation--the science that helps to guarantee the transfer of skills from the simulated to the real--is that of human factors, a well-established discipline that focuses on the abilities and limitations of the end user when designing interactive systems, as opposed to the more commercially explicit components of technology. Based on three surgical simulation case studies, the importance of a human factors approach to the design of appropriate simulation content and interactive hardware for medical simulation is illustrated. The studies demonstrate that it is unnecessary to pursue real-world fidelity in all instances in order to achieve psychological fidelity--the degree to which the simulated tasks reproduce and foster knowledge, skills and behaviours that can be reliably transferred to real-world training applications. PMID:21149363

  12. Medical and Health Sciences Division research report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Medical and Health Sciences Division conducts research programs relevant to neoplastic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular diseases. Basic biological science, nuclear medicine, and epidemiology provide an integrated approach to solving biomedical problems directly related to occupational medicine and environmental health effects. The central theme of this research is focused on both the mechanisms and risk assessments of diseases caused by accidental exposure to chemical toxicants derived from fossil and synthetic fuels or to radiation. A major reorganizational change made this past year restructured the division into two branches. The environmental and health sciences branch contains a cancer and pulmonary research section, an interdisciplinary task group section, a cardiovascular research section, and a research support section. The radiation and nuclear medicine branch consists of a radiation and nuclear medicine section and an occupational epidemiology section. In addition, special task groups have been created to provide an interdisciplinary team approach in certain research efforts. Information included in this booklet summarizes research results and related activities for the period from October 1, 1979, to September 30, 1980.

  13. The Prevalence and Affecting Factors on Self-Medication Among Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Science in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Sayed Mojtaba; Sadeghi, Khirollah; Abdi, Alireza; Vahid, Mansour Pashaie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-medication is an increasingly growing health problem, which has many adverse effects on human and the cost used in the production of medications. Aim The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among student of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Materials and Methods In a descriptive-cross-sectional study, 364 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were recruited through stratified random sampling method. Data collection was done by researcher-made questionnaire, entered to SPSS22 software and analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Of the 364 students, prevalence of self-medication was 123 (33.7%) the mean age was 21.63±1.92, among them 64.2% took the medication from the pharmacy and 34.95% have faced complications of self-medication. The main cause of self-medication among students were the history of a disease of taking medication (44.71%), deemed no importance of the disease (34.95%), and easy accessibility of the medication (20.32%). Conclusion With regard to the high prevalence of self-medication among the students, it is suggested to provide educational programs on the adverse effects of self-medication, and appropriate measures to control and prevent easy access to the medications. PMID:27437242

  14. In search of the soul in science: medical ethics' appropriation of philosophy of science in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Aronova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the deployment of science studies within the field of medical ethics. For a short time, the discourse of medical ethics became a fertile ground for a dialogue between philosophically minded bioethicists and the philosophers of science who responded to Thomas Kuhn's challenge. In their discussion of the validity of Kuhn's work, these bioethicists suggested a distinct interpretation of Kuhn, emphasizing the elements in his account that had been independently developed by Michael Polanyi, and propelling a view of science that retreated from idealizations of scientific method without sacrificing philosophical realism. Appropriating Polanyi, they extended his account of science to biology and medicine. The contribution of Karl Popper to the debate on the applicability of philosophy of science to the issues of medical ethics provides the opportunity to discuss the ways in which political agendas of different epistemologies of science intertwined with questions of concern to medical ethics. PMID:19835265

  15. Medical information, health sciences librarians, and professional liability.

    PubMed

    Hafner, A W

    1990-01-01

    As a gatekeeper to medical literature and a critical link in the delivery of information to physicians, the librarian's role raises the issue of the librarian's professional liability. The paper suggests several ways in which liability may attach to the librarian or the librarian's employers. Although the librarian's personal risk is negligible, the physician's exposure due to ineffective library work is substantial since the courts have held that a physician must keep abreast of progress in his field. Librarians can also become associated with professional liability actions as part of a case against a physician or hospital through the legal doctrine of vicarious liability. The paper concludes by suggesting several proactive steps for health sciences librarians to pursue to insulate themselves from professional liability and to insulate physicians and institutions from vicarious liability. PMID:10107630

  16. Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010–2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees’ tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations. PMID:23908760

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES ON THE COLLECTING POLICY OF MEDICAL SCHOOL LIBRARIES.

    PubMed

    MACKENZIE, R C; BLOOMQUIST, H

    1964-01-01

    The scope of medical science has broadened to embrace subject areas in the behavioral and social sciences. Medical school curricula have responded to this trend, and the response is inevitably making itself felt in the medical school library. One medical school library's efforts to identify significant library materials in this area are presented as an example of a technique and as an indication of an order of magnitude. A master list of appropriate journal titles is appended. PMID:14119295

  18. 76 FR 7573 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; MBRS Chemistry..., Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental...

  19. 76 FR 10381 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Genetics and... Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics...

  20. [Switch from emergency medicine to disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Kentaro; Shimizu, Keiki

    2016-02-01

    Disaster medical system in Japan has been changing after huge disaster attack. Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) was established on 1995 after the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and played important role in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on 2011. The action of DMAT is specialized within acute phase. Continual medical aid activity is required from acute phase to chronic phase. After DMAT evacuation, Japan Medical Association Team (JMAT), Japanese Red Cross Teams, Medical university teams and many other medical teams work sequentially in the disaster area. On the other hand, unbalance in the disaster area is occurred. Disaster medical coordinator accommodates that unbalance situation. Development of receive system for many medical assistance teams will be required. PMID:26915255

  1. Knowledge of triage in the senior medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOODIAN, HOSSEIN; EGHTESADI, RAZIE; GHAREGHANI, ATEFE; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triage is a response to the problem of overcrowding in Emergency Departments (EDs) and accuracy of decisions made by the triage unit affects the ultimate outcome of EDs. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of triage among last year medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a cross-sectional analytical study whose subjects were all the senior students of medicine (62) in the last year of medicine from January to June 2013 who attended emergency medicine course in the screen room of 2 University Hospitals. This questionnaire was designed in 3 sections including personal data, 15 questions on knowledge of triage and 10 case scenarios for triage decision making and completed by the students. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS statistical software (version 14) using independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient (p≤0.001). Results The total mean score of the participants was 10.6±1.5, ranging from 7 to 13. 58(93.5%) students had poor triage knowledge. In the scenario’s section, the percentage of correct triage by students was 49.2% and those of over and under triage were 28.1% and 22.7%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the triage accuracy and level of triage (ESI 4) (p≤0.001). Conclusion The level of knowledge of triage in the last year medical students was poor, although most of them had passed a course in the screen room. It is recommended that medical students’ educational courses should include sections on the knowledge of triage in emergency rooms. PMID:27382582

  2. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief mission by a tripartite medical team led by the Singapore Armed Forces after the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming Li Leonard; Lim, Jonathan Zhao Min; Tan, Mark Zhong Wei; Kok, Wai Leong; Zhang, Jun Ren; Tan, Mian Yi; Tan, Adrian Chong Beng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Upon arrival in Kathmandu, Nepal, the SAF medical team was assigned to the Gokarna district by the local health authorities. In addition to providing primary healthcare, the medical facility was equipped to perform resuscitation and minor procedures. We also assembled mobile medical teams (MMTs) that travelled to various remote areas of the country to deliver medical aid. RESULTS A total of 3,014 patients were managed by the SAF medical team. Of these patients, 1,286 (42.7%) were men. 574 (19.0%) patients sustained earthquake-related injuries or illnesses, while 2,440 (81.0%) sustained non-earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. The team treated a total of 447 (77.9%) adults and 127 (22.1%) paediatric patients with earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. A significant number of patients developed exacerbations of underlying medical conditions. 2,161 (71.7%) patients were treated in our main facility in Gokarna, while 853 patients (28.3%) were treated by our MMTs. CONCLUSION The ability to transport healthcare personnel and essential medical equipment within a short time allowed the SAF medical team to provide crucial medical care in the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquake. PMID:27549187

  3. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  4. Preparing for Catastrophic Disasters: Application of Earth Science and Engineering Data, and Loss Scenarios for Emergency Management and Disaster Recovery Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, R.

    2006-12-01

    Catastrophic disasters, either man or nature caused, pose unique challenges to federal, state and local governments. The complex interactions of lifeline disruption, structural damage, and population displacement are difficult to comprehend or predict. As the preparation for and response to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 illustrated, forecasting the occurrence of the event does not adequately define the complexity of the consequences. Preparing for the occurrence of a rapid onset disaster that occurs without warning creates additional challenges to the emergency management community. If the event is catastrophic, it will quickly overwhelm local, regional and state resources. The ability to comprehend the magnitude and complexity of such a disruption will also be overwhelmed. The State of California, in order to gain insights into the complexity and demands of a catastrophic earthquake event (historic events include Central California [1906, 1868], Southern California [1857], and possible future events), has partnered with the United States Geological Survey, Charles Kircher and Associates, PBS&J and FEMA to exercise and test the State's response to a catastrophic recurrence of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. As Kircher notes in his paper, USGS ground motions, enhanced structure inventories, and FEMA' loss estimation tool, HAZUS, are used to define the impact on the San Francisco Bay Region infrastructure, resources and economy. In November of 2006, this scenario will serve as the structure of a 10-county response exercise that will be played out over 36 continuous hours, replicating lifeline, communications and transportation disruption. The exercise, funded by the California Office of Homeland Security, is the first statewide catastrophic disaster response to be carried out in the State and should serve as both a model for integration of natural hazard information into homeland security planning and for developing training that addresses the complex

  5. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings. PMID:22420229

  6. The Webometric Status of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Behjat; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Zahed, Arash; Otroj, Zahra; Mazaheri, Elahe; Soleimanzade-Najafi, Nayere-Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Webometrics refers to the quantitative study of science production, application, structure and technology in the cyber environment. Impact analysis, website collaboration, and recognition of core websites are regarded as the most practical advantages of webometrics. Furthermore, webometrics is applied in ranking studies for universities and academic institutes. This serves as an internationally approved means of academic ranking worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the webometric status of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) and its place in the Webometric Ranking of World Universities. We also tried to comment on how to improve the university’s webometric rank at national, regional, and international levels. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study including all websites of Iranian universities. Census sampling was applied to cover all Iranian university websites. Then the websites were evaluated according to the latest criteria for the international webometric ranking methodology (Cyberometric Lab, July 2012) and their webometric rank at the international level as well as the changes in the rank between July 2012 and January 2013 were analyzed. The webometric rank of IUMS was compared with other medical universities at different levels as well. Findings: According to the findings, from July 2012 to January 2013, IUMS webometric rank improved by 707, 5 and 2 at international, national and ministerial levels, respectively. Moreover, the rank of IUMS for openness rose from 4477 to 193 during the mentioned period (∆ 4284). In excellence, the university rank did not change sensibly (1537 /1538). In the same period, the rank in presence shifted from 1137 to 1091. Meanwhile, growth in website impact was negative as the university impact rank declined from 3369 to 3393. Conclusion: It seems that impact as the most influential ranking indicator fails to grow proportionately as other factors of IUMS website. This is

  7. Development of the science of mass casualty incident management: reflection on the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-bing; Jiang, Guan-yu; Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; He, Xiao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The following key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the

  8. Revitalising Evidence-based Policy for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030: Lessons from Existing International Science Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Carabine, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The convergence of agreements on disaster risk reduction (DRR), development finance, sustainable development and climate change in 2015 presents a unique opportunity for coherence across these inter-related policy areas. At the same time, demand is growing for a more prominent and effective role for science and technology in providing evidence for policy, with the international community recognising that successful disaster risk reduction (DRR) depends on it. Reflecting this ambition, science is included as a core aspect of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, although the ways in which this will be implemented in practice is still unclear. This paper aims to inform the implementation of international science coordination for DRR by examining a number of existing international science partnerships used across other relevant areas of policy to understand best practice, options for coordination and lessons identified. In the field of DRR, the science-policy interface needs to be strengthened in line with the best practice described in this review. An enhanced UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group will be given the mandate for to enhance the evidence base for DRR and mobilise science and technical work in coordination with a broad range of stakeholders. The structure and function of an enhanced STAG must be as open, as inclusive and as participatory as possible in order to build trust in new and existing institutions at local, national, regional and global levels. The challenge for the international community is to facilitate evidence-based policy making by formally recognising the links between DRR, development finance, sustainable development and climate change in the upcoming post-2015 agreements. PMID:25969796

  9. Revitalising Evidence-based Policy for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030: Lessons from Existing International Science Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Carabine, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The convergence of agreements on disaster risk reduction (DRR), development finance, sustainable development and climate change in 2015 presents a unique opportunity for coherence across these inter-related policy areas. At the same time, demand is growing for a more prominent and effective role for science and technology in providing evidence for policy, with the international community recognising that successful disaster risk reduction (DRR) depends on it. Reflecting this ambition, science is included as a core aspect of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, although the ways in which this will be implemented in practice is still unclear. This paper aims to inform the implementation of international science coordination for DRR by examining a number of existing international science partnerships used across other relevant areas of policy to understand best practice, options for coordination and lessons identified. In the field of DRR, the science-policy interface needs to be strengthened in line with the best practice described in this review. An enhanced UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group will be given the mandate for to enhance the evidence base for DRR and mobilise science and technical work in coordination with a broad range of stakeholders. The structure and function of an enhanced STAG must be as open, as inclusive and as participatory as possible in order to build trust in new and existing institutions at local, national, regional and global levels. The challenge for the international community is to facilitate evidence-based policy making by formally recognising the links between DRR, development finance, sustainable development and climate change in the upcoming post-2015 agreements. PMID:25969796

  10. 78 FR 66372 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; MIDAS Information Technology Resources (U24). Date: November 22, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Agenda:...

  11. 76 FR 70155 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis...

  12. 76 FR 49492 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... in the Federal Register on July 26, 2011, 76 FR 44598. The meeting was rescheduled for August 12... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Amended... Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, August 11, 2011, 1 p.m. to August 11, 2011, 4 p.m.,...

  13. 75 FR 71712 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Initial.... Craig Hyde, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of...

  14. 77 FR 24724 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  15. METABOLOMICS IN MEDICAL SCIENCES--TRENDS, CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics is the latest of the "omic" technologies that involves comprehensive analysis of small molecule metabolites of an organism or a specific biological sample. Metabolomics provides an insight into the cell status and describes an actual health condition of organisms. Analysis of metabolome offers a unique opportunity to study the influence of genetic variation, disease, applied treatment or diet on endogenous metabolic state of organisms. There are many areas that might benefit from metabolomic research. In the article some applications of this novel "omic" technology in the field of medical sciences are presented. One of the most popular aims of metabolomic studies is biomarker discovery. Despite using the state-of-art analytical techniques along with advanced bioinformatic tools, metabolomic experiments encounter numerous difficulties and pitfalls. Challenges that researchers in the field of analysis of metabolome have to face include i.a., technical limitations, bioinformatic challenges and integration with other "omic" sciences. One of the grand challenges for studies in the field of metabolomics is to tackle the problem of data analysis, which is probably the most time consuming stage of metabolomic workflow and requires close collaboration between analysts, clinicians and experts in chemometric analysis. Implementation of metabolomics into clinical practice will be dependent on establishment of standardized protocols in analytical performance and data analysis and development of fit-for-purpose biomarker method validation. Metabolomics allows to achieve a sophisticated level of information about biological systems and opens up new perspectives in many fields of medicine, especially in oncology. Apart from its extensive cognitive significance, metabolomics manifests also a practical importance as it may lead to design of new non-invasive, sensitive and specific diagnostic techniques and development of new therapies. PMID:26647618

  16. Causes of academic failure of medical and medical sciences students in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Sheida; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Fata, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Academic failure of medical and medical sciences students is one of the major problems of higher education centers in many countries. This study aims to collect and compare relevant researches in this field in Iran. Methods: The appropriate keywords were searched in the national and international databases, and the findings were categorized into related and non-related articles accordingly. Results: Only 22 articles were included in this systematic review. In terms of content analysis, gender, living in a dorm, employment, marital status, age, special rights in the entrance exams, the time lag between diploma and university, diploma average, learning style, being nonnative students, being a transferred student, psychological problems, occupation of the mother, salary level, diploma type, field of study, self-esteem, exam anxiety and interest on the field of study were considered as the influential factors for academic failure of the students. Conclusion: This systematic review shows that there is no definite academic failure criterion. It is also suggested Iranian researchers should pay more attention on the documentation of the higher educational strategies that have been implemented to prevent avoidable academic failure and contain physiological academic failure. PMID:26913265

  17. Safecast: How disaster led to empowerment of crowdsourced citizen science for radiation measurement and communication after Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Azby; Franken, Peter; Bonner, Sean; Moross, Joe; Dolezal, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Safecast, an international, volunteer-based organization devoted to monitoring and openly sharing information on environmental radiation and other pollutants, was initiated on March 12, 2011, one day following the start of the Fukushima Daichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, in response to the lack of publicly available, accurate and trustworthy information about the spread of radioactive fallout. Since its inception, Safecast has grown in size, scope, and geographical reach, as well as in the technical sophistication of its citizen-science-based hardware and software systems. The focus of the group's work is to provide citizens worldwide with the tools they need to inform themselves by gathering and sharing accurate environmental data, in an open and participatory fashion. This effort combines hardware and software design for original radiation and air quality measurement devices; visualizations which are made available online and as applications for mobile and desktop; strong public outreach and education programs; and open forums for discussion of radiation, air pollution, and other hazards. The Safecast system is agile and flexible in terms of development and deployment, and all designs, software programs, and data is provided on an open-source basis. In addition, because the group takes no public stance either for or against nuclear power, it has become an important unbiased source of information regarding radiation risks. The Fukushima Daichi NPP disaster provided a crucial opportunity to evaluate the state of preparation on the part the powerplant operator, government agencies, and international oversight bodies, to gather necessary information on radiation risks quickly and to share it both with emergency responders and the general public. The inadequacy of this preparation and the chaotic nature of inter-agency and inter-governmental communication has been well noted in several official reports on the disaster, including those issued by The National Diet of

  18. Library and Information Science Education for the New Medical Environment and the Age of Integrated Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlefsen, Ellen Gay

    1993-01-01

    Reviews factors that are changing ways in which medical librarians and health information specialists are educated. Employment sites for medical librarians are listed; current faculty and coursework at library and information science programs in the United States and Canada are discussed; doctoral research is described; and medical informatics is…

  19. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Biological and Medical Sciences Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Four papers on biological and medical sciences libraries were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. "Activities and Services of Medical Libraries in Japan--Past, Present, and Future" (Kazuo Urata and Toshinobu Suga, Japan) discusses the inauguration of the Japan Medical Library Association…

  20. [Various necessary steps in clarification of relationships between health care science, medical science and nursing science].

    PubMed

    Barbosa da Silva, A

    1991-01-01

    The article asserts that a scientific discipline is defined by both its object of research or knowledge (domain) and its specific or adequate method. An appropriate definition should fulfill other necessary conditions implicit in certain fundamental rules of definition, e.g., a definition should not be too narrow or too broad. It should also respect well established uses of language, in which the concept to be defined may already have a given meaning. In Scandinavia there are three words used for the Science of Health Care. "Vårdvetenskap" e.g., is used both in Sweden and Finland. In Finland it is used to convey the view that care is essential to Man, and a holistic concept of Man/Health. So demarcated, Vårdvetenskapen complements Medicine which ontologically reduces Man to biochemistry and sickness to disease. To fulfill this function the Science of health Care should be humanistic and interdisciplinary, and not purely empirico-positivistic like Medicine. PMID:1842325

  1. How Robust are Science-Based Disaster Preparedness Strategies? Lessons from Western Sumatra (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; McDowell, S.

    2009-12-01

    Forecasts of the next likely megathrust earthquake which will occur off the western coast of Sumatra, possibly in the near future, indicate that it will likely be tsunamigenic and could be more devastating than the 2004 event. Hundreds of simulations of potential earthquakes and their tsunamis show that, while the earthquake is fundamentally unpredictable, many scenarios would see dangerous inundation of low-lying areas along the west coast of Sumatra; the cities of Padang and Bengkulu broadside-on to the areas of highest seismic potential have a combined population of over one million. Understanding how the science of unpredictable, high probability events is absorbed by society is essential for the development of effective mitigation and preparedness campaigns. A five month field investigation conducted in Padang and Bengkulu aimed to conceptualise the main issues driving risk perception of tsunami hazard, and explore its influence upon preparedness. Of specific interest was the role of scientifically quantified hazard information upon risk perception and hazard preparedness. Target populations were adult community members (n=270) and senior high school students (n=90). Preliminary findings indicate that scientific knowledge of earthquake and tsunami threat amongst respondents in both cities is good. However the relationship between respondent’s hazard knowledge, desired risk perception, and the adoption of preparedness measures was often non-linear and is susceptible to the negative effects of unscientific forecasts disseminated by government and mass media. Evidence suggests that ‘mystic’ predictions often portrayed in the media as being scientific, have been readily absorbed by the public; when these fail to materialise the credibility of authentic science and scientists plummets. As a result levels of sustainable earthquake and tsunami preparedness measures adopted by those living in tsunami threatened areas can be detrimentally impacted. It is

  2. Disaster Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Constance

    Most librarians know the importance of disaster preparedness. Many disasters could have been prevented altogether or have had reduced impact if institutions had been better prepared. This resource guide suggests how disaster preparedness can be achieved at cultural institutions. Twenty-three basic resource articles are presented to introduce…

  3. The Role of Citizen Science in Risk Mitigation and Disaster Response: A Case Study of 2015 Nepalese Earthquake Using OpenStreetMap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen science includes networks of ordinary people acting as sensors, observing and recording information for science. OpenStreetMap is one such sensor network which empowers citizens to collaboratively produce a global picture from free geographic information. The success of this open source software is extended by the development of freely used open databases for the user community. Participating citizens do not require a high level of skill. Final results are processed by professionals following quality assurance protocols before map information is released. OpenStreetMap is not only the cheapest source of timely maps in many cases but also often the only source. This is particularly true in developing countries. Emergency responses to the recent earthquake in Nepal illustrates the value for rapidly updated geographical information. This includes emergency management, damage assessment, post-disaster response, and future risk mitigation. Local disaster conditions (landslides, road closings, bridge failures, etc.) were documented for local aid workers by citizen scientists working remotely. Satellites and drones provide digital imagery of the disaster zone and OpenStreetMap participants shared the data from locations around the globe. For the Nepal earthquake, OpenStreetMap provided a team of volunteers on the ground through their Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) which contribute data to the disaster response through smartphones and laptops. This, combined with global citizen science efforts, provided immediate geographically useful maps to assist aid workers, including the Red Cross and Canadian DART Team, and the Nepalese government. As of August 2014, almost 1.7 million users provided over 2.5 billion edits to the OpenStreetMap map database. Due to the increased usage of smartphones, GPS-enabled devices, and the growing participation in citizen science projects, data gathering is proving an effective way to contribute as a global citizen. This paper

  4. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

  5. Using Comprehensive Science-based Disaster Scenarios to Support Seismic Safety Policy: A Case Study in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, the USGS entered a technical assistance agreement with the City of Los Angeles to apply the results of the 2008 ShakeOut Scenario of a M7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault to develop a comprehensive plan to increase the seismic resilience of the City. The results of this project are to be submitted to the Mayor of Los Angeles at the Great ShakeOut on October 16, 2014. The ShakeOut scenario detailed how the expected cascade of failures in a big earthquake could lead to significant delays in disaster recovery that could create financial losses that greatly exceed the direct losses in the event. The goal of the seismic resilience plan is to: protect the lives of residents during earthquakes improve the capacity of the City to respond to the earthquake prepare the City to recover quickly after the earthquake so as to protect the economy of the City and all of southern California To accomplish these goals, the project addresses three areas of seismic vulnerability that were identified in the original ShakeOut Scenario: Pre-1980 buildings that present an unacceptable risk to the lives of residents, including "non-ductile reinforced concrete," and "soft-first-story" buildings Water system infrastructure (including impact on firefighting capability) Communications infrastructure The critical science needed to support policy decisions is to understand the probable consequences to the regional long-term economy caused by decisions to undertake (or not) different levels of mitigation. The arguments against mitigation are the immediate financial costs, so a better understanding of the eventual benefit is required. However, the direct savings rarely justify the mitigation costs, so the arguments in favor of mitigation are driven by the potential for cascading failures and the potential to trigger the type of long term reduction in population and economic activity that has occurred in New Orleans since Hurricane Katrina.

