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Sample records for discharge powder river

  1. Effects of coal-bed methane discharge waters on the vegetation and soil ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, M.; Tindall, J.A.; Cronin, G.; Friedel, M.J.; Bergquist, E.

    2005-01-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to investigate the effects of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation density and diversity. Results indicate an increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil are correlated with consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils and facilitate a greater sodium adsorption. However, there was no significant relation between increasing water sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species density was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and CBM affected upland sites. The affected gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the affected gully, implying a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. These findings suggest that CBM waters could affect agricultural production operations and long-term water quality. ?? Springer 2005.

  2. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  3. Flood discharge measurement of mountain rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.

    2012-11-01

    An efficient method that accounts for personal safety, accuracy and reliability for measuring flood discharge of mountain rivers is proposed. It is composed of new measurement method, tools, and techniques. Measuring flood discharge from mountain rivers by using conventional method is costly, time-consuming, and dangerous. Thus previous discharge measurements for mountainous areas were typically based on estimated precipitation, which alone cannot generate accurate measurements. This study applies a novel flood discharge measurement system composed of an Acoustic Doppler Profiler and crane system to accurately and quickly measure velocity distributions and water depths. Moreover a novel and efficient method for measuring discharge, which is based on the relationship between mean and maximum velocities and the relationship between cross-sectional area and gauge height is applied to estimate flood discharge. Flood discharge from mountain rivers can be estimated easily and rapidly by measuring maximum velocity in the river crosssection and the gauge height. The measured flood discharges can be utilized to create a reliable stage-discharge relationship for continuous estimations of discharge using records of water stage. The proposed method was applied to the Nanshih River, Taiwan. Results of measured discharges and estimated discharges only slightly differed from each other, demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  4. Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bruce J; Holmes, Robert M; McClelland, James W; Vörösmarty, Charles J; Lammers, Richard B; Shiklomanov, Alexander I; Shiklomanov, Igor A; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2002-12-13

    Synthesis of river-monitoring data reveals that the average annual discharge of fresh water from the six largest Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean increased by 7% from 1936 to 1999. The average annual rate of increase was 2.0 +/- 0.7 cubic kilometers per year. Consequently, average annual discharge from the six rivers is now about 128 cubic kilometers per year greater than it was when routine measurements of discharge began. Discharge was correlated with changes in both the North Atlantic Oscillation and global mean surface air temperature. The observed large-scale change in freshwater flux has potentially important implications for ocean circulation and climate. PMID:12481132

  5. High resolution aerial monitoring of aquatic and riparian habitat in selected reaches of Wyoming's Powder River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coalbed Methane (CBM) development produces saline and sodic discharge water at 5-15 gallons/minute/well. Current permits allow 51,000 wells in the Powder River Basin by 2010, giving a potential discharge of 1.1 billion gallons/day. To monitor the effect of the increasing CBM outflow on the aquatic a...

  6. Relating river discharges to salinity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    New river discharge data are brought together with spacebased sea surface salinity measurements by Aquarius and SMOS to demonstrate the role of river discharge in salinity changes near three river mouths: the Mississippi, the Ganges, and the Amazon. The characteristics of the seasonal cycle and the year-to-year changes of the river runoff are described. Various versions of the satellite salinity data are compared. The relative roles of river discharge, surface water flux, and horizontal advection in changing surface salinity in regions near the river mouths are examined. Satellite measurements of SSS clearly track movements of the fresh water from river discharges. Besides the river discharge, E-P plays an important role in the seasonal salinity variation near the Ganges and Irrawaddy River mouths. For the Mississippi and Amazon river mouths, central and eastern ITCZ, E-P contributes very little to the salinity seasonal change. In the central and eastern ITCZ, contribution of advection to the salinity tendency is clearly identified. Both salinity and salinity tendency are dominated by semi-annual cycle in the Atlantic ITCZ between 5ºN to 9ºN, whereas annual cycle dominates at other latitudes.

  7. In situ measurements of microbially-catalyzed nitrification and nitrate reduction rates in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving water from coalbed natural gas discharge, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, S.H.; Smith, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification and nitrate reduction were examined in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving discharge from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. CBNG co-produced water typically contains dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), primarily as ammonium. In this study, a substantial portion of discharged ammonium was oxidized within 50??m of downstream transport, but speciation was markedly influenced by diel fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (> 300????M). After 300??m of transport, 60% of the initial DIN load had been removed. The effect of benthic nitrogen-cycling processes on stream water chemistry was assessed at 2 locations within the stream channel using acrylic chambers to conduct short-term (2-6??h), in-stream incubations. The highest ambient DIN removal rates (2103????mol N m- 2 h- 1) were found at a location where ammonium concentrations > 350????M. This occurred during light incubations when oxygen concentrations were highest. Nitrification was occurring at the site, however, net accumulation of nitrate and nitrite accounted for < 12% of the ammonium consumed, indicating that other ammonium-consuming processes were also occurring. In dark incubations, nitrite and nitrate consumption were dominant processes, while ammonium was produced rather than consumed. At a downstream location nitrification was not a factor and changes in DIN removal rates were controlled by nitrate reduction, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentration, and availability of electron donor. This study indicates that short-term adaptation of stream channel processes can be effective for removing CBNG DIN loads given sufficient travel distances, but the long-term potential for nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen saturation remain to be determined.

  8. Accuracy of the river discharge measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung Yang, Han

    2013-04-01

    Discharge values recorded for water conservancy and hydrological analysis is a very important work. Flood control projects, watershed remediation and river environmental planning projects quite need the discharge measurement data. In Taiwan, we have 129 rivers, in accordance with the watershed situation, economic development and other factors, divided into 24 major rivers, 29 minor rivers and 79 ordinary rivers. If each river needs to measure and record these discharge values, it will be enormous work. In addition, the characteristics of Taiwan's rivers contain steep slope, flow rapidly and sediment concentration higher, so it really encounters some difficulties in high flow measurement. When the flood hazards come, to seek a solution for reducing the time, manpower and material resources in river discharge measurement is very important. In this study, the river discharge measurement accuracy is used to determine the tolerance percentage to reduce the number of vertical velocity measurements, thereby reducing the time, manpower and material resources in the river discharge measurement. The velocity data sources used in this study form Yang (1998). Yang (1998) used the Fiber-optic Laser Doppler Velocimetery (FLDV) to obtain different velocity data under different experimental conditions. In this study, we use these data to calculate the mean velocity of each vertical line by three different velocity profile formula (that is, the law of the wall, Chiu's theory, Hu's theory), and then multiplied by each sub-area to obtain the discharge measurement values and compared with the true values (obtained by the direct integration mode) to obtain the accuracy of discharge. The research results show that the discharge measurement values obtained by Chiu's theory are closer to the true value, while the maximum error is the law of the wall. The main reason is that the law of the wall can't describe the maximum velocity occurred in underwater. In addition, the results also show

  9. Smartphone for measuring river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Lüthi, Beat; Philippe, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Smartphones have become powerful and have extended their capacities including different types of sensors. These capabilities make them very interesting for its applications in water management. We have developed a new mobile device application for open-channel flow measurements. This app can be used to determine the flow in e.g. rivers, artificial channels, irrigation ditches, furrows, etc. The smartphone app computes the runoff by analysing a few seconds of a movie that is recorded using the smartphone camera. The runoff is calculated from the estimated water level, surface velocity and from prior knowledge on the channel geometry. The water level is determined by the separation line of image segments with and without optical flow. Via calibration of the smartphone camera position this separation line is mapped to a water level. The surface velocity is calculated using a modified method of the standard Particle Image Velocimetry method. Among the key characteristics of the method is the fact that no tracer particles are needed. There are two flavours of the app. In the first one, all the measurements are taken using the available sensors in the mobile device and all the calculations are made making only use of the device. Three results are given back: the water level, the average surface velocity and discharge. This information can be sent via SMS. In the second one, the movie is send to a central computer where more detailed calculations are made, like fine camera calibration, camera stabilization tuning, definition of the region of interest, the sub-windows for the velocity analysis can be changed, different algorithms can be chosen, etc. It also generates more detailed results. Using smartphones, measurements can be made at much lower cost, since there is no need of permanent installations, which also makes it possible to take measurements in any place.

  10. Interoperability challenges in river discharge modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schlummer, Manuela; Andres, Volker; Jirka, Simon; Looser, Ulrich; Mladek, Richard; Pappenberger, Florian; Strauch, Adrian; Utech, Michael; Zsoter, Ervin

    2014-05-01

    River discharge is a critical water cycle variable, as it integrates all the processes (e.g. runoff and evapotranspiration) occurring within a river basin and provides a hydrological output variable that can be readily measured. Its prediction is of invaluable help for many water-related areas such as water resources assessment and management, as well as flood protection and disaster mitigation. Observations of river discharge are very important for the calibration and validation of hydrological or coupled land, atmosphere and ocean models . This requires the use of data from different scientific domains (Water, Weather, etc.). Typically, such data are provided using different technological solutions and formats. This complicates the integration of new hydrological data sources into application systems. Therefore, a considerable effort is often spent on data access issues instead of the actual scientific question. In the context of the FP7 funded project GEOWOW (GEOSS Interoperability for Weather, Ocean and Water), the "River Discharge" use scenario was developed in order to combine river discharge observations data from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC) database and model outputs produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) predicting river discharge based on weather forecast information. In this presentation we describe interoperability solutions which were adopted in order to address the technological challenges of the "River Discharge" use scenario: 1) Development of a Hydrology Profile for the OGC SOS 2.0 standard; 2) Enhancement of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) to support the use scenario: 2.1) Develop new interoperability arrangements for GRDC and ECMWF capacities; 2.2) Select multiple time series for comparison. The development of the above functionalities and tools aims to respond to the need of Water and Weather scientists to assess river discharge forecasting models.

  11. Pulsed microwave discharges in powder mixtures: Status, problems, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batanov, G. M.; Kossyi, I. A.

    2015-10-01

    Results of experiments on the excitation of pulsed microwave discharges by gyrotron radiation (λ = 4 mm, P 0 = 100-500 kW, τ = 1-10 ms) in the volumes and on the surfaces of metal-dielectric powder mixtures are presented. It is shown that there are two phases of discharge development: the spark phase, accompanied by a partial evaporation of the powder material, and the phase of a developed discharge, characterized by a plasma density of ˜1017 cm-3, high absorption, and high temperatures (˜5-10 kK) in a thin layer (˜0.1-0.2 mm) of plasma and vapor. It is demonstrated that the conductivity induced in the targets by UV radiation play an important role in the microwave absorption by powder grains. It is found that, in the course of the discharge, a conductive metal mesh forms in the powder volume as a result of metal evaporation. Reactions of high-temperature synthesis were initiated in various powder mixtures (Ti + B, Al + Fe2O3, Mo + B, etc.). It is shown that the reactions of high-temperature synthesis last for up to 0.1 s and are accompanied by the evaporation of powder grains and the formation of an aerosol cloud due to free expansion of reactants from the sample surface. The possibility of experimentally studying the kinetics of reactions of high-temperature synthesis is demonstrated. It is noticed that microwave discharges can be used to initiate plasmachemical reactions on the surfaces of radioparent materials in active gaseous media.

  12. Pulsed microwave discharges in powder mixtures: Status, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Batanov, G. M. Kossyi, I. A.

    2015-10-15

    Results of experiments on the excitation of pulsed microwave discharges by gyrotron radiation (λ = 4 mm, P{sub 0} = 100–500 kW, τ = 1–10 ms) in the volumes and on the surfaces of metal-dielectric powder mixtures are presented. It is shown that there are two phases of discharge development: the spark phase, accompanied by a partial evaporation of the powder material, and the phase of a developed discharge, characterized by a plasma density of ∼10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}, high absorption, and high temperatures (∼5–10 kK) in a thin layer (∼0.1–0.2 mm) of plasma and vapor. It is demonstrated that the conductivity induced in the targets by UV radiation play an important role in the microwave absorption by powder grains. It is found that, in the course of the discharge, a conductive metal mesh forms in the powder volume as a result of metal evaporation. Reactions of high-temperature synthesis were initiated in various powder mixtures (Ti + B, Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mo + B, etc.). It is shown that the reactions of high-temperature synthesis last for up to 0.1 s and are accompanied by the evaporation of powder grains and the formation of an aerosol cloud due to free expansion of reactants from the sample surface. The possibility of experimentally studying the kinetics of reactions of high-temperature synthesis is demonstrated. It is noticed that microwave discharges can be used to initiate plasmachemical reactions on the surfaces of radioparent materials in active gaseous media.

  13. Powder River Basin: new energy frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, B.

    1981-02-01

    The Powder River Basin in Wyoming represents a new energy frontier, where traditional ranch styles are giving way to boomtown development around new coal mines. Plans for extensive strip mining, coal trains and pipelines, and synthetic fuels plants will transform a 12,000 square mile area. The environmental and social impacts of trailer villages and the influx of new mores and life styles are already following traditional patterns for newcomers and long-time residents alike. Some local residents, however, are optimistic about the opportunities energy development will have. (DCK)

  14. Powder evolution at low powers in silane-argon discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, P.; Gupta, N. Dutta; Bhaduri, A.; Longeaud, C.; Vignoli, S.; Marty, O.

    2005-08-15

    Powder formation in a 13.56-MHz radio frequency (rf) capacitive glow discharge plasma of silane-argon mixture has been studied by in situ laser light-scattering measurements. The rf power density (P{sub rf}) was varied from 18 to 53 mW/cm{sup 2}. At high P{sub rf} the light scattering occurs all along the discharge and extends even beyond the exit end of the electrodes toward the pumping system. With decreasing P{sub rf} the maximum intensity of the light scattering decreases and the scattering zone shrinks and moves toward the exit end. With P{sub rf}{approx_equal}20 mW/cm{sup 2} a very bright scattering zone only a few centimeters wide appears located at the electrodes outlet. The powders studied by transmission electron microscopy did not show a drastic decrease of their sizes with P{sub rf} though clear coagulation of small particles is observed at high P{sub rf}. In this paper we have tried to link the laser light-scattering evolution with P{sub rf} to various parameters such as the microstructure factor, the deposition rate, the electron mobilityxlifetime product, the density of states, and the minority-carriers diffusion length of the films in an attempt to link the effect the evolution of powder formation to the films properties.

  15. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  16. 78 FR 1936 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-In Custer, Powder River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, MT AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of... Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Cntys., Mont. (Tongue River I), FD 30186 (ICC served Sept. 4, 1985... III. \\4\\ See Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and Operation--In Custer, Powder River and Rosebud...

  17. 77 FR 64592 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...--in Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, MT AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION.... \\1\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Construction and Operation--In Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Cntys...\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. & Operation--In Custer, Powder River & Rosebud Cntys., Mont., FD 30186...

  18. Flood discharges in the upper Mississippi River basin, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Melcher, Nick B.; James, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Flood-peak discharges that equaled or exceeded the 10-year recurrence interval were recorded at 154 streamflow-gaging stations in the upper Mississippi River Basin. At 41 streamflowgaging stations, the peak discharge was greater than the previous maximumknown discharge. At 15 additional gaging stations, peak discharges exceeded the previous maximum regulated peak discharge. At 45 gaging stations, peak discharges exceeded 100-year recurrence intervals.

  19. Flood peaks and discharge summaries in the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, A.A.; Farsett, Harry A.; Green, J. Wayne

    1981-01-01

    This report contains streamflow data from 299 continuous and partial-record gaging stations in the Delaware River basin. The location, drainage area, period of record, type of gage, and average flow (discharge) is given for each continuous station. Also included, are annual flood peak discharges and discharges above a selected base, annual and monthly mean discharges, and annual and monthly runoff. (USGS)

  20. 61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 9. BLACK RIVER CANAL CANAL (RIGHT), DISCHARGE GATE (BACKGROUND), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BLACK RIVER CANAL - CANAL (RIGHT), DISCHARGE GATE (BACKGROUND), FARMER'S TURNOUT (LEFT), AND LATERAL NO. 14 (FOREGROUND). VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Black River Canal, 15 miles Southeast of Carlsbad near Malaga, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  2. Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-06-13

    This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

  3. Plasma-Chemical Synthesis of Oxide Powders Using Transformer-Coupled Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Ulanov, I.; V. Isupov, M.; Yu Litvinsev, A.; A. Mischenko, P.

    2013-04-01

    An experimental investigation of transformer-coupled discharge in an Ar-O2 mixture with the addition of SiCl4, TiCl4 and ZrCl4 has been carried out under the atmospheric pressure of plasma-forming gases. Discharge power and discharge heat losses have been determined, and the dispersion and phase composition of reaction products (oxide powders) has been analyzed with SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis. Investigations reveal the formation of ultrafine oxide powders in the case of vaporized chloride (SiCl4 and TiCl4) injecting into the transformer coupled discharge. In the case of fine powder (ZrCl4) injection, full oxidation was not observed and reaction products consisted of a mixture of ZrO2 and ZrOCl2. A conclusion has been made regarding the perspectives of using transformer-coupled discharge to produce ultrafine oxide powders.

  4. Channeling in Paleocene coals, northern Powder River basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Interpretation of 1,200 geophysical logs in the northern Powder River basin, Montana, reveals the paleodrainages influencing coal deposition during the deposition of the Tongue River member (Paleocene, Fort Union Formation). Four channels with associated crevasse splay deposits are recognized: (1) an east-west rosebud drainage near Colstrip, (2) a north-south wall channel near Birney, (3) a north-south Dietz drainage near Tongue River Reservoir, and (4) a north-south Anderson channel in the vicinity of Moorhead. These channels support the concept of a major northeast-flowing drainage system during deposition of the Tongue River Member. Identification of these channels serves as a guide to future coal exploration.

  5. Possible implications of terrestrial river discharge with Arctic coastal ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARK, H.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Oshima, K.

    2015-12-01

    @font-face { "MS 明朝"; }@font-face { "Cambria Math"; }@font-face { "@MS 明朝"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0mm 0mm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; ""; }.MsoChpDefault { ; }div.WordSection1 { page: WordSection1; } One of the recent characteristic Arctic changes is the increase in river discharge flowing to the Arctic Ocean. The discharge simultaneously transports heat energy to the ocean. Under Arctic warming, the increased river discharge likely results in more heat flux to the Arctic Ocean. Interestingly, river discharge shows the peak in the spring season when Arctic sea ice begins to melt. At that time, the discharging heat flux may further contribute to sea ice retreat. A land surface model (CHANGE), coupled a river routing discharge model that combines river ice and water temperature models, simulated positive trends of pan-Arctic river discharge and water temperature, consequently enhanced heat flux to the Arctic Ocean. The increases were significant in Eurasian rivers and especially in the spring season. The model estimated cumulative heat flux to July was compared with the loss rate of sea ice concentration in Arctic coastal areas, revealing significantly higher correlation at Laptev and East Siberian seas where sea depth is shallower and the sea slope is not steep. Heat flux provided by river discharge had an ability that can melt approximately 10% or more of sea ice extent in Laptev and East Siberian seas, under the assumption that ice thickness is 1 m. This analysis provides an insight about influence of the terrestrial freshwater on the declining Arctic coastal sea ice.

  6. River discharge measurements by using helicopter-mounted radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, N.B.; Costa, J.E.; Haeni, F.P.; Cheng, R.T.; Thurman, E.M.; Buursink, M.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.J.; Keller, W.C.; Hayes, K.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey and the University of Washington collaborated on a series of initial experiments on the Lewis, Toutle, and Cowlitz Rivers during September 2000 and a detailed experiment on the Cowlitz River during May 2001 to determine the feasibility of using helicopter-mounted radar to measure river discharge. Surface velocities were measured using a pulsed Doppler radar, and river depth was measured using ground-penetrating radar. Surface velocities were converted to mean velocities, and horizontal registration of both velocity and depth measurements enabled the calculation of river discharge. The magnitude of the uncertainty in velocity and depth indicate that the method error is in the range of 5 percent. The results of this experiment indicate that helicopter-mounted radar can make the rapid, accurate discharge measurements that are needed in remote locations and during regional floods.

  7. Future Concepts for River Discharge Measurements with Microwave Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, G.; Plant, W. J.; Chickadel, C.; Jessup, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    River discharge has traditionally been estimated by combining in situ measurements of stage with in situ measurements of velocity and channel cross-section to derive stage-discharge rating curves. These measurements are time consuming and resource intensive, and only represent the state of the river at a single location. Thus, various researchers have studied non-contact stream gauging techniques using remote sensing instrumentation to estimate discharge. For example, airborne or space-borne radar has been used to measure surface velocity, and altimetry has been used to measure surface elevation. Other approaches have included coupling remote sensing measurements of water surface elevation and river channel width with a hydrodynamic model to estimate discharge. However, in all of these studies, prior knowledge of either the topology of the river bed or the channel roughness was assumed. This paper examines the potential of microwave radar to measure river discharge. Ultimately, our goal is to relate surface features to subsurface topology, thereby allowing non water-penetrating remote sensing measurements to estimate discharge. Our approach is to use interferometric Doppler radar to measure water elevation and surface velocity over a stretch of the river. If the channel topology is known, then discharge estimates can be computed from these measurements. To monitor changes in the channel, we draw on results from laboratory measurements and numerical simulations that demonstrate that variations in the mean water elevation along the river are related to the subsurface topography of the river bed. If the channel topology is not known, we propose to use a simple hydrodynamic model to estimate the depth. To do this, we compute the slope of the river using the water elevation measurements, and then estimate the pressure gradient in the river from the slope. In the case of steady, unstratified, open channel flow, the pressure gradient is balanced by the bottom stress

  8. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  9. An approach to estimating river discharge from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, D.M.; Dingman, S.L.; Vorosmarty, C.J.; Bolster, C.H.; Congalton, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple-regression analyses of hydraulic data from more than 1,000 discharge measurements, ranging in magnitude from over 200,000 to less than 1 m3/s, were used to develop generally applicable equations that use potentially observable variables to estimate river discharge using remote sensing techniques. Measurement uncertainty analysis indicates that existing satellite-based sensors can measure water-surface width (or surface area), water-surface elevation, and potentially the surface velocity of rivers with accuracies sufficient to provide estimates of discharge with average uncertainty on the order of 20 percent.