  6. Recovery and resilience after a nuclear power plant disaster: a medical decision model for managing an effective, timely, and balanced response.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Blumenthal, Daniel J; Casto, Charles A; Alfant, Michael; Simon, Steven L; Remick, Alan L; Gepford, Heather J; Bowman, Thomas; Telfer, Jana L; Blumenthal, Pamela M; Noska, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Resilience after a nuclear power plant or other radiation emergency requires response and recovery activities that are appropriately safe, timely, effective, and well organized. Timely informed decisions must be made, and the logic behind them communicated during the evolution of the incident before the final outcome is known. Based on our experiences in Tokyo responding to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant crisis, we propose a real-time, medical decision model by which to make key health-related decisions that are central drivers to the overall incident management. Using this approach, on-site decision makers empowered to make interim decisions can act without undue delay using readily available and high-level scientific, medical, communication, and policy expertise. Ongoing assessment, consultation, and adaption to the changing conditions and additional information are additional key features. Given the central role of health and medical issues in all disasters, we propose that this medical decision model, which is compatible with the existing US National Response Framework structure, be considered for effective management of complex, large-scale, and large-consequence incidents. PMID:24618164

  7. Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Achora, Susan; Kamanyire, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed. PMID:26909207

  8. Basic biomedical sciences and the future of medical education: implications for internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Brass, Eric P

    2009-11-01

    The academic model of medical education in the United States is facing substantial challenges. Apprenticeship experiences with clinical faculty are increasingly important in most medical schools and residency programs. This trend threatens to separate clinical education from the scientific foundations of medical practice. Paradoxically, this devaluation of biomedical science is occurring as the ability to use new discoveries to rationalize clinical decision making is rapidly expanding. Understanding the scientific foundations of medical practice and the ability to apply them in the care of patients separates the physician from other health care professionals. The de-emphasis of biomedical science in medical education poses particular dangers for the future of internal medicine as the satisfaction derived from the application of science to the solving of a clinical problem has been a central attraction of the specialty. Internists should be engaged in the ongoing discussions of medical education reform and provide a strong voice in support of rigorous scientific training for the profession. PMID:19882372

  9. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Medical Sciences Division report for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, F.; Poston, S.; Engle, J.

    1995-08-01

    The primary mission of the Medical Sciences Division is (1) to conduct basic and applied biomedical research on human health related to energy systems, (2) to provide technical assistance and training in occupational and environmental medicine, and (3) to make related biomedical applications available to others through technology transfer. As can be gleaned from this report, the strengths and capabilities of their staff in carrying out this mission are closely aligned with the four core competencies of ORISE: (1) occupational and environmental health, (2) environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, (3) education and training, and (4) enabling research. Brief descriptions of the various scientific and technical programs and their progress, as well as the staff responsible for the accomplishments made during 1994, are presented in this report. Research programs include the following: biochemistry; cytogenetics; Center for Epidemiologic Research; Center for Human Reliability Studies; occupational medicine; Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site; and Radiation Internal Dose Information Center.

  10. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-01-01

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard. PMID:23852849

  11. Emergency Nurses’ Requirements for Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Abbasi Dolatabadi, Zahra; Rajabifard, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters affect people, communities, and health systems. Nurses play a key role in the health system and must be prepared for appropriate response in disasters. Objectives: This study was done to assess the current knowledge of nurses in emergency departments for disaster preparedness. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Based on the findings, most of the participants (64.5%) were aged 30 - 39 years old. 84% of the cases were female and 97.3% had a bachelor’s degree. The average perceived knowledge of nurses was 2.43 ± 1.01. The nurses had the highest familiarity with triage and lowest knowledge in epidemiology and decision-making. Conclusions: Lack knowledge of nurses regarding response to disaster situations indicates inefficiencies in the current system. Therefore, it is recommended to organize more workshops, annual training courses, and maneuvers based on staff needs and formulate continuous education courses for nurses. PMID:26839868

  12. ASTER and USGS EROS emergency imaging for hurricane disasters: Chapter 4D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Satellite images have been extremely useful in a variety of emergency response activities, including hurricane disasters. This article discusses the collaborative efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Joint United States-Japan Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in responding to crisis situations by tasking the ASTER instrument and rapidly providing information to initial responders. Insight is provided on the characteristics of the ASTER systems, and specific details are presented regarding Hurricane Katrina support.

  13. NCI and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Sign Statement of Intent

    Cancer.gov

    Today the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Cancer Institute/Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CICAMS) signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal

  14. E-DECIDER: Using Earth Science Data and Modeling Tools to Develop Decision Support for Earthquake Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, Margaret T.; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon E.; Yoder, Mark R.; Parker, Jay W.; Burl, Michael C.; Stough, Timothy M.; Granat, Robert A.; Donnellan, Andrea; Rundle, John B.; Ma, Yu; Bawden, Gerald W.; Yuen, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing new capabilities for decision making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. E-DECIDER incorporates the earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools allows us to provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). This in turn is delivered through standards-compliant web services for desktop and hand-held devices.

  15. How much can disaster and climate science contribute to loss and damage mechanisms in international climate policy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian; Allen, Simon; Eicken, Hajo; Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí

    2015-04-01

    proposals for mechanisms of financing suggested a role of causation and thus attribution of L&D to (anthropogenic) climate change. Yet, causation mechanisms are particularly delicate in terms of climate justice, development and implications of legal liabilities. Here, we outline potential contributions of science to L&D mechanisms in greater specificity, in particular for (i) threshold based mechanisms, and (ii) causation related mechanisms. We draw on recent concepts of L&D attribution suggesting a more comprehensive attribution framework based on risk concepts. We present a first-order proof-of-concept for the above mechanisms (i) and (ii), using case studies of recent disasters (both related to extreme events and gradual climate change) in the Indian Himalayas, Colombia, Alaska and Australia. We analyze whether science is in a position to substantially contribute to the different L&D policy proposals, including the question whether currently available data and datasets on climate and hazards, exposure and vulnerability are in line with such support, in particular with regards to developing country contexts. We conclude with a perspective on critical research and data needs to further strengthen L&D science and policy.

  16. [Academy of medical sciences during the Great Patriotic War and first years after war].

    PubMed

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2014-06-01

    In the article presented the history of foundation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and its activities during the World War Two and the early postwar years. According to the authors, the scientific development of many fundamental problems from domestic medicine experience during the war has retained its relevance in solving of the contemporary issues in health and medical science in modern Russia. PMID:25286578

  17. Advanced medical countermeasures for radiological accidents and nuclear disasters: prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and pre- and post-exposure management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.

  18. Competition in Bio-Medical Science: Extent, Structure, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Daniel

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the degree to which competition exists in science professions. Suggests that competition varies with age and location of the scientist and that it can lead to an increase of secretive behavior among scientists, which, in turn, may represent a cost for science and for society. (Author/DB)

  19. A Podiatric Medical Residency Program in an Academic Health Science Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogy, Louis T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The podiatric medical residency program in the Health Science Center at San Antonio provides an intensive exposure for the newly graduated podiatrist to practice in a multidisciplinary environment. Residents become more familiar with general medical and surgical diseases and disorders as well as podiatric pathology. (LBH)

  20. Inspiring Careers in STEM and Healthcare Fields through Medical Simulation Embedded in High School Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…

  1. The Dilemma of Medical Curriculum Innovation for the University Basic Science Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, William B., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    In his address to the Council of Academic Societies at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Medical Colleges in Cincinnati, Ohio, November 1969, author re-examines the advantages and disadvantages of a basic science department that is exclusively a medical school department. (IR)

  2. Nuremberg lamentation: for the forgotten victims of medical science.

    PubMed Central

    Seidelman, W. E.

    1996-01-01

    Fifty years after the Nuremberg medical trial there remain many unanswered questions about the role of the German medical profession during the Third Reich. Other than the question of human experimentation, important ethical challenges arising from medicine in Nazi Germany which have continuing relevance were not addressed at Nuremberg. The underlying moral question is that of the exercise of professional power and its impact on vulnerable people seeking medical care. Sensitisation to the obligations of professional power may be achieved by an annual commemoration and lament to the memory of the victims of medical abuse which would serve as a recurring reminder of the physician's vulnerability and fallibility. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:8973236

  3. Natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Cullen, J M

    1980-09-01

    This presentation covers the various types of natural disasters which are faced by investigators throughout the world. Each geophysical substance is discussed, including earth, air and water, and secondary effects including fire. Additionally, four myths associated with disasters are reviewed. PMID:7234811

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Self-Medication Among Basic Science Undergraduate Medical Students in a Medical School in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P Ravi; Poudel, Phanindra Prasad; Saha, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown self-medication to be common among medical students. These studies are however, few in Nepal. The present study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medication among second and fourth semesters’ undergraduate medical students and studied differences in knowledge and attitude (if any) among different subgroups of the respondents. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire among basic science medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Nepal. Semester of study, gender, age, nationality, and the profession of their parents were noted. Students’ knowledge and attitude about self-medication was studied by noting their degree of agreement with a set of 40 statements using a Likert-type scale. The average scores and frequency of occurrence of particular behaviors among different categories of respondents were compared using appropriate statistical tests. Results Two hundred and seventy-six of the 295 (93.6%) students participated. The mean (SD) knowledge, attitude, and total scores were 74.54 (6.92), 67.18 (5.68), and 141.73 (10.76) with maximum possible scores 100, 100 and 200, respectively. There was no significant difference in scores according to respondents’ gender, age, and the profession of their parents. However, the mean knowledge, attitude and total scores were significantly different among students of different nationalities. Mean scores of fourth semester students were significantly higher compared to second semester students. There were differences in knowledge and total scores among students of different nationalities. Eighty two percent of respondents had self-medicated during the one year period preceding the study; 149 respondents (54%) shared that previous experience with the medicine was one of the information sources for self-medication. Prevalence of self-medication among respondents according to semester of study, gender, age, and profession of

  5. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  6. The role of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in medical science.

    PubMed

    Amiri, S; Shokrollahi, H

    2013-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing and promises that the substantial changes that will have significant economic and scientific impacts be applicable to a wide range of areas, such as aerospace engineering, nano-electronics, environmental remediation and medical healthcare. In this area, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been regarded as one of the competitive candidates because of their suitable physical, chemical and magnetic properties like the high anisotropy constant, high coercivity and high Curie temperature, moderate saturation magnetization and ease of synthesis. This paper introduces the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and some medical applications, including the hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic separation and drug delivery of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. PMID:25428034

  7. Disciplining Medicine: Science and the Rhetoric of Medical Education Reform in Britain, 1770-1858

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Pollei, Kimberly A.

    In Britain, medical education evolved significantly between roughly 1770 and 1858. The doctrines established by medical teachers in the late eighteenth century not only revised or overturned received theories of disease, physiology, and therapeutics, but also entailed new approaches to instruction. Though this educational reform process met some resistance, by the mid-nineteenth century, the new scientific perspective had displaced the traditional humanistic paradigm in medical pedagogy. In Britain, this evolution was initiated in Scotland, where its leading medical teachers would gain considerable fame for championing a new science-based educational curriculum. A contribution to the fields of rhetoric of medicine and rhetoric of science, this study investigates the rhetorical demarcation of the medical discipline in Britain during the years of medical education reform. It draws attention to how the medical discipline evolved and transformed between these years, ultimately defining itself as a science. Focusing on documents addressed to questions of pedagogical method, curricular emphases, and doctrinal disputes, this study identifies the chief arguments, assumptions, and aspirations that motivated and justified innovations in the teaching of medicine at specific British institutions and promoted broader, sweeping reform of the whole system of British medical education. The analysis of these texts highlights the complexities of medical education reform in Britain, and the diverse perspectives that coalesced to shape medical education in new ways. Moreover, these discourses serve as historical markers for how the medical discipline was (re)shaped scientifically. Finally, this study contends that disciplines are most apparently shaped through what is taught, and to understand the rhetoric of disciplinarity in British medical education reform, one must understand the history of its teaching practices.

  8. Research in Medical Education: Balancing Service and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures"…

  9. Corporate Disguises in Medical Science: Dodging the Interest Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Roughly 40% of the sizeable medical research and literature on recently approved drugs is "ghost managed" by the pharmaceutical industry and its agents. Research is performed and articles are written by companies and their agents, though apparently independent academics serve as authors on the publications. Similarly, the industry hires academic…

  10. A physician and a man of science: patients, physicians, and diseases in Marcello Malpighi's medical practice.

    PubMed

    Bresadola, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Marcello Malpighi (1628-94), the celebrated Italian anatomist, was also a very successful physician and, as his correspondence indicates, medical consultant by post. This article focuses on the professional and social network that developed around Malpighi's medical activity. The network played a major role in promoting Malpighi's professional career and in disseminating his scientific ideas. Malpighi's medical practice was indeed fully integrated within his views of the structure and functioning of the human body in health and disease. A fresh look into Malpighi's medical practice allows us to get new insights into early modern relations among medicine, the new science, and the identity of physicians. PMID:21804183

  11. Tsunami: response to a disaster.

    PubMed

    Danschutter, Dirk R G

    2005-12-01

    On December 26, 2004, a devastating earthquake occurred in the Indian Ocean very near to Sumatra's coast. The Belgian Association for Pediatrics assembled a medical team of 30 volunteers from 4 hospitals to assist with disaster relief. They traveled to Indonesia, set up a rudimentary care facility, and worked with teams from many countries. In a disaster situation, critically ill children who require mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, perish for lack of equipment or adequate follow-up care. Disaster teams are told to focus on surgery, infected wounds, dehydration, and oral rehydration. This article tells one story of disaster relief efforts and proposes an established team of pediatricians to respond to disaster situations in the future. PMID:16344216

  12. Chemistry - the lingua franca of the medical and biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Kornberg, A

    1996-01-01

    Despite a large cultural difference between chemists and biologists, chemistry is becoming the common language for all the biological sciences. Now the challenge is to teach the language of scientific achievement to the public and to our representatives in Washington. PMID:8807820

  13. Sleep Hygiene Practices and Their Relation to Sleep Quality in Medical Students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Zohreh; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Moghaddam, Parichehr; Jalilolghadr, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Poor quality of sleep is a distressing and worrying condition that can disturb academic performance of medical students. Sleep hygiene practices are one of the important variables that affect sleep quality. The objective of this study was to assess association between sleep hygiene practices and sleep quality of medical students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods:In this descriptive-correlational study, a total of 285 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Demographic data, sleep-wake schedule in weekday and weekend, and sleep duration were collected. Students' sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver 13. Results: Overall, 164 (57.5) of students had poor sleep quality. Mean global PSQI score and average score of four subscales were significantly higher in male than female. Regression analysis showed that male students (β=-0.85, P<0.05), students at senior level (β=-0.81, P<0.05), married students (β=-0.45, P<0.05), and those with improper sleep hygiene practices slept worse. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality in medical students is high. Improper sleep hygiene behaviors might be a reason for poor quality of sleep in medical students. PMID:27354979

  14. Updates on disaster preparedness and progress in disaster relief.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Andrew N; Born, Christopher T; Kamal, Robin N; Adashi, Eli Y

    2012-01-01

    Immediately after the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, many private citizens, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and medical associations struggled to mount an effective humanitarian aid response. The experiences of these groups have led to changes at their institutions regarding disaster preparedness and response to future events. One of the main challenges in a humanitarian medical response to a disaster is determining when to end response efforts and return responsibility for delivery of medical care back to the host nation. For such a transition to occur, the host nation must have the capacity to deliver medical care. In Haiti, minimal capacity to deliver such care existed before the earthquake, making subsequent transition difficult. If successful, several initiatives proposed to improve disaster response and increase surgical capacity in Haiti could be deployed to other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22865138

  15. Images of health and medical science conveyed by television

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Ruth

    1984-01-01

    Content analysis was carried out on medical programmes on BBC television over a three-month period. Television medical programmes were shown to concentrate on hospital-based, technological and expert-dependent issues at the expense of primary care and community health. Images of technology, the hospital and the hospital specialist were found to predominate. Issues such as the family, preventive care, housing and the environment were rarely raised. Doctors appeared and spoke in 94 per cent of programmes, whereas nurses were seen (although not necessarily heard) in 30 per cent. Of 70 doctors interviewed on television, nearly three quarters were hospital doctors or scientists. Only one doctor was explicitly referred to as a general practitioner. PMID:6747932

  16. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act. PMID:20648253

  17. Pre-Medical Education in the Physical Sciences for Tomorrow's Physicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    Medical knowledge is being transformed by instrumentation advances and by research results including genomic and population level studies; at the same time, though, the premedical curriculum is constrained by a relatively unchanging overall content in the MCAT examination, which inhibits innovation on undergraduate science education. A committee convened jointly by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute has examined the science and mathematics competencies that the graduating physician will need, and has asked which of these should be achieved during undergraduate study. The recommendations emphasize competency -- what the learner should be able to ``do'' at the end of the learning experience -- rather than dictating specific courses. Because the scientific content of modern medical practice is evolving, new science competencies are desirable for the entering medical student. An example is statistics, an increasingly prominent foundation for database and genomic analysis but which is not yet uniformly recommended as preparation for medical school. On the other hand, the committee believes that the value of a broad liberal arts education is enduring, and science coursework should not totally consume a premedical student's time. Thus if we recommend new areas of science and mathematics competency for pre-meds, we must find other areas that can be trimmed or combined. Indeed, at present there are some science topics mandated for premedical study, which may not be essential. For these reasons, the committee aims to state premedical recommendations in ways that can be met either through traditional disciplinary courses, or through innovative and/or interdisciplinary courses. Finally, we acknowledge that practice of medicine requires grounding in scientific principles and knowledge and in the practice of critical inquiry. These principles may be learned and practiced in undergraduate study through work in the physical

  18. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Benjamin E; Goldenberg, Neil M; Fairn, Gregory D; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Lee, Warren L

    2016-02-01

    Explosive growth in our understanding of genomics and molecular biology have fueled calls for the pursuit of personalized medicine, the notion of harnessing biologic variability to provide patient-specific care. This vision will necessitate a deep understanding of the underlying pathophysiology in each patient. Medical journals play a pivotal role in the education of trainees and clinicians, yet we suspected that the amount of basic science in the top medical journals has been in decline. We conducted an automated search strategy in PubMed to identify basic science articles and calculated the proportion of articles dealing with basic science in the highest impact journals for 8 different medical specialties from 1994 to 2013. We observed a steep decline (40-60%) in such articles over time in almost all of the journals examined. This rapid decline in basic science from medical journals is likely to affect practitioners' understanding of and interest in the basic mechanisms of disease and therapy. In this Life Sciences Forum, we discuss why this decline may be occurring and what it means for the future of science and medicine. PMID:26467794

  19. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A among Students Enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rabiee, Anahita; Nikayin, Sina; Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Mohaghegh, Mostafa; Amini, Marzieh; Rabiee, Roozbeh; Merat, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hepatitis A is often asymptomatic in children, however it can become a serious disease in adults. For countries that do not have a universal vaccination strategy targeted vaccination for high risk groups is recommended. Health workers could be at a higher risk of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) compared to the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A among enrolled students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2011. METHODS This study included all students enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2011. We checked serum samples for anti-HAV antibody and participants completed a simple questionnaire. RESULTS From 1864 health sciences students enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1813 samples were analyzed for anti-HAV IgG antibody. The results showed that 970 (53.5%) were seronegative, 722 (39.8%) were seropositive, and 121 (6.7%) were equivocal. There were significantly higher seropositive results for males (54%) compared to females (37%; RR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.31-1.62). CONCLUSION The seroprevalence of HAV among enrolled medical science students is considerably lower than previous reports from Iran. Targeted vaccination for health sciences students prior to exposure should be seriously considered. PMID:24829683

  20. Trend of knowledge production of research centers in the field of medical sciences in iran.

    PubMed

    Falahat, K; Eftekhari, Mb; Habibi, E; Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M; Mojarrab, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science). Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country. PMID:23865017

  1. [Disaster psychiatry in late life].