  10. Exploring SWOT discharge algorithm accuracy on the Sacramento River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, M. T.; Yoon, Y.; Rodriguez, E.; Minear, J. T.; Andreadis, K.; Pavelsky, T. M.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Smith, L. C.; Bales, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Scheduled for launch in 2019, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will utilize a Ka-band radar interferometer to measure river heights, widths, and slopes, globally, as well as characterize storage change in lakes and ocean surface dynamics with a spatial resolution ranging from 10 - 70 m, with temporal revisits on the order of a week. A discharge algorithm has been formulated to solve the inverse problem of characterizing river bathymetry and the roughness coefficient from SWOT observations. The algorithm uses a Bayesian Markov Chain estimation approach, treats rivers as sets of interconnected reaches (typically 5 km - 10 km in length), and produces best estimates of river bathymetry, roughness coefficient, and discharge, given SWOT observables. AirSWOT (the airborne version of SWOT) consists of a radar interferometer similar to SWOT, but mounted aboard an aircraft. AirSWOT spatial resolution will range from 1 - 35 m. In early 2013, AirSWOT will perform several flights over the Sacramento River, capturing river height, width, and slope at several different flow conditions. The Sacramento River presents an excellent target given that the river includes some stretches heavily affected by management (diversions, bypasses, etc.). AirSWOT measurements will be used to validate SWOT observation performance, but are also a unique opportunity for testing and demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of the discharge algorithm. This study uses HEC-RAS simulations of the Sacramento River to first, characterize expected discharge algorithm accuracy on the Sacramento River, and second to explore the required AirSWOT measurements needed to perform a successful inverse with the discharge algorithm. We focus on several specific research questions affecting algorithm performance: 1) To what extent do lateral inflows confound algorithm performance? We examine the ~100 km stretch of river from Colusa, CA to the Yolo Bypass, and investigate how the

  11. Estimating discharge in rivers using remotely sensed hydraulic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, D.M.; Moller, D.; Smith, L.C.; Dingman, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology to estimate in-bank river discharge exclusively from remotely sensed hydraulic data is developed. Water-surface width and maximum channel width measured from 26 aerial and digital orthophotos of 17 single channel rivers and 41 SAR images of three braided rivers were coupled with channel slope data obtained from topographic maps to estimate the discharge. The standard error of the discharge estimates were within a factor of 1.5-2 (50-100%) of the observed, with the mean estimate accuracy within 10%. This level of accuracy was achieved using calibration functions developed from observed discharge. The calibration functions use reach specific geomorphic variables, the maximum channel width and the channel slope, to predict a correction factor. The calibration functions are related to channel type. Surface velocity and width information, obtained from a single C-band image obtained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) AirSAR was also used to estimate discharge for a reach of the Missouri River. Without using a calibration function, the estimate accuracy was +72% of the observed discharge, which is within the expected range of uncertainty for the method. However, using the observed velocity to calibrate the initial estimate improved the estimate accuracy to within +10% of the observed. Remotely sensed discharge estimates with accuracies reported in this paper could be useful for regional or continental scale hydrologic studies, or in regions where ground-based data is lacking. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 58533 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Powder... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  13. 78 FR 23951 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Powder... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  14. Arctic River Discharge and Sediment Loads --- an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Hudson, B.; Cohen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that river discharge has been increasing (+10%) over the last 30 years (1977-2007) for most arctic rivers. The peak melt month occurs earlier in the season in 66% of the studied rivers. Cold season flow is also increasing. Satellite discharge estimates, daily, based on microwave radiometry, are now possible from 1998 onwards. Daily river discharge hindcasts over the last 60 years using the water balance model WBMsed at a 10km spatial resolution are now available. The WBMsed model can be used in forecast mode assuming valid input climatology. The challenge here has been the accuracy of sub-polar precipitation grids. While each of these three methods (gauging, orbital sensing, modeling) has temporal and spatial coverage limitations, the combination of all three methods provides for a realistic way forward for estimating local discharge across the pan arctic. Flood inundation products are routinely produced for the pan-arctic using automated mapping algorithms developed by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The determination of artic river sediment loads is less than ideal. Some rivers have only been monitored for a short number of years, and many have not been monitored at all. The WBMsed model is perhaps the best method of estimating the daily sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean, at least for rivers where the mean discharge is greater than 30 m3/s. Additionally there is limited-duration field monitoring by national surveys. New methods are being explored, including back calculating the delivery of sediment to the coastal ocean by plume dimensions observed from space (MODIS, LandSat). These methods have had moderate success when applied to plumes extending in the Greenland fjords. Canada maintains an active circa 7-y satellite program (ArcticNet) to track the Mackenzie discharge during the spring-summer runoff period when turbid river water is apt to flow under and over marginal sea ice in the Beaufort Sea.

  15. Estimating river discharges using multiple remote sensing data sets: an initial attempt for continental river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Sichangi; Wang, Lei; Yang, Kun; Chen, Deliang

    2016-04-01

    Rivers act as a source of fresh water for terrestrial life, yet the discharges are poorly known since the existing direct observations are inadequate and some of them were interrupted or discontinued. Discharge estimates using remote sensing thus has a great potential to supplement the ground observations. There are remote sensing methods established to estimate discharge based on single parameter derived relationship; however, they are limited to specific sections due to its empirical nature. In this study, we propose an innovative method to estimate daily discharges for continental rivers (with at least river channel widths greater than 800m) using two satellite derived parameters. Envisat satellite altimetry and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS) data have been used to provide a time series of river stage and effective river width. The derived MODIS and altimetry data are then used to optimize unknown parameters in a modified manning's equation. The in situ measurements are used to derive rating curves and to provide assessments of the estimated results. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values for the estimates are between 0.55 and 0.99, indicating the power of the method and accuracy of the estimations. A comparison with a previously developed empirical multi-variate equation for estimating river discharge shows that this method performs better, especially for large rivers. Further, it is found that discharge estimates using both river effective river width and stage information consistently outperform those using only stage data.

  16. Using MODIS data to estimate river discharge in ungauged sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, A.; Brocca, L.; Lacava, T.; Faruolo, M.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    The discharge prediction at a river site is fundamental for water resources management and flood risk prevention. An accurate discharge estimation depends on local hydraulic conditions which are usually detected by recording water level and carrying out flow measurements, which are costly and sometimes impractical for high flows. Over the last decade, the possibility to obtain river discharge estimates from satellite sensors data has become of considerable interest. For large river basins, the use of satellite data derived by altimeter and microwave sensors, characterized by a daily temporal resolution, has proven to be a useful tool to integrate or even increase the discharge monitoring. For smaller basins, Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) have been usually employed for the indirect estimation of water elevation but their low temporal resolution (from a few days up to 30 days) might be considered not suitable for discharge prediction. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard of Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, can provide a proper tradeoff between temporal and spatial resolution useful for discharge estimation. It assures, in fact, at least a daily temporal resolution and a spatial resolution up to 250 m in the first two channels. In this study, the capability of MODIS data for discharge prediction is investigated. Specifically, the different spectral behavior of water and land in the Near Infrared (NIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (MODIS channel 2) is exploited by computing the ratio of the MODIS channel 2 reflectance values between two pixels located within and outside the river. Values of such a ratio should increase when more water and, hence, discharge, is present. Time series of daily water level, velocity and discharge between 2002 and 2010 measured at different gauging stations located along the Upper Tiber River (central Italy) and the Po River (North Italy), as well as MODIS channel 2 data for

  17. Channel changes of Powder River between Moorhead and Broadus, Montana, 1939-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    Bank erosion and changes in channel width, length, and pattern were determined for the Powder River between Moorhead and Broadus, Montana using maps of the bankfull channel made from aerial photographs taken during 1939, 1954, 1967, 1973, and 1978. Contemporaneous daily mean and peak discharge records from Moorhead provide the hydrologic data used to interpret the measurements. Magnitudes and frequency of flows were determined for each interval of time delimited by photographs. Bank erosion is related to the number of days that mean discharge was equal to or greater than bankfull (1.5-year flood). Mean channel width ranged between 264 ft (1973) and 415 ft (1967). The channel was wider after periods of higher annual peak flows. The channel lengthened between 1939 and 1978, although at least 12 meanders cut off between Moorhead and Broadus. Variable rates of lengthening in the reach reflect the degree of bedrock control in the valley and local variations in valley slope. Data from the Powder River verify the concept of thresholds of channel pattern stability that were demonstrated experimentally. (USGS)

  18. Railroading Powder River style: bigger investments and bigger trains

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-07-15

    The Joint Line, co-owned and operated by Union Pacific and Burlington Norfolk Santa Fe (BNSF) railroads, carried a record 354 million tons of coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, on 15,000 to 17,000 ton trains. The average haul is almost 1,000 miles. Torrential rainfall and coal dust caused derailment and buckling problems in 2005. The article reports progress in repairing the track and expanding railroad capacity since then. Many are anxious about the railroad's ability to move ever increasing amounts of coal. 3 photos.

  19. River Discharge Estimation Using Imaged Critical Flow Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonstad, M. A.; Grant, G.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of river science applications require remote estimation of discharge. Flow in steep rivers often approach critical flow (Froude number equal to one), as evidenced by trains of standing waves either perpendicular or at a high angle relative to the flow direction. Previous work has demonstrated that where such waves are present, water depth can be estimated without the need for a roughness coefficient such as Manning's n. We extend this prior work to remotely calculate river discharge. The wavelength of standing waves can be measured using high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Velocity can then be calculated from wavelength using the Kennedy wave equation. Assuming critical flow allows depth to be calculated using the modified Froude number equation, and with an additional measurement of imaged river width, river discharge can be computed directly as the product of these three values. We test this approach using high-resolution Google Earth imagery of rivers with standing waves near existing stream gages. We also demonstrate the utility of this approach by extracting a drainage area-to-discharge relationship for a large watershed. There are certain challenges with this approach, the greatest being the need for high resolution (meter-scale or better) imagery to see and measure standing waves. Such waves are also easily confused with wind waves, turbulence or other surface effects. Nevertheless, this approach offers promise for both estimating discharge in places without extensive gage networks, and also estimating discharge in archival imagery. Repeat imaging of the same areas might also be used to construct at-a-station and downstream hydraulic geometry relationships.

  20. Computations of total sediment discharge, Niobrara River near Cody, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Hembree, C.H.

    1955-01-01

    A natural chute in the Niobrara River near Cody, Nebr., constricts the flow of the river except at high stages to a narrow channel in which the turbulence is sufficient to suspend nearly the total sediment discharge. Because much of the flow originates in the sandhills area of Nebraska, the water discharge and sediment discharge are relatively uniform. Sediment discharges based on depth-integrated samples at a contracted section in the chute and on streamflow records at a recording gage about 1,900 feet upstream are available for the period from April 1948 to September 1953 but are not given directly as continuous records in this report. Sediment measurements have been made periodically near the gage and at other nearby relatively unconfined sections of the stream for comparison with measurements at the contracted section. Sediment discharge at these relatively unconfined sections was computed from formulas for comparison with measured sediment discharges at the contracted section. A form of the Du Boys formula gave computed tonnages of sediment that were unsatisfactory. Sediment discharges as computed from the Schoklitsch formula agreed well with measured sediment discharges that were low, but they were much too low at measured sediment discharges that were higher. The Straub formula gave computed discharges, presumably of bed material, that were several times larger than measured discharges of sediment coarser than 0.125 millimeter. All three of these formulas gave computed sediment discharges that increased with water discharges much less rapidly than the measured discharges of sediment coarser than 0.125 millimeter. The Einstein procedure when applied to a reach that included 10 defined cross sections gave much better agreement between computed sediment discharge and measured sediment discharge than did anyone of the three other formulas that were used. This procedure does not compute the discharge of sediment that is too small to be found in the stream bed in

  1. Assessing the potential global extent of SWOT river discharge observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Durand, Michael T.; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Beighley, R. Edward; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Allen, George H.; Miller, Zachary F.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its importance as a major element of the global hydrologic cycle, runoff remains poorly constrained except at the largest spatial scales due to limitations of the global stream gauge network and inadequate data sharing. Efforts using remote sensing to infer runoff from discharge estimates are limited by characteristics of present-day sensors. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, a joint project between the United States and France, aims to substantially improve space-based estimates of river discharge. However, the extent of rivers observable by SWOT, likely limited to those wider than 50-100 m, remains unknown. Here, we estimate the extent of SWOT river observability globally using a downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) approach combining basin areas from the Hydro1k and Hydrosheds elevation products, discharge from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), and width estimates from a global width-discharge relationship. We do not explicitly consider SWOT-specific errors associated with layover and other phenomena in this analysis, although they have been considered in formulation of the 50-100 m width thresholds. We compare the extent of SWOT-observable rivers with GRDC and USGS gauge datasets, the most complete datasets freely available to the global scientific community. In the continental US, SWOT would match USGS river basin coverage only at large scales (>25,000 km2). Globally, SWOT would substantially improve on GRDC observation extent: SWOT observation of 100 m (50 m) rivers will allow discharge estimation in >60% of 50,000 km2 (10,000 km2) river basins. In contrast, the GRDC observes fewer than 30% (15%) of these basins. SWOT could improve characterization of global runoff processes, especially with a 50 m observability threshold, but in situ gauge data remains essential and must be shared more freely with the international scientific community.

  2. A new river discharge and river temperature climatology data set for the pan-Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitefield, Jonathan; Winsor, Peter; McClelland, James; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    Most regional ocean models that use discharge as part of the forcing use relatively coarse river discharge data sets (1°, or ∼110 km) compared to the model resolution (typically 1/4° or less), and do not account for seasonal changes in river water temperature. We introduce a new climatological data set of river discharge and river water temperature with 1/6° grid spacing over the Arctic region (Arctic River Discharge and Temperature; ARDAT), incorporating observations from 30 Arctic rivers. The annual mean discharge for all rivers in ARDAT is 2817 ± 330 km3 yr-1. River water temperatures range between 0 °C in winter to 14.0-17.6 °C in July, leading to a long-term mean monthly heat flux from all rivers of 3.2 ± 0.6 TW, of which 31% is supplied by Alaskan rivers and 69% is supplied by Eurasian rivers. This riverine heat flux is equivalent to 44% of the estimated ocean heat flux associated with the Bering Strait throughflow, but during the spring freshet can be ∼10 times as large, suggesting that heat flux associated with Arctic rivers is an important component of the Arctic heat budget on seasonal time scales. We apply the ARDAT data set to a high-resolution regional ocean-ice model, and compare results to a model integration using a 1° resolution discharge data set. Integrated freshwater content on the Arctic shelves (<200 m) increases by ∼3600 km3 in the ARDAT forced model run compared to the coarser forcing, suggesting that river discharge is contained on the Arctic shelves when forced with the ARDAT data set. Modelled summer heat fluxes over the shelves increase by 8 TW when river water temperature is included, which subsequently reduces basin-wide September sea ice extent by ∼10%. Regional differences are larger, where e.g., sea ice extent on the Beaufort shelf is reduced by ∼36%. Using a non-linear free surface parameterization along with the ARDAT data set, we find an increase in the sea surface height gradient around river mouths

  3. Effects of waste discharges on Mississippi River sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.D.; Evans, R. )

    1987-11-01

    Bottom sediments in the Mississippi River at East St. Louis, Illinois, were studied to determine the effect of discharging water treatment wastes into the river. Average quantities of water treated were 30 mgd by the conventional process and 13.5 mgd by hydrotreators. In this plant the principle sources of waste were flocculators, settling basins, clarifiers, and filters. The nature of the wastes was characterized as the suspended solids content of the raw water and the aluminum or iron hydroxide generated by coagulation. Average daily solids released from all filters was 4,180 lb. Waste discharges increased the iron, aluminum, moisture, and organics content of the sediments and changed the particle size distribution of the sediments. Changes were observed at three of the 35 sampling stations. The area of influence was about 100 ft offshore and 3,300 ft downstream of the outfall. Within this affected zone iron and aluminum concentrations increased 3.4- and 8-fold above the background concentrations of 2,490 and 760 mg/liter, respectively. During a waste discharge at normal river flow, sediments consisted of 92% sand, 8% gravel, and no silt and clay. However, at low flow silt and clay were found at two protected stations. This derived from the reintroduction of river silt and clay captured during treatment. No unnatural sludge deposit was found within the area of waste discharge influence. No measurable effects from the discharge were found one week after cleaning of the basins.

  4. Assessment of potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the Powder River and Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Feldman, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency aquatic task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. Ecological assessments, made from 2005–08 under the direction of the task group, indicated biological condition of the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the middle reaches of the Powder was lower than in the upper or lower reaches. On the basis of the 2005–08 results, sampling of the macroinvertebrate and algae communities was conducted at 18 sites on the mainstem Powder River and 6 sites on the mainstem Tongue River in 2010. Sampling-site locations were selected on a paired approach, with sites located upstream and downstream of discharge points and tributaries associated with coalbed natural gas development. Differences in biological condition among site pairs were evaluated graphically and statistically using multiple lines of evidence that included macroinvertebrate and algal community metrics (such as taxa richness, relative abundance, functional feeding groups, and tolerance) and output from observed/expected (O/E) macroinvertebrate models from Wyoming and Montana. Multiple lines of evidence indicated a decline in biological condition in the middle reaches of the Powder River, potentially indicating cumulative effects from coalbed natural gas discharges within one or more reaches between Flying E Creek and Wild Horse Creek in Wyoming. The maximum concentrations of alkalinity in the Powder River also occurred in the middle reaches. Biological condition in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River was variable, with declines between some site pairs, such as upstream and downstream of Dry Fork and Willow Creek, and increases at others, such as upstream and downstream of Beaver Creek. Biological condition at site pairs on the Tongue River showed an increase in one case

  5. A game theoretic approach for trading discharge permits in rivers.

    PubMed

    Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new Cooperative Trading Discharge Permit (CTDP) methodology is designed for estimating equitable and efficient treatment cost allocation among dischargers in a river system considering their conflicting interests. The methodology consists of two main steps: (1) initial treatment cost allocation and (2) equitable treatment cost reallocation. In the first step, a Pareto front among objectives is developed using a powerful and recently developed multi-objective genetic algorithm known as Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The objectives of the optimization model are considered to be the average treatment level of dischargers and a fuzzy risk of violating the water quality standards. The fuzzy risk is evaluated using the Monte Carlo analysis. The best non-dominated solution on the Pareto front, which provides the initial cost allocation to dischargers, is selected using the Young Bargaining Theory (YBT). In the second step, some cooperative game theoretic approaches are utilized to investigate how the maximum saving cost of participating dischargers in a coalition can be fairly allocated to them. The final treatment cost allocation provides the optimal trading discharge permit policies. The practical utility of the proposed methodology for river water quality management is illustrated through a realistic case study of the Zarjub river in the northern part of Iran. PMID:19657175

  6. Linking the river to the estuary: influence of river discharge on tidal damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Toffolon, M.

    2013-07-01

    The effect of river discharge on tidal damping in estuaries is explored within one consistent theoretical framework where analytical solutions are obtained by solving four implicit equations, i.e., the phase lag, the scaling, the damping and the celerity equation. In this approach the damping equation is obtained by subtracting the envelope curves of high water and low water occurrence, taking into account that the flow velocity consists of a tidal and river discharge component. Different approximations of the friction term are considered in deriving the damping equation, resulting in as many analytical solutions. In this framework it is possible to show that river discharge affects tidal damping primarily through the friction term. The application to the Modaomen and Yangtze estuaries demonstrates that the influence of river discharge on tidal damping can be significant in the upstream part of an estuary where the ratio of river flow to tidal flow amplitude is substantial. The analytical model is able to describe the main tidal dynamics with realistic roughness values in the upper part of the estuary, while a model with negligible river discharge can be made to fit observations only with unrealistically high roughness values. Moreover, the damping equation can be used to estimate river discharge on the basis of observed tidal damping, which makes the proposed analytical model a tool to obtain indirect information about quantities that are difficult to measure in the tidal region.

  7. Flood discharge measurement of a mountain river - Nanshih River in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.