    PubMed

    Awata, Shuichi

    2013-10-01

    Disaster preparedness in geriatric psychiatry was proposed on the basis of experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake. 1) Frail or demented elderly should be considered as a special population at risk for disaster victims and addressed in local disaster prevention programs. 2) To response to various psychiatric symptoms(delirium, BPSD, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) caused by medical conditions and rapid environmental changes due to disaster, linkage and coordination systems between psychiatric and medical sections should be established. 3) As a medium- and long-term support for the elderly who lost the community familiar to them, creation of a new community should be promoted in order to prevent depression, alcohol dependence, BPSD, and suicide. PMID:24261221

  2. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  3. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  4. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  5. Disaster Master

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels. But watch out! The wrong choice could end the game. Survive all 7 levels plus a turn in the hot seat and become a Disaster Master! Print ... 6 - Tsunami/Earthquake Level 7: Thunderstorm/Lightning ...

  6. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000: a cooperative health sciences library/public school information literacy program for medical assistant students.

    PubMed Central

    Spang, L; Marks, E; Adams, N

    1998-01-01

    Educating diverse groups in how to access, use, and evaluate information available through information technologies is emerging as an essential responsibility for health sciences librarians in today's complex health care system. One group requiring immediate attention is medical assistants. Projections indicate that medical assistant careers will be among the fastest growing occupations in the twenty-first century. The expanding use and importance of information in all health care settings requires that this workforce be well versed in information literacy skills. But, for public school vocational education staff charged with educating entry level workers to meet this specialized demand, the expense of hiring qualified professionals and acquiring the sophisticated technology necessary to teach such skills poses a dilemma. Health Sciences Information Tools 2000, a cooperative work-study information literacy program jointly formulated by the Wayne State University's Shiffman Medical Library and the Detroit Public Schools' Crockett Career and Technical Center, demonstrates that cooperation between the health sciences library and the public school is a mutually beneficial and constructive solution. This article describes the background, goals, curriculum, personnel, costs, and evaluation methods of Tools 2000. The Shiffman-Crockett information literacy program, adaptable to a variety of library settings, is an innovative means of preparing well-trained high school vocational education students for beginning level medical assistant positions as well as further education in the health care field. PMID:9803297

  7. [Bernardino Ramazzini's influence in medical science in the XVIII century].

    PubMed

    Marinozzi, S

    2010-01-01

    Neo-hippocratism consists in a rational and mechanic method to explain pathological phenomena and discover the causes of diseases. Bernardino Ramazzini uses Hippocratic empirical observation to investigate the relations between the alterations of the air--due to mephitic vapours, of organic and inorganic origin--and the development of pathological processes. His notion of corruption of the atmosphere as the origin of epidemics and specific diseases, and that of prevention as the main strategy of modern medicine, is developed in medical literature and in the Public Medicine projects of the end of the Seventeenth century. PMID:21438210

  8. Science and the education of physicians: Sigerist's contribution to American medical reform.

    PubMed

    Brickman, J P

    1994-01-01

    This paper seeks to place Henry E. Sigerist within a generation of American scientists who saw science as an intellectual bulwark against burgeoning fascism and nationalism. It responds to a recent critique of scientific positivism and the medical reform ethos of the 1930s and 1940s. Critics argue that faith in scientific medicine led health activists to choose medical care, guaranteed by insurance, rather than social reform. The paper focuses on the place Sigerist assigned to science in medicine and argues that his embrance of scientific medicine must be qualified by his historical perspective. Sigerist's singular contribution to the dialogue of medical reform came from his projection of an educational prototype that he believed might reconcile science with the imperatives of an industrial society. While embodying much of the spirit of reformers of the 1930s and 1940s, Sigerist also foreshadowed our own. PMID:8063896

  9. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  10. Medical science in ancient Indian culture with special reference to Atharvaveda.

    PubMed

    Narayana, A

    1995-01-01

    A high quality of Medical Knowledge was prevalent in ancient India. The present day Archaeological evidences of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa imparts the high civilization in matters of sanitation and hygiene. An analysis of the material in the Vedas reveals that, all the four Vedas replete the references regarding various aspects of medicine. The Atharva Veda is deemed to be an encyclopaedia for medicine "Interalia", and Ayurveda (the science of life) is considered as Upa Veda (supplementary subject) of the Atharva Veda. A few glimpses of medical Science as prevalent in the ancient India have been presented here. PMID:11618829

  11. Peer review and refereeing in medicine and medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Ajao, O G

    1997-09-01

    Every academic scientist will come into contact with peer review process either as a reviewer of others work, or as an author whose work is being reviewed by others, or as an applicant for research grant. Historically, peer review process came at various times to various journals for a variety of reasons in haphazard manner. Many forms of criticisms have been made against the process of peer review, and some critics do not believe that the process prevents the publication of flawed articles and fraudulent research. Despite the criticisms, there are advantages of peer review. At present in medical journalism peer review process is an indispensable entity for assessing manuscripts intended for publication. PMID:19864786

  12. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Tang, Bihan; Yang, Hongyang; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs), particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Methods: Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. Results: The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams. PMID:26690182

  13. Shaken but prepared: Analysis of disaster response at an academic medical centre following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Robert; Scanlon, Courtney; Jotwani, Rohan; Rodkey, Daniel; Arshanskiy, Maria; Salem, Deeb

    Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Tufts' unique variations to the Hospital Incident Command Center include strategic communication hierarchies and a 'zero cost centre' financial system which both provided for a quick and adaptive response. Operating in collaboration with the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals encouraged coordination and preparation during emergency situations such as mass casualty events. The direct and indirect effects on Tufts Medical Center stemming from the Boston Marathon Bombings were analysed. Tufts MC treated 36 victims immediately following the MCI. The estimated total cost during the week of April 15 to April 19, 2013 was $776,051. The cost was primarily comprised of lost revenue from cancelled outpatient and inpatient hospital services, as well as expenses incurred due to overtime pay, salary expenses, PPE kits and hospitality services. Finally, the authors examine ways to reduce the future costs during emergency situations through increasing communication with employees, understanding the source of all direct expenses, and mitigating excess risk by developing partnerships with other hospital systems. PMID:26642175

  14. A Journey in Science: Medical Scientist in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Göran K

    2014-01-01

    Real innovations in medicine and science are historic and singular; the stories behind each occurrence are precious. At Molecular Medicine we have established the Anthony Cerami Award in Translational Medicine to document and preserve these histories. The monographs recount the seminal events as told in the voice of the original investigators who provided the crucial early insight. These essays capture the essence of discovery, chronicling the birth of ideas that created new fields of research; and launched trajectories that persisted and ultimately influenced how disease is prevented, diagnosed and treated. In this volume, the Cerami Award Monograph is by Göran K Hansson, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institute. A visionary in the field of cardiovascular research, this is the story of Dr. Hansson’s scientific journey. PMID:25356751

  15. Information and its role in medical and pharmaceutical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassa, Manabu

    This is a record of the lecture at the Lecturer Meeting for Scientific and Technical Information, which was held as one of the events of Science and Technology Week in 1989. Lecturer explains how the scientific information takes part in research and how researchers make use of it, based on his own experience. He states that the information is especially important in R & D and creative research, by showing the case of studies in the chironomidmidges as an example. Referring to the researches being conducted outside of large cities, he states that online service have eliminated the regional differences in obtaining scientific information and gave researchers much more time for carring out their own research works. Finally, he expects that floppy disk will become popular as one of the information media in the future.

  16. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters. PMID:22235598

  17. The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9803287

  18. The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9578936

  19. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

  20. Mold After a Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Disaster Mold Removal After a Disaster Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  1. A strategic plan for disaster medicine in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Bradt, David A; Abraham, Ken; Franks, Rodney

    2003-06-01

    Disaster epidemiology reveals epidemic increases in incidence of disasters. Rare disasters with catastrophic consequences also threaten modern populations. This paper profiles natural disasters, transportation incidents, emerging infectious diseases, complex disasters and terrorism for their historical and future potential impact on Australasia. Emergency physicians are in a position to assume leadership roles within the disaster management community in Australasia. The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine is in a position to lead medical specialty advances in disaster medicine in Australasia. To optimize its impact in disaster medicine, the specialty and its College have opportunities for advances in key areas of College administration, intra and interinstitutional representation, disaster preparedness and planning, disaster relief operations, education and training programs, applied clinical research, and faculty development. PMID:12786649

  2. Students’ perceptions of the academic learning environment in seven medical sciences courses based on DREEM

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshialiabad, Hamid; Bakhshi, Mohammadhosien; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Learning environment has a significant role in determining students’ academic achievement and learning. The aim of this study is to investigate the viewpoints of undergraduate medical sciences students on the learning environment using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) at Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences (RUMS). Methods The descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 493 medical sciences students in the following majors: nursing, midwifery, radiology, operating room nursing, laboratory sciences, medical emergency, and anesthesia. The DREEM questionnaire was used as a standard tool. Data were analyzed using SPSS (v17) software. Student’s t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests were used. Results The mean of the achieved scores in the five domains was 113.5 out of 200 (56.74%), which was considered to be more positive than negative. The total mean scores for perception of learning, teaching, and atmosphere were 27.4/48 (57.24%), 24.60/44 (55.91%), and 26.8/48 (55.89%), respectively. Academic and social self-perceptions were 20.5/32 (64.11%) and 15.7/28 (56.36%), respectively. The total DREEM scores varied significantly between courses (P<0.01). The total scores of the students of operating room nursing, anesthesia, and laboratory sciences, first year students, and females were significantly higher than the other students (P<0.01). Conclusion The results have suggested that the students of medical sciences courses at RUMS generally hold positive perceptions toward their course environment. The differences between courses and their study pathway should be further investigated by analysis of specific items. Our results showed that it is essential for faculty members and course managers to make more efforts toward observing principles of instructional designs, to create an appropriate educational environment, and to reduce deficits in order to provide a better learning environment with more facilities

  3. Documentation of Medical Records in Hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2014: a Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni; Asgari, Zolaykha; Siamian, Hasan; Farahabadi, Ebrahim Bagherian; Gorji, Alimorad Heidari; Motamed, Nima; Fallahkharyeki, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Documentation of patient care in medical record formats is always emphasized. These documents are used as a means to go on treating the patients, staff in their own defense, assessment, care, any legal proceedings and medical science education. Therefore, in this study, each of the data elements available in patients’ records are important and filling them indicates the importance put by the documenting teams, so it has been dealt with the documentation the patient records in the hospitals of Mazandaran province. Method: This cross-sectional study aimed to review medical records in 16 hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MazUMS). In order to collection data, a check list was prepared based on the data elements including four forms of the admission, summary, patients’ medical history and progress note. The data recording was defined as “Yes” with the value of 1, lack of recording was defined as “No” with the value of 2, and “Not applied” with the value of 0 for the cases in which the mentioned variable medical records are not applied. Results: The overall evaluation of the documentation was considered as 95-100% equal to “good”, 75-94% equal to “average” and below -75% equal to “poor”. Using the stratified random sample volume formula, 381 cases were reviewed. The data were analyzed by the SPSS version 19 and descriptive statistics. Results: The results showed that %62 of registration and all the four forms were in the “poor” category. There was no big difference in average registration among the hospitals. Among the educational groups Gynecology and Infectious were equal and had the highest average of documentation of %68. In the data categories, the highest documentation average belonged to the verification, %91. Conclusion: According to the overall assessment in which the rate of documentation was in the category “week”, we should make much more efforts to reach better conditions. Even if a data

  4. 76 FR 11801 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology... Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics... Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96, Special Minority...

  5. 78 FR 13364 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Systems Biology Grant Applications. Date: March 19, 2013. Time: 8... Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access...

  6. 76 FR 10038 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, PSI Biology... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and... and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96,...

  7. Medical Simulation in the Community College Health Science Curriculum: A Matrix for Future Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Michael P.; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos

    2010-01-01

    As the nation's healthcare education system struggles to keep pace with the demand for its services, educators are seeking creative and innovative solutions to meet the needs of a growing number of students. The integration of medical simulation technology into the community college health science curriculum is a creative solution that can meet…

  8. Situation analysis of local ethical committees in medical sciences in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakour, Yousef; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Haghighi, Zohre; Mehr, Najmeh Khosravan; Hejazi, Farzaneh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local ethical committees in medical sciences in Iran were established in 1999 in order to assess and evaluate the observance of ethical standards throughout the universities and research centers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation of local ethical committees in order to develop research ethics guideline. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study which has been conducted with the support of WHO, 40 local ethical committees in all universities of medical sciences were evaluated by use of determined questionnaires. RESULTS: In this study, 40 universities of medical sciences participated; all of them have established local ethical committees. Each committee has 5 to 11 members and in more than 80% cases, written guidelines for selecting the committee's members are available. The minimum number of members for official session is at least 3 and replacement of absent members, did not take place in more than 85% of the committees. Informed consent in 95% of these local ethical committees is available. In all committees, researches regarding the use of human subjects are under ethical consideration. In half of the local ethical committees, penalties for non-compliance with the regulations are considered. The average number of research project evaluated in last session of these committees was 15.2 and the committees in 50% of cases have provided ethics training specifically for their members. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers should develop a standard guideline for local ethical committees in medical science universities in Iran. PMID:22091250

  9. 78 FR 39741 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  10. 76 FR 32979 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended... Register on May 25, 2011, 76 FR 30370. The meeting date has been changed to June 16, 2011, 8 a.m. to...

  11. 77 FR 64812 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  12. 76 FR 3918 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended... published in the Federal Register on December 20, 2010, 75 FR 79386. The open session of the meeting,...

  13. 76 FR 14672 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  14. 75 FR 4408 - National Institute Of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  15. 76 FR 29773 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  16. 77 FR 31862 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ..., Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group Biomedical Research and Research Training Review Subcommittee B. Date: June 21, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m....

  17. 75 FR 43180 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  18. 78 FR 13689 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  19. An Academic Career in a Basic Medical Science Department of Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Thomas M.

    1981-01-01

    The availability of opportunities and the development of an academic career in a physiology department within a medical school or basic science department by graduates and postgraduates who intend to participate in physiology on a full-time basis are discussed, emphasizing typical background and job responsibilities. (Author/DC)

  20. 76 FR 10911 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Research...

  1. 76 FR 60059 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Research...

  2. 78 FR 67374 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the...

  3. Developing a Career Development Program for Medical Sciences Students: Reflecting "In" and "On" Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocodia, Ebinepre A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a reflective practice approach this paper provides an outline of the development of a new career development and counselling program for students within a medical sciences off-campus precinct. Drawing on Schön's (1983) reflective practice framework the aim included reflecting "in" and "on" action during the development…

  4. Science Writers as Characterized in Medical Journals: What Are Physicians Saying about Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Cheryl A.

    1998-01-01

    Assesses opinions of physicians regarding science writers by examining the public record in two periodicals. States that in the past 15 years, 34 opinion pieces have been written, consisting of editorials and letters to the editor. Finds that physicians are mostly concerned with timing and content of medical news, particularly violations of the…

  5. The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

  6. An Update on the Status of Anatomical Sciences Education in United States Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Curricular changes continue at United States medical schools and directors of gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses continue to adjust and modify their offerings. Developing and supplying data related to current trends in anatomical sciences education is important if informed decisions are going to…

  7. 78 FR 25281 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... include the name, address, telephone number and, when applicable, the business or professional affiliation... Biological Chemistry Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 24, 2013. Melanie J. Gray... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice...

  8. 77 FR 47857 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... include the name, address, telephone number, and when applicable, the business or professional affiliation... Biological Chemistry Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 6, 2012. Anna P. Snouffer... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice...

  9. 77 FR 76059 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... include the name, address, telephone number and when applicable, the business or professional affiliation... Biological Chemistry Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 17, 2012. Melanie J. Gray... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice...

  10. 78 FR 50427 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... include the name, address, telephone number and, when applicable, the business or professional affiliation... Biological Chemistry Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 13, 2013. Melanie J. Gray... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice...

  11. 78 FR 77472 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... include the name, address, telephone number and, when applicable, the business or professional affiliation... available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.859, Biomedical Research and Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice...

  12. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

  13. Dissemination of Medical Information: Organizational and Technological Issues in Health Sciences Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderer, Nancy K.

    1993-01-01

    Describes five programs that have been significant to the evolution of biomedical communications in health sciences libraries over the last twenty years: the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM); Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS); National Research and Education Network (NREN); Unified Medical Language System…

  14. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K–12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P < .05). Students in this modest sample overwhelmingly attributed elevated and enduring levels of impact on their interest and confidence in pursuing a science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. PMID:25179609

  15. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality.

    PubMed

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, 'openness' and 'conscientiousness' were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with 'negative affectivity' showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a

  16. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality

    PubMed Central

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, ‘openness’ and ‘conscientiousness’ were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with ‘negative affectivity’ showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there

  17. Nuclear Medical Science Officers: Army Health Physicists Serving and Defending Their Country Around the Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )

  18. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. Aim: The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. Material and Methods: The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). Results: During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. Conclusion: In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a

  19. Croatian Medical Journal Citation Score in Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar

    PubMed Central

    Šember, Marijan; Utrobičić, Ana; Petrak, Jelka

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyze the 2007 citation count of articles published by the Croatian Medical Journal in 2005-2006 based on data from the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Methods Web of Science and Scopus were searched for the articles published in 2005-2006. As all articles returned by Scopus were included in Web of Science, the latter list was the sample for further analysis. Total citation counts for each article on the list were retrieved from Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The overlap and unique citations were compared and analyzed. Proportions were compared using χ2-test. Results Google Scholar returned the greatest proportion of articles with citations (45%), followed by Scopus (42%), and Web of Science (38%). Almost a half (49%) of articles had no citations and 11% had an equal number of identical citations in all 3 databases. The greatest overlap was found between Web of Science and Scopus (54%), followed by Scopus and Google Scholar (51%), and Web of Science and Google Scholar (44%). The greatest number of unique citations was found by Google Scholar (n = 86). The majority of these citations (64%) came from journals, followed by books and PhD theses. Approximately 55% of all citing documents were full-text resources in open access. The language of citing documents was mostly English, but as many as 25 citing documents (29%) were in Chinese. Conclusion Google Scholar shares a total of 42% citations returned by two others, more influential, bibliographic resources. The list of unique citations in Google Scholar is predominantly journal based, but these journals are mainly of local character. Citations received by internationally recognized medical journals are crucial for increasing the visibility of small medical journals but Google Scholar may serve as an alternative bibliometric tool for an orientational citation insight. PMID:20401951

  20. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated. PMID:21041580

  1. Surviving Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Karen Greenwood

    2008-01-01

    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  2. Medical education and faculty development: a new role for the health sciences librarian.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, D G

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the roles and responsibilities of the associate director for medical education at the Primary Care Resource Center (PCRC), School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo (UB). The PCRC was established to increase the number of UB medical school graduates who selected graduate medical education in the generalist disciplines. The associate director, who is a health sciences librarian, has established collaborative working relationships with primary care physicians in the clinical departments of family medicine, pediatrics, and internal medicine with the goal of improving the teaching effectiveness of faculty and residents. Another goal is to incorporate the use of computerized information technologies into clinical practice by training physicians and residents, at specially equipped ambulatory training sites, in how to access and manage information for the purpose of providing quality medical care. This has been accomplished in part through the provision of highly personalized instruction to participants. In addition to describing these activities, this paper examines how the duties of the associate director reflect the potential for long-term change in the roles and responsibilities of health sciences librarians, whether they work in a traditional or nontraditional setting. PMID:8547911

  3. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    PubMed

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century. PMID:22383409

  4. Developing an ethical guideline for clinical teaching in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Akram; Yeketaz, Habibeh; Asghari, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Clinical education is an essential part of medical trainees’ education process, and curriculum planners agree that it should be based on ethical standards and principles in the medical field. Nevertheless, no explained and codified criteria have been developed for ethics in clinical teaching. This study was aimed to develop an ethical guideline for medical students and teachers as the first and most important step in respecting patients' rights in educational centers. The initial draft included the codes of ethics in clinical education and was developed based on library studies. Subsequently, it was improved through a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and focus group sessions with medical students, patients, and medical teachers in educational hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The improved draft was reviewed and validated by a medical expert panel to prepare the final draft. The codes derived from this study included patients’ choices and rights in purely educational procedures, and special considerations for a) obtaining informed consent for educational procedures; b) performing procedures on deceased persons, patients under anesthesia and those lacking decision making capacity; c) educational visual recordings of the patients; and d) safety monitoring in clinical education. The guideline developed in this study incorporates codes of ethics into clinical training. Therefore, in addition to providing efficient education, the interests of patients and their rights are respected, and the ethical sensitivity of learners in primacy of patients’ best interests will be preserved and enhanced. PMID:26839679

  5. The Arabian Gulf University College of Medicine and Medical Sciences: a successful model of a multinational medical school.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Hossam; Anderson, M Brownell

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1970s, leaders of the Arabian [corrected] Gulf countries proposed a novel idea of a joint educational and cultural venture: establishing a new regional university based in the Kingdom of Bahrain that would be managed as a multinational consortium of Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. It was intended to promote higher education and research in the Gulf region; to serve the development needs of the region; to reflect the unique economic, social, and cultural attributes of the Gulf communities and their environments; and to respond to the health care needs of the member countries. Since its inception in 1982, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU) has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning (PBL) and self-directed, student-centered education. The curriculum is integrated, with early introduction of education to foster clinical skills and professional competencies. The strategic alliance with the health care systems in Bahrain and other Gulf regions has created a successful model of efficient and effective initialization of health care resources in the community. The experience that has accumulated at the AGU-CMMS from introducing innovative medical education has allowed it to take a leadership position in medical education in the Gulf region. The original goals of this unique experiment have been realized along with unanticipated outcomes of spearheading changes in medical education in the Gulf region. Old and new medical schools have adopted several characteristics of the AGU educational program. Several elements contributed to its success: a clear vision of providing quality medical education and realizing and sustaining this vision by a supportive leadership at the university and college levels; an alliance with the regional health care systems; a dedicated faculty who have been able to work as a team while continually

  6. [Current organization of disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Julien, Henri

    2013-12-01

    The concept of disaster medicine, derivedfrom medical management of casualties caused by terrorist attacks or earthquakes, began to be taught in medical school in 1982. It adapts military intervention tactics to civilian practices, and differentiates major disasters (in which preformed teams are sent to the scene) from disasters with limited effects (predefined plans form the backbone of the rescue organization). Management of blast and crush syndromes, triage, care of numerous burn victims, on-site amputation, necrotomy, medicopsychological support, mass decontamination, and rescue management are some of the aspects with which physicians should be familiar. Predefined intervention teams and ad hoc materials have been created to provide autonomous logistic support. Regulations, ethical aspects and managerial methods still need to be refined, and research and teaching must be given a new impetus. PMID:26137817

  7. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  8. Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

  9. Health Informatics for Pediatric Disaster Preparedness Planning

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R.V.; Ryutov, T.; Neches, R.; Upperman, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1. To conduct a review of the role of informatics in pediatric disaster preparedness using all medical databases. 2. To provide recommendations to improve pediatric disaster preparedness by the application of informatics. Methods A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINHL and the Cochrane Library using the key words “children” AND “disaster preparedness and disaster” AND “informatics”. Results A total of 314 papers were initially produced by the search and eight that met the selection criteria were included in the review. Four themes emerged: tools for disaster preparedness, education, reunification and planning and response. Conclusion The literature pertaining to informatics and pediatric disaster preparedness is sparse and many gaps still persist. Current disaster preparedness tools focus on the general population and do not specifically address children. The most progress has been achieved in family reunification; however, the recommendations delineated are yet to be completed. PMID:23616840

  10. Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment. PMID:24947269

  11. Nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Knebel, Ann R; Toomey, Lauren; Libby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nurses serve as leaders in disaster preparedness and response at multiple levels: within their own homes and neighborhoods, at disaster scenes, and the workplace, which can vary from a health care facility, in the community, or at the state, national, or international level. This chapter provides an overview on theories of leadership with a historical context for nursing leadership; setting the context for nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response. Although few research studies exist, there are numerous examples of nurses who provide leadership for disaster preparedness and response. To define the current state of the science, the research studies cited in this chapter are supplemented with case studies from particular disasters. The major finding of this review is that nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response is a field of study that needs to be developed. PMID:24894051

  12. An assessment of the stressors and ways of coping in Iranian medical sciences students

    PubMed Central

    Niknami, Maryam; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Bouraki, Shahnaz; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Soleimani, Robabe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported that medical sciences students are usually dealing with severe stress. However, no study is available on ways of coping in medical sciences students in Iran. As socio-cultural factors may affect the students’ responses toward stress, this study aimed to investigate the stressors and ways of coping among students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 487 randomly selected students in GUMS in 2012. The student stress scale and Lazarus ways of coping scale were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Also, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests, and logistic regression analysis were utilized for data analysis. cross-sectional study was conducted on 487 randomly selected students in GUMS in 2012. The student stress scale and Lazarus ways of coping scale were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Also, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests, and logistic regression analysis were utilized for data analysis. Results: In the majority of students (61.4%), interpersonal factors were the dominant stressor. Most of the students used problem-focused ways of coping (79.7%). Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between gender and ways of coping (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Interpersonal sources of stress were the most common stressors among the medical sciences students. Establishing workshops on communication skills and effective counseling system are suggested. PMID:26257811

  13. Adverse Events in Affiliated Hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni; Siamian, Hasan; Nezhad, Ayyob Barzegar; Asghari, Zoleleykha; Kabirzadeh, Azar

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the hospital environment, its structure faces with multiple hazards. The risks whether by providing the care and whether by hospital environment endanger patients, relatives and care providers. Therefore, a more accurate reporting and analysis of the report by focusing on access to preventative methods is essential. In this study, hospitals' adverse event that has sent by affiliated hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences to deputy for treatment has studied. PMID:24944536

  14. Building and executing a research agenda toward conducting implementation science in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Crites, Gerald E.; Miller, Karen H.; Haight, Michelle; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Cichoskikelly, Eileen; Price, David W.; Akinola, Modupeola O.; Scott, Victoria C.; Kalishman, Summers

    2016-01-01

    Background Implementation science (IS) is the study of methods that successfully integrate best evidence into practice. Although typically applied in healthcare settings to improve patient care and subsequent outcomes, IS also has immediate and practical applications to medical education toward improving physician training and educational outcomes. The objective of this article is to illustrate how to build a research agenda that focuses on applying IS principles in medical education. Approach We examined the literature to construct a rationale for using IS to improve medical education. We then used a generalizable scenario to step through a process for applying IS to improve team-based care. Perspectives IS provides a valuable approach to medical educators and researchers for making improvements in medical education and overcoming institution-based challenges. It encourages medical educators to systematically build upon the research outcomes of others to guide decision-making while evaluating the successes of best practices in individual environments and generate additional research questions and findings. Conclusions IS can act as both a driver and a model for educational research to ensure that best educational practices are easier and faster to implement widely. PMID:27565131

  15. State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" - research activities and scientific advance in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D; Sushko, V; Chumak, A; Buzunov, V; Talko, V; Yanovych, L

    2014-09-01

    Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2013 at the State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report. Key points include the research results of XRCC1 and XPD gene polymorphism in thyroid cancer patients, CD38 gene GG genotype as a risk factor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, frequency of 185delAG and 5382insC mutations in BRCA1 gene in women with breast cancer, cognitive function and TERF1, TERF2, TERT gene expression both with telomere length in human under the low dose radiation exposure. The "source-scattering/shielding structures- man" models for calculation of partial dose values to the eye lens and new methods for radiation risk assessment were developed and adapted. Radiation risks of leukemia including chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the cohort of liquidators were published according to the "case-control" study results after 20 years of survey. Increase of non-tumor morbidity in liquidators during the 1988-2011 with the maximum level 12-21 years upon irradiation was found. Incidence in evacuees appeared being of two-peak pattern i.e. in the first years after the accident and 12 years later. Experimental studies have concerned the impact of radio-modifiers on cellular systems, reproductive function in the population, features of the child nutrition in radiation contamination area were studied. Report also shows the results of scientific and organizational, medical and preventive work, staff training, and implementation of innovations. The NRCRM Annual Report was approved at the Scientific Council meeting of NAMS on March 3, 2014. PMID:25536544

  16. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university

    PubMed Central

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence. PMID:24834092

  17. Survey of ownership and use of mobile phones among medical science students in Yazd.

    PubMed

    Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, S S; Barkhordari, A; Nadrian, H; Moshiri, O; Yavari, M T

    2009-11-01

    As the use of mobile phones is increasing every day, public concern about possible adverse health effects of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (rf-emf) is also growing. Despite the extensive use of mobile phones, little is known about the pattern of mobile phone ownership and its use by the general population and students. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of ownership and use of mobile phones in medical science students and their views about any possible negative effects. The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 309 selected Medical Science students who were selected from Yazd Medical Sciences University using a self administrated questionnaire. The mean talking time and listening to music on the mobile phone was 28.3 +/- 50.5 and 51.9 +/- 81.5 min day(-1), respectively. They also received or sent a mean of 18.8 +/- 37 text messages. Participants reported that location wise, the use of cell phones at home was 87.2% followed by street (79.6%), classroom (37.6%), during driving (18.6%) and in the library (17.8%), respectively. Keeping at pace with changes in community and technology, including mobile phones and their effects on university environments, it seems that responsible departments or managers must predict their possible effects and establish new regulations, accordingly. PMID:20128515

  18. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hogle, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with ‘enhancement’; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with ‘normal’ function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with—and further develop—existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to—and be benefitted by—research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates. PMID:26260624

  19. Assessment of the interns’ ability based on Dundee model in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    AMINI, MITRA; ABIRI, SAMANEH; NABEIEI, PARISA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; HAYAT, ALI ASGHAR; KOJURI, JAVAD

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The importance of medical profession and the role of the physician in society is no secret to anyone. Skills and competencies in clinical practice are necessary for the medical profession. In fact, in patient care, doctors require practical skills in addition to scientific knowledge. This study examines the potentials of medical school students in three areas of doing the right thing, doing the right thing in an intermediate range, and doing the right thing by the right person. Methods This study was done in a descriptive-analytical and sectional model. The population of this study was all interns of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were passing internship at Internal Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Emergency wards. About 100 persons were selected by simple randomization. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with 12 questions was designed in two parts. The questionnaire was approved by 7 Faculty members of Clinical Medicine and Medical Education, and its reliability was approved by test-retest method on 20 medical students in the form of a pilot study and through Cronbach's alpha (82%). Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 14 using descriptive statistical methods. Results Results showed that within the inner circle, interns evaluated their skills in surgery, internal medicine, and gynecology wards, intermediate and at other wards as weak. Also within the center circle, interns evaluated adequate educational evidence-based training in the field of medicine, and sufficiency of educational training in the field of clinical decision making and clinical care as suitable. Conclusion According to the results, it seems that medical interns' skills in performing most medical skills are moderate. So teaching students by new educational methods and workshop techniques, using experienced teachers will be effective. The use of clinical skills training centers and objective assessment methods for the students' skills

  20. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  1. Addendum to a note regarding the success of biological and medical science.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K M; Harris, J E

    2002-07-01

    Much like mathematics, the biological and medical sciences seem unreasonably successful, considering many potential obstacles to this outcome. A recent suggestion that data should be viewed as 'quantized', that each 'elementary system' contains a single 'bit' of information (A. Zeilinger, A foundational principle for quantum mechanics, Foundations of Physics 29 (1999) 631), would seem ultimately to underlie the coherent relationships between the perceived physical universe and mental constructs within and among mathematics, logic, the 'hard' sciences and those 'softer' sciences directly based on biochemical and physiologic mechanisms (A. Zeilinger, A foundational principle for quantum mechanics, Foundations of Physics 29 (1999) 631; H. C. Von Baeyer, In the beginning was the bit, New Scientist, 17 (2000) 26-30). PMID:12160685

  2. A densely distributed high-sensitivity seismograph network in Japan: Hi-net by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Obara, Kazushige; Kasahara, Keiji; Hori, Sadaki; Okada, Yoshimitsu

    2005-02-01

    Seismic observations to retrieve various information from the Earth are the basis of seismology. A seismic observation system requires various technologies for vibration sensors, analog-and-digital measurement, data transmission, and computing for mass data analysis, for example. New developments in technology are adopted whenever possible in the construction of seismic observation systems. In Japan, after the disastrous Kobe Earthquake in 1995, a high-density and high-sensitivity seismograph network was constructed. The seismic network, called the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) Hi-net, uniformly covers the Japanese Islands with a spacing of 20-30 km. As a result, the detection capability for microearthquakes has been greatly improved, and various research using Hi-net data has indicated that this seismic network has a great potential to resolve the underground structure and various geophysical phenomena as a radar-array oriented toward the Earth. Equipped with modern standard techniques, the Hi-net system is designed to be able to be smoothly upgradeable in the future.

  3. Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.

    PubMed

    McSwain, Norman E

    2010-07-01

    The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios. PMID:20582507

  4. Prevalence and Causes of Medical Absenteeism Among Staff (Case Study at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences: 2009-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni Saravi, Beyamin; Kabirzadeh, Azar; Rezazadeh, Esmaiel; Khariki, Mohammad Fallah; Asgari, Zolaykha; Bagherian Farahabadi, Ebrahim; Motamed, Nima; Siamian, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Work absenteeism is a significant issue and can be observed in terms of human resources management. Given the importance of staff practices, which are anticipated in every organization, the role of each employee in this system and the implications of their absence as well as the importance of recovery time rest in fast recovery of staff and anticipated costs for their lost work days, thus this study is aimed to determine the extent and causes of medical absenteeism (sickness absence) of head staff of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Methods and Materials: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted using medical absenteeism (sickness absence) persons happened in 2010. Research population was included all records of staff working in central departments of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. There was no sampling due to the importance of the issue. Studied variables were included age, gender, employment status, employees’ education, name of the disease, physician specialty in issuing the medical absence paper, leave issuing reference and department, position of the employee, number of absence days, number of absences, number of annual leave days. Also, data were gathered using a checklist, then were entered into the SPSS software and got analyzed using descriptive statistics. In order to respect the confidentiality, name of the doctors and employees weren’t mentioned publicly. Results: Based on the results, 1200 employees were leaved the organization due to the sickness issue, which 957 (79.7%) of them were studied. The mean age for those employees was 39±7. Also, total average sick leave days and total sick leave days were 2±1 and 2571, respectively. 40.8 % ( 390 employees) were male and the rest were female. Moreover, 18.3% of sick leaves were issued for singles and the remained were for married employees. Regarding the employees’ education, 2% under diploma, 11.3% diploma, 7.8% upper diploma, 47.6% B.Sc., 14

  5. Hype in health reporting: "checkbook science" buys distortion of medical news.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Diana

    2003-01-01

    The greatest danger to public health might be "checkbook science": research intended not to expand knowledge or to benefit humanity but to sell products. Much of the media coverage of health news stories is based on public relations efforts on behalf of the companies that sell the products, including pharmaceutical companies, diet clinics, or doctors selling new techniques. The author presents three case studies of how companies selling medical products effectively but invisibly shaped recent news coverage of medical products: fen-phen diet pills, breast implants, and hormone replacement therapy. All involve subtle strategies whereby physicians and other experts paid by corporate interests are influential because they are perceived to be objective medical experts. Articles in prestigious medical journals are sometimes ghostwritten by individuals paid by companies or are based on biased analyses or interpretations shaped by corporate interests. Nonprofit organizations that tout the benefits of specific medical products also may be part of the public relations efforts of the companies making the product. Meanwhile, important newsworthy studies are ignored by the mass media when corporate interests do not publicize or pitch the results to influential reporters and producers. PMID:12800894

  6. Postdoctoral Training in the Biomedical Sciences. An Evaluation of NIGMS [National Institute of General Medical Sciences] Postdoctoral Traineeship and Fellowship Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    This document describes in detail a study of postdoctoral training in biomedical sciences. Highlights of the study indicate: (1) During the 1958-70 period, 8,685 postdoctorals, equally divided between MD's and PD's, were supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), at a total cost of $86.5 million. (2) Directors of the…

  7. The coming influence of a social sciences perspective on medical education.

    PubMed

    Tarlov, A R

    1992-11-01

    Medical education will change from within in response to continued advances in biological sciences and technology, but changes that are occurring outside the natural sciences can have greater impact, especially (1) the reconceptualization of the meaning of health, (2) the increase in the number and range of different health improvement strategies, (3) the growing awareness of the paradox of the relatively low health status of the U.S. population and high per-capita and national health care expenditures, and (4) shifts in the causes of illness and death. These changes make it necessary for medical students to be given a foundation in both the natural and the social sciences, for most ill health has causal roots in both the social and physical environment, even though it is not understood how some of these outside influences are translated into disease or biologic derangements that lead to disease. Consideration should be given to changes in medical education that include (1) interpreting the sociology as well as the biology of health, (2) expanding the horizons of medicine to incorporate health improvement as well as disease cure, (3) training for population-based health care at the community level, and (4) learning to assess medical outcomes with more than biometric measures to include measurements of functioning and well-being. The author presents in detail a health input-output model to show the complex interrelationships of socio-ecologic (i.e., outside) factors and the individual's genetic-biologic makeup (inside factors) that determine the individual's state of health. PMID:1418248

  8. Peer-assisted learning: filling the gaps in basic science education for preclinical medical students.

    PubMed

    Sammaraiee, Yezen; Mistry, Ravi D; Lim, Julian; Wittner, Liora; Deepak, Shantal; Lim, Gareth

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to peer-assisted learning (PAL) in clinical training, there is scant literature on the efficacy of PAL during basic medical sciences teaching for preclinical students. A group of senior medical students aimed to design and deliver clinically oriented small-group tutorials after every module in the preclinical curriculum at a United Kingdom medical school. Twenty tutorials were delivered by senior students throughout the year to first- and second-year students. A baseline questionnaire was delivered to inform the development of the program followed by an end-point questionnaire the next year (n = 122). Quizzes were administered before and after five separate tutorials to assess changes in mean student scores. Additionally, each tutorial was evaluated via a questionnaire for participants (n = 949). All five posttutorial quizzes showed a significant improvement in mean student score (P < 0.05). Questionnaires showed students found the program to be relevant and useful for revision purposes and appreciated how tutorials contextualized basic science to clinical medicine. Students appreciated the interactive nature of the sessions and found receiving personalized feedback about their learning and consolidating information with someone familiar with the material to be useful. With the inclusion of the program, students felt there were now an adequate number of tutorials during the year. In conclusion, this study shows that senior medical students can design and deliver a program that adds value to the mostly lecture-based formal preclinical curriculum. We hope that our study can prompt further work to explore the effect of PAL on the teaching of basic sciences during preclinical studies. PMID:27445276

  9. Engaging teachers, interpreters and emergency management educators in disaster preparedness and EarthScope science through joint professional development workshops (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Lillie, R. J.; Butler, R. F.; Hunter, N.; Magura, B.; Groom, R.; Hedeen, C. D.; Johnson, J. A.; Ault, C.; Olds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The same geological forces that form the spectacular beaches and headlands of the Pacific Northwest also threaten lives and infrastructure with earthquakes and tsunamis. A new project called the Cascadia EarthScope, Earthquake, and Tsunami Education Program (CEETEP), is helping to mitigate the effects of these potential disasters through collaboration building and professional development for K-12 teachers, park and museum interpreters, and emergency management outreach educators in communities along the Oregon and Washington coast. Tens of thousands of Oregon and Washington residents live within severe earthquake-shaking and tsunami-inundation zones, and millions of tourists visit state and federal parks in these same areas each year. Teachers in the K-12 school systems convey some basics about geological hazards to their students, and park rangers and museum educators likewise engage visitors at their sites. Emergency management educators make regular presentations to local residents about disaster preparedness. CEETEP is strengthening these efforts by providing community-based workshops that bring together all of these professionals to review the basic science of earthquakes and tsunamis, learn about EarthScope and other research efforts that monitor the dynamic Earth in the region, and develop ways to collectively engage students and the general public on the mitigation of coastal geologic hazards. As part of a nationwide effort, the NSF EarthScope Program has been deploying hundreds of seismic, GPS, and other geophysical instruments to measure movement of the Earth's crust and detect earthquakes along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. These instruments provide detail for ongoing research showing that coastal regions are storing energy that will be released in the next great Cascadia earthquake, with the resulting tsunami arriving onshore in 30 minutes or less. CEETEP is helping to convey these cutting-edge findings to coastal educators and fulfill Earth

  10. Disaster nephrology: crush injury and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gibney, R T Noel; Sever, Mehmet S; Vanholder, Raymond C

    2014-05-01

    Disasters result in a substantial number of renal challenges, either by the creation of crush injury in victims trapped in collapsed buildings or by the destruction of existing dialysis facilities, leaving chronic dialysis patients without access to their dialysis units, medications, or medical care. Over the past two decades, lessons have been learned from the response to a number of major natural disasters that have impacted significantly on crush-related acute kidney injury and chronic dialysis patients. In this paper we review the pathophysiology and treatment of the crush syndrome, as summarized in recent clinical recommendations for the management of crush syndrome. The importance of early fluid resuscitation in preventing acute kidney injury is stressed, logistic difficulties in disaster conditions are described, and the need for an implementation of a renal disaster relief preparedness program is underlined. The role of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force in providing emergency disaster relief and the logistical support required is outlined. In addition, the importance of detailed education of chronic dialysis patients and renal unit staff in the advance planning for such disasters and the impact of displacement by disasters of chronic dialysis patients are discussed. PMID:24107850

  11. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft. PMID:25608440

  12. The Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Abolghasem, Farhang; Amin, Dadgar Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Organizations effort is to achieve a common goal. There are many constructs needed for organizations. Organizational culture and organizational commitment are special concepts in management. The objective of the current research is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment among the personnel of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive- correlational study. The statistical population was whole tenured staff of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences that worked for this organization in 2012-2013. Random sampling method was used and 165 samples were chosen. Two standardized questionnaires of the organizational culture (Schein, 1984) and organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 2002) were applied. The face and construct validity of the questionnaires were approved by the lecturers of Management and experts. Reliability of questionnaires of the organizational culture and organizational commitment were 0.89 and 0.88 respectively, by Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. All statistical calculations performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Findings: The findings of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment (P value=0.027). Also, the results showed that there was a significant relation between organizational culture and affective commitment (P-value=0.009), organizational culture and continuance commitment (P-value=0.009), and organizational culture and normative commitment (P-value=0.009). PMID:26925884

  13. Designing and conducting MD/MPH dual degree program in the Medical School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    SALEHI, ALIREZA; HASHEMI, NEDA; SABER, MAHBOOBEH; IMANIEH, MOHAMMAD HADI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have focused on the need of health systems to educated physicians in the clinical prevention, research methodology, epidemiology and health care management and emphasize the important role of this training in the public health promotion. On this basis, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) has established MD/MPH dual degree program since the year 2012. Methods In the current study, Delphi technique was used. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in the Delphi process. The Delphi team members including experts with extensive experience in teaching, research and administration in the field of educational management and health/medical education reached consensus in almost 86% of the questionnaire items through three Delphi rounds. MD/MPH program for SUMS was designed based on the items agreed and thematic analysis used in these rounds. Results The goals, values, mission and program requirements including the period, the entrance condition, and the number of units, and certification were determined. Accordingly, the courses of the program are presented in parallel with the MD education period. MPH courses consist of 35 units including 16 obligatory and 15 voluntary ones. Conclusion Designing MD/MPH program in SUMS based on the existent models in the universities in different countries, compatible with educational program of this university and needs of national health system in Iran, can be a beneficial measure towards promoting the students’ knowledge and theoretical/practical skills in both individual and social level. Performing some additional research to assess the MD/MPH program and some cohort studies to evaluate the effect of this program on the students’ future professional life is recommended. PMID:26269787

  14. Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

  15. Developing eLearning Technologies to Implement Competency Based Medical Education: Experiences from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagunwa, Thomas; Lwoga, Edda