    2013-05-01

    This study proposes a more efficient method of flood discharge measurement in mountain rivers that accounts for personal safety, accuracy, and reliability. Because it is based on the relationships between mean and maximum velocities and between cross-sectional area and gauge height, the proposed method utilizes a flood discharge measurement system composed of an acoustic Doppler profiler and crane system to measure velocity distributions, cross-sectional area, and water depths. The flood discharge measurement system can be used to accurately and quickly measure flood data that is difficult to be collected by the conventional instruments. The measured data is then used to calibrate the parameters of the proposed method for estimating mean velocity and cross-sectional area. Then these observed discharge and gauge height can be used to establish the water stage-discharge rating curve. Therefor continuous and real-time estimations of flood discharge of a mountain river can become possible. The measurement method and system is applied to the Nanshih River at the Lansheng Bridge. Once the method is established, flood discharge of the Nanshih River could be efficiently estimated using maximum velocity and the water stage. Results of measured and estimated discharges of the Nanshih River at the Lansheng Bridge differed only slightly from each other, demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  8. Landscape co-evolution and river discharge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Ype; Temme, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Fresh water is crucial for society and ecosystems. However, our ability to secure fresh water resources under climatic and anthropogenic change is impaired by the complexity of interactions between human society, ecosystems, soils, and topography. These interactions cause landscape properties to co-evolve, continuously changing the flow paths of water through the landscape. These co-evolution driven flow path changes and their effect on river runoff are, to-date, poorly understood. In this presentation we introduce a spatially distributed landscape evolution model that incorporates growing vegetation and its effect on evapotranspiration, interception, infiltration, soil permeability, groundwater-surface water exchange and erosion. This landscape scale (10km2) model is calibrated to evolve towards well known empirical organising principles such as the Budyko curve and Hacks law under different climate conditions. To understand how positive and negative feedbacks within the model structure form complex landscape patterns of forests and peat bogs that resemble observed landscapes under humid and boreal climates, we analysed the effects of individual processes on the spatial distribution of vegetation and river peak and mean flows. Our results show that especially river peak flows and droughts decrease with increasing evolution of the landscape, which is a result that has direct implications for flood management.

  9. Plasma Treatment of Polyethylene Powder Particles in Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Wolter, Matthias; Quitzau, Meike; Bornholdt, Sven; Kersten, Holger

    2008-09-07

    Polyethylen (PE) is widely used in the production of foils, insulators, packaging materials, plastic bottles etc. Untreated PE is hydrophobic due to its unpolar surface. Therefore, it is hard to print or glue PE and the surface has to be modified before converting.In the present experiments a hollow cathode glow discharge is used as plasma source which is mounted in a spiral conveyor in order to ensure a combines transport of PE powder particles. With this set-up a homogeneous surface treatment of the powder is possible while passing the glow discharge. The plasma treatment causes a remarkable enhancement of the hydrophilicity of the PE powder which can be verified by contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. Constructing river stage-discharge rating curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing from satellites and airborne platforms provides valuable data for monitoring and gauging river discharge. One effective approach first estimates river stage from satellite-measured inundation area based on the inundation area-river stage relationship (IARSR), and then the estimated river stage is used to compute river discharge based on the stage-discharge rating (SDR) curve. However, this approach is difficult to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the SDR curves. This study proposes a new method to construct the SDR curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry. The proposed method was tested over a river reach between two USGS gauging stations, i.e., Kingston Mines (KM) and Copperas Creek (CC) along the Illinois River. First a polygon over each of two cross sections was defined. A complete IARSR curve was constructed inside each polygon using digital elevation model (DEM) and river bathymetric data. The constructed IARSR curves were then used to estimate 47 river water surface elevations at each cross section based on 47 river inundation areas estimated from Landsat TM images collected during 1994-2002. The estimated water surface elevations were substituted into an objective function formed by the Bernoulli equation of gradually varied open channel flow. A nonlinear global optimization scheme was applied to solve the Manning's coefficient through minimizing the objective function value. Finally the SDR curve was constructed at the KM site using the solved Manning's coefficient, channel cross sectional geometry and the Manning's equation, and employed to estimate river discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the estimated river discharges against the USGS measured river discharges is 112.4 m3/s. To consider the variation of the Manning's coefficient in the vertical direction, this study also suggested a power-law function to describe the vertical decline of the Manning

  11. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  12. Linking the river to the estuary: influence of river discharge on tidal damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Toffolon, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of river discharge on tidal damping in estuaries is explored within one consistent theoretical framework where analytical solutions are obtained by solving four implicit equations, i.e. the phase lag, the scaling, the damping and the celerity equation. In this approach the damping equation is obtained by subtracting the envelope curves of high water and low water occurrence, taking into account that the flow velocity consists of a tidal and river discharge component. Different approximations of the friction term are considered in deriving the damping equation, resulting in as many analytical solutions. In this framework it is possible to show that river discharge affects tidal damping primarily through the friction term. It appears that the residual slope, due to nonlinear friction, can have a substantial influence on tidal wave propagation when including the effect of river discharge. An iterative analytical method is proposed to include this effect, which significantly improved model performance in the upper reaches of an estuary. The application to the Modaomen and Yangtze estuaries demonstrates that the proposed analytical model is able to describe the main tidal dynamics with realistic roughness values in the upper part of the estuary where the ratio of river flow to tidal flow amplitude is substantial, while a model with negligible river discharge can be made to fit observations only with unrealistically high roughness values.

  13. Incorporating safety into surface haulage in the Powder River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, W.; Jennings, C.

    1996-12-31

    The Powder River Basin (PRB) coal deposit extends from southeast Montana to northeast Wyoming. This paper describes a number of haulage practices and tools in use at several mines of the southern PRB and the way in which safety has been designed into and implemented for surface haulage of coal and overburden. Experiences described herein focus on the northeastern corner of Wyoming. All the mines in this area rely on safe and efficient movement of enormous volumes of material, and the results achieved in safety underscore the planning and attention to detail present in the PRB. There are currently 12 large surface mines (those greater than 10.0MM tons/year) operating in this area. In 1995, these mines produced over 230.0MM tons of coal.

  14. Interplay between river discharge and tides in a delta distributary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Kolker, Alexander S.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    The hydrodynamics of distributary channels has tremendous impact on nutrient and dissolved oxygen circulation, transport of sediments, and delta formation and evolution; yet many processes acting at the river-marine interface of a delta are poorly understood. This paper investigates the combined effect of river hydrograph and micro-tides on the hydrodynamics of a delta distributary. As the ratio between river flow to tidal flow increases, tidal flood duration at the distributary mouth decreases, up to the point when flow reversal is absent. Field measurements in a distributary of the Apalachicola Delta, Florida, USA, reveal that, once the flow becomes unidirectional, high-discharge events magnify tidal velocity amplitudes. On the contrary, while the flow is bidirectional, increasing fluvial discharge decreases tidal velocity amplitudes down to a minimum value, reached at the limit between bidirectional and unidirectional flow. Due to the different response of the system to tides, the transition from a bidirectional to a unidirectional flow triggers a change in phase lag between high water and high water slack. In the presence of high riverine flow, tidal dynamics also promote seaward directed Eulerian residual currents. During discharge peaks, these residual currents almost double mean velocity values. Our results show that, even in micro-tidal environments, tides strongly impact distributary hydrodynamics during both high and low fluvial discharge regimes.

  15. Study of Ground-Water Recharge Rates in the Northern Powder River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. W.; Bartos, T. T.

    2003-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) production in the Powder River Basin is growing rapidly. The Bureau of Land Management estimates that by the year 2010 there may be as many as 50,000 producing wells in the Wyoming part of the Basin alone. Development of CBM requires the pumping of water from coal seams. As water pressure in the seam is lowered, methane is released from storage. The pumped water is usually discharged into streams, channels, or impoundments. With a typical well producing about 48 cubic meters of water per day, the rate of discharge for the Basin could exceed 2.4 million cubic meters per day by 2010. The fate of that water and its impact on the environment are topics of some concern. Relevant issues include the rate at which water infiltrates and percolates to the water table, the eventual discharge of infiltrated water to surface water, and chemical changes that occur as water moves through the system. An adequate understanding of these issues requires knowledge of local and regional hydrology. This study is investigating rates of ground-water recharge under natural conditions and as impacted be CBM development. Natural recharge within the Powder River Basin occurs by both diffuse mechanisms (infiltration of precipitation and subsequent travel of water through the unsaturated zone to the water table) and focused mechanisms (infiltration from line and point sources, such as streams and ponds). Under natural conditions, the relative importance of each is difficult to assess. Discharged CBM water should substantially enhance the rate of focused recharge, with less effect expected on diffuse recharge. Objectives of this study are to estimate rates of diffuse recharge, naturally occurring focused recharge, and enhanced focused recharge due to the discharge of CBM water. Multiple approaches are being employed: chloride mass balance; tracer methods based on tritium, stable isotopes, and other compounds; Darcy/unit hydraulic gradient; water budget; water

  16. Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergquist, E.; Evangelista, P.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Alley, N.

    2007-01-01

    One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native ecosystem more susceptible to invasion by non-native species, but there are few studies that have been conducted on the environmental impacts of this type of resource extraction. To evaluate the potential effects of CBM development on native plant species distribution and patterns of non-native plant invasion, 36 modified Forest Inventory and Analysis plots (each comprised of four 168-m2 subplots) were established in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. There were 73 168-m2 subplots on control sites; 42 subplots on secondary disturbances; 14 on major surface disturbances; eight on well pads; and seven on sites downslope of CBM wells water discharge points. Native plant species cover ranged from 39.5 ?? 2.7% (mean ?? 1 SE) in the secondary disturbance subplots to 17.7 ?? 7.5% in the pad subplots. Non-native plant species cover ranged from 31.0 ?? 8.4% in the discharge areas to 14.7 ?? 8.9% in the pad subplots. The control subplots had significantly less non-native species richness than the combined disturbance types. The combined disturbance subplots had significantly greater soil salinity than the control sites. These results suggest that CBM development and associated disturbances may facilitate the establishment of non-native plants. Future research and management decisions should consider the accumulative landscape-scale effects of CBM development on preserving native plant diversity. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  17. Impact of Precipitation Organization on River Discharge Across North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickenbach, T. M.; Zarzar, C. M.; Nieto Ferreira, R.

    2014-12-01

    This study builds from an existing four-year NEXRAD radar-based precipitation climatology over the southeastern U.S. to examine the hydrological response of river systems in North Carolina to different modes of precipitation organization in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework. The climatology uses a simple two-category framework of precipitation organization based on instantaneous precipitating feature size: mesoscale precipitation features (MPF) and isolated precipitation. Specifically, the following questions are addressed: First, what are the discharge response characteristics to seasonal changes in precipitation in different watersheds across North Carolina, from the mountains to the coastal plain? Second, how does precipitation organization, whether long-lasting mesoscale systems or short duration isolated convection, affect these watershed characteristics? This analysis defines five watersheds in North Carolina based on five North Carolina river basins using GIS watershed delineation techniques. It was found that lag time between maximum precipitation and maximum discharge increased from 1-2 days in the western mountainous watersheds to 7-8 days in the eastern coastal plain watersheds. The steeper and more impervious western watersheds promoted more rapid discharge of precipitation, while the flat and swampy eastern watersheds drained more slowly. Precipitation originating from MPF events produced stronger precipitation-discharge correlations in the winter and fall than in the summer and spring, while most isolated precipitation-discharge correlations were relatively weak. Overall, it was found that MPF precipitation is the main mode of precipitation organization that drives daily watershed discharge, and differences in watershed precipitation-discharge lag times can be best explained by the watershed characteristics rather than differences in precipitation organization.

  18. Estimating the bankfull velocity and discharge for rivers using remotely sensed river morphology information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    A method to estimate the bankfull velocity and discharge in rivers that uses the morphological variables of the river channel, including bankfull width, channel slope, and meander length was developed and tested. Because these variables can be measured remotely from topographic and river alignment information derived from aerial photos and satellite imagery, it is possible that the bankfull state of flow can be estimated for rivers entirely from remotely-sensed information. Defining the bankfull hydraulics of rivers would also provide a reference condition for remote tracking of dynamic variables including width, stage, and slope, and for quantifying relative change in flow conditions of rivers over large regions. This could provide a more efficient method to inventory and quantify river hydraulic attributes and dynamics.

  19. Dissemination of satellite-based river discharge and flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.; van Praag, E.; de Groeve, T.; Slayback, D. A.; Cohen, S.

    2014-12-01

    In collaboration with NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center and the European Commission Joint Research Centre, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) daily measures and distributes: 1) river discharges, and 2) near real-time flood extents with a global coverage. Satellite-based passive microwave sensors and hydrological modeling are utilized to establish 'remote-sensing based discharge stations', and observed time series cover 1998 to the present. The advantages over in-situ gauged discharges are: a) easy access to remote or due to political reasons isolated locations, b) relatively low maintenance costs to maintain a continuous observational record, and c) the capability to obtain measurements during floods, hazardous conditions that often impair or destroy in-situ stations. Two MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites provide global flood extent coverage at a spatial resolution of 250m. Cloud cover hampers flood extent detection; therefore we ingest 6 images (the Terra and Aqua images of each day, for three days), in combination with a cloud shadow filter, to provide daily global flood extent updates. The Flood Observatory has always made it a high priority to visualize and share its data and products through its website. Recent collaborative efforts with e.g. GeoSUR have enhanced accessibility of DFO data. A web map service has been implemented to automatically disseminate geo-referenced flood extent products into client-side GIS software. For example, for Latin America and the Caribbean region, the GeoSUR portal now displays current flood extent maps, which can be integrated and visualized with other relevant geographical data. Furthermore, the flood state of satellite-observed river discharge sites are displayed through the portal as well. Additional efforts include implementing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to incorporate Water Markup Language (WaterML) data exchange mechanisms to further facilitate the distribution of the satellite

  20. Improving discharge estimates from routine river flow monitoring in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capell, Rene; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) maintains a permanent river gauging network for national hydrological monitoring which includes 263 gauging stations in Sweden. At all these stations, water levels are measured continuously, and discharges are computed through rating curves. The network represents a wide range of environmental settings, different gauging measurement types and gauging frequencies. Gauging frequencies are typically low compared with river gauges in more research-oriented settings, and thus uncertainties in discharges, particularly extremes, can be large. On the other hand, the gauging stations have often been in use for very long, with the oldest measurements dating back to 1900, and at least partly exhibit very stable conditions. Here, we show the variation in gauging stability in the SMHI's gauging network in order to try to identify more error-prone conditions. We investigate how the current, largely subjective, way of updating rating curves influences discharge estimates, and discuss ways forward towards a more objective evaluation of both discharge uncertainty and rating curve updating procedures.

  1. Guidebook to the coal geology of the Powder River coal basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    This survey of Wyoming's Powder River Coal Basin was done in June 1980, with emphasis on coal geology and specifically environments of coal deposition. A geologic map explanation was included. The survey included: (1) the regional depositional framework of the uranium- and coal-bearing Wasatch (Eocene) and Fort Union (Paleocene) Formations, Powder River Basin; (2) the Lake De Smet Coal Seam: the product of active basin-margin sedimentation and tectonics in the Lake De Smet Area, Johnson County, Wyoming, during Eocene Wasatch time; (3) fluvial coal settings of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Clear Creek Area; (4) coal resources of the Powder River Coal basin; (5) survey of chemical and petrographic characteristics of Powder River Basin coals; and (6) the Rawhide Coal Mine, Campbell County, Wyoming. The depositional framework of the Fort Union and Wasach formations is characterized by a northward-flowing intermountain basinal fluvial system. The paleogeographic reconstruction of the fluvial settings of the Tongue River Member deposits in the Powder River-Clear Creek area sugges two important subenvironments of coal accumulation. The thickest and most important coals are found in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Each section was discussed in detail. (DP)

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleation and aerosol processing in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: powders production, coatings and filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, Jean-Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the production of nano-particles and the processing of particles injected in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges (APED). The mechanisms of formation and the evolution of particles suspended in gases are first presented, with numerical and experimental facilities. Different APED and related properties are then introduced for dc corona, streamer and spark filamentary discharges (FD), as well as for ac filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Two mechanisms of particle production are depicted in APED: when FD interact with the surface of electrodes or dielectrics and when filamentary and homogeneous DBD induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The evolution of the so-formed nano-particles, i.e. the growth by coagulation/condensation, the charging and the collection are detailed for each APED, with respect to fine powders production and thin films deposition. Finally, when particles are injected in APED, they undergo interfacial processes. Non-thermal plasmas charge particles for electro-collection and trigger heterogeneous chemical reactions for organic and inorganic films deposition. Heat exchanges in thermal plasmas enable powder purification, shaping, melting for hard coatings and fine powders production by reactive evaporation.

  3. Status report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of both regional coal resources and reserves for an entire coal basin. Extensive CBM and additional oil and gas development, especially in the Gillette coal field, have provided an unprecedented amount of down-hole geological data. Approximately 10,000 new data points have been added to the PRB database since the last assessment (2002) which will provide a more robust evaluation of the single most productive U.S. coal basin. The Gillette coal field assessment, including the mining economic evaluation, is planned for completion by the end of 2006. The geologic portion of the coal assessment work will shift to the northern and northwestern portions of the PRB before the end of 2006 while the Gillette engineering studies are finalized.

  4. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Brian A.; Sams, James I.; Smith, Bruce D.; Harbert, William

    2008-05-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

  5. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D.; Harbert, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam’s inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

  6. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D.; Harbert, W.

    2008-01-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated towater salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin. ?? 2008 2008 Society of ExplorationGeophysicists. All rights reserved.

  7. Relief Creation on Molybdenum Plates in Discharges Initiated by Gyrotron Radiation in Metal-Dielectric Powder Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Malakhov, D. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Letunov, A. A.; Petrov, A. E.; Ryabikina, I. G.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Sokolov, A. S.; Smirnov, V. A.; Kharchev, N. K.

    2016-02-01

    We show the possibility of creating a metal microcrystalline relief (micro- and nanosized) on molybdenum plates in a plasma gas-phase discharge initiated by gyrotron radiation in molybdenum-dielectric powder mixtures.

  8. River Discharge Estimation Solely from Satellite Imagery and at-Many-Stations Hydraulic Geometry (AMHG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, C. J.; Smith, L. C.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of river discharge is critically important for water resource management, climate modeling, and improved understanding of the global water cycle, yet discharge is poorly known in much of the world. Remote sensing holds promise to mitigate this gap, yet many current approaches for quantitative retrievals of river discharge require in situ calibration or a priori knowledge of river hydraulics, limiting their utility in unmonitored regions. This talk demonstrates a novel remotely sensed discharge retrieval method that requires no prior knowledge and no ancillary data whatsoever. The approach is enabled by a newly discovered river-specific geomorphic scaling phenomenon, termed at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG), which holds that a river's paired at-a-station hydraulic geometry (AHG) parameters (a and b, c and f, k and m) are log-linearly related along a river. An associated AMHG discharge retrieval method uses only remotely sensed cross sectional river top width as an input to an unconstrained optimization of width-AHG via a genetic algorithm. Using the AMHG approach, we demonstrate successful retrieval of river discharge to within 20-30% of in situ gauge observations for the Mississippi, Athabasca, and Yangtze rivers. Expanding the method to 34 rivers globally, we find that the AMHG discharge retrieval method is sensitive to river morphology, cross sectional geometry, the quality of input widths, and genetic algorithm optimization parameters. These results suggest that the AMHG discharge retrieval method can meaningfully address global discharge knowledge gaps solely from repeat satellite imagery.

  9. 77 FR 71872 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, MT; Extension of Comment Period for the Draft Scope of...

  10. 77 FR 66663 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, MT.; Correction to the Notice of Intent To Prepare...

  11. 77 FR 67863 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, Montana: Update to the Notice of Intent to Prepare...

  12. Effects of river discharge and tidal asymmetry on residual sediment transport and long-term morphodynamics in the river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, J.; He, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The morphodynamics are of ubiquitous importance to the estuarine function with respect to navigation and ecology. This study examines the hydrodynamics, residual sediment transport processes and long-term morphodynamics in the river estuary forced by river discharge and marine tides. We systematically investigated the generation of tidal asymmetry and its modulation by varying river discharges, the interactions between the river discharge and the tides, and the induced residual sediment transport and associated morphodynamic adjustment and then the feedback mechanisms by deploying the Delft3D model in 1D mode. The model shows that the internally generated tidal asymmetry behaves nonlinearly with increasing river discharge. The internal tidal asymmetry is flood dominated in the absence of river discharge and tidal flat. Introduction of a river discharge promotes the overtide generation which reinforces the tidal asymmetry. An increasing river discharge dissipates the tidal energy and damps the tides that the overtide generation is confined in the downstream. A river discharge threshed can be figured out at which the energy transformation from the principle tide (M2) to the overtide (M4) reaches maximum. The tidal averaged residual sediment transport is decomposed into components according to a bed load transport mode. The tidal asymmetry induces a residual sediment transport whose direction is determined by the nature of the tidal asymmetry. The river discharge induces a net seaward residual transport due to enhanced seaward residual current. Moreover, the interaction between the river discharge and tides generates a river-induced asymmetry. The river-induced asymmetry enhances the seaward residual sediment transport to a large degree that it plays a significant role in flushing sediment seaward. The estuarine morphodynamics reach a (quasi-) equilibrium in a time scale of millennia. The morphodynamic equilibrium is characterized by a reducing longitudinal residual

  13. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.