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the practical experience of developing an eLearning technology as a tool to implement Competency-based Medical Education (CBME) in Tanzania medical universities, with a specific focus on Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. The paper provides a background to eLearning and the early attempt to adopt it in 2006 at…

  16. "It's All Connected!" Nursing Students' Experiences of a New Form of Case Seminar Integrating Medical and Nursing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen Olsson, Pernilla; Weurlander, Maria; Mattiasson, Anne-Cathrine; Wärn Hede, Gunnel; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Broberger, Eva; Hult, Håkan; Wernerson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, nursing students learn medical subjects and nursing separately, which makes it difficult to develop an integrated understanding. This study aimed to explore nursing students' experiences of participating in a case seminar integrating medical and nursing sciences and if, and how, it contributed to their learning. A case seminar…

  17. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Carol G.; Bader, Shelley A.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries. PMID:12883582

  18. Disaster management following explosion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2008-01-01

    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making. PMID:18522253

  19. The charisma and deception of reparative therapies: when medical science beds religion.

    PubMed

    Grace, André P

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the history and resurgence of interest in sexual reorientation or reparative therapies. I begin with a critique of the contemporary "ex-gay" movement, interrogating Exodus as the prototype of a politico-religious transformational ministry that works to "cure" homosexuals, and examine how Exodus utilizes ex-gay testimony to deceive harried homosexuals looking for escape from the effects of internalized and cultural homophobia. Next, I investigate how reparative therapies function as orthodox treatments that charismatically meld conservative religious perspectives with medical science to produce a pseudoscience promising to treat homosexuality effectively. In this regard, I assess the ongoing debate regarding gay-affirming versus reparative therapies by first looking at the history of medicalizing homosexuality and then surveying the debate spurred by Robert L. Spitzer's research. I conclude with a consideration of research needed to measure whether efficacious change in sexual orientation is possible. PMID:19064479

  20. Vertical integration of basic science in final year of medical education

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sudha Jasmine; Jacob, Tripti Meriel; Sathyendra, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of health professionals with ability to integrate, synthesize, and apply knowledge gained through medical college is greatly hampered by the system of delivery that is compartmentalized and piecemeal. There is a need to integrate basic sciences with clinical teaching to enable application in clinical care. Aim: To study the benefit and acceptance of vertical integration of basic science in final year MBBS undergraduate curriculum. Materials and Methods: After Institutional Ethics Clearance, neuroanatomy refresher classes with clinical application to neurological diseases were held as part of the final year posting in two medical units. Feedback was collected. Pre- and post-tests which tested application and synthesis were conducted. Summative assessment was compared with the control group of students who had standard teaching in other two medical units. In-depth interview was conducted on 2 willing participants and 2 teachers who did neurology bedside teaching. Results: Majority (>80%) found the classes useful and interesting. There was statistically significant improvement in the post-test scores. There was a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups' scores during summative assessment (76.2 vs. 61.8 P < 0.01). Students felt that it reinforced, motivated self-directed learning, enabled correlations, improved understanding, put things in perspective, gave confidence, aided application, and enabled them to follow discussions during clinical teaching. Conclusion: Vertical integration of basic science in final year was beneficial and resulted in knowledge gain and improved summative scores. The classes were found to be useful, interesting and thought to help in clinical care and application by majority of students. PMID:27563584

  1. 76 FR 52377 - Colorado Wyoming Reserve Co., Grant Life Sciences, Inc., NOXSO Corp., Omni Medical Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Colorado Wyoming Reserve Co., Grant Life Sciences, Inc., NOXSO Corp., Omni Medical Holdings, Inc... accurate information concerning the securities of Grant Life Sciences, Inc. because it has not filed...

  2. MSU Medical Colleges Blended Learning for First Year Science Courses: Uniting Pedagogy to Maximize Experience and Real World Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Kathryn; Vignare, Karen

    2009-01-01

    At Michigan State University the two medical schools, College of Human Medicine (CHM; M.D. degree) and College of Osteopathic Medicine (COM; D.O. degree), have offered the same science courses to first year students for many years. Science departments report to both colleges, and the same faculty can effectively teach the content required in the…

  3. [The meaning of statistical data in medical science and their examination--true and false analysis of statistical data].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, C

    1986-04-01

    The subjects which are often encountered in the statistical design and analysis of data in medical science studies were discussed. The five topics examined were: Medical science and statistical methods So-called mathematical statistics and medical science Fundamentals of cross-tabulation analysis of statistical data and inference Exploratory study by multidimensional data analyses Optimal process control of individual, medical science and informatics of statistical data In I, the author's statistico-mathematical idea is characterized as the analysis of phenomena by statistical data. This is closely related to the logic, methodology and philosophy of science. This statistical concept and method are based on operational and pragmatic ideas. Self-examination of mathematical statistics is particularly focused in II and III. In II, the effectiveness of experimental design and statistical testing is thoroughly examined with regard to the study of medical science, and the limitation of its application is discussed. In III the apparent paradox of analysis of cross-tabulation of statistical data and statistical inference is shown. This is due to the operation of a simple two- or three-fold cross-tabulation analysis of (more than two or three) multidimensional data, apart from the sophisticated statistical test theory of association. In IV, the necessity of informatics of multidimensional data analysis in medical science is stressed. In V, the following point is discussed. The essential point of clinical trials is that they are not based on any simple statistical test in a traditional experimental design but on the optimal process control of individuals in the information space of the body and mind, which is based on a knowledge of medical science and the informatics of multidimensional statistical data analysis. PMID:3729436

  4. Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Basic and Translational Science Updates.

    PubMed

    Allen, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    In the late 1990s and the early 2000s, bisphosphonates had become the clinical pillar of excellence for treating metabolic bone disease, and thus their connection with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) caused significant concern. Over the past decade, progress has been made in understanding what is now referred to as medication-related ONJ (MRONJ), because of its connections to agents other than bisphosphonates, although in many respects the progress has been slow. This review highlights the key basic science and translational (animal) studies in the area of MRONJ and suggests areas of focus as the field moves into the next decade. PMID:26277349

  5. The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic stress in students of medical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Mohammad Reza; Kermani, Tayyebe; Khoshbakht, Hoda; Moodi, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Emotional intelligence (EI) theory provides a view about predicting effective factors in people's lives whether in education or profession. According to earlier studies, people who have higher emotional skills are more successful in many of life aspects :e.g., reaction to stress and controlling stress situations. Since students are the future of society, this study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between EI and education stress in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 260 students were selected by proportional sampling in four faculties: Medicine, Nursing and Midwifery, Paramedical Sciences, and Health. Data were collected using two questionnaires: The standardized EI Shering's (33 questions, five domains) and the Student-Life Stress Inventory (57 questions, nine domains). The obtained data were analyzed by independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear regression at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: Totally, 65.8% of participants were females and 31.1% were males. The educational level of the participants included Associate's degree (44.6%) Bachelor's degree in science (31.2%), and medical science (23.1%). There was no significant correlation between EI scores and educational stress in students. But there was a significant relationship between EI with sex (P = 0.02) and mean of EI scores with three domains of academic stress: Personal favorites (P = 0.004), reaction to stressors (P = 0.002), and performance in stressful situations (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Although EI growth in different individuals can promote their success, it cannot decrease academic stress by itself which was particularly significant in females. Therefore, other causes of stress such as individual differences must be taken into consideration. PMID:24083290

  6. A descriptive and historical review of bibliometrics with applications to medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis F; Walker, Cheri K

    2015-06-01

    The discipline of bibliometrics involves the application of mathematical and statistical methods to scholarly publications. The first attempts at systematic data collection were provided by Alfred Lotka and Samuel Bradford, who subsequently established the foundational laws of bibliometrics. Eugene Garfield ushered in the modern era of bibliometrics with the routine use of citation analysis and systematized processing. Key elements of bibliometric analysis include database coverage, consistency and accuracy of the data, data fields, search options, and analysis and use of metrics. A number of bibliometric applications are currently being used in medical science and health care. Bibliometric parameters and indexes may be increasingly used by grant funding sources as measures of research success. Universities may build benchmarking standards from bibliometric data to determine academic achievement through promotion and tenure guidelines in the future. This article reviews the history, definition, laws, and elements of bibliometric principles and provides examples of bibliometric applications to the broader health care community. To accomplish this, the Medline (1966-2014) and Web of Science (1945-2014) databases were searched to identify relevant articles; select articles were also cross-referenced. Articles selected were those that provided background, history, descriptive analysis, and application of bibliometric principles and metrics to medical science and health care. No attempt was made to cover all areas exhaustively; rather, key articles were chosen that illustrate bibliometric concepts and enhance the reader's knowledge. It is important that faculty and researchers understand the limitations and appropriate uses of bibliometric data. Bibliometrics has considerable potential as a research area for health care scientists and practitioners that can be used to discover new information about academic trends, pharmacotherapy, disease, and broader health sciences

  7. Developing a theory of clinical instructor identity using the experiences of medical laboratory science practitioners.

    PubMed

    Miller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated medical laboratory science clinical instructors' beliefs about teaching and how they viewed themselves as teachers. The first phase of the study included an integrative literature review, which suggested that the development of teacher identity in school-based educators, and to a lesser extent higher education faculty, is dependent on four dimensions: personal factors, training factors, contextual factors, and reflective practice. The second phase of this study began qualitative inquiry into the ways that these participants described their teaching and professional identity. Interviews were conducted with medical laboratory science clinical instructors in order to gain an understanding of their perceptions of themselves as teachers. The data collected in this study indicate that this group of clinical instructors saw themselves as teachers who were responsible for providing students with technical skills needed to become competent practitioners and the theoretical foundation necessary to pass the national certification exam. The study participants also saw themselves as mentors who were responsible for passing along professional knowledge to the next generation of laboratory practitioners. During data analysis three themes emerged that represent aspects of teacher identity in clinical instructors: belief in one's teaching ability, desire to expand one's professional responsibilities, and reflection on one's teaching. The findings from this study may provide a foundation for future research designed to measure teacher identity in clinical instructors. PMID:25000652

  8. Quality gap of educational services in viewpoints of students in Hormozgan University of medical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Aghamolaei, Teamur; Zare, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    Background Higher education is growing fast and every day it becomes more and more exposed to globalization processes. The aim of this study was to determine the quality gap of educational services by using a modified SERVQUAL instrument among students in Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in 2007. In this study, a total of 300 students were selected randomly and asked to complete a questionnaire that was designed according to SERVQUAL methods. This questionnaire measured students' perceptions and expectations in five dimensions of service that consists of assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability and tangibles. The quality gap of educational services was determined based on differences between students' perceptions and expectations. Results The results demonstrated that in each of the five SERVQUAL dimensions, there was a negative quality gap. The least and the most negative quality gap means were in the reliability (-0.71) and responsiveness (-1.14) dimensions respectively. Also, there were significant differences between perceptions and expectations of students in all of the five SERVQUAL dimensions (p < 0.001). Conclusion Negative quality gaps mean students' expectations exceed their perceptions. Thus, improvements are needed across all five dimensions. PMID:18564413

  9. Impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    DEHGHANI, MOHAMMADREZA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; SOLTANi, BEHROUZ; AGHAKHANI, NADER; HAGHPANAH, SEZANEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obtaining clinical competency in clinical education is one of the problems in nursing and use of the new methods of clinical training is very important. Clinical supervision is one of the methods used as a mechanism to promote knowledge and skill for promoting professional performance in nursing students. This study is carried out to determine the impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Methods In the present experimental study, 32 nursing students were enrolled in the study based on census and randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control by block randomization. Clinical supervision was used in the experimental group and the control group received routine clinical trainings in the field. The students’ clinical skills were assessed using a researcher-made checklist, the validity of which was confirmed through content validity method by 13 faculty members and its reliability was approved by test-retest method on 20 nursing students in the form of a pilot study and through Cronbach’s alpha (87%). Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 14. Results ‍There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in clinical skills such as recognition and administration of medication, team participation,  patients and their relatives’ education, considering the safety,  infection prevention and  nursing process (p<0.005). Conclusion The study demonstrated that in clinical supervision process, students have a better communication and cooperation with their instructor and with each other and their confidence and understanding and the amount of learning in practical skills was enhanced more than routine clinical training. The implementation of this clinical training method for students of nursing and other fields of medical sciences is recommendable. PMID:27104203

  10. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  11. Nurse–Physician Collaboration: the Attitudes of Baccalaureate Nursing Students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Kazemnejad Leili, Anoushiravan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing professional communication between physicians and nurses regarding their supplemental roles in health care for patients is unavoidable. Existing studies have reported on related problems concerning ineffective professional collaboration among health care providers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine Iranian bachelor of nursing students’ attitudes regarding collaboration between physicians and nurses at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was an inferential cross sectional study. The study population consisted of all first and fourth academic-year Iranian bachelor of nursing students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (277 individuals), who were selected by convenience sampling. The participation rate was 97.47% (270 individuals). A questionnaire including demographic information and professional experience was used to gather information (included 12 questions). Additionally, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) was also used (included 15 questions). Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The applied statistical tests included: χ2, t student and ANOVA test. Results: The obtained mean attitude score for the first academic year (51.28 ± 4.98) was higher than the mean attitude score of the fourth academic year nursing students (50.56 ± 4.05). However, the results of the independent statistical t-test showed no significant difference between the two groups of students (P = 0.322). In the four dimensions of JSAPNC, concerning only the dimension of physician authority, there were significant differences between the two groups of students (P < 0.05). The obtained means for the first and fourth academic year of bachelor nursing students reflected their positive attitudes about collaboration between physicians and nurses. Conclusions: The positive attitude of most nursing students found in this study showed the need for appropriate and

  12. Job Security at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences: Implications on Employees and Types of Contracts

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Alaghemandan, Hamed; Jannatifard, Fereshte

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Medical universities are of those organizations that serve many individuals. As a result, the employees who work at medical universities should have adequate job qualifications and requisite conditions for work. Job security is one of these needed conditions. The current study aims to determine the main components of job security among the employees of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Method and materials: The study had a cross-sectional design. The sample included 300 employees which were selected from the faculties of IUMS. The sample was recruited using quota sampling. First, demographic and Job security questionnaires were completed by each employee. Then, data was analyzed by descriptive methods and ANOVA in SPSS16. Results: The study results showed that there was no significant difference among five subscales of Job security questionnaire and as a result, job security among the employees of IUMS but there was a significant difference in job security among male and female employees and a significant difference in job security based on type of job contract. Discussion: Lower rate of job security among female employees with temporary job contracts has professional and psychological implication for both females and IUMS which should be considered in designing professional programs of IUMS. PMID:23687464

  13. Performance of the libraries in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on the EFQM model

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saeid; Atashpour, Bahareh; Papi, Ahmad; Nouri, Rasul; Hasanzade, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Performance measurement is inevitable for university libraries. Hence, planning and establishing a constant and up-to-date measurement system is required for the libraries, especially the university libraries. The primary studies and analyses reveal that the EFQM Excellence Model has been efficient, and the administrative reform program has focused on the implementation of this model. Therefore, on the basis of these facts as well as the need for a measurement system, the researchers measured the performance of libraries in schools and hospitals supported by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, using the EFQM Organizational Excellence Model. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research study was carried out by a cross-sectional survey method in 2011. This research study included librarians and library directors of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (70 people). The validity of the instrument was measured by the specialists in the field of Management and Library Science. To measure the reliability of the questionnaire, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient value was measured (0.93). The t-test, ANOVA, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for measurements. The data were analyzed by SPSS. Results: Data analysis revealed that the mean score of the performance measurement for the libraries under study and between nine dimensions the highest score was 65.3% for leadership dimension and the lowest scores were 55.1% for people and 55.1% for society results. Conclusion: In general, using the ninth EFQM model the average level of all dimensions, which is in good agreement with normal values, was assessed. However, compared to other results, the criterion people and society results were poor. It is Recommended by forming the expert committee on criterion people and society results by individuals concerned with the various conferences and training courses to improve the aspects. PMID:25540795

  14. 2010 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference, and Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Nuclear Science Symposium (NSS) offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested or actively working in the fields of nuclear science, radiation instrumentation, software and their applications, to meet and discuss with colleagues from around the world. The program emphasizes the latest developments in technology and instrumentation and their implementation in experiments for space sciences, accelerators, other radiation environments, and homeland security. The Medical Imaging Conference (MIC) is the foremost international scientific meeting on the physics, engineering and mathematical aspects of nuclear medicine based imaging. As the field develops, multi-modality approaches are becoming more and more important. The content of the MIC reflects this, with a growing emphasis on the methodologies of X-ray, optical and MR imaging as they relate to nuclear imaging techniques. In addition, specialized topics will be addressed in the Short Courses and Workshops programs. The Workshop on Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detectors (RTSD) represents the largest forum of scientists and engineers developing new semiconductor radiation detectors and imaging arrays. Room-temperature solid-state radiation detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron radiation are finding increasing applications in such diverse fields as medicine, homeland security, astrophysics and environmental remediation. The objective of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the state of the art of material development for semiconductor, scintillator, and organic materials for detection, materials characterization, device fabrication and technology, electronics and applications.

  15. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status. PMID:25467027

  16. Financing hospital disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and response have gained increased attention in the United States as a result of terrorism and disaster threats. However, funding of hospital preparedness, especially surge capacity, has lagged behind other preparedness priorities. Only a small portion of the money allocated for national preparedness is directed toward health care, and hospitals receive very little of that. Under current policy, virtually the entire funding stream for hospital preparedness comes from general tax revenues. Medical payers (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance) directly fund little, if any, of the current bill. Funding options to improve preparedness include increasing the current federal grants allocated to hospitals, using payer fees or a tax to subsidize preparedness, and financing other forms of expansion capability, such as mobile hospitals. Alternatively, the status quo of marginal preparedness can be maintained. In any event, achieving higher levels of preparedness likely will take the combined commitment of the hospital industry, public and private payers, and federal, state, and local governments. Ultimately, the costs of preparedness will be borne by the public in the form of taxes, higher healthcare costs, or through the acceptance of greater risk. PMID:18087914

  17. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  18. Wind disasters: A comprehensive review of current management strategies.

    PubMed

    Marchigiani, Raffaele; Gordy, Stephanie; Cipolla, James; Adams, Raeanna C; Evans, David C; Stehly, Christy; Galwankar, Sagar; Russell, Sarah; Marco, Alan P; Kman, Nicholas; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    Wind disasters are responsible for tremendous physical destruction, injury, loss of life and economic damage. In this review, we discuss disaster preparedness and effective medical response to wind disasters. The epidemiology of disease and injury patterns observed in the early and late phases of wind disasters are reviewed. The authors highlight the importance of advance planning and adequate preparation as well as prompt and well-organized response to potential damage involving healthcare infrastructure and the associated consequences to the medical response system. Ways to minimize both the extent of infrastructure damage and its effects on the healthcare system are discussed, focusing on lessons learned from recent major wind disasters around the globe. Finally, aspects of healthcare delivery in disaster zones are reviewed. PMID:23961458

  19. Wind disasters: A comprehensive review of current management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Marchigiani, Raffaele; Gordy, Stephanie; Cipolla, James; Adams, Raeanna C; Evans, David C; Stehly, Christy; Galwankar, Sagar; Russell, Sarah; Marco, Alan P; Kman, Nicholas; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Wind disasters are responsible for tremendous physical destruction, injury, loss of life and economic damage. In this review, we discuss disaster preparedness and effective medical response to wind disasters. The epidemiology of disease and injury patterns observed in the early and late phases of wind disasters are reviewed. The authors highlight the importance of advance planning and adequate preparation as well as prompt and well-organized response to potential damage involving healthcare infrastructure and the associated consequences to the medical response system. Ways to minimize both the extent of infrastructure damage and its effects on the healthcare system are discussed, focusing on lessons learned from recent major wind disasters around the globe. Finally, aspects of healthcare delivery in disaster zones are reviewed. PMID:23961458

  20. Challenges in disaster data collection during recent disasters.

    PubMed

    Morton, Melinda; Levy, J Lee

    2011-06-01

    Gathering essential health data to provide rapid and effective medical relief to populations devastated by the effects of a disaster-producing event involves challenges. These challenges include response to environmental hazards, security of personnel and resources, political and economic issues, cultural barriers, and difficulties in communication, particularly between aid agencies. These barriers often impede the timely collection of key health data such as morbidity and mortality, rapid health and sheltering needs assessments, key infrastructure assessments, and nutritional needs assessments. Examples of these challenges following three recent events: (1) the Indian Ocean tsunami; (2) Hurricane Katrina; and (3) the 2010 earthquake in Haiti are reviewed. Some of the innovative and cutting-edge approaches for surmounting many of these challenges include: (1) the establishment of geographical information systems (GIS) mapping disaster databases; (2) establishing internet surveillance networks and data repositories; (3) utilization of personal digital assistant-based platforms for data collection; (4) involving key community stakeholders in the data collection process; (5) use of pre-established, local, collaborative networks to coordinate disaster efforts; and (6) exploring potential civil-military collaborative efforts. The application of these and other innovative techniques shows promise for surmounting formidable challenges to disaster data collection. PMID:22107771

  1. [Planning and organization of the Emergency Medical Service Center in Sarajevo Canton and provision of disaster rescue and protection to Bosnia-Herzegovina].