    2005-01-01

    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  14. Moving to the Powder River Basin in search of the American dream

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-03-15

    As the Big Three American automakers cut jobs in Michigan, Wyoming's booming but isolated coal mining industry in the Powder River Basin is trying to lure some of these dissatisfied workers. DRM has attracted workers to the benefaction plant and P & H MinePro Services working on surface mining equipment has been successful, as have Peabody's Powder River coal subsidiary and Kiewitt's Buckshin mine. 2 photos.

  15. Warming Oceans, Phytoplankton, and River Discharge: Implications for Cholera Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet S.; Akanda, Ali S.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.; Colwell, Rita; Islam, Shafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. This has led to an assertion that in a warming climate, rise in SST may increase phytoplankton blooms and, therefore, cholera outbreaks. Here, we explain why a positive SST-phytoplankton relationship exists in the Bay of Bengal and the implications of such a relationship on cholera dynamics. We found clear evidence of two independent physical drivers for phytoplankton abundance. The first one is the widely accepted phytoplankton blooming produced by the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich deep ocean waters. The second, which explains the Bay of Bengal findings, is coastal phytoplankton blooming during high river discharges with terrestrial nutrients. Causal mechanisms should be understood when associating SST with phytoplankton and subsequent cholera outbreaks in regions where freshwater discharge are a predominant mechanism for phytoplankton production. PMID:21813852

  16. Long Term Discharge Estimation for Ogoué River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, F.; Linguet, L.; Calmant, S.

    2014-12-01

    Ogoué river basin is one the last preserved tropical rain forest basin in the world. The river basin covers about 75% of Gabon. Results of a study conducted on wall-to wall forest cover map using Landsat images (Fichet et al., 2014) gave a net forest loss of 0,38% from 1990 and 2000 and sensibly the same loss rate between 2000 and 2010. However, the country launched recently an ambitious development plan, with communication infrastructure, agriculture and forestry as well as mining projects. Hydrological cycle response to changes may be expected, in both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Unfortunately monitoring gauging stations have stopped functioning in the seventies, and Gabon will then be unable to evaluate, mitigate and adapt adequately to these environmental challenges. Historical data were registered during 42 years at Lambaréné (from 1929 to 1974) and during 10 to 20 years at 17 other ground stations. The quantile function approach (Tourian et al., 2013) has been tested to estimate discharge from J2 and ERS/Envisat/AltiKa virtual stations. This is an opportunity to assess long term discharge patterns in order to monitor land use change effects and eventual disturbance in runoff. Figure 1: Ogoué River basin: J2 (red) and ERS/ENVISAT/ALTIKa (purple) virtual stations Fichet, L. V., Sannier, C., Massard Makaga, E. K., Seyler, F. (2013) Assessing the accuracy of forest cover map for 1990, 2000 and 2010 at national scale in Gabon. In press IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote SensingTourian, M. J., Sneeuw, N., & Bárdossy, A. (2013). A quantile function approach to discharge estimation from satellite altimetry (ENVISAT). Water Resources Research, 49(7), 4174-4186. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20348

  17. River discharge reduces reef coral diversity in Palau.

    PubMed

    Golbuu, Yimnang; van Woesik, Robert; Richmond, Robert H; Harrison, Peter; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2011-04-01

    Coral community structure is often governed by a suite of processes that are becoming increasingly influenced by land-use changes and related terrestrial discharges. We studied sites along a watershed gradient to examine both the physical environment and the associated biological communities. Transplanted corals showed no differences in growth rates and mortality along the watershed gradient. However, coral cover, coral richness, and coral colony density increased with increasing distance from the mouth of the bay. There was a negative relationship between coral cover and mean suspended solids concentration. Negative relationships were also found between terrigenous sedimentation rates and the richness of adult and juvenile corals. These results have major implications not only for Pacific islands but for all countries with reef systems downstream of rivers. Land development very often leads to increases in river runoff and suspended solids concentrations that reduce coral cover and coral diversity on adjacent reefs. PMID:21251680

  18. Environmental fate of mercury discharged into the upper Wisconsin River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rada, R.G.; Findley, J.E.; Wiener, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the distribution of Hg in sediments, fish, and crayfish in a 60 km reach of the Upper Wisconsin River that formerly received Hg in discharges from pulp and paper mills. The most heavily contaminated strata of sediments were deposited during the 1950s and early 1960s and buried under subsequent deposits; however, surficial sediments remained substantially enriched at certain sites in 1981. Median concentrations of Hg in surficial sediments, adjusted for grain size, were at least 10-fold greater at the main study area than at an upstream reference site. Total concentrations exceeded 1.0 mu g g super(-1) wet weight in axial muscle tissue in only 2 of 173 fish analyzed from the study area; however, historical comparisons revealed that Hg contamination of fish (common carp Cyprinus carpio and walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and crayfish (Orconectes ) in the river had not decreased since the early 1970s.

  19. Retrieving river discharge from SWOT-like data time-series : a sample of rivers types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garambois, Pierre-André; Roux, Hélène; Monnier, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would provide new cartographic measurements of ocean surface and inland water surfaces dynamics, and especially river height, width and slope. The highlight of SWOT will be its almost global coverage and temporal revisits on the order of 1 to 4 times per 22 - days repeat cycle [1]. The estimation of hydraulic parameters from water surface observations is still an open question. Several methods have recently been proposed for retrieving river discharge from SWOT data ([2, 3, 4]). The method introduced by [2] and used in the present study is based on Manning equation. The first step consists in retrieving an equivalent bathymetry profile for a river given one in situ depth measurement and SWOT like data of the water surface, that is to say water elevation, free surface slope and width. From this equivalent bathymetry, the second step consists in solving mass and Manning equation in the least square sense. Nevertheless, for cases where no in situ measurement of water depth is available, it is still possible to solve a system formed by mass and Manning equations in the least square sense (or with other methods such as Bayesian ones, see e.g. [3]). The approach is tested with synthetic data generated from hydraulic models for several river reaches around the world (cf. [5]). We show that a good a priori knowledge of bathymetry and roughness is required for such methods. The identifiability of the roughness geometry couple is also investigated for different space time sampling and hydraulic regimes. Indeed, the knowledge of effective hydraulic representation and limitations might be a cornerstone in identifications of hydraulic or hydrologic variables through data assimilation chains. References [1] E. Rodriguez, "SWOT science requirements document," JPL document, JPL, 2012. [2] P. A. Garambois and J. Monnier, "Inference of river properties from remotly sensed observations of water surface," (minor revisions

  20. Mathematical model for simulating discharges on the Sabine River between Tatum and Ruliff, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model for simulating discharges on the Sabine River between Tatum and Ruliff, TX., was developed to evaluate the effects of release schedules on discharges from the Toledo Bend Reservoir compared to discharges under natural conditions. Using the discharge at Tatum, TX., the rainfall over the basin, and the discharge release schedule for the reservoir, discharge hydrographs for the natural and reservoir-controlled conditions can be computed. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Using Cottonwood Dendrochronology to Reconstruct River Discharge and Floodplain Dynamics, Yellowstone River, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schook, D. M.; Friedman, J. M.; Rathburn, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystems and societies worldwide have evolved to depend upon the timing and magnitude of river discharge, and understanding past flows can help guide modern water management. We used tree rings of riparian plains cottonwoods (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) to reconstruct the history of flow variation and channel migration of a 20 km reach of the Yellowstone River in eastern Montana. Dendrochronological flow reconstructions commonly use upland trees, but our study highlights the improved resolution when floodplain trees are integrated into the data set . Our sample of 240 cottonwoods dating back to 1751 permits flow reconstruction of the Yellowstone to before the voyage of Lewis and Clark. Our tree ring series intercorrelation coefficient is 0.58, and the ring width index correlates to annual discharge at R = 0.67. Flow reconstruction indicates that the decades of highest (1820s, 1850s) and lowest (1830s, 1900s) flows all occurred prior to the instrumental record, revealing the value of an extended perspective. Cottonwood age distribution indicates that, like other western rivers, the rate of channel migration on the Yellowstone declined in the 20th century. However, the Yellowstone uniquely lacks mainstem dams and substantial water extractions, revealing the occurrence of hydrological and ecological change on a relatively natural river. Our study reach is the most geomorphically active of the entire 1100 km river between Yellowstone National Park and the Missouri River, but cottonwood age distribution reveals that trees that have established since the 1960s are underrepresented. The lack of younger cottonwood trees is likely caused by a decline in river migration rates, which may be attributed to i) climate change directly leading to a decline in fluvial processes driving river migration, ii) a decoupling in the timing of the snowmelt runoff receding limb and cottonwood seed release, or iii) both. Even on this relatively unmodified river, it appears that

  2. Preliminary analysis for trends in selected water-quality characteristics, Powder River, Montana and Wyoming, water years 1952-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Selected water-quality data from two streamflow-gaging stations on the Powder River, Montana and Wyoming, were statistically analyzed for trends using the seasonal Kendall test. Data for water years 1952-63 and 1975-85 from the Powder River near Locate, Montana, and water years 1967-68 and 1976-85 from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, were analyzed. Data for the earlier period near Locate were discharge-weighted monthly mean values, whereas data for the late period near Locate and at Sussex were from periodic samples. For data from water years 1952-63 near Locate, increasing trends were detected in sodium and sodium-adsorption ratio; no trends were detected in specific conductance, hardness, non-carbonate hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, or sulfate. For data from water years 1975-85 near Locate, increasing trends were detected in specific conductance, sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, and chloride; no trends were detected in hardness, noncarbonate hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, or sulfate. At Sussex (water years 1967-68 and 1976-85), increasing trends were detected in sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, and chloride, and a decreasing trend was detected in sulfate. No trends were detected in specific conductance, alkalinity, or dissolved solids. When the 1967-68 data were deleted and the analysis repeated for the 1976-85 data, only sodium-adsorption ratio displayed a significant (increasing) trend. Because the study was exploratory, causes and effects were not considered. The results might have been affected by sample size, number of seasons, heterogeneity, significance level, serial correlation, and data adjustment for changes in discharge. (USGS)

  3. River discharge influences on particulate organic carbon age structure in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenheim, Brad E.; Roe, Kimberly M.; Roberts, Brian J.; Kolker, Alexander S.; Allison, Mead A.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    Applying ramped pyrolysis radiocarbon analysis to suspended river sediments, we generate radiocarbon (14C) age spectra for particulate organic carbon (POC) from the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system (MARS) to better understand a major river system's role in carbon transport. Ramped pyrolysis 14C analysis generates age distributions of bulk carbon based on thermochemical stability of different organic components. Our results indicate higher proportions of older material in the POC during higher discharge. Ages increase throughout the high-discharge age spectra, indicating that no single component of the POC is responsible for the overall age increases observed. Instead, older material is contributed across the POC age spectrum and unrelated to increased bedload suspension. In this comparison of 2 spring discharges, less than half of the POC transported during higher discharge is less than 1000 14C years in age, constraining of the role of the MARS as a flux of atmospheric CO2 toward longer-term sedimentary sinks in the Mississippi delta and the Gulf of Mexico. The results suggest that delta-building processes benefit disproportionately from high discharge events carrying larger amounts of sediment because these events involve both a higher proportion of millennially-aged carbon from floodplain exchange of POC and a potentially higher proportion of petrogenic carbon (30-530% increase). Overall, an internally consistent picture of PO14C age distributions from a major river system emerges, as differences in space and time are small compared to the range of ages of POC sources in such a large basin.

  4. A new method of quantifying discharge of small rivers into lakes and inland seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Zavialov, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Continental discharge is an important component of the global hydrological cycle, providing the majority of the input part of the ocean water balance. Buoyant inflow usually causes surface density stratification at the large shelf areas, and plays a significant role in physical, chemical, and biological processes there that is especially important for the lakes and inland seas. Although there is a lack of discharge data for most of rivers in a global scale. Regular direct measurements of discharge are performed only for a relatively small number of rivers, generally the biggest ones or ones that flow through densely populated areas. Within this problem an indirect method of assuming a volume of river discharge was developed. The general idea of the method is the following. Firstly, the spatial surface spread of the plume generated by the considered river discharge is identified using high resolution satellite imagery of the coastal zone adjacent to the river estuary. Secondly, a series of numerical simulations of the river runoff spread is performed under various prescribed external forcing conditions which include the discharge rate. Varying forcing conditions we iteratively improve the accordance between simulated and observed river plumes therefore consequentially specifying the value of river discharge. The developed method was applied and validated against in situ date for several rivers feeding the Black Sea. Practical importance of this work consists in the fact, that the suggested method is an alternative for the expensive and laborious direct measurements of the river discharge, which are used nowadays.

  5. Comment on Origin of Groundwater Discharge at Fall River Springs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, T

    2006-10-20

    I'm writing at the request of the Pit River Tribe to offer my professional opinion as a geochemist regarding the origin of groundwater discharge at the Fall River Springs, Shasta Co., California. In 1997, I conducted a study of the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes in northern California, in collaboration with one of my colleagues. This work was published as a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report (Davisson and Rose, 1997). The Fall River Springs emerge from the distal end of the Giant Crater Lava Field, a laterally extensive basalt flow that stretches from the southern flank of Medicine Lake Volcano southward for a distance of 40 km. Both Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava Field have virtually no surface water drainages. Precipitation that falls in these areas is inferred to seep into fractures in the rock, where it is carried down gradient under the force of gravity. Mean annual precipitation rates on Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava field are adequate to account for the {approx}1200 ft{sup 3}/sec discharge of the Fall River Springs. To evaluate the origin of the springs using geochemical methods, water samples were collected from the Fall River Springs and the Medicine Lake highlands and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. The isotope ratios measured for a groundwater sample are diagnostic of the average composition of the precipitation from which the water was derived. The isotope ratios of rain and snow also vary systematically with elevation, such that groundwater derived from recharge at higher elevations can be distinguished from that which originated at lower elevations. The stable isotope data for the Fall River Springs are consistent with groundwater recharge on the Medicine Lake Volcano and adjacent lava field. Mass balance calculations suggest that approximately half of the Fall River Springs flow is derived from the volcanic edifice. Rose and Davisson (1996) showed that the

  6. Miocene Coral Skeleton Rare Earth Element Patterns Reflect River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz-Kraus, R.; Brachert, T. C.; Jochum, K. P.

    2010-12-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns of modern coral skeletons usually reflect the REE composition of ambient seawater which is characterized by heavy REE enriched relative to light REE with NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized La/Lu ratios of typically <0.4. The REE concentration in coral aragonite is enriched by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude compared to ambient seawater. Here we report trace element data including REE of coral skeletons of Late Miocene age (~9 Ma, Tortonian) from Crete (Eastern Mediterranean). Analyses were done using a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser coupled to an Element2 ICP-MS along the growth axis of the coral skeletons. The profiles show that Ba/Ca ratios have a seasonally induced pattern with high values around the winter months which are identified by δ18O analyses. REE/Ca ratios co-vary with Ba/Ca ratios. Since the Ba/Ca ratio is a proxy used to monitor river discharge, the co-variation suggests the REE/Ca ratio to be a proxy of comparable quality. NASC-normalized REE patterns of the Tortonian corals have negative Ce anomalies like modern corals. However, the Tortonian corals have REE patterns highly enriched in LREE with (La/Lu)N ratios of 4 to 30 which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to modern corals. Al concentrations are low (<10 ppm) and do not correlate with REE concentrations indicating an insignificant fraction of terrigenous material included in the skeleton. Applying distribution coefficients typical for modern corals, the REE composition of the Tortonian ambient water yields (La/Lu)N of about 2 to 16. This range can be explained by binary mixing of modern Eastern Mediterranean sea surface water ((La/Lu)N=0.35, sea surface salinity (SSS) ~38 ‰) with highly LREE-enriched river water ((La/Lu)N >3, salinity ~0.5 ‰) transporting suspended and colloid phases, also highly enriched, especially in LREE, at a ratio of ~9 (seawater):1 (river water). The river water component is considered because paleoenvironmental

  7. Estimating reach-averaged discharge for the River Severn from measurements of river water surface elevation and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Michael; Neal, Jeffrey; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Smith, Laurence C.; Yoon, Yeosang

    2014-04-01

    An algorithm is presented that calculates a best estimate of river bathymetry, roughness coefficient, and discharge based on input measurements of river water surface elevation (h) and slope (S) using the Metropolis algorithm in a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme, providing an inverse solution to the diffusive approximation to the shallow water equations. This algorithm has potential application to river h and S measurements from the forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. The algorithm was tested using in situ data as a proxy for satellite measurements along a 22.4 km reach of the River Severn, UK. First, the algorithm was run with gage measurements of h and S during a small, in-bank event in June 2007. Second, the algorithm was run with measurements of h and S estimated from four remote sensing images during a major out-of-bank flood event in July 2007. River width was assumed to be known for both events. Algorithm-derived estimates of river bathymetry were validated using in situ measurements, and estimates of roughness coefficient were compared to those used in an operational hydraulic model. Algorithm-derived estimates of river discharge were evaluated using gaged discharge. For the in-bank event, when lateral inflows from smaller tributaries were assumed to be known, the method provided an accurate discharge estimate (10% RMSE). When lateral inflows were assumed unknown, discharge RMSE increased to 36%. Finally, if just one of the three river reaches was assumed to be have known bathymetry, solutions for bathymetry, roughness and discharge for all three reaches were accurately retrieved, with a corresponding discharge RMSE of 15.6%. For the out-of-bank flood event, the lateral inflows were unknown, and the final discharge RMSE was 19%. These results suggest that it should be possible to estimate river discharge via SWOT observations of river water surface elevation, slope and width.

  8. On the value of satellite-based river discharge and river flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, R.; van Praag, E.; Borrero, S.; Slayback, D. A.; Young, C.; Cohen, S.; Prades, L.; de Groeve, T.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most common natural hazard worldwide. According to the World Resources Institute, floods impact 21 million people every year and affect the global GDP by $96 billion. Providing accurate flood maps in near-real time (NRT) is critical to their utility to first responders. Also, in times of flooding, river gauging stations on location, if any, are of less use to monitor stage height as an approximation for water surface area, as often the stations themselves get washed out or peak water levels reach much beyond their design measuring capacity. In a joint effort with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the European Commission Joint Research Centre and the University of Alabama, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) measures NRT: 1) river discharges, and 2) water inundation extents, both with a global coverage on a daily basis. Satellite-based passive microwave sensors and hydrological modeling are utilized to establish 'remote-sensing based discharge stations'. Once calibrated, daily discharge time series span from 1998 to the present. Also, the two MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites provide daily floodplain inundation extent with global coverage at a spatial resolution of 250m. DFO's mission is to provide easy access to NRT river and flood data products. Apart from the DFO web portal, several water extent products can be ingested by utilizing a Web Map Service (WMS), such as is established with for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region through the GeoSUR program portal. This effort includes implementing over 100 satellite discharge stations showing in NRT if a river is flooding, normal, or in low flow. New collaborative efforts have resulted in flood hazard maps which display flood extent as well as exceedance probabilities. The record length of our sensors allows mapping the 1.5 year, 5 year and 25 year flood extent. These can provide key information to water management and disaster response entities.

  9. Modelling the fate of the Tijuana River discharge plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ormondt, M.; Terrill, E.; Hibler, L. F.; van Dongeren, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    After rainfall events, the Tijuana River discharges excess runoff into the ocean in a highly turbid plume. The runoff waters contain large suspended solids concentrations, as well as high levels of toxic contaminants, bacteria, and hepatitis and enteroviruses. Public health hazards posed by the effluent often result in beach closures for several kilometers northward along the U.S. shoreline. A Delft3D model has been set up to predict the fate of the Tijuana River plume. The model takes into account the effects of tides, wind, waves, salinity, and temperature stratification. Heat exchange with the atmosphere is also included. The model consists of a relatively coarse outer domain and a high-resolution surf zone domain that are coupled with Domain Decomposition. The offshore boundary conditions are obtained from the larger NCOM SoCal model (operated by the US Navy) that spans the entire Southern California Bight. A number of discharge events are investigated, in which model results are validated against a wide range of field measurements in the San Diego Bight. These include HF Radar surface currents, REMUS tracks, drifter deployments, satellite imagery, as well as current and temperature profile measurements at a number of locations. The model is able to reproduce the observed current and temperature patterns reasonably well. Under calm conditions, the model results suggest that the hydrodynamics in the San Diego Bight are largely governed by internal waves. During rainfall events, which are typically accompanied by strong winds and high waves, wind and wave driven currents become dominant. An analysis will be made of what conditions determine the trapping and mixing of the plume inside the surfzone and/or the propagation of the plume through the breakers and onto the coastal shelf. The model is now also running in operational mode. Three day forecasts are made every 24 hours. This study was funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  10. Modelling the impact of wind stress and river discharge on Danshuei River plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, W.-C.; Chen, W.-B.; Cheng, R.T.; Hsu, M.-H.