    PubMed

    Mulaomerović, Alija; Softić-Taljanović, Sena; Kovacević, Jasminka; Elezović, Tigran

    2007-01-01

    Bosnia and Hercegovina, as well as the rest of the world we live in, has a high level of exposure to various accident and catastrophes events with a consequence of big losses in human lives. These catastrophes often over warm capacities of health institutions. In those cases emergency medical services provides organized emergency medical assistance to injured and suddenly gone sick patients in place of injuring. It also provides transport to the health institution where patient will be admitted for further treatment. In order to provide adequate conditions for high level service, Emergency medical centre has a specialized team that provides highly qualified staff, adequate equipment and other means needed in rescue and medical assistance. Emergency medical centre Sarajevo also acts on requests by Federal civil defense, upon its given relevant information on mobilizing EMC resources when emergency signal is been issued. Purchase of new medical/rescue equipment is also prioritized. PMID:18283880

  2. Disaster medicine: genealogy of a concept.

    PubMed

    Stehrenberger, Cécile Stephanie; Goltermann, Svenja

    2014-11-01

    This paper evaluates disaster medicine from a historical perspective that facilitates the understanding of its present. Today, disaster medicine and humanitarian medicine are inextricably linked and the terms are sometimes used synonymously. An in-depth analysis of an extensive body of concrete empirical cases from various sources (i.e. archival records) reveals, however, that they have not always been the same. A genealogical, history-of-knowledge approach demonstrates that the concept of disaster medicine emerged in the early 20th century in Switzerland in the context of industrialization. Even though it gained important impetus during the First World War, the concept was informed by the experiences of forensic physicians in technological disasters such as mining explosions. The Cold War constituted the historical constellation in which disaster medicine was developed in West Germany during the 1960s and 1970s in a way that was paradigmatic for other Western European countries. At the same time, it was contested there in an unusual, historically unique way. Although focusing on a Western European context, this paper explores how medical interventions in disasters were international events and how the practice of disaster medicine was developed and "trained" through being applied in the Global South. It demonstrates the historicity of disaster medicine's political character and of the controversies generated by its involvement in civil and military operations. Throughout the 20th century, the political nature and military involvement of disaster medicine resulted in a number of ethical and practical issues, which are similar to the challenges facing humanitarian medicine today. The exploration of disaster medicine's past can therefore open up critical interventions in humanitarian medicine's present. PMID:24862174

  3. Evolution of the probiotic concept from conception to validation and acceptance in medical science.

    PubMed

    Dobrogosz, Walter J; Peacock, Trent J; Hassan, Hosni M

    2010-01-01

    Two pioneering achievements by Ilya Ilyich Metchnikoff were recorded in 1908. Most notable was his Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering the innate cellular immune response to an infectious challenge. Of lesser note was his recommendation, "...to absorb large quantities of microbes, as a general belief is that microbes are harmful. This belief is erroneous. There are many useful microbes, amongst which the lactic bacilli have an honorable place." While his discovery of the inflammatory response was rapidly incorporated into our understanding of cellular immunity, his recommendation "to absorb large quantities of microbes," on the other hand, languished for decades in limbos of indifference, skepticism, and disbelief. The present chapter is a synopsis of salient discoveries made during the past 100 years, which gradually displaced these skepticisms, validated his concept of "useful microbes," and propelled his "lactic bacilli" into the mainstream of modern medical science, practice, and therapy. PMID:20602986

  4. Programme science research on medical male circumcision scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Kigozi, Godfrey

    2013-08-01

    Three randomised trials demonstrate that voluntary medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces male HIV acquisition by 50-60%, and post-trial surveillance has shown that the effects are long lasting. Scale-up of services has been initiated in 14 high-priority sub-Saharan African countries with high rates of HIV and low prevalence of MMC. However, circumcision coverage in the region remains low. Challenges to MMC rollout include suboptimal demand among higher-risk men, the need to expand access and reduce costs of MMC through personnel task shifting and task sharing, assuring and maintaining a high quality of service provision, and the testing and introduction of non-surgical devices. In addition, early infant male circumcision has not been adequately evaluated in Africa. Here, we describe challenges to implementation and discuss the ongoing and future role of implementation and programme science in addressing such challenges. PMID:23698513

  5. Predicting People's Intention to Donate Their Body to Medical Science and Research.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Maree F; White, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of people's intention to register with a body bequest program for donating their deceased body to medical science and research were examined using standard theory of planned behavior (TPB) predictors (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control) and adding moral norm, altruism, and knowledge. Australian students (N = 221) at a university with a recently established body bequest program completed measures of the TPB's underlying beliefs (behavioral, normative, and control beliefs) and standard and extended TPB predictors, with a sub-sample reporting their registration-related behavior 2 months later. The standard TPB accounted for 43.6%, and the extended predictors an additional 15.1% of variance in intention. The significant predictors were attitude, subjective norm, and moral norm, partially supporting an extended TPB in understanding people's body donation intentions. Further, important underlying beliefs can inform strategies to target prospective donors. PMID:25559925

  6. Patterns of Medical and Nursing Staff Communication in Nursing Homes: Implications and Insights From Complexity Science

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Ammarell, Natalie; Bailey, Donald; Corazzini, Kirsten; Utley-Smith, Queen; Lekan-Rutledge, Deborah; Anderson, Ruth A.; Piven, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    Complexity science teaches that relationships among health care providers are key to our understanding of how quality care emerges. The authors sought to compare the effects of differing patterns of medicine-nursing communication on the quality of information flow, cognitive diversity, self-organization, and innovation in nursing homes. Two facilities participated in 6-month case studies using field observations, shadowing, and depth interviews. In one facility, the dominant pattern of communication was a vertical “chain of command” between care providers, characterized by thin connections and limited information exchange. This pattern limited cognitive diversity and innovation in clinical problem solving. The second facility used an open communication pattern between medical and frontline staff. The authors saw higher levels of information flow, cognitive diversity, innovation, and self-organization, although tempered by staff turnover. The patterns of communication between care providers in nursing facilities have an important impact on their ability to provide quality, innovative care. PMID:16394208

  7. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker's review article on "Laser Acceleration and its future" [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],(1)) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  8. Health status in the Caribbean. Has the faculty of medical sciences made a difference?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, W N

    1998-06-01

    The Faculty of Medical Sciences has contributed to improvements in health status in the Caribbean through its research, training, and service and outreach programmes. Basic and applied research has yielded important scientific data and information that has guided health care, resulting in decreases in morbidity and mortality. Physicians graduating from its undergraduate programme and successfully completing its graduate programmes, and nurses and other professionals trained in the Faculty, are widely dispersed throughout the Caribbean and, together with Faculty staff members, have collaborated with others to formulate and implement health policies, and to provide the facilities for health education and promotion, and for the care of ill patients. Outreach programmes include organising and/or participating in projects, conferences, workshops or consultations for or with countries or organisations. Collaboration and partnership for all of these activities have been important. The problems and challenges are discussed, with an outline of some of the plans being employed to resolve them. PMID:9769749

  9. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  10. State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" - research activities and scientific advance in 2014.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D; Sushko, V; Chumak, A; Buzunov, V; Talko, V; Yanovich, L

    2015-12-01

    Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2014 at the State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report.Epidemiological cohort studies found increased incidence (1990-2012 gg.) of thyroid cancer in victims of Chernobyl accident (liquidators - in 4.6 times, evacuated - in 4.0 times, residents of contaminated areas - in 1.3 times) and increased incidence of breast cancer in female workers of 1986-1987. (in the 1994-2012 biennium. SIR = 160,0%, 95% CI: 142,4-177,6). Retrospective studies of thyroid cancer ("case control") in cohorts and 152 thousand of liquidators were continued together with the US National Cancer Institute. Radiation risks of multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia were found.Molecular effects of remote period after radiation exposure include changes in gene expression TERF1, TERF2, CCND1, telomere length, the protein expression of cyclin D1, histone gamma H2AX. An association of molecular changes with cognitive deficits were defined. Genetic polymorphisms of rs2981582 gene FGFR2, rs12443621 gene TNRC9, rs3817198 gene LSP1, rs3803662 gene TNRC9, rs889312 gene MAP3K1 and their association with breast can cer were studied; the expression by tumor cells of estrogen and progesterone receptor, antigens of c kit, cytoker atins 5/6, TP53 and ki67, amplification status of the gene Her2 / neu, mutation status of the genes BRCA1 (muta tions 185delAG and 5382insC) and BRCA2 (mutation 6174delT) were studied. The possibility of persistence of radi ation modified hidden chromosomal instability in consecutive generations of human somatic cells was proven.The status of reproductive function and peculiarities

  11. Research self-efficacy among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Najafi, Nayere Sadat Soleimanzade; Kazempour, Zahra; Taheri, Behjat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research self-efficacy if the people's judgment of their abilities in order to organize and conduct meaningful research in different formats. The aim of this study is to determinate the rate of research self-efficacy among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Research Self-efficacy Scale. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is an applied survey method. Statistical population is all students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and the sample size was calculated to be 361 samples based on Krejcie and Morgan table. Random sampling method was used with equal number of samples from every department. Data collection tool is Salehi et al. questionnaire (with 7 dimensions) with Likert scale (5 grades). Its validity and reliability were confirmed by Psychology and Research Method experts and Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.84) respectively. Data gathering method was direct visit to each department. The data was then analyzed using t-test and one-tailed ANOVA using SPSS 16 software. Results: The finding showed that among research self-efficiency dimensions research ethics dimension had the highest and quality research dimension had the lowest means. Furthermore comparing the research self-efficacy scores with demographic characteristics suggests that there is no significant difference between total score of research self-efficacy of different departments, genders or educational degrees (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Since the score of most of the research self-efficacy dimensions were, lower than average, holding periodical workshops, inclusion of necessary courses in the educational plan, forcing student to perform research activity such as writing articles in lower educational levels and improvement of research culture for students with the help of experienced professors are some of practical solutions, which can lead to increasing the motivation of the students for conducting efficient research. PMID:25883996

  12. Prevalence of Substance Abuse Among Dormitory Students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Babaei Heydarabadi, Akbar; Ramezankhani, Ali; Barekati, Hasan; Vejdani, Marjan; Shariatinejad, Keyvan; Panahi, Rahman; Kashfi, Seyed Hanan; Imanzad, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a risky period with high tendency towards drug abuse. Addressing the problem of drug abuse among students is essential. Objectives: This study was carried out in 2013 with the purpose of investigating the prevalence of substance abuse among dormitory students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, which was carried out in 2013, a total of 604 students living at dormitories of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected by random sampling method. A questionnaire designed by the researcher was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of substance abuse among the students was 15.4%. With respect to the types of the drug used by students, the highest frequencies belonged to smoking 4.47% and hookah with 42.9%. Forty-eight percent of the students, who used drugs, started it for the first time when they were 18 years old or younger. About 58% of students used drugs for the first time in dormitories and parks. Students’ meetings and parties with friends were frequent occasions for substance abuse (47.5%). Conclusions: Students are considered one of the most vulnerable groups of society. The students living in dormitories are more vulnerable to drug abuse due to the lack of parental supervision and the impact of peer pressure. Therefore, localization of acceptance at Universities in order to prevent cultural mixing of students and education programs for teaching life skills to students efficiently reduce their substance abuse. PMID:26405679

  13. Evaluation of the consultation program in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    REZAEE, RITA; NABEIEI, PARISA; SAGHEB, MOHAMMAD MAHDI

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Consultation and guidance is a process of learning which is done through the relationship between two individuals. In this mutual relationship, the ounsellor, through his scientific and occupational skills and qualification, tries to help the students using the methods corresponding to their needs. The main objective of this study was to provide a framework for the management of the advisors’ plans in the university based on the analysis of different schools. Methods: This research is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study. Data were collected both qualitatively (centralized groups at the presence of advisors in universities) and quantitatively (self-assessment of teachers and students' evaluation). Sampling was done randomly from all students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. All the teachers who were advisor took part in this study. Results: This study was conducted in eight schools of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences simultaneously and 974 students and 125 teachers took part in it. At the time of data collection, 25.5 percent of the students declared that the advisors have provided allocated time to them and 45.4 percent believed that the advisors helped the students to understand the importance of the courses. Conclusion: The emergence of weaknesses and strengths of the academic advising program and the guidance through teacher's self assessment, not only may be the sign of realization of programmed objectives, but also may be the starting point for qualitative improvement of the situation. Moreover, in order to improve the advisory services and guidance, it is necessary to regard consultation as a scientific subject which needs training. PMID:25512915

  14. Absenteeism among medical and health science undergraduate students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Student absenteeism is a major concern for university education worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and causes of absenteeism among undergraduate medical and health sciences students at Hawassa University. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered structured questionnaire from May-June 2013. The primary outcome indicator was self-reported absenteeism from lectures in the semester preceding the study period. The study included all regular undergraduate students who were enrolled in the University for at least one semester. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The association between class absenteeism and socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of absenteeism was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results were reported as crude odds ratios (COR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results 1200 students consented and filled the questionnaire. Of these students, 43.7% had missed three or more lectures and 14.1% (95% CI = 12.2-16.2) missed more than 8 lectures in the preceding semester. There was a significant association between missing more than 8 lectures and age of students, chosen discipline (medicine), and social drug use. The main reasons reported for missing lectures were preparing for another examination, lack of interest, lecturer’s teaching style, and availability of lecture material. Conclusion At Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science student habits and teacher performance play a role in absenteeism from lectures. A university culture that promotes discipline and integrity especially among medical and older students discourages social drug use will likely improve motivation and attendance. Training in teaching methodologies to improve the quality and delivery of lectures should also help increase attendance. PMID:24731511

  15. Planning for disasters involving children in Australia: A practical guide.

    PubMed

    Grindlay, Joanne; Breeze, Katina Mai

    2016-02-01

    Children comprise 19% of the Australian population. Children are at risk of higher morbidity and mortality in disaster events than adults; however, there is a paucity of paediatric-specific disaster preparedness in Australia. Paediatric disaster plans should be developed, tested and renewed regularly. Plans need to address unaccompanied and unidentified children, medical and psychosocial needs and family reunification. Specific management is required for chemical, biological and radiological events. PMID:27062625

  16. Disasters at Mass Gatherings: Lessons from History

    PubMed Central

    Soomaroo, Lee; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Reviews of mass gathering events have traditionally concentrated on crowd variables that affect the level and type of medical care needed. Crowd disasters at mass gathering events have not been fully researched and this review examines these aiming to provide future suggestions for event organisers, medical resource planners, and emergency services, including local hospital emergency departments. Methods A review was conducted using computerised data bases: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, HMIC and EMBASE, with Google used to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications, to identify grey literature. All peer-review literature articles found containing information pertaining to lessons identified from mass gathering crowd disasters were analysed and reviewed. Disasters occurring in extreme weather events, and environmental leading to participant illness were not included. These articles were read, analysed, abstracted and summarised. Results 156 articles from literature search were found detailing mass gathering disasters identified from 1971 – 2011. With only 21 cases found within peer-review literature. Twelve events were further documented as a case reports. Five events were examined as review articles while four events underwent commissioned inquiries. Analysis of cases were categorised in to crowd control, event access, fire safety, medical preparedness and emergency response. Conclusions Mass gathering events have an enormous potential to place a severe strain on the local health care system, and a mixture of high crowd density, restricted points of access, poor fire safety, minimum crowd control and lack of on-site medical care can lead to problems that end in disaster. PMID:22453897

  17. Neurosurgery at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a center of excellence: A success story.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manmohan; Sawarkar, Dattaraj; Sharma, Bhawani S

    2015-01-01

    The department of neurosurgery at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) started its humble beginning in 1965. With the untiring and selfless hard work of Prof. P N Tandon and Prof. A K Banerji, the department progressed over time to become a center of excellence in the subcontinent. To establish a neurosciences center at AIIMS was an uphill task, which was accomplished with great efforts. The department has established itself as one of the highest centers of learning in the country with its vast infrastructure and diversity in all fields of neurosurgery. AIIMS, New Delhi was established by an act of the parliament in 1956. It was started with a grant from the Government of New Zealand under the "Colombo Plan." It was the vision of Rajkumari Amrita Kaur, the first Health Minister of India, that led to the establishment of a medical institute of international repute in India. AIIMS, New Delhi is an autonomous institute and is governed by the AIIMS Act, 1956. The department of neurosurgery at AIIMS was started in March 1965 with Prof. P.N. Tandon as the Head of the Department. Prof. A.K. Banerji joined him a few months later. The Department celebrated its golden jubilee in the year 2015, and has tremendously grown in stature from its humble beginnings to being a center of excellence with world-wide recognition. PMID:26238896

  18. Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran University of Medical Sciences nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Pakpour, Vahid; Aalaa, Maryam; Shekarabi, Robabeh; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Haghani, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students' perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards. Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16. Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale. Conclusion: It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment. PMID:26034726

  19. Virtual microscopy in medical research: Open European Nephrology Science Center (OpEN.SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Thomas; Beil, Michael; Schmidt, Danilo; Dietel, Manfred; Lindemann, Gabriela

    2007-03-01

    The amount and heterogeneity of data in biomedical research, notably in transnational research, requires new methods for the collection, presentation and analysis of information. Important data from laboratory experiments as well as patient trials are available as images. Thus, the integration and processing of image data represent a crucial component of information systems in biomedical research. The Charité Medical School in Berlin has established a new information service center for kidney diseases and transplantation (Open European Nephrology Science Centre - OpEN.SC) together with the German Research Agency (DFG). The aims of this project are (i) to improve the availability of raw data, (ii) to establish an infrastructure for clinical trials, (iii) to monitor the occurrence of rare disease patterns and (iv) to establish a quality assurance system. Major diagnostic procedures in medicine are based on the processing and analysis of image data. In diagnostic pathology, the availability of automated slide scanners provide the opportunity to digitize entire microscopic slides. The processing, presentation and analysis of these image data are called virtual microscopy. The integration of this new technology into the OpEN.SC system and the link to other heterogeneous data of individual patients represent a major technological challenge. Thus, new ways in communication between clinical and scientific partners have to be established and will be promoted by the project. The technological basis of the repository are web services for a scalable and adaptable system. HL7 and DICOM are considered the main medical standards of communication.

  20. Post-disaster victimization: how survivors of disasters can continue to suffer after the event is over.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2008-01-01

    When public health researchers study the health effects of disasters (whether "naturally-occurring," disasters due to failure of technology, or disasters due to terrorism), some aspects of the post-disaster situation of victims are often overlooked. Social science research has shown that the vast majority of people tend to behave altruistically during and after a disaster. Nevertheless, cases of victimization of survivors do occur. They can include post-disaster victimization of survivors by other individuals (including fellow survivors, opportunistic outsiders, and even unethical aid workers and rogue members of the police, armed forces or international organizations such as the United Nations), groups (such as organized criminal gangs) and institutions (through neglect, incompetence, bureaucratic inefficiency or through institutionalized discriminatory practices). In this article, various kinds of post-disaster victimization that can occur are discussed. PMID:18511398

  1. Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jeannine W.

    1985-01-01

    Every school needs an effective disaster recovery plan that is flexible, comprehensive and designed to take into account unexpected disasters. Presents guidelines for preparing such a plan, with immediate and long-range recovery procedures. (MD)

  2. Disaster Preparation and Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a natural disaster, like a hurricane, tornado, flood or earthquake. It might also be man-made, ... the insurance you need, including special types, like flood insurance. No matter what kind of disaster you ...

  3. The Analysis of Health Research System Evaluation in Medical Sciences Universities

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Eftekhari, M Baradaran; Habibi, E; Falahat, K; Mojarrab, Sh; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Based on Iran by 2025 defined vision, we must to receive the first grade of science position in south western Asian region. Thus we need to have a comprehensive evaluation program. Methods: A comprehensive WHO Health Research System Analysis (HRSA)- based evaluation system was developed to evaluate the HRS in Iran. This article has explored the results of the five-year evaluation (2003–2008) and aims to introduce this method to other developing countries. Here we explore the results of research performance evaluation from 2002 to 2010 and by comparing the results with previous available information, we reveal the probable role of this method in research promotion and proposed approach to facilitate and expedite achieving the prospects for goals of health research based on the visions of Iran by 2025. Results: All of the indicators of stewardship and capacity building axes are received to their predefined levels. Moreover all of the medical science university research policies are based on their strategic plannings which are extracted from national visions of Iran by 2025. Most of the predefined goals in knowledge production domain had a significant grow trend but for more growth for commitments they should be closely follow. Conclusion: We developed an HRS-based comprehensive evaluation program to our national vision as well as our regional and international research competition. PMID:23865018

  4. Information sources in biomedical science and medical journalism: methodological approaches and assessment.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Giovanna F; Vercellesi, Luisa; Bruno, Flavia

    2004-09-01

    Throughout the world the public is showing increasing interest in medical and scientific subjects and journalists largely spread this information, with an important impact on knowledge and health. Clearly, therefore, the relationship between the journalist and his sources is delicate: freedom and independence of information depend on the independence and truthfulness of the sources. The new "precision journalism" holds that scientific methods should be applied to journalism, so authoritative sources are a common need for journalists and scientists. We therefore compared the individual classifications and methods of assessing of sources in biomedical science and medical journalism to try to extrapolate scientific methods of evaluation to journalism. In journalism and science terms used to classify sources of information show some similarities, but their meanings are different. In science primary and secondary classes of information, for instance, refer to the levels of processing, but in journalism to the official nature of the source itself. Scientists and journalists must both always consult as many sources as possible and check their authoritativeness, reliability, completeness, up-to-dateness and balance. In journalism, however, there are some important differences and limits: too many sources can sometimes diminish the quality of the information. The sources serve a first filter between the event and the journalist, who is not providing the reader with the fact, but with its projection. Journalists have time constraints and lack the objective criteria for searching, the specific background knowledge, and the expertise to fully assess sources. To assist in understanding the wealth of sources of information in journalism, we have prepared a checklist of items and questions. There are at least four fundamental points that a good journalist, like any scientist, should know: how to find the latest information (the sources), how to assess it (the quality and

  5. Partnered disaster preparedness: lessons learned from international events.

    PubMed

    Born, Christopher T; Cullison, Thomas R; Dean, Jeffrey A; Hayda, Roman A; McSwain, Norman; Riddles, Lawrence M; Shimkus, Albert J

    2011-01-01

    Military, governmental, and civilian agencies routinely respond to disasters around the world, including large-scale mass casualty events such as the earthquake in Pakistan in 2005, Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, and the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Potential exists for improved coordination of medical response between civilian and military sectors and for the creation of a planned and practiced interface. Disaster preparedness could be enhanced with more robust disaster education for civilian responders; creation of a database of precredentialed, precertified medical specialists; implementation of a communication bridge; and the establishment of agreements between military and civilian medical/surgical groups in advance of major catastrophic events. PMID:21304048

  6. Disaster Planning in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling; Green, Ravonne

    2006-01-01

    Disaster preparedness is an important issue in library management today. This article presents a general overview of the theoretical aspects of disaster planning in libraries. The stages of disaster planning are a circular process of planning, prevention, response, recovery, preparedness, and training.