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-dependent, baroclinic, hydrodynamic and salinity model, UnTRIM, was performed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system and adjacent coastal sea in northern Taiwan. The model forcing functions consist of tidal elevations along the open boundaries and freshwater inflows from the main stream and major tributaries in the Danshuei River estuarine system. The bottom friction coefficient was adjusted to achieve model calibration and verification in model simulations of barotropic and baroclinic flows. The turbulent diffusivities were ascertained through comparison of simulated salinity time series with observations. The model simulation results are in qualitative agreement with the available field data. The validated model was then used to investigate the influence of wind stress and freshwater discharge on Dasnhuei River plume. As the absence of wind stress, the anticyclonic circulation is prevailed along the north to west coast. The model results reveal when winds are downwelling-favorable, the surface low-salinity waters are flushed out and move to southwest coast. Conversely, large amounts of low-salinity water flushed out the Danshuei River mouth during upwelling-favorable winds, as the buoyancy-driven circulation is reversed. Wind stress and freshwater discharge are shown to control the plume structure. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evapotranspiration rates at selected sites in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenfest, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Twelve sites were chosen for a study of evapotranspiration in the Powder River basin based on variations in topography and plant communities, geographic location, and the availability of groundwater data at the sites. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated from groundwater, meteorological, and vegetation data using the Blaney-Criddle method. Five of the sites were equipped with digital recorders that provided continuous groundwater level data at the sites for the 1978 growing season. Evapotranspiration was estimated monthly during the growing season and ranged from 0 to 3.7 inches per month. Total evapotranspiration rates for the growing season ranged from 8.3 to 14.9 inches. Discharge per mile of stream reach was estimated for three of the sites and ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 cubic foot per second. The well records for the remaining seven sites consisted of monthly, or less frequent, water-level measurements. Evapotranspiration rates estimated for those months for which water-level data were available ranged from 0 to 3.8 inches per month. Only one of these sites had monthly water-level measurements for the entire growing season; a total of 9.7 inches of evapotranspiration was estimated for the growing season at this site. (USGS)

  12. Ecological Assessment of Streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P., Jr.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005-06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring. The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report. The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River

  13. Upstream Satellite Remote Sensing for River Discharge Forecasting: Application to Major Rivers in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopson, Thomas; Hirpa, Feyera; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Webster, Peter J.; De Groeve, Tom; Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Restrepo, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    In this work we demonstrate the utility of satellite remote sensing for river discharge nowcasting and forecasting for two major rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, in southern Asia. Passive microwave sensing of the river and floodplain at more than twenty locations upstream of Hardinge Bridge (Ganges) and Bahadurabad (Brahmaputra) gauging stations are used to: 1) evaluate their use in producing stand-alone river flow nowcasts, and forecasts at 1-15 days lead time; and 2) how they can be combined to improve the skill of an ongoing ensemble weather forecast-based flood forecasting system. The pattern of correlation between upstream satellite data and in situ observations of downstream discharge is used to estimate wave propagation time. This pattern of correlation is combined with a cross-validation method to select the satellite sites that produce the most accurate river discharge estimates in a lagged regression model. The results show that the well-correlated satellite-derived flow (SDF) signals were able to detect the propagation of a river flow wave along both river channels. The daily river discharge (contemporaneous) nowcast produced from the upstream SDFs could be used to provide missing data estimates given its Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.8 for both rivers; and forecasts have considerably better skill than autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model beyond 3-day lead time for Brahmaputra. Due to the expected better accuracy of the SDF for detecting large flows, the forecast error is found to be lower for high flows compared to low flows. Overall, we conclude that satellite-based flow estimates are a useful source of dynamical surface water information in data-scarce regions and that they could be used for model calibration and data assimilation purposes in near-time hydrologic forecast applications. The paper concludes by explore the utility of the SDF's in improving the skill of the existing Climate Forecasting Applications for Bangladesh (CFAB

  14. Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to

  15. Terrace aggradation during the 1978 flood on Powder River, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Meade, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Flood processes no longer actively increase the planform area of terraces. Instead, lateral erosion decreases the area. However, infrequent extreme floods continue episodic aggradation of terraces surfaces. We quantify this type of evolution of terraces by an extreme flood in May 1978 on Powder River in southeastern Montana. Within an 89-km study reach of the river, we (1) determine a sediment budget for each geomorphic feature, (2) interpret the stratigraphy of the newly deposited sediment, and (3) discuss the essential role of vegetation in the depositional processes. Peak flood discharge was about 930??m3 s- 1, which lasted about eight??days. During this time, the flood transported 8.2??million tons of sediment into and 4.5??million tons out of the study reach. The masses of sediment transferred between features or eroded from one feature and redeposited on the same feature exceeded the mass transported out of the reach. The flood inundated the floodplain and some of the remnants of two terraces along the river. Lateral erosion decreased the planform area of the lower of the two terraces (~ 2.7??m above the riverbed) by 3.2% and that of the higher terrace (~ 3.5??m above the riverbed) by 4.1%. However, overbank aggradation, on average, raised the lower terrace by 0.16??m and the higher terrace by 0.063??m. Vegetation controlled the type, thickness, and stratigraphy of the aggradation on terrace surfaces. Two characteristic overbank deposits were common: coarsening-upward sequences and lee dunes. Grass caused the deposition of the coarsening-upward sequences, which had 0.02 to 0.07??m of mud at the base, and in some cases, the deposits coarsened upwards to coarse sand on the top. Lee dunes, composed of fine and very fine sand, were deposited in the wake zone downstream from the trees. The characteristic morphology of the dunes can be used to estimate some flood variables such as suspended-sediment particle size, minimum depth, and critical shear velocity

  16. Geology and resource appraisal of the Felix coal deposit, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, B.H.; Weaver, J.N.; Boberts, S.B. ); Ming, T.; Shu, L.; Bangzhuo, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Powder River basin in Wyoming and Montana and the Ordos Basin in the Shaanxi Province of China were selected for study as part of Project 6, a joint program for coal basin exploration and analysis between the United States and the People's Republic of China. Some of the largest coal deposits in the world occur in Paleocene and Eocene rocks on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin. The authors report that the Felix coal is small compared to underlying deposits such as the Wyodak coal in upper Paleocene rocks.

  17. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the northern Wyoming Powder River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development in the Powder River Basin was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for the most comprehensive evaluation to date of coal resources and reserves in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. It is the second area within the Powder River Basin to be assessed as part of a regional coal assessment program; the first was an evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field, adjacent to and south of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. There are no active coal mines in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area at present. However, more than 100 million short tons of coal were produced from the Sheridan coal field between the years 1887 and 2000, which represents most of the coal production within the northwestern part of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. A total of 33 coal beds were identified during the present study, 24 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. Given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining, seven of the beds were evaluated for potential reserves. The restrictions included railroads, a Federal interstate highway, urban areas, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as depth, thickness of coal beds, mined-out areas, and areas of burned coal, were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area for all 24 coal beds assessed, with no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 285 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 263 billion short tons (92.3 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is that portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined

  18. Climatic and anthropogenic factors affecting river discharge to the global ocean, 1951-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milliman, John D.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Jones, P.D.; Xu, K.H.; Smith, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century, cumulative annual discharge from 137 representative rivers (watershed areas ranging from 0.3 to 6300 ?? 103??km2) to the global ocean remained constant, although annual discharge from about one-third of these rivers changed by more than 30%. Discharge trends for many rivers reflected mostly changes in precipitation, primarily in response to short- and longer-term atmospheric-oceanic signals; with the notable exception of the Parana, Mississippi, Niger and Cunene rivers, few of these "normal" rivers experienced significant changes in either discharge or precipitation. Cumulative discharge from many mid-latitude rivers, in contrast, decreased by 60%, reflecting in large part impacts due to damming, irrigation and interbasin water transfers. A number of high-latitude and high-altitude rivers experienced increased discharge despite generally declining precipitation. Poorly constrained meteorological and hydrological data do not seem to explain fully these "excess" rivers; changed seasonality in discharge, decreased storage and/or decreased evapotranspiration also may play important roles. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of glow discharge sintering in the properties of a composite material fabricated by powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, A.; Pineda, Y.; Sarmiento Santos, A.; Vera, E.

    2016-02-01

    Composite samples of 316 stainless steel and SiC were produced by powder metallurgy. Starting materials were mixed in different proportions and compacted to 700MPa. Sintering stage was performed by abnormal glow discharge plasma with direct current in an inert atmosphere of argon. The process was conducted at a temperature of 1200°C±5°C with a heating rate of 100°C/min. This work shows, the effectiveness of plasma sintering process to generate the first contacts between particles and to reduce vacancies. This fact is confirmed by comparing green and sintered density of the material. The results of porosity show a decrease after plasma sintering. Wear tests showed the wear mechanisms, noting that at higher SiC contents, the wear resistance decreases due to poor matrix-reinforcement interaction and by the porosity presence which causes matrix-reinforcement sliding.

  20. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  1. Sediment and water discharge rates of Turkish Black Sea rivers before and after hydropower dam construction

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.J. )

    1994-06-01

    Presently, the water discharge rate to the Black Sea by Turkish rivers is approximately 41 km[sup 3]/yr. The sediment discharge rate of Turkish rivers to the Black Sea is 28 x 10[sup 6] t/yr. Before construction of the hydroelectric dams, the sediment discharge rate was approximately 70 x 10[sup 6] t/yr. The sharp reduction in sediment load is largely a result of the dams near the mouths of the Yesil Irmak and Kizil Irmak rivers. Before the construction of dams, Turkish rivers contributed approximately one third of the total amount of sediment received by the Black Sea from all surrounding rivers. The life-span of the major reservoirs varies from approximately only one century (Yesil Irmak river reservoirs) to several thousand years (Sakarya river reservoirs). Life-span for the large Altinkaya Dam reservoir is estimated with approximately 500 yr.

  2. Land cover controls on river discharge in Sweden. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Velde, Y.; Vercauteren, N.; Jaramillo, F.; Dekker, S. C.; Destouni, G.; Lyon, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    As humans alter landscape, vegetation, climate and atmospheric composition, changes in the terrestrial water balance and fresh water resources are likely to occur. Understanding how climate, vegetation, humans and hydrology interact is key for accurate projections of future fresh water resources. In this study we focus on forest dominated Sweden where significant changes in climate and increasing human activity have co-occurred during the past 50 years. For 280 catchments in Sweden, we related runoff coefficients and change trends thereof to land-surface characteristics. With these relationships we created average and change trend maps for runoff and evapotranspiration across Sweden. All this information is summarized by plotting water use efficiency (actual evapotranspiration (ET)/precipitation) against energy use efficiency (actual ET/potential ET ) in a Budyko-type framework for areas with unique land cover across Sweden. This plot clearly shows that wetlands tend to have lower water and energy use efficiencies compared to 'open waters', forests and agriculture, and that agriculture and forests have comparable water and energy use efficiencies closest to those of 'open waters'. These results demonstrate how a change in land cover driven by climate change or by humans is likely to alter land-cover-atmosphere interactions, thereby changing both the water and energy balance of catchments. Looking at runoff coefficient change trends during the last 50 years we see that forests tended to become more efficient in using water and energy (i.e. the fractions of water and energy converted into river runoff and heat decreased). As this behavior coincides with an increase in precipitation it signals an acceleration of the hydrological cycle of Swedish forests. In this presentation we will discuss these findings focusing on the impact of forests on river discharges and the implications for future water cycles.

  3. Improved error estimates of a discharge algorithm for remotely sensed river measurements: Test cases on Sacramento and Garonne Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeosang; Garambois, Pierre-André; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Durand, Michael; Roux, Hélène; Beighley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We present an improvement to a previously presented algorithm that used a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for estimating river discharge from remotely sensed observations of river height, width, and slope. We also present an error budget for discharge calculations from the algorithm. The algorithm may be utilized by the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. We present a detailed evaluation of the method using synthetic SWOT-like observations (i.e., SWOT and AirSWOT, an airborne version of SWOT). The algorithm is evaluated using simulated AirSWOT observations over the Sacramento and Garonne Rivers that have differing hydraulic characteristics. The algorithm is also explored using SWOT observations over the Sacramento River. SWOT and AirSWOT height, width, and slope observations are simulated by corrupting the "true" hydraulic modeling results with instrument error. Algorithm discharge root mean square error (RMSE) was 9% for the Sacramento River and 15% for the Garonne River for the AirSWOT case using expected observation error. The discharge uncertainty calculated from Manning's equation was 16.2% and 17.1%, respectively. For the SWOT scenario, the RMSE and uncertainty of the discharge estimate for the Sacramento River were 15% and 16.2%, respectively. A method based on the Kalman filter to correct errors of discharge estimates was shown to improve algorithm performance. From the error budget, the primary source of uncertainty was the a priori uncertainty of bathymetry and roughness parameters. Sensitivity to measurement errors was found to be a function of river characteristics. For example, Steeper Garonne River is less sensitive to slope errors than the flatter Sacramento River.

  4. Spatial patterns of the evolution of the chemical composition and discharge of river water in the Ob River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savichev, O. G.; Mazurov, A. K.; Pipko, I. I.; Sergienko, V. I.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of major cations and dissolved organic carbon (Corg) with water of the Ob River and its tributaries along the natural zones within the Ob River basin was calculated, and the contribution of the underground component to the volumes of total discharge of the Ob River basin was estimated. It was demonstrated that the total chemical composition of river water and the geochemical discharge in the Ob River basin were consistent with the zoned hydroclimatic conditions controlling the character and duration of interaction in the water-rock system. It was established that the average ionic discharge of the Ob River increased from 6-7 × 106 t/year near Barnaul to 46-47 × 106 t/year near Salekhard; the discharge of dissolved Corg increased from 0.1 × 106 to 3.8 × 106 t/year. Multiple enrichment of underground waters of the Ob River in dissolved organic matter from the upper to the lower reaches was revealed.

  5. Seasonal forecasting of discharge for the Raccoon River, Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Louise; Villarini, Gabriele; Bradley, Allen; Vecchi, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The state of Iowa (central United States) is regularly afflicted by severe natural hazards such as the 2008/2013 floods and the 2012 drought. To improve preparedness for these catastrophic events and allow Iowans to make more informed decisions about the most suitable water management strategies, we have developed a framework for medium to long range probabilistic seasonal streamflow forecasting for the Raccoon River at Van Meter, a 8900-km2 catchment located in central-western Iowa. Our flow forecasts use statistical models to predict seasonal discharge for low to high flows, with lead forecasting times ranging from one to ten months. Historical measurements of daily discharge are obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the Van Meter stream gage, and used to compute quantile time series from minimum to maximum seasonal flow. The model is forced with basin-averaged total seasonal precipitation records from the PRISM Climate Group and annual row crop production acreage from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Services database. For the forecasts, we use corn and soybean production from the previous year (persistence forecast) as a proxy for the impacts of agricultural practices on streamflow. The monthly precipitation forecasts are provided by eight Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME), with lead times ranging from 0.5 to 11.5 months, and a resolution of 1 decimal degree. Additionally, precipitation from the month preceding each season is used to characterize antecedent soil moisture conditions. The accuracy of our modelled (1927-2015) and forecasted (2001-2015) discharge values is assessed by comparison with the observed USGS data. We explore the sensitivity of forecast skill over the full range of lead times, flow quantiles, forecast seasons, and with each GCM. Forecast skill is also examined using different formulations of the statistical models, as well as NMME forecast

  6. Modeling Peak Discharge within the Marengo River Watershed: Lessons for Restoration in the Saint Louis River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    To more fully understand the hydrologic condition of the Marengo River Watershed, and to map specific locations most likely to have increased discharge and flow velocity (leading to more erosion and higher sediment loads) we modeled peak discharge for 35 different sub-watersheds ...

  7. Comparison of different automatic adaptive threshold selection techniques for estimating discharge from river width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmi, Omid; Javad Tourian, Mohammad; Sneeuw, Nico

    2015-04-01

    The importance of river discharge monitoring is critical for e.g., water resource planning, climate change, hazard monitoring. River discharge has been measured at in situ gauges for more than a century. Despite various attempts, some basins are still ungauged. Moreover, a reduction in the number of worldwide gauging stations increases the interest to employ remote sensing data for river discharge monitoring. Finding an empirical relationship between simultaneous in situ measurements of discharge and river widths derived from satellite imagery has been introduced as a straightforward remote sensing alternative. Classifying water and land in an image is the primary task for defining the river width. Water appears dark in the near infrared and infrared bands in satellite images. As a result low values in the histogram usually represent the water content. In this way, applying a threshold on the image histogram and separating into two different classes is one of the most efficient techniques to build a water mask. Beside its simple definition, finding the appropriate threshold value in each image is the most critical issue. The threshold is variable due to changes in the water level, river extent, atmosphere, sunlight radiation, onboard calibration of the satellite over time. These complexities in water body classification are the main source of error in river width estimation. In this study, we are looking for the most efficient adaptive threshold algorithm to estimate the river discharge. To do this, all cloud free MODIS images coincident with the in situ measurement are collected. Next a number of automatic threshold selection techniques are employed to generate different dynamic water masks. Then, for each of them a separate empirical relationship between river widths and discharge measurements are determined. Through these empirical relationships, we estimate river discharge at the gauge and then validate our results against in situ measurements and also

  8. Structural control on paleovalley development, muddy sandstone, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gustason, E.R.; Wheeler, D.A.; Ryer, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    A subaerial unconformity within the Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstone in the Powder River basin developed during a late Albian sea level lowstand and resulted in a markedly rectangular drainage pattern. Numerous right-angle bends and perpendicular confluences of Muddy paleovalleys are believed to reflect syndepositional movement on basement faults and dissolution of salts in the Goose Egg Formation. A detailed subsurface analysis of geophysical logs from closely spaced wells reveals that up to 30 ft of vertical displacement occurred along northwest- and northeast-trending faults prior to and during the development of the subaerial unconformity. An analysis of a high-resolution magnetic survey (NewMag) of the Powder River basin reveals that numerous paleovalleys parallel the boundaries, or basement shear zones, between basement blocks. Small, irregularly shaped, thin intervals of the Permian Goose Egg Formation, which resemble karst topography, also occur along these northwest- and northeast-trending basement faults beneath Muddy paleovalleys. An arcuate Muddy paleovalley located in the northern Powder River basin parallels contours of isopach and trend surface maps of the Goose Egg Formation. These relationships suggest that the location and orientation of Muddy paleovalleys were controlled by a combination of movement along northwest- and northeast-trending faults and syntectonic dissolution of salt within the Goose Egg Formation. Simultaneous dissolution of Goose Egg salts and headward erosion of Muddy paleovalleys along this conjugate fault pattern also indicate that the Powder River basin was influenced by wrench fault tectonics during the late Albian.

  9. Geospatial data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinney, Scott A.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide geospatial data for various layers and themes in a Geographic Information System (GIS) format for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. In 2015, as part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of coal resources and reserves within the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This report is supplemental to USGS Professional Paper 1809 and contains GIS data that can be used to view digital layers or themes, including the Tertiary limit of the Powder River Basin boundary, locations of drill holes, clinker, mined coal, land use and technical restrictions, geology, mineral estate ownership, coal thickness, depth to the top of the coal bed (overburden), and coal reliability categories. Larger scale maps may be viewed using the GIS data provided in this report supplemental to the page-size maps provided in USGS Professional Paper 1809. Additionally, these GIS data can be exported to other digital applications as needed by the user. The database used for this report contains a total of 29,928 drill holes, of which 21,393 are in the public domain. The public domain database is linked to the geodatabase in this report so that the user can access the drill-hole data through GIS applications. Results of this report are available at the USGS Energy Resources Program Web site,http://energy.usgs.gov/RegionalStudies/PowderRiverBasin.aspx.

  10. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  11. Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The proportional and linear relationship between absolute and relative thermal inertia was theoretically evaluated, and a more accurate expression for thermal inertia was proposed. Radiometric and meteorological data from three stations in the Powder River Basin were acquired, as well as 400 miles of low altitude scanner data between July 25-28.

  12. Economic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Powder River Basin Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2009-01-01

    Unminable coalbeds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this paper is to study the economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 tonne) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  13. Increasing summer river discharge in southern California, USA, linked to urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Pataki, Diane E.; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Zhaofu; Wu, Qiusheng; Thomas, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    southern California relies heavily on imported water for domestic use. A synthesis of river discharge data in this region reveals that summer (June, July, and August) river discharge in watersheds that have at least 50% urban, suburban, and/or commercial land cover has increased by 250% or more over the past half-century, without any substantial precipitation during these months. Total annual discharge in the Los Angeles River has also increased at levels up to several hundred percent. Three factors likely contribute to our observations: (1) increased groundwater recharge rates from leaking water pipelines, (2) inputs of treated wastewater into streams and rivers, and (3) increased runoff or recharge due to over-irrigation of ornamental landscaping. In the southwestern United States, water importation consumes large amounts of energy and contributes to decline of river flows in source regions. Here we show that water importation also increases river flows in urban areas.

  14. Sensitivity of global river discharges under Holocene and future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Renssen, H.; Ward, P. J.; de Moel, H.; Odada, E.; Bouwer, L. M.; Goosse, H.

    2006-10-01

    A comparative analysis of global river basins shows that some river discharges are more sensitive to future climate change for the coming century than to natural climate variability over the last 9000 years. In these basins (Ganges, Mekong, Volta, Congo, Amazon, Murray-Darling, Rhine, Oder, Yukon) future discharges increase by 6-61%. These changes are of similar magnitude to changes over the last 9000 years. Some rivers (Nile, Syr Darya) experienced strong reductions in discharge over the last 9000 years (17-56%), but show much smaller responses to future warming. The simulation results for the last 9000 years are validated with independent proxy data.