  7. Planning for Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Disaster recovery planning need not be expensive nor complete to be effective. Systematic planning involves several crucial steps, including outlining the final plan, understanding the nature of a disaster's effects and the stages of disaster recovery, prioritizing appropriately, and learning how to test the plan in a practical way for the…

  8. Serving through Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2007-01-01

    Disaster planning focuses on future function and recovery, on helping libraries expeditiously return to their original states of operation. It all but ignores the concept of continuous function throughout a disaster. This is not true in the private and government sectors, however, which have managed to cover a wider load of disaster response…

  9. Gender perspective in medicine: a vital part of medical scientific rationality. A useful model for comprehending structures and hierarchies within medical science

    PubMed Central

    Risberg, Gunilla; Hamberg, Katarina; Johansson, Eva E

    2006-01-01

    Background During the past few decades, research has reported gender bias in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. To prevent such bias, a gender perspective in medicine has been requested, but difficulties and resistance have been reported from implementation attempts. Our study aimed at analysing this resistance in relation to what is considered good medical research. Method We used a theoretical model, based on scientific competition, to understand the structures of scientific medicine and how they might influence the resistance to a gender perspective in medicine. The model was originally introduced to discuss how pluralism improves rationality in the social sciences. Results The model provided a way to conceptualise different fields of research in medicine: basic research, applied research, medical philosophy, and 'empowering' research. It clarified how various research approaches within medicine relate to each other, and how they differ and compete. It also indicated why there might be conflicts between them: basic and applied research performed within the biomedical framework have higher status than gender research and other research approaches that are performed within divergent research paradigms. Conclusion This hierarchy within medical research contributes to the resistance to a gender perspective, causing gender bias and making medical scientific rationality suboptimal. We recommend that the theoretical model can be applied in a wider medical context when different and hierarchically arranged research traditions are in conflict. In this way, the model might contribute to shape a medical community where scientific pluralism is acknowledged to enlarge, not to disturb, the scientific rationality of medicine. PMID:16928283

  10. [A methodological approach to assessing the quality of medical health information on its way from science to the mass media].

    PubMed

    Serong, Julia; Anhäuser, Marcus; Wormer, Holger

    2015-01-01

    A current research project deals with the question of how the quality of medical health information changes on its way from the academic journal via press releases to the news media. In an exploratory study a sample of 30 news items has been selected stage-by-stage from an adjusted total sample of 1,695 journalistic news items on medical research in 2013. Using a multidimensional set of criteria the news items as well as the corresponding academic articles, abstracts and press releases are examined by science journalists and medical experts. Together with a content analysis of the expert assessments, it will be verified to what extent established quality standards for medical journalism can be applied to medical health communication and public relations or even to studies and abstracts as well. PMID:26028455

  11. [The All-Russian Disaster Medicine Service].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, T B; Goncharov, S F

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical bases of creation, stages of development, normative-and-legal base, structure and problems of a All-Russia service of disaster medicine are stated. In article some questions about experience of rendering of the medical aid to the injured in the extreme situations (North Caucus region, Sakhalin, Budenovsk, Irkutsk), training of personnel, creation of reserves of medical property for extreme situations, organization of service management are submitted. The federal program "Perfection of All-Russia service of disaster medicine on 1997-2001 years" is considered in detail. PMID:9505542

  12. [A continuous 4-year evaluation of medical informatics education in a graduate school of health sciences using a questionnaire survey].

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Matsutani, Hideya; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of awareness among undergraduate students regarding medical informatics and to ascertain whether educational training has progressed with time in the Department of Health Sciences at Hirosaki University, Japan, which is a co-medical staff training institution that conducts a 4-year university course in medical informatics. The university accepts students who have completed the 3rd grade of medical licensing tests and who have attended the medical informatics lectures for 4 years (2007-2010). The ratio of first sight terminology percentage in any given fiscal year in all the 30 terminology categories varied widely from 0% to 80%, but the trend in various categories did not vary between fiscal years. The terminology of informatics under medical technology students obtained high scores of 52.5-77.3% after attending courses, which was higher compared with students from other classes. On the other hand, student nurses and occupational therapy students obtained 0-44.2%. Each class scored a high percentage of correct answers in the medical information-related terminology. Among the radiology students who attended the classes, the percentage of correct answers in categories of "digital imaging and communication in medicine" and "picture archiving and communication system" were lower than other medical terminology categories. These results reflect the gaps in educational curriculum of 1st and 2nd grades of medical licensing tests. PMID:23358336

  13. Negligible Risk for Epidemics after Geophysical Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Floret, Nathalie; Viel, Jean-François; Mauny, Frédéric; Hoen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    After geophysical disasters (i.e., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis), media reports almost always stress the risk for epidemics; whether this risk is genuine has been debated. We analyzed the medical literature and data from humanitarian agencies and the World Health Organization from 1985 to 2004. Of >600 geophysical disasters recorded, we found only 3 reported outbreaks related to these disasters: 1 of measles after the eruption of Pinatubo in Philippines, 1 of coccidioidomycosis after an earthquake in California, and 1 of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Costa Rica related to an earthquake and heavy rainfall. Even though the humanitarian response may play a role in preventing epidemics, our results lend support to the epidemiologic evidence that short-term risk for epidemics after a geophysical disaster is very low. PMID:16704799

  14. Negligible risk for epidemics after geophysical disasters.

    PubMed

    Floret, Nathalie; Viel, Jean-François; Mauny, Frédéric; Hoen, Bruno; Piarroux, Renaud

    2006-04-01

    After geophysical disasters (i.e., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis), media reports almost always stress the risk for epidemics; whether this risk is genuine has been debated. We analyzed the medical literature and data from humanitarian agencies and the World Health Organization from 1985 to 2004. Of >600 geophysical disasters recorded, we found only 3 reported outbreaks related to these disasters: 1 of measles after the eruption of Pinatubo in Philippines, 1 of coccidioidomycosis after an earthquake in California, and 1 of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Costa Rica related to an earthquake and heavy rainfall. Even though the humanitarian response may play a role in preventing epidemics, our results lend support to the epidemiologic evidence that short-term risk for epidemics after a geophysical disaster is very low. PMID:16704799

  15. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  16. Changes in Study Strategies of Medical Students between Basic Science Courses and Clerkships Are Associated with Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, David C.; Hoyt, Amy E.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that medical students change their study strategies when transitioning from basic science courses to clerkships, and that their study practices are associated with performance scores. Factor scores for three approaches to studying (construction, rote, and review) generated from student (n = 150) responses to a…

  17. Still a Bad Idea. A Critique of Harvard University's Medical Science Partners Proposal. A Harvard Watch Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Robert; Bourke, Jaron

    In 1988, Harvard University unveiled plans for Medical Science Partners (MSP), a venture capital fund intended to invest in and commercialize faculty biomedical projects. Critical of what is perceived as a "15 year long trend" wherein Harvard has "forged deeper and more extensive ties with the biomedical industry," the document asserts that MSP…

  18. Health Sciences and Medical College Preadmission Criteria and Prediction of In-Course Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.

    2013-01-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…

  19. A CYCLOTRON CONCEPT TO SUPPORT ISOTOPE PRODUCTION FOR SCIENCE AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Egle, Brian; Mirzadeh, Saed; Tatum, B Alan; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Burgess, Thomas W; Aaron, W Scott; Binder, Jeffrey L; Beene, James R; Saltmarsh, Michael John

    2013-01-01

    In August of 2009, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) recommended a variable-energy, high-current multi-particle accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a technical concept for a 70 MeV dual-extraction multi-particle cyclotron that will meet the needs identified in the NSAC report. The cyclotron, which will be located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), will operate on a 24/7 basis and will provide approximately 6000 hours per year of quality beam time for both the production R&D and production of medical and industrial radioisotopes. The proposed cyclotron will be capable of accelerating dual beams of 30 to 70 MeV H at up to 750 A, and up to 50 A of 15-35 MeV D , 35 MeV H2, and 70 MeV -particles. In dual-extraction H mode, a total of 750 A of 70 MeV protons will be provided simultaneously to both HRIBF and Isotope Production Facility. The isotope facility will consist of two target stations: a 2 water-cooled station and a 4 water-cooled high-energy-beam research station. The multi-particle capability and high beam power will enable research into new regimes of accelerator-produced radioisotopes, such as 225Ac, 211At, 68Ge, and 7B. The capabilities of the accelerator will enable the measurement of excitation functions, thick target yield measurements, research in high-power-target design, and will support fundamental research in nuclear and radiochemistry.

  20. Suggested Minimum Data Set for Speech Therapy Centers Affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Damanabi, Shahla; Abdolnejad, Shawbo; Karimi, Gelavizh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The minimum data considered as a conceptual framework, based on the achievement of effectiveness indicators and it ensures to access of precise and clear health data. The aims of the present study were identified and proposed a data element set of speech therapy centers affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods: This study that was cross – sectional type, performed in 9 speech therapy clinic from medical university in 2014. Firstly, the minimum data elements set evaluated using the check list in these centers. Using the findings from the first step and survey of internal and external documentation forms, designed a questionnaire containing a minimum data speech therapy files and it shared between 36 Speech therapy experts using 5 options of Likert scale. Validity of questionnaire was examined through its validity and reliability of content by retest. For data analysis, data processing was performed using descriptive statistics by SPSS21 software. Results: The minimum data set for speech therapy were divided into two categories: clinical and administrative data. The Name and surname, date of birth, gender, address, telephone number, date of admission and the number of treatments, the patient’s complaint, the time of occurrence of injury or disorder, reason and age of disease considered as the most important elements for management data and health history. For the most important elements of clinical information were selected Short-term and long-term aims and development of speech history. Conclusion: The design and implementation of suitable data collection of speech therapy for gathering of data, we recommended planning for the control and prevention of speech disorders to providing high quality and good care of patient in speech therapy centers. PMID:26483600

  1. Achievement motivation level in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and its influential factors

    PubMed Central

    KAVOUSIPOUR, SOMAYEH; NOORAFSHAN, ALI; POURAHMAD, SAEEDEH; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many studies have investigated the relationship between motivation and educational outcomes. The present study was conducted to determine whether the students’ motivation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) decreases during educational years. Methods: 770 students in SUMS were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling from each field and entrance year. The first questionnaire contained 57 questions on the effect of economic, social, educational, geographical and personality factors on the students’ motivation. The second one was based on 50 incomplete sentences. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by the experts and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (85% and 90%, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Six factors with the most effect on academic motivation were "family attitudes", "getting good jobs in future", "respect for themselves", " the ability to learn", "believing their role in victory and defeat" and "the tendency toward optimism about themselves". In addition, comparing professional doctorate and basic sciences’ results revealed no significant relationship between academic motivation and educational years (F=0.819, p=0.397). But comparing field by field showed that Dentistry and Hospital Management and Medical Information (HMMI) had a significant decrease in motivation score by increase in educational years (F=3.991, p=0.015). Conclusion: Achievement motivation level in SUMS students was higher than average and did not decrease during educational years. Also, the results showed that personal, social and educational related factors affected motivation level more than economic and environmental factors. PMID:25587552

  2. Moral Distress in Physicians Practicing in Hospitals Affiliated to Medical Sciences Universities

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Kiani, Mehrzad; Borhani, Fariba; Bazmi, Shabnam; Nazari Tavaokkoli, Saeid; Rasouli, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Researchers have regarded moral distress as a major concern in the health care system. Symptoms associated with moral distress may manifest as frustration, dissatisfaction, and anxiety and may lead to burnout, job leaving, and finally, failure to provide safe and competent care to patients. Proper management of this phenomenon can be fulfilled through study of its causes at different levels of health services and taking necessary measures to solve them. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the status of moral distress in physicians practicing in hospitals affiliated to Medical Sciences Universities in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out using the Standard Hamric Scale to collect data after modification and evaluation of its reliability and validity. A total of 399 physicians responded to the scale. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and correlation statistics with respect to the variables. Results: Results showed that the frequency of moral distress of physicians was 1.24 ± 0.63 and the intensity of moral distress and composite score of moral distress were 2.14 ± 0.80 and 2.94 ± 2.38, respectively. A significant negative correlation existed between age and frequency and composite score (r = -0.15, P < 0.01 and r = -0.16, P < 0.01, respectively) as well as years of experience and composite score (r = -0.11, P = 0.04). Moral distress composite score in adults specialists was higher than pediatricians (P = 0.002), but lower in physicians participated in medical ethics training courses compared to those not participated. Conclusions: Physicians may encounter moral distress during their practice; therefore, the common causes of distress should be identified in order to prevent its occurrence. PMID:25558387

  3. How do Medical Radiation Science educators keep up with the [clinical] Joneses?

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, Eileen

    2014-06-15

    Medical radiation science (MRS) disciplines include medical imaging, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. These allied health fields are technology driven and evolving rapidly with regard to imaging and treatment techniques within the clinical environment. This research aims to identify the activities academics are currently participating in to maintain clinical currency and offer strategies to support academics to connect with an ever-changing clinical environment. A cross-sectional designed survey was sampled across the nine Australian universities where MRS programmes are offered. The survey targeted academic teaching staff that were working in MRS programmes at the time of distribution (n ≈ 90). Enablers and barriers to maintaining clinical currency as well as support to participate in continuing professional development were rated by the respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and free-text comment responses were collated and themed. There were 38 responses to the survey (42%) and all three disciplines were represented. Responses highlighted activities valued by academics as contributing to their knowledge of current practice and as resources to inform their teaching. Positive elements included participating in clinical work and research, attending clinical sites and training days and attending scientific meetings. Common barriers identified by academics in this area were time constraints, workload allocation and employer/financial support. This research has identified that Australian MRS academics participate in a broad range of activities to inform their teaching and maintain knowledge of contemporary clinical practice. A connection with the clinical world is valued highly by academics, however, access and support to maintain that link is often a difficulty and as a result for MRS teaching staff keeping up with the clinical [MRS] Joneses is often a challenge.

  4. Perspective of midwives working at hospitals affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences regarding medical errors

    PubMed Central

    Valiani, Mahboubeh; Majidi, Jamileh; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Committing an error is part of the human nature. No health care provider, despite the mastery of their skills, is immune from committing it. Medical error in the labor and obstetrics wards as well as other health units is inevitable and reduces the quality of health care, leading to accident. Sometimes these events, like the death of mother, fetus, and newborn, would be beyond repair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perspective of gynecological ward providers about medical errors. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive–analytical study. Sample size was 94 participants selected using census sampling. The study population included all midwives of four hospitals (Al-Zahra, Beheshti, Isa Ben Maryam, and Amin). Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: This study shows that three factors (human, structural, and managerial) have affected medical errors in the labor and obstetrics wards. From the midwifery perspective, human factors were the most important factors with an average score of 73.26% and the lowest score was related to structural factors with an average score of 65.36%. Intervention strategies to reduce errors, service training program tailored to the needs of the service provider, distribution of the tasks at different levels, and attempts to reform the system instead of punishing the wrongdoer were set in priority list. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study on the perspectives of participants, among the three factors of medical errors (human factors, structural factors, and management factors), human factors are the biggest threat in committing medical errors. Modification in the pattern of teaching by the midwifery professors and their presence in the hospitals, creating a no-blame culture, and sharing of alerts in medical errors are among appropriate actions in the dimensions of human, structural, and managerial factors. PMID:26457089

  5. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences:categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    PubMed Central

    NABEIEI, PARISA; AMINI, MITRA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; MARHAMATI, SAADAT

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10). Results In the first phase (NGT), 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26) and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52). In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities. PMID:26793723

  6. Need for continual education about disaster medicine for health professionals in China-a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disaster Medicine training is not included in medical education curriculum in China, even though the country has suffered various disasters annually. We intended to assess the need for continual education regarding disaster management for health professionals in China. Methods A survey was conducted among 324 health professionals who participated in the response to the Wenchuan earthquake medical relief and public health assessment in October, 2008. Results The most of participants (67.3%) received informal disaster medicine training, and only a few (12.7%) participated in disaster drills. Most of the participants wanted to get continual education about disaster medicine training (89.8%), but prefer on-line training course for the flexibility of time scheduling and travel through China. Conclusion The need for continual disaster medicine training is high; health professionals should be equipped with knowledge and skills for disaster management. PMID:21303557

  7. Life Works: Explore Health and Medical Science Careers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... at science.education.nih.gov/LifeWorks Darryl Lowery Photo courtesy of NIH Office of Science Education Darryl ... a refresher course and another test.” Vivian Morales Photo courtesy of NIH Office of Science Education Vivian ...

  8. Library roles in disaster response: an oral history project by the National Library of Medicine*†

    PubMed Central

    Featherstone, Robin M.; Lyon, Becky J.; Ruffin, Angela B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a knowledgebase of stories illustrating the variety of roles that librarians can assume in emergency and disaster planning, preparedness, response, and recovery, the National Library of Medicine conducted an oral history project during the summer of 2007. The history aimed to describe clearly and compellingly the activities—both expected and unusual—that librarians performed during and in the aftermath of the disasters. While various types of libraries were included in interviews, the overall focus of the project was on elucidating roles for medical libraries. Methods: Using four broad questions as the basis for telephone and email interviews, the investigators recorded the stories of twenty-three North American librarians who responded to bombings and other acts of terrorism, earthquakes, epidemics, fires, floods, hurricanes, and tornados. Results: Through the process of conducting the oral history, an understanding of multiple roles for libraries in disaster response emerged. The roles fit into eight categories: institutional supporters, collection managers, information disseminators, internal planners, community supporters, government partners, educators and trainers, and information community builders. Conclusions: Librarians—particularly health sciences librarians—made significant contributions to preparedness and recovery activities surrounding recent disasters. Lessons learned from the oral history project increased understanding of and underscored the value of collaborative relationships between libraries and local, state, and federal disaster management agencies and organizations. PMID:18974811

  9. The Central American Network for Disaster and Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Arnesen, Stacey J.; Cid, Victor H.; Scott, John C.; Perez, Ricardo; Zervaas, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes an international outreach program to support rebuilding Central America's health information infrastructure after several natural disasters in the region, including Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and two major earthquakes in 2001. Setting, Participants, and Description: The National Library of Medicine joined forces with the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, and the Regional Center of Disaster Information for Latin America and the Caribbean (CRID) to strengthen libraries and information centers in Central America and improve the availability of and access to health and disaster information in the region by developing the Central American Network for Disaster and Health Information (CANDHI). Through CRID, the program created ten disaster health information centers in medical libraries and disaster-related organizations in six countries. Results/Outcome: This project served as a catalyst for the modernization of several medical libraries in Central America. The resulting CANDHI provides much needed electronic access to public health “gray literature” on disasters, as well as access to numerous health information resources. CANDHI members assist their institutions and countries in a variety of disaster preparedness activities through collecting and disseminating information. PMID:17641767

  10. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. PMID:26179452

  11. Health services responses to disasters in Mumbai sharing experiences.

    PubMed

    Supe, Avinash; Satoskar, Rajeev

    2008-06-01

    In mass disaster situations, demands frequently exceed the capacity of personnel and facilities. In the last few years, there has been an increased incidence of civil disasters; the spectrum of possible catastrophes has also dramatically increased as a result of an increasingly technologically sophisticated society. During the last 15 years, varied terrorist activities have become increasingly common as expressions of the opinions of extreme political groups, especially in India. In Mumbai itself, we have witnessed disasters such as widespread riots, terrorist bomb blasts, floods, and fires. There have been other disasters in India, such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, as well as tsunamis Though most of the hospitals in India manage the medical problems associated with these disasters fairly efficiently, an analysis of the situation is presented so that this may form the basis for future planning in disaster preparedness and provide a template for other communities that may want to implement preparedness protocols. We present our experience with disaster management in Mumbai, India. A successful medical response to multi-injury civilian disasters, either natural or man-made, dictates formulation, dissemination, and periodic assessment of a contingency plan to facilitate the triage and treatment of victims of disaster. PMID:18603744

  12. Evaluation of doctors’ performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Salwani; Salam, Abdus; Alattraqchi, Ahmed G; Annamalai, Lakshmi; Chockalingam, Annamalai; Elena, Wan Putri; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Haque, Mainul

    2015-01-01

    Background Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students’ perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012–2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. Results The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Conclusion Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning. PMID:25878516

  13. Advancing regulatory science to bring novel medical devices for use in emergency care to market: the role of the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Scully, Christopher G; Forrest, Shawn; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne B; Strauss, David G

    2015-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performs regulatory science to provide science-based medical product regulatory decisions. This article describes the types of scientific research the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health performs and highlights specific projects related to medical devices for emergency medicine. In addition, this article discusses how results from regulatory science are used by the FDA to support the regulatory process as well as how the results are communicated to the public. Regulatory science supports the FDA's mission to assure safe, effective, and high-quality medical products are available to patients. PMID:25128009

  14. Essentials of disaster management: the role of the orthopaedic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Born, Christopher T; Monchik, Keith O; Hayda, Roman A; Bosse, Michael J; Pollak, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and management education is essential for allowing orthopaedic surgeons to play a valuable, constructive role in responding to disasters. The National Incident Management System, as part of the National Response Framework, provides coordination between all levels of government and uses the Incident Command System as its unified command structure. An "all-hazards" approach to disasters, whether natural, man-made, intentional, or unintentional, is fundamental to disaster planning. To respond to any disaster, command and control must be established, and emergency management must be integrated with public health and medical care. In the face of increasing acts of terrorism, an understanding of blast injury pathophysiology allows for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. A practical understanding of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents and their attendant clinical symptoms is also prerequisite. Credentialing and coordination between designated organizations and the federal government are essential to allow civilian orthopaedic surgeons to access systems capable of disaster response. PMID:21553757

  15. Survey of Keyword Adjustment of Published Articles Medical Subject Headings in Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (2009-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Method This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009–2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Results Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no