  15. River discharge estimation by using remote sensing data in absence of bathymetry: the Po River case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Barbetta, Silvia; Brocca, Luca; Lacava, Teodosio; Faruolo, Mariapia; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    River discharge is an important quantity of the hydrologic cycle and it is essential for both scientific and operational applications related to water resources management and flood risk prevention. The absence of flow measurements along the natural channels and, sometimes, their poor accessibility, contribute to make difficult the discharge estimation. In recent years, also thanks to the increased availability of remote sensing data, the great potential of satellite sensors for discharge estimation has been already demonstrated. In particular, recent advances in radar altimetry technology have improved the accuracy in the water levels monitoring of both large rivers and lakes located in ungauged or poorly gauged inland regions. However, the remote sensing based technologies cannot observe river channel bathymetry below the water surface, limiting their value for estimating river depth and/or discharge. This study focuses on the estimation of discharge by coupling information coming from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and radar altimetry and by using the entropy theory for simulating the river channel bathymetry. Specifically, the MODIS-derived velocity is obtained by exploiting the different behavior of water and land in the Near Infrared (NIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (MODIS channel 2). The ratio of reflectance values between two pixels located within and outside the river increases with the presence of the water and, hence, with flow velocity. The flow area is then assessed considering the dataset of water surface elevation derived by radar altimetry and the maximum flow velocity derived by MODIS images. Based on the dataset, an optimization method for estimating the lowest river bottom level is applied and the cross-section flow area is assessed considering the bathymetry simulated by maximization of entropy. The procedure is tested by comparing in-situ and satellite-derived discharge data for a gauged river site along the

  16. Verification of 1921 peak discharge at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington, using 2003 peak-discharge data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.; Kresch, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The 1921 peak discharge at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington (U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 12194000), was verified using peak-discharge data from the flood of October 21, 2003, the largest flood since 1921. This peak discharge is critical to determining other high discharges at the gaging station and to reliably estimating the 100-year flood, the primary design flood being used in a current flood study of the Skagit River basin. The four largest annual peak discharges of record (1897, 1909, 1917, and 1921) were used to determine the 100-year flood discharge at Skagit River near Concrete. The peak discharge on December 13, 1921, was determined by James E. Stewart of the U.S. Geological Survey using a slope-area measurement and a contracted-opening measurement. An extended stage-discharge rating curve based on the 1921 peak discharge was used to determine the peak discharges of the three other large floods. Any inaccuracy in the 1921 peak discharge also would affect the accuracies of the three other largest peak discharges. The peak discharge of the 1921 flood was recalculated using the cross sections and high-water marks surveyed after the 1921 flood in conjunction with a new estimate of the channel roughness coefficient (n value) based on an n-verification analysis of the peak discharge of the October 21, 2003, flood. The n value used by Stewart for his slope-area measurement of the 1921 flood was 0.033, and the corresponding calculated peak discharge was 240,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Determination of a single definitive water-surface profile for use in the n-verification analysis was precluded because of considerable variation in elevations of surveyed high-water marks from the flood on October 21, 2003. Therefore, n values were determined for two separate water-surface profiles thought to bracket a plausible range of water-surface slopes defined by high-water marks. The n value determined using the flattest plausible slope was 0

  17. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the powder river basin, wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Repert, D.A.; Hart, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A. study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 ??M. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 ??M, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Geochemistry of Inorganic Nitrogen in Waters Released from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production Wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Hart, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 µM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 µM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

  19. Effective discharge for sediment transport: the sorting role of river flow regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Stefano; Sprocati, Riccardo; Frascati, Alessandro; Marani, Marco; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    The effective discharge is a key concept in geomorphology, river engineering and restoration. It is used to design the most stable channel configuration, to estimate sedimentation rate and lifespan of reservoirs and to characterize the hydrologic forcing in models studying long-term evolution of rivers. Previous empirical, theoretical and numerical studies found the effective discharge to be affected by climate, landscape and river morphology, type of transport (dissolved, suspended or bedload), and by streamflow variability. However, the heterogeneity of values observed for the effective discharge challenges a clear understanding of its pivotal drivers, and a consistent framework which explains observations carried out in different catchments and geographic areas is still lacking. This work relates the observed diversity of effective discharge values to the underlying heterogeneity of river flow regimes. The effective ratio (i.e. the ratio between effective discharge and mean streamflow) is derived as a function of the empirical exponent of the sediment rating curve and the streamflow variability, resulting from climatic and landscape drivers. The proposed analytic expression helps to disentangle hydrologic and landscape controls on the effective discharge, and highlights distinct effective ratios of persistent and erratic hydrologic regimes (respectively characterized by low and high flow variability), attributable to intrinsically different streamflow dynamics. The framework captures observed values of effective discharge for suspended sediment transport in a set of catchments of the continental United States, and may allow for first-order estimates of effective discharge in rivers belonging to different climatic regions.

  20. Air toxics in coal: Distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments identified 12 potentially toxic elements, called ``air toxics,`` that may be released during the combustion of coal. The elements identified in the amendments are As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U (radionuclides). In this study, the distribution and concentration of these elements were examined, on a whole-coal basis, in samples from two cores of the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed (Paleocene, Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation), in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The distribution of these elements in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed is also compared to the distribution of the same elements in a correlative coal bed, the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed in the Powder River Basin of Montana.

  1. An intercomparison of remote sensing river discharge estimation algorithms from measurements of river height, width, and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, M.; Gleason, C. J.; Garambois, P. A.; Bjerklie, D.; Smith, L. C.; Roux, H.; Rodriguez, E.; Bates, P. D.; Pavelsky, T. M.; Monnier, J.; Chen, X.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Fiset, J.-M.; Flipo, N.; Frasson, R. P. d. M.; Fulton, J.; Goutal, N.; Hossain, F.; Humphries, E.; Minear, J. T.; Mukolwe, M. M.; Neal, J. C.; Ricci, S.; Sanders, B. F.; Schumann, G.; Schubert, J. E.; Vilmin, L.

    2016-06-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission planned for launch in 2020 will map river elevations and inundated area globally for rivers >100 m wide. In advance of this launch, we here evaluated the possibility of estimating discharge in ungauged rivers using synthetic, daily "remote sensing" measurements derived from hydraulic models corrupted with minimal observational errors. Five discharge algorithms were evaluated, as well as the median of the five, for 19 rivers spanning a range of hydraulic and geomorphic conditions. Reliance upon a priori information, and thus applicability to truly ungauged reaches, varied among algorithms: one algorithm employed only global limits on velocity and depth, while the other algorithms relied on globally available prior estimates of discharge. We found at least one algorithm able to estimate instantaneous discharge to within 35% relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) on 14/16 nonbraided rivers despite out-of-bank flows, multichannel planforms, and backwater effects. Moreover, we found RRMSE was often dominated by bias; the median standard deviation of relative residuals across the 16 nonbraided rivers was only 12.5%. SWOT discharge algorithm progress is therefore encouraging, yet future efforts should consider incorporating ancillary data or multialgorithm synergy to improve results.

  2. Annual variation in recruitment of freshwater mussels and its relationship with river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Patricia R.; Newton, Teresa; Haro, Roger J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Davis, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in recruitment dynamics of native mussels and its relationship to river discharge will be useful in designing effective management strategies to enhance conservation of this imperilled fauna.

  3. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2014-10-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically-based and distributed modelling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0 to 7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators. The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  4. Remote Sensing and River Discharge Forecasting for Major Rivers in South Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hopson, T. M.; Hirpa, F. A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; De-Groeve, T.; Shrestha, K.; Gebremichael, M.; Restrepo, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asia is a flashpoint for natural disasters particularly flooding of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra has profound societal impacts for the region and globally. The 2007 Brahmaputra floods affecting India and Bangladesh, the 2008 avulsion of the Kosi River in India, the 2010 flooding of the Indus River in Pakistan and the 2013 Uttarakhand exemplify disasters on scales almost inconceivable elsewhere. Their frequent occurrence of floods combined with large and rapidly growing populations, high levels of poverty and low resilience, exacerbate the impact of the hazards. Mitigation of these devastating hazards are compounded by limited flood forecast capability, lack of rain/gauge measuring stations and forecast use within and outside the country, and transboundary data sharing on natural hazards. Here, we demonstrate the utility of remotely-derived hydrologic and weather products in producing skillful flood forecasting information without reliance on vulnerable in situ data sources. Over the last decade a forecast system has been providing operational probabilistic forecasts of severe flooding of the Brahmaputra and Ganges Rivers in Bangldesh was developed (Hopson and Webster 2010). The system utilizes ECMWF weather forecast uncertainty information and ensemble weather forecasts, rain gauge and satellite-derived precipitation estimates, together with the limited near-real-time river stage observations from Bangladesh. This system has been expanded to Pakistan and has successfully forecast the 2010-2012 flooding (Shrestha and Webster 2013). To overcome the in situ hydrological data problem, recent efforts in parallel with the numerical modeling have utilized microwave satellite remote sensing of river widths to generate operational discharge advective-based forecasts for the Ganges and Brahmaputra. More than twenty remotely locations upstream of Bangldesh were used to produce stand-alone river flow nowcasts and forecasts at 1-15 days lead time. showing that

  5. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  6. Tidal impact on the division of river discharge over distributary channels in the Mahakam Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Maximiliano G.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; de Brye, Benjamin; Vermeulen, Bart; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2011-12-01

    Bifurcations in tidally influenced deltas distribute river discharge over downstream channels, asserting a strong control over terrestrial runoff to the coastal ocean. Whereas the mechanics of river bifurcations is well-understood, junctions in tidal channels have received comparatively little attention in the literature. This paper aims to quantify the tidal impact on subtidal discharge distribution at the bifurcations in the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Mahakam Delta is a regular fan-shaped delta, composed of a quasi-symmetric network of rectilinear distributaries and sinuous tidal channels. A depth-averaged version of the unstructured-mesh, finite-element model second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model has been used to simulate the hydrodynamics driven by river discharge and tides in the delta channel network. The model was forced with tides at open sea boundaries and with measured and modeled river discharge at upstream locations. Calibration was performed with water level time series and flow measurements, both spanning a simulation period. Validation was performed by comparing the model results with discharge measurements at the two principal bifurcations in the delta. Results indicate that within 10 to 15 km from the delta apex, the tides alter the river discharge division by about 10% in all bifurcations. The tidal impact increases seaward, with a maximum value of the order of 30%. In general, the effect of tides is to hamper the discharge division that would occur in the case without tides.

  7. Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

  8. IDENTIFYING DISCHARGE ZONES OF ARSENIC IN THE GOOSE RIVER BASIN, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater discharge areas are simulated from water balance modeling and kriging of oxygen isotopes in groundwater within the Goose River basin. Groundwater fluxes of discharge range from -10 cm yr-1 to < -25 cm yr-1 and are associated with areas of elevated arsenic in wells. De...

  9. The effect on river discharge estimation by considering an interaction between land surface process and river routing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorozu, K.; Tachikawa, Y.

    2015-06-01

    There is much research assessing the impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle. However, it has often focused on a specific hydrologic process, without considering the interaction among hydrologic processes. In this study, a distributed hydrologic model considering the interaction between flow routing and land surface processes was developed, and its effect on river discharge estimation was investigated. The model enables consideration of flow routing, irrigation withdrawal from rivers at paddy fields, crop growth depending on water and energy status, and evapotranspiration based on meteorological, soil water and vegetation status. To examine the effects of hydrologic process interaction on river discharge estimation, a developed model was applied to the Chao Phraya river basin using near surface meteorological data collected by the Japanese Meteorological Research Institute's Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-AGCM3.2S) with TL959 spatial resolution as forcing data. Also, a flow routing model, which was part of the developed model, was applied independently, using surface and subsurface runoff data from the same GCM. In the results, the developed model tended to estimate a smaller river discharge than was estimated by the river routing model, because of the irrigation effect. In contrast, the annual maximum daily discharge calculated by the developed model was 24% greater than that by the flow routing model. It is assumed that surface runoff in the developed model was greater than that in the flow routing model because the soil water content was maintained at a high level through irrigation withdrawal. As for drought discharge, which is defined as the 355th largest daily discharge, the developed model gave a discharge 2.7-fold greater than the flow routing model. It seems that subsurface runoff in the developed model was greater than that in the flow routing model. The results of this study suggest that considering hydrologic interaction in a

  10. Effects of reservoirs on flood discharges in the Kansas and the Missouri River basins, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    The floods of 1993 were of historic magnitude as water in the Missouri and the Mississippi Rivers reached levels that exceeded many of the previous observed maximums. Although large parts of the flood plains of both rivers upstream from St. Louis, Missouri, were inundated, water levels would have been even higher had it not been for the large volume of runoff retained in flood-control reservoirs. Most of the total flood-control storage available upstream from St. Louis is located along the main stem and tributaries of the Missouri River; the largest concentration of reservoirs is located within the Kansas River Basin. The Kansas River Basin accounts for about l0 percent (60,000 square miles) of the drainage area of the Missouri River Basin, and reservoirs control streamflow from 85 percent (50,840 square miles) of the drainage area of the Kansas River Basin. Analyses of flood discharges in the Kansas River indicate that reservoirs reduced flooding along the Kansas and the lower Missouri Rivers. Results of analyses of the 1993 flooding, which include total basin rainfall, peak discharge, and total flood volume on the Kansas River, are compared with analyses of the 1951 flood, which had a similar total volume but a substantially larger peak discharge.

  11. Powder River: data for cross-channel profiles at 22 sites in southeastern Montana from 1975 through 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Meade, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Powder River rises in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming and flows northward through a semi-arid landscape in Wyoming and Montana to the Yellowstone River. The river drains an area of 34,700 km2 and has an average discharge of about 500 million m3 y-1 or 16 m3 s-1. This view of the river looking northward, and hence downstream, was taken in October 2012 (see study reach map), about 20 km north of the Wyoming-Montana state line, about 4 km downstream from an operating gaging station at Moorhead, Montana (USGS station number 06324500), and about 80 river km upstream from a discontinued gaging station at Broadus, Montana (USGS station number 06324710). The river is emerging from a narrowly-confined reach, and the valley widens northward, bordered by hills of the coal-bearing Fort Union Formation. The river in this photo is at about bed-full flow (12 m3 s-1, Moody and others, 1999), and several riffles with disturbed water can be seen downstream between smooth glassy reaches of the river. A narrow band (~2-4 m wide) of reddish sedge (Scirpus spp.) grows just above the bed-full level along the edge of water with a wider band of mixed grasses (Agropyron repens, A. pauciflorum, Bromus inermis, Elymus canadenis, Spartina pectinata, and S. cynosoroids), willow (Salix exigua), tamarisk (Tamirix ramosissima) and small cottonwood seedlings and trees (Populus sargentii) on the flood plain. Three terrace levels have been identified along the river (Leopold and Miller, 1954; Moody and Meade, 2008). The first is the Lightning terrace with small cottonwood trees (seen here without leaves) adjacent to the floodplain in the right-center of the photo. The second is the Moorcroft terrace seen best forming the left bank and extending as a flat surface to the left (west) with a few large cottonwood trees still retaining their green leaves. The third is the colluvial Kaycee terrace that grades slowly upwards and meets the hills of the Fort Union Formation. It can be seen on the right side

  12. Modeling the influence of river discharge on salt intrusion and residual circulation in Danshuei River estuary, Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, W.-C.; Chen, W.-B.; Cheng, R.T.; Hsu, M.-H.; Kuo, A.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-D, time-dependent, baroclinic, hydrodynamic and salinity model was implemented and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system and the adjacent coastal sea in Taiwan. The model forcing functions consist of tidal elevations along the open boundaries and freshwater inflows from the main stream and major tributaries in the Danshuei River estuarine system. The bottom friction coefficient was adjusted to achieve model calibration and verification in model simulations of barotropic and baroclinic flows. The turbulent diffusivities were ascertained through comparison of simulated salinity time series with observations. The model simulation results are in qualitative agreement with the available field data. The validated model was then used to investigate the influence of freshwater discharge on residual current and salinity intrusion under different freshwater inflow condition in the Danshuei River estuarine system. The model results reveal that the characteristic two-layered estuarine circulation prevails most of the time at Kuan-Du station near the river mouth. Comparing the estuarine circulation under low- and mean flow conditions, the circulation strengthens during low-flow period and its strength decreases at moderate river discharge. The river discharge is a dominating factor affecting the salinity intrusion in the estuarine system. A correlation between the distance of salt intrusion and freshwater discharge has been established allowing prediction of salt intrusion for different inflow conditions. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN RIVER DISCHARGE AND NUTRIENT EXPORT TO A NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variations in dissolved nitrogen and silica loadings were related to seasonal variability in river discharge. Dissolved nutrient concentrations measured weekly at three stations in the Yaquina River, Oregon from 1999 through 2001, and then monthly in 2002 were used as th...

  14. Toward global mapping of river discharge using satellite images and at-many-stations hydraulic geometry.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Colin J; Smith, Laurence C

    2014-04-01

    Rivers provide critical water supply for many human societies and ecosystems, yet global knowledge of their flow rates is poor. We show that useful estimates of absolute river discharge (in cubic meters per second) may be derived solely from satellite images, with no ground-based or a priori information whatsoever. The approach works owing to discovery of a characteristic scaling law uniquely fundamental to natural rivers, here termed a river's at-many-stations hydraulic geometry. A first demonstration using Landsat Thematic Mapper images over three rivers in the United States, Canada, and China yields absolute discharges agreeing to within 20-30% of traditional in situ gauging station measurements and good tracking of flow changes over time. Within such accuracies, the door appears open for quantifying river resources globally with repeat imaging, both retroactively and henceforth into the future, with strong implications for water resource management, food security, ecosystem studies, flood forecasting, and geopolitics. PMID:24639551

  15. Discharge and other hydraulic measurements for characterizing the hydraulics of Lower Congo River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, Kevin; Shelton, John M.; Gardiner, Ned; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The first direct measurements of discharge of the Lower Congo River below Malebo Pool and upstream from Kinganga, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were made in July 2008 using acoustic Doppler current profilers, differential GPS, and echo sounders. These measurements were made in support of research that is attempting to understand the distribution of fish species in the Lower Congo River and reasons for separation of species within this large river. Analyses of these measurements show that the maximum depth in the Lower Congo River was in excess of 200 m and maximum water velocities were greater than 4 m/s. The discharge measured near Luozi, DRC was 35,800 m3/s, and decreased slightly beginning midway through the study. Local bedrock controls seem to have a large effect on the flow in the river, even in reaches without waterfalls and rapids. Dramatic changes in bed topography are evident in transects across the river.

  16. Shovelnose sturgeon spawning in relation to varying discharge treatments in a Missouri River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodman, B.J.; Guy, C.S.; Camp, S.L.; Gardner, W.M.; Kappenman, K.M.; Webb, M.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Many lotic fish species use natural patterns of variation in discharge and temperature as spawning cues, and these natural patterns are often altered by river regulation. The effects of spring discharge and water temperature variation on the spawning of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have not been well documented. From 2006 through 2009, we had the opportunity to study the effects of experimental discharge levels on shovelnose sturgeon spawning in the lower Marias River, a regulated tributary to the Missouri River in Montana. In 2006, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in the Marias River in conjunction with the ascending, peak (134 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and water temperatures from 16°C to 19°C. In 2008, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in conjunction with the peak (118 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and during a prolonged period of increased discharge (28–39 m3/s), coupled with water temperatures from 11°C to 23°C in the lower Marias River. No evidence of shovelnose sturgeon spawning was documented in the lower Marias River in 2007 or 2009 when discharge remained low (14 and 20 m3/s) despite water temperatures suitable and optimal (12°C-24°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development. A similar relationship between shovelnose sturgeon spawning and discharge was observed in the Teton River. These data suggest that discharge must reach a threshold level (28 m3/s) and should be coupled with water temperatures suitable (12°C-24°C) or optimal (16°C-20°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development to provide a spawning cue for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Marias River.

  17. Trace element chemistry of coal bed natural gas produced water in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Jackson; K.J. Reddy

    2007-09-15

    Coal bed natural gas (CBNG) produced water is usually disposed into nearby constructed disposal ponds. Geochemistry of produced water, particularly trace elements interacting with a semiarid environment, is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to collect produced water samples at outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds and monitor pH, iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), boron (B), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), and barium (Ba). Outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds were sampled from five different watersheds including Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), Little Powder River (LPR), Powder River (PR), and Tongue River (TR) within the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming from 2003 to 2005. Paired tests were conducted between CBNG outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds for each watershed. Results suggest that produced water from CBNG outfalls is chemically different from the produced water from corresponding disposal ponds. Most trace metal concentrations in the produced water increased from outfall to disposal pond except for Ba. In disposal ponds, Ba, As, and B concentrations increased from 2003 to 2005. Geochemical modeling predicted precipitation and dissolution reactions as controlling processes for Al, Cu, and Ba concentrations in CBNG produced water. Adsorption and desorption reactions appear to control As, Mo, and B concentrations in CBNG water in disposal ponds. Overall, results of this study will be important to determine beneficial uses (e.g., irrigation, livestock/wildlife water, and aquatic life) for CBNG produced water in the PRB, Wyoming. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Simulation of stream discharge and transport of nitrate and selected herbicides in the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.; Clark, G.M.; Jobson, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    Stream discharge and the transport of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor in the Mississippi River Basin were simulated using the DAFLOW/BLTM hydrologic model. The simulated domain for stream discharge included river reaches downstream from the following stations in the National Stream Quality Accounting Network: Mississippi River at Clinton, IA; Missouri River at Hermann, MO: Ohio River at Grand Chain, IL: And Arkansas River at Little Rock, AR. Coefficients of hydraulic geometry were calibrated using data from water year 1996; the model was validated by favourable simulation of observed discharges in water years 1992-1994. The transport of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor was simulated downstream from the Mississippi River at Thebes, IL, and the Ohio River at Grand Chain. Simulated concentrations compared favourably with observed concentrations at Baton Rouge, LA. Development of this model is a preliminary step in gaining a more quantitative understanding of the sources and fate of nutrients and pesticides delivered from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Simulation of stream discharge and transport of nitrate and selected herbicides in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broshears, Robert E.; Clark, Gregory M.; Jobson, Harvey E.

    2001-05-01

    Stream discharge and the transport of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor in the Mississippi River Basin were simulated using the DAFLOW/BLTM hydrologic model. The simulated domain for stream discharge included river reaches downstream from the following stations in the National Stream Quality Accounting Network: Mississippi River at Clinton, IA; Missouri River at Hermann, MO; Ohio River at Grand Chain, IL; and Arkansas River at Little Rock, AR. Coefficients of hydraulic geometry were calibrated using data from water year 1996; the model was validated by favourable simulation of observed discharges in water years 1992-1994. The transport of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor was simulated downstream from the Mississippi River at Thebes, IL, and the Ohio River at Grand Chain. Simulated concentrations compared favourably with observed concentrations at Baton Rouge, LA. Development of this model is a preliminary step in gaining a more quantitative understanding of the sources and fate of nutrients and pesticides delivered from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Southwestern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osmonson, Lee M.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 37 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 23 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Southwestern Powder River Basin assessment area for these 23 coal beds, with no restrictions applied was calculated to be 369 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 341 billion short tons (92.4 percent of the total original resource). Approximately 61 percent are at depths between 1,000 and 2,000 ft, with a modeled price of about $30 per short ton. Therefore, the majority of coal resources in the South-western Powder River Basin assessment area are considered sub-economic.

  1. Parameterization of SURFEX-TOPMODEL river velocity based on instant discharge dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedkov, Nikolay; Artinyan, Eram; Tsarev, Petko

    2016-04-01

    SURFEX-TOPMODEL distributed physical model is used to analyze and forecast stream flow discharges including flash floods occurring in a Mediterranean river basin in Bulgaria. River velocity is one of the parameters that need to be calibrated in order to achieve acceptable representation of peak floods but in the same time to produce a smooth hydrograph during the low flow periods. The coupled model showed great sensibility to the parameter but when focusing to reproduce high peaks low discharge hydrograph presented unrealistic small peaks too. The dependency between the measured instant discharge and mean section velocity was established for the Bulgarian hydrometric stations on rivers using 20 years of direct discharge-velocity measures of the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Bulgaria. The relationship is used to avoid the calibration of the velocity parameter for the measured cross-sections. It was coded within the model thus permitting dynamical adjustment of the velocity with respect to the computed instant discharge in the river section. We present the results of river flow simulations with the modified parameterization compared to those with the original model for the hydrological year 2014-2015. Keywords: SURFEX-TOP, river speed parameter

  2. High resolution synoptic salinity mapping to identify groundwater--surface water discharges in lowland rivers.

    PubMed

    Pai, Henry; Villamizar, Sandra R; Harmon, Thomas C

    2015-04-21

    Quantifying distributed lateral groundwater contributions to surface water (GW-SW discharges) is a key aspect of tracking nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) within a watershed. In this study, we characterized distributed GW-SW discharges and associated salt loading using elevated GW specific conductance (SC) as a tracer along a 38 km reach of the Lower Merced River in Central California. High resolution longitudinal surveys for multiple flows (1.3-150 m(3) s(-1)) revealed river SC gradients that mainly decreased with increasing flow, suggesting a dilution effect and/or reduced GW-SW discharges due to hydraulic gradient reductions. However, exceptions occurred (gradients increasing with increasing flow), pointing to complex spatiotemporal influences on GW-SW dynamics. The surveys revealed detailed variability in salinity gradients, from which we estimated distributed GW-SW discharge and salt loading using a simple mixing model. Modeled cumulative GW discharges for two surveys unaffected by ungauged SW discharges were comparable in magnitude to differential gauging-based discharge estimates and prior GW-SW studies along the same river reach. Ungauged lateral inlets and sparse GW data limited the study, and argue for enhancing monitoring efforts. Our approach provides a rapid and economical method for characterizing NPSP for gaining rivers in the context of integrated watershed modeling and management. PMID:25837571

  3. Regional thermal-inertia mapping from an experimental satellite ( Powder River basin, Wyoming).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1982-01-01

    A new experimental satellite has provided, for the first time, thermal data that should be useful in reconnaissance geologic exploration. Thermal inertia, a property of geologic materials, can be mapped from these data by applying an algorithm that has been developed using a new thermal model. A simple registration procedure was used on a pair of day and night images of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, to illustrate the method.-from Author

  4. Spatiotemporal interpolation of discharge across a river network by using synthetic SWOT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Durand, Michael T.; Hossain, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have sought to estimate river discharge and other surface water-related quantities using spaceborne sensors, with better spatial coverage but worse temporal sampling as compared with in situ measurements. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will provide river discharge estimates globally from space. However, questions on how to optimally use the spatially distributed but asynchronous satellite observations to generate continuous fields still exist. This paper presents a statistical model (River Kriging-RK), for estimating discharge time series in a river network in the context of the SWOT mission. RK uses discharge estimates at different locations and times to produce a continuous field using spatiotemporal kriging. A key component of RK is the space-time river discharge covariance, which was derived analytically from the diffusive wave approximation of Saint Venant's equations. The RK covariance also accounts for the loss of correlation at confluences. The model performed well in a case study on Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River system in Bangladesh using synthetic SWOT observations. The correlation model reproduced empirically derived values. RK (R2=0.83) outperformed other kriging-based methods (R2=0.80), as well as a simple time series linear interpolation (R2=0.72). RK was used to combine discharge from SWOT and in situ observations, improving estimates when the latter is included (R2=0.91). The proposed statistical concepts may eventually provide a feasible framework to estimate continuous discharge time series across a river network based on SWOT data, other altimetry missions, and/or in situ data.

  5. Employing Ti nano-powder dielectric to enhance surface characteristics in electrical discharge machining of AISI D2 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashi, Houriyeh; Sarhan, Ahmed A. D.; Hamdi, Mohd

    2015-12-01

    Manufacturing components with superior surface characteristics is challenging when electrical discharge machining (EDM) is employed for mass production. The aim of this research is to enhance the characteristics of AISI D2 steel surface machined with EDM through adding Ti nano-powder to dielectric under various machining parameters, including discharge duration (Ton) and peak current (I). Surface roughness profilometer, FESEM and AFM analysis were utilized to reveal the machined surface characteristics in terms of surface roughness, surface morphology and surface micro-defects. Moreover, EDX analysis was performed in order to evaluate the atomic deposition of Ti nano-powder on the surface. The concentration of Ti nano-powder in dielectric was also examined using ESEM and EDX. According to the results, the addition of Ti nano-powder to dielectric notably enhanced the surface morphology and surface roughness at all machining parameters except Ton = 340 μs. Of these parameters, maximum enhancement was observed at Ton = 210 μs, where the material removal rate and average surface roughness improved by ∼69 and ∼35% for peak current of 6 and 12 A, respectively. Elemental analysis signified negligible Ti deposition on the machined surface while the atomic concentration of Ti was increased around the crack areas.

  6. Convective heat discharge of Wood River group of springs in the vicinity of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel; Mariner, Robert H.; Thompson, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Data sets for spring and stream chemistry are combined to estimate convective heat discharge and discharge anomalous amounts of sodium and chloride for the Wood River group of springs south of Crater Lake. The best estimate of heat discharge is 87 MWt based on chloride inventory; this value is 3-5 times the heat input to Crater Lake itself. Anomalous discharges of sodium and chloride are also larger that into Crater Lake. Difference between the chemical and thermal characteristics of the discharge into Crater Lake and those from the Wood River group of springs suggest that the heat sources for the two systems may be different, although both ultimately related to the volcanic system.

  7. Discharge Estimation Using Satellite Gravity During Flood Seasons at the Óbidos Gauge Station, Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, J.; Seo, K. W.; Lee, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    Reliable measurement of river discharge is important for management of water resource and understanding of hydrological cycles particularly associated with global and regional climate changes. Practically, to obtain continuous time series of river discharge, regression analysis of an empirical relationship between accumulated water level and discharge data is used. During wet season, however, the relationship includes more uncertainty due to the difficulty of accurate discharge measurement. This is particularly true for the Amazon River because significant amount of water flows outside river channel during flooding. For an alternative way to estimate river discharge, we use GRACE time-varying gravity measurement from January 2003 to December 2012. We first apply Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) for GRACE time-varying gravity fields in Amazon and successfully isolate gravity signal in the main stream. The EOF time series represents relative river discharge variations without larger uncertainty during flooding season compared to conventional in-situ discharge estimate. Estimates of Amazon River discharge based on GRACE data are very close to those from observed at gauge stations during dry seasons. However, our estimates are larger than in-situ data in high water seasons, and the difference is the maximum at the 2009 flooding. This is probably because in-situ observation underestimates river discharge during wet season due possibly to detoured water in river pathway developed during flooding while GRACE observes integrated water mass variations in river channels.

  8. Hyporheic discharge of river water into fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. )

    1999-12-01

    Fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawned predominantly in areas of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River where hyporheic water discharged into the river channel. This upwelling water had a dissolved solids content (i.e., specific conductance) indicative of river water and was presumed to have entered highly permeable riverbed substrate at locations upstream of the spawning areas. Hyporheic discharge zones composed of undiluted ground water or areas with little or no upwelling were not used by spawning salmon. Rates of upwelling into spawning areas averaged 1,200 L?m-2?day-1 (95% C.I.= 784 to 1,665 L?m-2?day-1) as compared to approximately 500 L?m-2?day-1 (95% C.I.= 303 to 1,159 L?m-2?day-1) in non-spawning areas. Dissolved oxygen content of the hyporheic discharge near salmon spawning areas was about 9 mg?L-1 (+ 0.4 mg?L-1) whereas in non-spawning areas dissolved oxygen values were 7 mg?L-1 (+ 0.9 mg?L-1) or lower. In both cases dissolved oxygen of the river water was higher (11.3+ 0.3 mg?L-1). Physical and chemical gradients between the hyporheic zone and the river may provide cues for adult salmon to locate suitable spawning areas. This information will help fisheries managers to describe the suitability of salmon spawning habitat in large rivers.

  9. Estimated monthly percentile discharges at ungaged sites in the Upper Yellowstone River Basin in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Once-monthly streamflow measurements were used to estimate selected percentile discharges on flow-duration curves of monthly mean discharge for 40 ungaged stream sites in the upper Yellowstone River basin in Montana. The estimation technique was a modification of the concurrent-discharge method previously described and used by H.C. Riggs to estimate annual mean discharge. The modified technique is based on the relationship of various mean seasonal discharges to the required discharges on the flow-duration curves. The mean seasonal discharges are estimated from the monthly streamflow measurements, and the percentile discharges are calculated from regression equations. The regression equations, developed from streamflow record at nine gaging stations, indicated a significant log-linear relationship between mean seasonal discharge and various percentile discharges. The technique was tested at two discontinued streamflow-gaging stations; the differences between estimated monthly discharges and those determined from the discharge record ranged from -31 to +27 percent at one site and from -14 to +85 percent at the other. The estimates at one site were unbiased, and the estimates at the other site were consistently larger than the recorded values. Based on the test results, the probable average error of the technique was + or - 30 percent for the 21 sites measured during the first year of the program and + or - 50 percent for the 19 sites measured during the second year. (USGS)

  10. Toward global mapping of river discharge using satellite images and at-many-stations hydraulic geometry

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Colin J.; Smith, Laurence C.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers provide critical water supply for many human societies and ecosystems, yet global knowledge of their flow rates is poor. We show that useful estimates of absolute river discharge (in cubic meters per second) may be derived solely from satellite images, with no ground-based or a priori information whatsoever. The approach works owing to discovery of a characteristic scaling law uniquely fundamental to natural rivers, here termed a river’s at-many-stations hydraulic geometry. A first demonstration using Landsat Thematic Mapper images over three rivers in the United States, Canada, and China yields absolute discharges agreeing to within 20–30% of traditional in situ gauging station measurements and good tracking of flow changes over time. Within such accuracies, the door appears open for quantifying river resources globally with repeat imaging, both retroactively and henceforth into the future, with strong implications for water resource management, food security, ecosystem studies, flood forecasting, and geopolitics. PMID:24639551

  11. Sediment discharge into a subsiding Louisiana deltaic estuary through a Mississippi River diversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, G.A.; Cable, J.E.; Swarzenski, C.; Swenson, E.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands of the Mississippi River deltaic plain in southeast Louisiana have been hydrologically isolated from the Mississippi River by containment levees for nearly a century. The ensuing lack of fluvial sediment inputs, combined with natural submergence processes, has contributed to high coastal land loss rates. Controlled river diversions have since been constructed to reconnect the marshes of the deltaic plain with the river. This study examines the impact of a pulsed diversion management plan on sediment discharge into the Breton Sound estuary, in which duplicate 185 m3 s-1-diversions lasting two weeks each were conducted in the spring of 2002 and 2003. Sediment delivery during each pulse was highly variable (11,300-43,800 metric tons), and was greatest during rising limbs of Mississippi River flood events. Overland flow, a necessary transport mechanism for river sediments to reach the subsiding backmarsh regions, was induced only when diversion discharge exceeded 100 m3 s-1. These results indicate that timing and magnitude of diversion events are both important factors governing marsh sediment deposition in the receiving basins of river diversions. Though the diversion serves as the primary source of river sediments to the estuary, the inputs observed here were several orders of magnitude less than historical sediment discharge through crevasses and uncontrolled diversions in the region, and are insufficient to offset present rates of relative sea level rise. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  13. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - DISCHARGES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system discharges as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting and impa...

  14. The impact of climate change on river discharges in Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Minea, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Climate changes imply many changes in different socioeconomic and environmental fields. Among the most important impacts are changes in water resources. Long- and mid-term river discharge flow analysis is essential for the effective management of water resources. In this work, the changes in two climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) and river discharges and the connections between precipitation and river discharges were investigated. Seasonal and annual climatic and hydrological data collected at six weather stations and 17 hydrological stations were employed. The data sets cover 57 years (1950-2006). The modified Mann-Kendall test was used to calculate trends, and the Bravais-Pearson correlation index was chosen to detect the connections between precipitation and river discharge data series. The main findings are as follows: A general increase was identified in all the three parameters. The air temperature data series showed the highest frequency of statistically significant slopes, mainly in annual and spring series. All data series, except the series for winter, showed an increase in precipitation; in winter, a significant decrease in precipitation was observed at most of the stations. The increase in precipitation is reflected in the upward trends of the river discharge flows, as verified by the good Bravais-Pearson correlations, mainly for annual, summer, and autumn series

  15. The impact of climate changes on rivers discharge in Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Minea, Ionus

    2015-05-01

    Climate changes imply many changes in different socioeconomic and environmental fields. Among the most important impacts are changes in water resources. Long- and mid-term river discharge flow analysis is essential for the effective management of water resources. In this work, the changes in temperature, precipitation, and river discharges as well as the connections between precipitation and river discharges were investigated. Seasonal and annual climatic and hydrological data collected at 6 weather stations and 17 hydrological stations were employed. The data sets cover 57 years (1950-2006). The modified Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to calculate trends and their slopes, whereas the Bravais-Pearson correlation index was chosen to detect the connections between precipitation and river discharge data series. The main findings are as follows: a general increase was identified in all the three variables; the air temperature data series showed the highest frequency of statistically significant slopes, mainly in annual and spring series; all data series, except the series for winter, showed an increase in precipitation, and in winter, a significant decrease in precipitation was observed at most of the stations. The increase in precipitation is reflected in the upward trends of the river discharge flows, as verified by the good Bravais-Pearson correlations, mainly for annual, summer, and autumn series.

  16. Effect of discharge on the chlorophyll a distribution in the tidally-influenced Potomac River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Woodward, J.W.; Shultz, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    In the tidal Potomac River, high river discharges during the spring are associated with high chlorophyll a concentrations in the following in the following summer, assuming that summertime light and temperature conditions are favorable. Spring floods deliver large loads of particulate N and P to the tidal river. This particulate N and P could be mineralized by bacteria to inorganic N and P and released to the water column where it is available for phytoplankton use during summertime. However, during the study period relatively low concentrations of chlorophyll a (less than 50 ??g l-1 occurred in the tidal river if average monthly discharge during July or August exceeded 200 m3s-1. Discharge and other conditions combined to produce conditions favorable for nuisance levels of chlorophyll a (greater than 100 ??g l-1 approximately one year out of four. Chlorophyll a maxima occurred in the Potomac River transition zone and estuary during late winter (dinoflagellates) and spring (diatoms). Typical seasonal peak concentrations were achieved at discharges as high as 970 m3 s-1, but sustained discharges greater than 1,100 m3 s-1 retarded development. Optimum growth conditions occurred following runoff events of 10 to 15 d duration which produced transit times to the transition zone of 7 to 10 d. Wet years with numerous moderate-sized runoff events, such as 1980, tend to produce greater biomass in the transition zone and estuary than do dry years such as 1981. ?? 1986 Estuarine Research Federation.

  17. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  18. Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing for Estimation of Groundwater Discharge to a River.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuankun; Liu, Jie; Hu, Yue; Wang, Heshun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-05-01

    Traditional methods for studying surface water and groundwater interactions have usually been limited to point measurements, such as geochemical sampling and seepage measurement. A new methodology is presented for quantifying groundwater discharge to a river, by using river surface temperature data obtained from airborne thermal infrared remote sensing technology. The Hot Spot Analysis toolkit in ArcGIS was used to calculate the percentage of groundwater discharge to a river relative to the total flow of the river. This methodology was evaluated in the midstream of the Heihe River in the arid and semiarid northwest China. The results show that the percentage of groundwater discharge relative to the total streamflow was as high as 28%, which is in good agreement with the results from previous geochemical studies. The data analysis methodology used in this study is based on the assumption that the river water is fully mixed except in the areas of extremely low flow velocity, which could lead to underestimation of the amount of groundwater discharge. Despite this limitation, this remote sensing-based approach provides an efficient means of quantifying the surface water and groundwater interactions on a regional scale. PMID:26281027

  19. Effects of river discharge on hyporheic exchange flows in salmon spawning areas of a large gravel-bed river

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-01-01

    The flow magnitude and timing from hydroelectric dams in the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States is managed in part for the benefit of salmon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of current Hells Canyon Dam discharge operations on hydrologic exchange flows between the river and riverbed in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. Interactions between river water and pore water within the upper 1 m of the riverbed were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. The data were recorded at 20 min intervals over a period of 200 days when the mean daily discharge was 218–605 m3 s–1, with hourly stage changes as large as 1.9 m. Differences in head pressure between the river and riverbed were small, often within ±2 cm. Measured temperature gradients in the riverbed indicated significant interactions between the surface and subsurface water. Neither hydraulic nor temperature gradients at most sites were significantly affected by either short- or long-term changes in discharge operations from Hells Canyon Dam. Only 2 out of 14 study sites exhibited acute flux reversals between the river and riverbed resulting from short-term, large magnitude changes in discharge. The findings suggest small-scale piezometric head differences play a minor role in the hydrologic exchange between the river and riverbed at the study sites. The processes controlling hydrologic exchange at the study sites are likely to be bedform-induced advective pumping, turbulence at the riverbed surface, and large-scale hydraulic gradients along the longitudinal profile of the riverbed. By incorporating the knowledge of hydrologic exchange processes into water management planning, regional agencies will be better prepared to manage the limited water resources among competing priorities that include salmon recovery, flood control, irrigation supply, hydropower production, and

  20. Evolution of cutoffs across meander necks in Powder River, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, G.R.; Gay, H.H.; Gay, W.H.; Martinson, H.A.; Meade, R.H.; Moody, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Over a period of several decades, gullies have been observed in various stages of forming, growing and completing the cutoff of meander necks in Powder River. During one episode of overbank flow, water flowing over the down-stream bank of the neck forms a headctu. The headcut migrates up-valley, forming a gully in its wake, until it has traversed the entire neck, cutting off the meander. The river then follows the course of the gully, which is subsequently enlarged as the river develops its new channel. The complete process usually requires several episodes of high water: in only one of the five cases described herein was a meander cutoff initiated and completed during a single large flood.