  16. Study on Research Anxiety Among Faculty Members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Zarmehr, Fateme; Bahrami, Susan; Ghazavi-Khorasgani, Zahra; Kazempour, Zahra; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most common anxieties in higher education is research anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the research anxiety level among the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Methods: this was survey- analytical study. The stratified random sampling method was used and a sample of 212 people was selected. For data collection was used a questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical (T Test, ANOVA and LSD) statistics. Findings: The average anxiety research in IUMS was about 3.27 ±0.536. Among factors, highest scores in descending order are related to lack of timely payment of fees (3.97±0.961), the long approval process of proposals and research project reporting (3.86.±0.99) and lack of research efficiency on the part of faculty (3.70±1.00). The lowest scores were related to having insufficient funds to conduct research (2.67±1.08), another’s understanding of inability for researching (2.84±1.192), and unfriendly behavior from journals and research center staffs (2.89±0.802). Conclusion: The mean level of research anxiety among faculty members of IUMS was found higher than average. So it’s essential that authorities pay greater attention to the factors that cause research anxiety. PMID:25685076

  17. A novel medical image data-based multi-physics simulation platform for computational life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Esra; Szczerba, Dominik; Chavannes, Nicolas; Kuster, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Simulating and modelling complex biological systems in computational life sciences requires specialized software tools that can perform medical image data-based modelling, jointly visualize the data and computational results, and handle large, complex, realistic and often noisy anatomical models. The required novel solvers must provide the power to model the physics, biology and physiology of living tissue within the full complexity of the human anatomy (e.g. neuronal activity, perfusion and ultrasound propagation). A multi-physics simulation platform satisfying these requirements has been developed for applications including device development and optimization, safety assessment, basic research, and treatment planning. This simulation platform consists of detailed, parametrized anatomical models, a segmentation and meshing tool, a wide range of solvers and optimizers, a framework for the rapid development of specialized and parallelized finite element method solvers, a visualization toolkit-based visualization engine, a Python scripting interface for customized applications, a coupling framework, and more. Core components are cross-platform compatible and use open formats. Several examples of applications are presented: hyperthermia cancer treatment planning, tumour growth modelling, evaluating the magneto-haemodynamic effect as a biomarker and physics-based morphing of anatomical models. PMID:24427518

  18. Assessing mental health literacy: What medical sciences students’ know about depression

    PubMed Central

    Sayarifard, Azadeh; Ghadirian, Laleh; Mohit, Ahmad; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Badpa, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health literacy is an individual’s knowledge and belief about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management and prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health literacy among students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected by the anonymous self-administered questionnaires and finally 324 students participated in the study. Random cluster sampling was used. Questions were in different areas of the mental health literacy for depression include recognition of disorder, intended actions to seek help and perceived barriers, beliefs about interventions, prevention, stigmatization and impact of media. T-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean (±SD) age was 23.5±2.8. The participants were 188 (58.1%) females and 136 (41.9%) males. In response to the recognition of the disorder 115 (35.6%) students mentioned the correct answer. In help-seeking area, 208 (64.3%) gave positive answer. The majority of affected students sought for help from their friends and parents. Stigma was the greatest barrier for seeking help. Television and Internet were the most common sources of information related to mental health. Conclusion: Generally students’ mental health literacy on depression was low in some areas. Appropriate educational programs specifically for reducing mental disorders stigma seems necessary. Organizing networks of co-helper students for mental health could be considered. PMID:26000256

  19. Patient education process in teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Goharinezhad, Salime; Vatankhah, Soodabeh; Azmal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient education is widely recognized as a core component of nursing. Patient education can lead to quality outcomes including adherence, quality of life, patients' knowledge of their illness and self-management. This study aimed to clarify patient education process in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. In this descriptive quantitative study, the sample covered 187 head nurses selected from ten teaching hospitals through convenience sampling. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The questionnaire measured patient education process in four dimensions: need assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating. Results: The overall mean score of patient education was 3.326±0.0524. Among the four dimensions of the patient education process, planning was in the highest level (3.570±0.0591) and the lowest score belonged to the evaluation of patient education (2.840 ±0.0628). Conclusion: Clarifying patient education steps, developing standardized framework and providing easily understandable tool-kit of the patient education program will improve the ability of nurses in delivering effective patient education in general and specialized hospitals. PMID:26478878

  20. Research design and statistical methods in Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences (PJMS)

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Sohail; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Rafiq, M.; Khan, Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article compares the study design and statistical methods used in 2005, 2010 and 2015 of Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences (PJMS). Methods: Only original articles of PJMS were considered for the analysis. The articles were carefully reviewed for statistical methods and designs, and then recorded accordingly. The frequency of each statistical method and research design was estimated and compared with previous years. Results: A total of 429 articles were evaluated (n=74 in 2005, n=179 in 2010, n=176 in 2015) in which 171 (40%) were cross-sectional and 116 (27%) were prospective study designs. A verity of statistical methods were found in the analysis. The most frequent methods include: descriptive statistics (n=315, 73.4%), chi-square/Fisher’s exact tests (n=205, 47.8%) and student t-test (n=186, 43.4%). There was a significant increase in the use of statistical methods over time period: t-test, chi-square/Fisher’s exact test, logistic regression, epidemiological statistics, and non-parametric tests. Conclusion: This study shows that a diverse variety of statistical methods have been used in the research articles of PJMS and frequency improved from 2005 to 2015. However, descriptive statistics was the most frequent method of statistical analysis in the published articles while cross-sectional study design was common study design. PMID:27022365

  1. A novel medical image data-based multi-physics simulation platform for computational life sciences.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Esra; Szczerba, Dominik; Chavannes, Nicolas; Kuster, Niels

    2013-04-01

    Simulating and modelling complex biological systems in computational life sciences requires specialized software tools that can perform medical image data-based modelling, jointly visualize the data and computational results, and handle large, complex, realistic and often noisy anatomical models. The required novel solvers must provide the power to model the physics, biology and physiology of living tissue within the full complexity of the human anatomy (e.g. neuronal activity, perfusion and ultrasound propagation). A multi-physics simulation platform satisfying these requirements has been developed for applications including device development and optimization, safety assessment, basic research, and treatment planning. This simulation platform consists of detailed, parametrized anatomical models, a segmentation and meshing tool, a wide range of solvers and optimizers, a framework for the rapid development of specialized and parallelized finite element method solvers, a visualization toolkit-based visualization engine, a Python scripting interface for customized applications, a coupling framework, and more. Core components are cross-platform compatible and use open formats. Several examples of applications are presented: hyperthermia cancer treatment planning, tumour growth modelling, evaluating the magneto-haemodynamic effect as a biomarker and physics-based morphing of anatomical models. PMID:24427518

  2. Characterization of an SiPM dedicated at analytical, life science, and medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérard, Philippe; Couture, Martin; Laforce, Frédéric; Fong, Bernicy; Dautet, Henri

    2013-03-01

    Silicon photomultipliers with high photon detection efficiency in the 350 to 800 nm range and low dark count rate are currently being developed in a variety of geometry, microcell size and area in order to address the needs of the analytical, life science, medical imaging community as well as for various scientific and technological applications. This SiPM development platform is based on previous knowledge of low dark count avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger-mode found in the Excelitas single photon counting module. Low dark counts and low temperature sensitivity are especially important when tiling up SiPMs to form larger area detectors such as block detectors typically used in positron emission tomography. The latest developments include; 1. Optical trenches to suppress crosstalk which allowed to increase the operating voltage range from 5 to 10 V above breakdown, 2. Tailored parasitic capacitance to obtain single photon timing resolution close to 200 ps FWHM and 3. Improved PDE at shorter wavelengths by optimizing the entrance window. A corrected energy resolution of 12.0 % was typically obtained at 511 keV which, alongside the good timing resolution, makes this SiPM a perfect candidate for time-of-flight PET and other application requiring a timing resolution better than 200 ps.

  3. Nursing Students' Perception of Instructors' Caring Behaviors in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Shohani, Masoumeh; Palmeh, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Caring behaviors of clinical teachers is one of the most important and influential factors in the process of clinical instruction, so far has not been paid enough attention. In other words, there has been so little research done in this area, so that the researchers couldn't present the clear image of caring dimensions. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine nursing students' perception of instructors' caring behavior. Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 240 nursing students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The participants were selected through stratified random sampling method. The data were collected using Wade's inventory for nursing students' perception of instructor caring (NSPIC). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS13 software. Results: The level of nursing instructors' caring behavior during teaching students was medium to high with the mean and standard deviation of 4.65 (0.93), as the highest level belonged to the respectful sharing, and then respectively, instill confidence through caring, appreciation of life meanings, supportive learning climate, and control versus flexibility.Conclusion: The results obtained in this study demonstrate that there is a gap in some dimension in order to achieve optimum about instructors' caring behaviors. Examining and identifying the influential factors in this regard, and applying effective strategies by relevant authorities will be effective in qualitative promotion of clinical teaching. PMID:25821759

  4. Fauna aquatic insects in sewage maturation ponds of Kashan University of Medical Science 2005.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhollah; Miranzadeh, Mohhamad Bagher; Yosefzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Zamani, Soheyla

    2007-03-15

    Organic materials in maturation ponds, the personal study was carried out to determine the aquatic insects living in the maturation pond of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2005. This was a descriptive study, 9 series of sampling including 1032 of larva, nymph and adults were collected and sent to a laboratory. Then they were diagnosed using stereo microscope and morphologic identification key. At of 1032 collected samples from 4 maturation ponds, the orders if Diptera (52%), Hempitera (24%), Ciclopodidade (12%), Hydroacarina (9.5%), Coleptera (0.77%), Aranida (0.67%), Hymenoptera (0.58%), Odonata (0.48%), were determined. The families of Chironomidae and Culicidae from Diptera order, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Cupepodae and Copepodidae families from Hemiptera order, Hydrophilidae family from Coleptera order, Aranidae family from Aranida order, Vospidae family from Hymenoptera order, Anizoptera suborder from Odonata order were determined. Maturation ponds are the artificial places where are appropriate for the growth and development of aquatic insects and also for their predators with taking in to account that some of these insects are the carriers of pathogens, make inconvenience for human and also has significant role in the cycle of changing materials, it is recommended that further specialized studies carry out in this regard. PMID:19069891

  5. Hospitals Pharmacy Quality Assurance System Assessment in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, H; Khosravi, SH

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health system pharmacies, like other health care professional, practice under a number of mandated standards. Basic concepts of quality assurance (QA) standards should be applied to hospital pharmacy practice. The survey reported here is to assess QA system implementation and its standard indicators observation in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) hospitals’ pharmacies in 2007 – 2008. Methods: A cross – sectional, descriptive analytical survey was accomplished. First, a checklist within the framework of QA standard indicators was made to assess TUMS hospitals pharmacies practice. Collected data was saved by Excel software for recording and analyzed by SPSS version-15. Observation rate of QA standard indicators was classified by inappropriate, relatively appropriate, and appropriate. Results: Characteristics of TUMS hospitals pharmacists organizational structure, size, equipment, safety facility and drug requirement were studied by QA standard indicators. Conclusion: Many of QA standard indicators are observed and implemented in TUMS hospitals pharmacies, but several of these standards are not observed too. It is appropriate that all TUMS hospitals pharmacies are required to advance the profession, often with the same goal of increasing involvement in direct patient care. PMID:23113043

  6. Does leadership effectiveness correlates with leadership styles in healthcare executives of Iran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Effective leadership is essential to passing through obstacles facing the health field.The current health care system in Iran has major problems and gaps in the field of effective leadership. The aim of this study was to evaluate hospital managers’ leadership style through selfassessment and to determine the correlation between leadership styles with healthcare executives’ leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire completed by all internal healthcare executives of all teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaire was composed to determine demographic information, leadership style questions, leadership effectiveness and leadership readiness. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: According to the findings, the dominant style of healthcare executives was transformational leadership style (with a score of 4.34). The leadership effectiveness was estimated at about 4.36 that shows the appropriate level of leadership effectiveness. There was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.244) between leadership readiness and transformational leadership style (p<0.05). Also, there was a significant correlation between leadership effectiveness with transformational (0.051) and transactional (0.216) styles. Conclusion: There was a correlation between leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness with leadership styles. Application of this research will be crucial to universities and healthcare executives. This study suggests that strengthening the scientific basis is essential for leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness in healthcare system. PMID:26000260

  7. The epidemiology of disasters.

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based. PMID:959212

  8. Medical Hypotheses 2006 impact factor rises to 1.3--a vindication of the 'editorial review' system for revolutionary science.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Thomson Scientific Impact Factor (IF) for Medical Hypotheses has risen to 1.299 for 2006. This means that the IF has more than doubled since 2004, when it stood at 0.607. Using Elsevier's Scopus database; in 2004 there were 437 citations to Medical Hypotheses papers published in the previous two years--by 2006 this had trebled to 1216 citations. Monthly internet usage of Medical Hypotheses run at an average of about 26000 papers downloaded per month. An IF of 1.3 means that Medical Hypotheses has now entered the mainstream level of 'respectable' medical journals, in terms of its usage by other scientists. This is particularly pleasing given the aim of the journal is to publish radical and speculative ideas. A healthy IF is important to Medical Hypotheses because the journal deploys a system of editorial review, rather than peer review, for evaluation and selection of papers. Editorial review involves selection of a journal's content primarily by an editor who has broad experience and competence in the field, assisted by a relatively small editorial advisory board. The great advantage of editorial review is that it is able, by policy, to favour the publication of revolutionary science. But since editorial review relies on hard-to-quantify and non-transparent individual judgments, it is important for its outcomes to be open to objective evaluations. Scientometric measures of usage such as citations, impact factors and downloads constitute objective evidence concerning a journal's usefulness. Since Medical Hypotheses is performing adequately by such criteria, this provides a powerful answer to those who fetishize peer review and regard any other system of evaluation as suspect. Journal review procedures are merely a means to the end, and the end is a journal that serves a useful function in the dynamic process of science. Medical Hypotheses can now claim to perform such a role. PMID:17706892

  9. Donaldson v. Van de Kamp: cryonics, assisted suicide, and the challenges of medical science.

    PubMed

    Pommer, R W

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, advances in medical science have left the legal community with a wide array of social, ethical, and legal problems previously unimaginable. Historically, legislative and judicial responses to these advances lagged behind the rapid pace of such developments. The gap between the scientist's question, "Can we do it?," and the lawyer's question, "Should/may we do it?'" is most evident in the field of cryonics, with its technique of cryonic, or cryogenic, suspension. In cryonic suspension, a legally dead but biologically viable person is preserved at an extremely low temperature until advances in medical science make it possible to revive the person and implement an effective cure. The terminally ill patient who wishes to benefit from such treatment is faced with the dilemma that present life must be ceased with hope of future recovery. As a result, the process challenges our traditional notions of death and the prospects of immortality while raising a host of concomitant legal dilemmas. Some facets of this dilemma are exemplified by Donaldson v. Van de Kamp. In Donaldson, Thomas A. Donaldson sought the declaration of a constitutional right to premortem cryonic suspension of his body and the assistance of others in achieving that state. Donaldson, a forty-six-year-old mathematician and computer software scientist, suffers from a malignant brain tumor that was diagnosed by his physicians in 1988. This tumor is inoperable and continues to grow and invade his brain tissue. Donaldson's condition will gradually deteriorate into a persistent vegetative state and will ultimately result in death. Physicians predict his probable death by August 1993. Donaldson petitioned the California courts, seeking a declaration that he had a constitutional right to achieve cryonic suspension before his natural death. His doctors believe that if Donaldson waits until his natural death to be suspended, future reanimation will be futile because the tumor will have destroyed his

  10. Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This descriptive study aimed to present experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue after the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of transportation and transfer of patients and coordination of medical rescue forces. After the tsunami, numerous rescue institutions and international organizations rushed to Aceh province to aid in the rescue work. To coordinate various aspects of medical rescue efforts, an airport-based joint patient transfer center was developed. Within the framework of the joint transport center, rescue teams, militaries, and international institutions worked together to jointly triage, rapidly treat, and transfer patients. As members of the Chinese International Search and Rescue team, we were involved in the rescue efforts in the joint patient transfer center, and treated and transferred a total of 217 injured patients, the majority of whom were triaged as level II, followed by level III, and level I. The top three diseases were trauma/wound infection, respiratory system disease, and digestive system disease. The airport-based joint patient transfer center provided an efficient mechanism for successfully coordinating various aspects of the medical rescue efforts to transfer patients. Large-scale air transport, available health resources, and effective triage criteria also played an essential role in patient transportation and transfer. PMID:25102536

  11. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  12. RELIGION AND DISASTER VICTIM IDENTIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Jay; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-12-01

    Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) is a triangle, the components of which are secular law, religious law and custom and professional methods. In cases of single non-criminal deaths, identification often rests with a hospital or a medical authority. When dealing with criminal or mass death incidents, the law, in many jurisdictions, assigns identification to the coroner/medical examiner, who typically uses professional methods and only answers the religious requirements of the deceased's next-of-kin according to his personal judgment. This article discusses religious considerations regarding scientific methods and their limitations, as well as the ethical issues involved in the government coroner/medical examiner's becoming involved in clarifying and answering the next-of-kin's religious requirements. PMID:27351047

  13. Studying the Rate and Causes of Discharge Against Medical Advice in Hospitals Affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Shirzad Asadollah Pour; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni; Farahabbadi, Ebrahim Bagherian; Zamanfar, Daniel; Fallah, Mohammad; Abokheily, Mohammad Asadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Discharge against medical advice from the hospital is an important issue from point of view of treatment management, health costs as well as the side effects of treatment stop on patients and their accompanying. Therefore, health managers and planners should consider the predisposing factors that change patient’s mind in this regard. Since, there has been no study to carefully assess the rate and causes of self-discharge in this province, so this study is aimed to fill this gap. Methods and Materials: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 6 months period, from 23 July 2010 till 20 January 2011 in all public hospitals of Mazandaran province. A form was set out for data collection and those patients willing to self-discharge were asked to participate in the study. Patients’ demographic information was filled using their medical record and by the help of department personnel. Furthermore, the form was completed by parents for patients over 18 year-old or by the help of first-rank relative for those having psychiatric disorders or anybody who wasn’t able to complete the form. In order to identify the causes of self-discharge, 18 variables were determined which were categorized in three general items and five main groups. Data were entered into the SPSS15 and were analyzed using descriptive statistics indices. Results: According to the results, 94441 were discharged from the university hospitals which 7967 patients (8.4 %) of them were self-discharged during the 6 month study period. Regarding admission type, 269 (3.3 %), (54.5 %) were admitted into the hospital by pre-determined appointment and as usual patients, respectively, and the rest were admitted by emergency department. Also, 31.4%(2504) were hospitalized in surgery ward, 63% (5026) in medical ward, 4.6% (374) in intensive care unit (ICU) and the rest were hospitalized in the psychiatric ward. The most important reasons for self-discharge were related to: 1-factors

  14. "Modern medical science and the divine providence of god": rethinking the place of religion in postwar U.S. medical history.

    PubMed

    Golden, Janet; Abel, Emily K

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a large cache of letters to John and Frances Gunther after the death of their son as well as memoirs and fiction by bereaved parents, this essay challenges the assumptions of secularization that infuse histories of twentieth-century American medicine. Many parents who experienced the death of children during the postwar period relied heavily on religion to help make sense of the tragedies medicine could not prevent. Parental accounts included expression of belief in divine intervention and the power of prayer, gratitude for God's role in minimizing suffering, confidence in the existence of an afterlife, and acceptance of the will of God. Historians seeking to understand how parents and families understood both the delivery of medical care and the cultural authority of medical science must integrate an understanding of religious experiences and faith into their work. PMID:23946448

  15. Weight-bearing manipulation: a neglected area of medical science relevant to piano playing and overuse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hmelnitsky, I; Nettheim, N

    1987-06-01

    Functional anatomy and physiology have naturally attended mainly to those functions which occur most commonly in everyday life. Piano playing is a more specialized area, where functions arise which have so far been neglected in medical science. These functions are here described by a pianist (IH) in the hope that medical researchers will respond to fill the gaps. The importance of this lies not only in the understanding of skilled manipulative activity but also in the avoidance of overuse syndrome (OUS) or repetitive strain injury (RSI). PMID:3614013

  16. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Ilan

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy. PMID:17714169

  17. Health sciences librarians' research on medical students' use of information for their studies at the medical school, University of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lasserre, Kaye E; Foxlee, Nicola; Kruesi, Lisa; Walters, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research undertaken by health sciences librarians at the University of Queensland Library into how medical students use information for their studies, particularly resources and services provided by the Library. The methods utilized were an online survey and focus groups. Results indicated that students favor print resources over electronic, value accessing resources on a one-stop basis, and prefer training to be delivered flexibly. The implication of these results for future resource selection, service provision, and instructional design and delivery is discussed. PMID:21534114

  18. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, Yuichi; Choh, Toshio; Yamazaki, Ichiro; Kosaka, Katsuhiko; Iguchi, Masaaki; Nakajima, Isao

    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electro-cardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electro-cardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz.

  19. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Y; Choh, T; Yamazaki, I; Kosaka, K; Iguchi, M; Nakajima, I

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20 GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electrocardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electrocardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20 GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz. PMID:11542833

  20. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    A decade of research in Switzerland, The Netherlands, Germany, and Spain now constitutes a massive body of work supporting the use of heroin treatment for the most difficult patients addicted to opiates. These trials concur on this method's safety and efficacy and are now serving as a prelude to the institution of heroin treatment in clinical practice throughout Europe. While the different sampling and research protocols for heroin treatment in these studies were important to the academic claims about specific results and conclusions that could be drawn from each study, the overall outcomes were quite clear – and uniformly positive. They all find that the use of prescribed pharmaceutical heroin does exactly what it is intended to do: it reaches a treatment refractory group of addicts by engaging them in a positive healthcare relationship with a physician, it reduces their criminal activity, improves their health status, and increases their social tenure through more stable housing, employment, and contact with family. The Canadian trial (NAOMI), now underway for over a year, but not yet completed, now faces a dilemma about what to do with its patients who have successfully completed 12 months of heroin and must be withdrawn from heroin and transferred to other treatments in accordance with the research protocol approved by Government of Canada, federal granting body and host institutions. The problem is that the principal criterion for acceptance to NAOMI was their history of repeated failure in these very same treatment programs to which they will now be referred. The existence of the results from abroad (some of which were not yet available when NAOMI was designed and initiated) now raises a very important question for Canada: is it ethical to continue to prohibit the medical use of heroin treatment that has already been shown to be feasible and effective in numerous medical studies throughout the world? And while this is being worked out, is it acceptable to