  1. Estimating river discharge using multiple-tide gauges distributed along a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moftakhari, H. R.; Jay, D. A.; Talke, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimation of freshwater inflow to the ocean from large tidal rivers is vital for water resources management and climate analyses. Discharge gauging stations are typically located beyond the tidal intrusion reach, such that inputs and losses occurring closer to the ocean are not included. Here, we develop a method of estimating river discharge using multiple gauges and time-dependent tidal statistics determined via wavelet analysis. The Multiple-gauge Tidal Discharge Estimate (MTDE) method is developed using data from the Columbia River and Fraser River estuaries and calibrated against river discharge. Next, we evaluate the general applicability of MTDE by testing an idealized two-dimensional numerical model, with a convergent cross-sectional profile, for eighty-one cases in which nondimensional numbers for friction, river flow, and convergence length scale are varied. The simulations suggest that MTDE is applicable to a variety of tidal systems. Model results and data analyses together suggest that MTDE works best with at least three gauges: a reference station near the river mouth, and two upstream gauges that respond strongly to distinct portions of the observed range of flow. The balance between tidal damping and amplifying factors determines the favorable location of the gauges. Compared to previous studies, the MTDE method improves the time resolution of estimates (from 2.5 to <1 week) and is applicable to systems with mixed diurnal/semidiurnal tides. However, model results suggest that tide-induced residual flows such as the Stokes drift may still affect the accuracy of MTDE at seaward locations during periods of low river discharge.

  2. Projections of climate change effects on discharge and inundation in the Amazon River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, R. C. D.; Sorribas, M.; Melack, J. M.; Jones, C.; Carvalho, L. V.; Bravo, J. M.; Beighley, E.; Forsberg, B. R.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and related effects on the hydrologic regime of the Amazon River basin can have major impacts on human and ecological communities, transportation, flood vulnerability, fisheries and hydropower generation. We examined projections of climate change effects on discharge and inundation within the Amazon River basin. We used the regional hydrological model MGB-IPH coupled with a 1D river hydrodynamic model simulating water storage over the floodplains. The model's capability to represent physical processes over the Amazon was demonstrated in previous validation against multi in situ and remotely sensed observations. Future climate projections for the 2070 to 2099 time period were obtained by selecting five climate models from IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), based on their ability to represent the main aspects of recent Amazon climate. The climate projections present large uncertainty and results from different climate models do not agree on the sign of changes in total Amazon flood extent or discharge along the main stem of the Amazon River. However, model projections generally show better agreement with wetter (drier) conditions over western (eastern) portions of the Amazon basin. Results indicate increased mean and maximum river discharge for large rivers draining the Andes in northwestern Amazon, with increased mean and maximum discharge and inundation extent over Peruvian floodplains and Solimões River in western and central Amazonia. Decreased river discharges (mainly in the dry season) are projected for eastern basins, and decreased inundation extent at low water period in the central and lower Amazon.

  3. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  4. Discharge ratings for control gates at Mississippi River lock and dam 21, Quincy, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The water levels of the navigation pools on the Mississippi River are maintained by the operation of tainter and roller gates at the locks and dams. Discharge ratings for the gates on Lock and Dam 21, at Quincy, Illinois, were developed from current meter discharge measurements made in the forebays of the gate structures. Methodology is given to compute the gate openings of the tainter gates accurately. Discharge coefficients , in equations that express discharge as a function of tailwater head, forebay head, and height of gate opening, were determined for conditions of submerged orifice and free weir flow. A comparison of the rating discharges to the hydraulic model rating discharges is given for submerged orifice flow for the tainter and roller gates.

  5. Discharge ratings for control gates at Mississippi River Lock and Dam 18, Gladstone, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The water level of the navigation pools on the Mississippi River are maintained by the operation of tainter and roller gates at the locks and dams. Discharge ratings for the gates on Lock and Dam 18, at Gladstone, Illinois, were developed from current meter discharge measurements made in the forebays of the gate structures. Methodology is given to accurately compute the gate openings of the tainter gate. Discharge coefficients, in equations that express discharge as a function of tailwater head , forebay head, and height of gate opening, were determined for conditions of submerged-orifice and free-weir flow. A comparison of the rating discharges with the hydraulic model rating discharges is given for submerged orifice flow for the tainter and roller gates.

  6. Discharge ratings for control gates at Mississippi River lock and dam 17, New Boston, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The water levels of the navigation pools on the Mississippi River are maintained by the operation of tainter and roller gates at the locks and dams. Discharge ratings for the gates on Lock and Dam 17, at New Boston, Illinois, were developed from current meter discharge measurements made in the forebays of the gate structures. Methodology is given to compute the gate openings of the tainter gates accurately. Discharge coefficients , in equations that express discharge as a function of tailwater head, forebay head, and height of gate opening, were determined for conditions of submerged orifice and free weir flow. A comparison of the rating discharges to the hydraulic-model rating discharges is given for submerged orifice flow for the tainter and roller gates.

  7. Nature of natural gas in anomalously thick coal beds, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1989-09-01

    Anomalously thick coal beds (as much as 250 ft thick) occur in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River basin, Wyoming. These laterally discontinuous coal beds were deposited in raised, ombrotrophic peat bogs of fluvial environments. The coal beds include the Anderson-Canyon, Wyodak-Anderson, and Big George zones in the Powder River-Recluse area, Gillette area, and central part of the basin, respectively. The coal resources in these areas are approximately 155 billion short tons. The average maceral composition of the coals is 88% huminite (vitrinite), 5% liptinite, and 7% inertinite. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous C to A (R{sub 0} values of 0.4 to 0.5%). Natural gas desorbed and produced from the coal beds and adjacent sandstones is composed mainly of methane with lesser amounts of CO{sub 2} (less than 10%). The methane is isotopically light ({delta}{sup 13}C{sup 1} values of {minus}56.7 to {minus}60.9%). Based on the chemical and isotopic composition of the gases and on the low rank of the coals, the gases are interpreted to be microbial in origin: they were generated by anaerobic bacteria that broke down the coals at low temperatures, prior to the main phase of thermogenic methane generation by devolatilization. The adsorbed amounts of methane-rich microbial gas per unit of coal in the Powder River basin are relatively low compared to amounts of thermogenic coal-bed gases from other basins. However, the total coal-bed gas resource is considered to be large (as much as several trillion cubic feet) because of the vast coal resources.

  8. Quantification of the Beauce's Groundwater contribution to the Loire River discharge using satellite infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalot, E.; Curie, F.; Wawrzyniak, V.; Schomburgk, S.; Piegay, H.; Moatar, F.

    2015-02-01

    Seven Landsat Thermal InfraRed (TIR) images, taken over the period 2000-2010, were used to establish longitudinal temperature profiles of the middle Loire River, where it flows above the Beauce aquifer. Results showed that 75% of the temperature differences, between in situ observations and TIR image based estimations, remained within the ±1 °C interval. The groundwater discharge along the River course was quantified for each identified groundwater catchment areas using a heat budget based on the Loire River temperature variations, estimated from the TIR images. The main discharge area of the Beauce aquifer into the Loire River was located between river kilometers 630 and 650. This result confirms what was obtained using a groundwater budget and spatially locates groundwater input within the Middle sector of the Loire River. According to the heat budgets, groundwater discharge is higher during winter period (13.5 m3 s-1) than during summer (5.3 m3 s-1). Groundwater input is also higher during the flow recession periods of the Loire River.

  9. Predicting the Discharge Rate Contribution of the Binuwang Watershed to the Agos River, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, Dakila; Paningbatan, Eduardo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In 2004, Typhoon Winnie brought torrential rains which triggered massive landslides and floods which devastated the provinces of Infanta, Real and General Nakar in the Philippines. Winnie inflicted USD 111.14 million worth of damage to crops, livestock and infrastructure and left thousands dead or homeless. The Binuwang River is a sub-tributary of the Agos River, but the extent to which it contributes to flooding has not yet been determined. This study measures the depth of the Binuwang River to estimate the discharge rate contribution of the Binuwang River Watershed to the Agos River using an automatic rain gauge recorder and water level loggers set to record at 5-minute intervals. Flood-generating rainfall events were monitored during the onset of Typhoon Nesat (locally called 'Pedring') September 26-27, 2011. The automated rain gauge recorded 227 mm cumulative rainfall over a 6-hour and 41-minute period. It reached a peak rainfall intensity of 17.5 mm per 5-minute interval that generated a discharge height increase of 1.8 m at the monitoring station and a total discharge volume of 99,823 m3 over a 35-hour duration. An 8.81-hour lag time from the peak rainfall to the peak discharge concentration was recorded. A PCRaster-based hydrologic model was used to predict the total discharge hydrograph of the Binuwang River Watershed. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil and land use maps were prepared to parameterize the model. The observed and predicted discharge hydrographs were found to be highly correlated. Among the parameters used to calibrate the model hydrologic output, most sensitive are the infiltration saturation coefficient and Manning's roughness coefficient. An increase in the infiltration saturation coefficient resulted in a decreased discharge height, while an increase of Manning's roughness coefficient lengthened the lag time. The predicted discharge volume and height were used to simulate the impact of reforestation and land conversion to cultivated

  10. Orbital forcing of Cretaceous river discharge in tropical Africa and ocean response.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Britta; Flögel, Sascha; Hofmann, Peter; Schulz, Michael; Wagner, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The tropics have been suggested as the drivers of global ocean and atmosphere circulation and biogeochemical cycling during the extreme warmth of the Cretaceous period; but the links between orbital forcing, freshwater runoff and the biogeochemistry of continental margins in extreme greenhouse conditions are not fully understood. Here we present Cretaceous records of geochemical tracers for freshwater runoff obtained from a sediment core off the Ivory Coast that indicate that alternating periods of arid and humid African climate were driven by orbital precession. Our simulations of the precession-driven patterns of river discharge with a global climate model suggest that ocean anoxia and black shale sedimentation were directly caused by high river discharge, and occurred specifically when the northern equinox coincided with perihelion (the minimum distance between the Sun and the Earth). We conclude that, in a warm climate, the oceans off tropical continental margins respond rapidly and sensitively to even modest changes in river discharge. PMID:16148930

  11. Prediction of mean monthly river discharges in Colombia through Empirical Mode Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.

    2015-04-01

    The hydro-climatology of Colombia exhibits strong natural variability at a broad range of time scales including: inter-decadal, decadal, inter-annual, annual, intra-annual, intra-seasonal, and diurnal. Diverse applied sectors rely on quantitative predictions of river discharges for operational purposes including hydropower generation, agriculture, human health, fluvial navigation, territorial planning and management, risk preparedness and mitigation, among others. Various methodologies have been used to predict monthly mean river discharges that are based on "Predictive Analytics", an area of statistical analysis that studies the extraction of information from historical data to infer future trends and patterns. Our study couples the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with traditional methods, e.g. Autoregressive Model of Order 1 (AR1) and Neural Networks (NN), to predict mean monthly river discharges in Colombia, South America. The EMD allows us to decompose the historical time series of river discharges into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) that capture the different oscillatory modes of different frequencies associated with the inherent time scales coexisting simultaneously in the signal (Huang et al. 1998, Huang and Wu 2008, Rao and Hsu, 2008). Our predictive method states that it is easier and simpler to predict each IMF at a time and then add them up together to obtain the predicted river discharge for a certain month, than predicting the full signal. This method is applied to 10 series of monthly mean river discharges in Colombia, using calibration periods of more than 25 years, and validation periods of about 12 years. Predictions are performed for time horizons spanning from 1 to 12 months. Our results show that predictions obtained through the traditional methods improve when the EMD is used as a previous step, since errors decrease by up to 13% when the AR1 model is used, and by up to 18% when using Neural Networks is combined with the

  12. Using Width-Based Rating Curves from Spatially Discontinuous Satellite Imagery to Monitor River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelsky, T.

    2014-12-01

    One of the significant technical hurdles to remote estimation of river discharge using river widths is the acquisition of suitable imagery. Most high-resolution, radar-based sensors acquire imagery infrequently (e.g. once or twice per month), while optical sensors are subject to the effects of clouds. Many more images that are partially cloud-free or cover only part of a study area are often available, but their use is problematic because the spatial extent of observable subreaches differs from image to image. Here, a method is presented that allows spatially discontinuous remote observations of river width to be successfully used to estimate discharge despite partial cloudiness and/or inconsistent spatial coverage. The method is demonstrated over 62 km of the Tanana River downstream of Fairbanks, AK. This reach is divided into 1 km subreaches and a separate discharge-width rating curve is produced for each subreach. For any given image, final discharge is estimated as the median discharge calculated from all visible and cloud-free reaches. Application of the method to 28 RapidEye images at 5 m spatial resolution and useable coverage ranging from <20% to 100% suggests that it produces highly accurate estimates of discharge (Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE=6.7%, r2=0.92) when compared with in situ observations. Similar but slightly less accurate results are evident from eleven Landsat TM and ETM+ images (RMSE=12.6%, r2=0.86). These results suggest that the method used here produces estimates of discharge comparable in error characteristics to ground-based measurements, at least when high resolution imagery is used over a river reach with substantial temporal width variability.

  13. Effect of the river discharge implementation in an operational model for the West Iberia coastal area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campuzano, Francisco; Brito, David; Juliano, Manuela; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, most of the largest rivers discharge on the Atlantic coast draining almost two thirds of the territory. It is an important source of nutrients and sediments to these coastal areas. Rivers discharges in the Atlantic area when compared with the ones in the Mediterranean side present the particularity that their water before is released into the ocean is previously mixed in their estuaries in a different ratio depending of the estuarine residence time and the discharged flow. In order to evaluate the relative importance of the inland waters in the circulation patterns of Western Iberia, the rivers discharges were implemented in the PCOMS model application (Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System). To reproduce the water continuum including the different spatial and temporal scales, a methodology consisting in a system of integrated models using the Mohid model was designed. At the watershed level, the Mohid Land model calculated operationally water flow and properties, including nutrients, for the main river catchments of Western Iberian with a 2 km horizontal resolution. Downstream, several operational hydrodynamic and biological estuarine applications used those outcomes as model inputs, filling the gaps in the observation network. From the estuarine models, the tidally modulated water and properties fluxes to the coast were obtained. These fluxes were finally imposed in the Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System (PCOMS), a fully 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and ecological regional model that covers the Iberian Atlantic front. The fate of the rivers discharges were analysed by integrating model results in boxes, comparing the climatologies obtained with and without rivers and the rivers area of influence was obtained by lagrangian tracers simulations.

  14. Effects of Mackenzie River Discharge and Bathymetry on Sea Ice in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mackenzie River discharge and bathymetry effects on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea are examined in 2012 when Arctic sea ice extent hit a record low. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature revealed warmer waters closer to river mouths. By 5 July 2012, Mackenzie warm waters occupied most of an open water area about 316,000 sq km. Surface temperature in a common open water area increased by 6.5 C between 14 June and 5 July 2012, before and after the river waters broke through a recurrent landfast ice barrier formed over the shallow seafloor offshore the Mackenzie Delta. In 2012, melting by warm river waters was especially effective when the strong Beaufort Gyre fragmented sea ice into unconsolidated floes. The Mackenzie and other large rivers can transport an enormous amount of heat across immense continental watersheds into the Arctic Ocean, constituting a stark contrast to the Antarctic that has no such rivers to affect sea ice.

  15. Climate change and its impacts on river discharge in two climate regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Luo, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of climate change and its impacts on annual and seasonal discharge, and the difference between mean flow and extreme flow in different climate regions is of utmost importance to successful water management. To quantify the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of climate change impacts on hydrological processes, this study simulated river discharge in the River Huangfuchuan in semi-arid northern China and the River Xiangxi in humid southern China. We assessed the uncertainty in projected discharge for three time periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using seven equally weighted GCMs for the SRES A1B scenario. Climate projections that were applied to semi-distributed hydrological models Soil Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) in both catchments showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions, particularly for the River Huangfuchuan. Results based on seven GCMs' projections indicated -1.1 to 8.6 and 0.3 to 7.0 °C changes in seasonal temperature and -29 to 139 and -32 to 85 % changes in seasonal precipitation in River Huangfuchuan and River Xiangxi, respectively. The largest increases in temperature and precipitation in both catchments were projected in the spring and winter seasons. The main projected hydrologic impact was a more pronounced increase in annual discharge in the River Huangfuchuan than in the River Xiangxi. Most of the GCMs projected increased discharge in all seasons, especially in spring, although the magnitude of these increases varied between GCMs. Peak flows was projected to appear earlier than usual in River Huangfuchuan and later than usual in River Xiangxi. While the GCMs were fairly consistent in projecting increased extreme flows in both catchments, the increases were of varying magnitude compared to mean flows. For River Huangfuchuan in the 2080s, median flow changed from -2 to 304 %, compared to a -1 to 145 % change in high flow (Q05 exceedence threshold). For River Xiangxi, low flow (Q95 exceedence threshold) changed

  16. Discharge, gage height, and elevation of 100-year floods in the Hudson River basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    The flood discharge that may be expected to be equaled or exceeded on the average of once in 100 years (100-year flood) was computed by the log-Pearson Type-III frequency relation for 72 stations in the Hudson River basin. These discharges and, where available, their corresponding gage height and elevation above mean sea level are presented in tabular form. A short explanation of computation methods is included. The data are to be used as part of a federally funded study of the water resources and related land resources of the Hudson River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Using river discharge to access the quality of different precipitation datasets over large-scale basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Emanuel; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Florian Pappenberger, ,; Yamazaki, Dai

    2015-04-01

    River discharge is a natural integrator of meteorological variables. The integration is made over a spatial domain (catchment) which is geophysically appropriate, and over time. It takes into account the correlations and covariances between several meteorological variables in a meaningful way, integrating information from a multidimensional variable space. Furthermore, river discharge observations are available and generally reliable. Therefore, river discharge is an important variable to consider in when evaluating the water balance of large-scale basins. In this study we evaluate different precipitation corrections applied to the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis in terms of long-term means and variability of river discharge over several large-scale basins. We compare the original ERA-Interim dataset, the precipitation correction used in the production of the ERA-Interim/Land dataset (adjusted using GPCP) and the WFDEI dataset (adjusted using CRU). Global simulations with the ECMWF land surface model HTESSEL were performed with the different datasets and the simulated runoff routed using the river-floodplain model CaMa-Flood. Preliminary results highlight the deficiencies of ERA-Interim in several tropical basins (e.g. Congo) while the precipitation adjustments in ERA-Interim/Land and in WFDEI degrade the simulations in several northern hemisphere basins dominated by cold processes (e.g. Mackenzie).

  18. Temporal and spatial responses of river discharge to tectonic and climatic perturbations: Choshui River, Taiwan, and Typhoon Mindulle (2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, J. D.; Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    One reason that small mountainous rivers discharge disproportionately large quantities of sediment to the coastal ocean is because they are particularly susceptible to short-term episodic events, such as earthquakes and floods. The impact of such events, both temporally and spatially, however, has seldom been monitored. Here we report on the results of probably the most thorough monitoring of a flood ever undertaken: the effect of Typhoon Mindulle (2-4 July 2004) on the character of the water transported by the Choshui River, central western Taiwan, during which 74 million tons of sediment were discharged to the adjacent Taiwan Strait. Results from a series of 113 water samples obtained between 2nd and 4th July from five stations along the middle and lower reaches the river indicate that more than half of the suspended sediment was generated in nearby mountains before the river reached its flood plain. While the concentration of dissolved solids remained more or less constant along the mainstem of the river, the composition changed considerably, reflecting the imprints of local geology. An order-of-magnitude downstream increase in NO3- concentrations reflects the rapid draining of the Tsaoling landslide lake on the Chingshui River, as the 1999 earthquake-generated landslide dam was breached.

  19. Probability analysis of the relation of salinity to freshwater discharge in the St. Sebastian River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, S.M.; Gain, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    The St. Sebastian River lies in the southern part of the Indian River basin on the east coast of Florida. Increases in freshwater discharge due to urbanization and changes in land use have reduced salinity in the St. Sebastian River and, consequently, salinity in the Indian River, affecting the commercial fishing industry. Wind, water temperature, tidal flux, freshwater discharge, and downstream salinity all affect salinity in the St. Sebastian River estuary, but freshwater discharge is the only one of these hydrologic factors which might be affected by water-management practices. A probability analysis of salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary, taking into account the effects of freshwater discharge over a period from May 1992 to March 1996, was used to determine the likelihood (probability) that salinities, as represented by daily mean specific- conductance values, will fall below a given threshold. The effects of freshwater discharge on salinities were evaluated with a simple volumetric model fitted to time series of measured specific conductance, by using nonlinear optimization techniques. Specific-conductance values for two depths at monitored sites represent stratified flow which results from differences in salt concentration between freshwater and saltwater. Layering of freshwater and saltwater is assumed, and the model is applied independently to each layer with the assumption that the water within the layer is well mixed. The model of specific conductance as a function of discharge (a salinity response model) was combined with a model of residual variation to produce a total probability model. Flow distributions and model residuals were integrated to produce a salinity distribution and determine differences in salinity probabilities as a result of changes in water-management practices. Two possible management alternatives were analyzed: stormwater detention (reducing the peak rate of discharge but not reducing the overall flow volume) and

  20. Modeling discharge, temperature, and water quality in the Tualatin River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wood, Tamara M.; Lynch, Dennis D.

    1999-01-01

    The discharge, water temperature, and water quality of the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon was simulated with CE-QUAL-W2, a two-dimensional, laterally averaged model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The model was calibrated for May through October periods of 1991, 1992, and 1993. Nine hypothetical scenarios were tested with the model to provide insight for river managers and regulators.

  1. Modification of polyethylene powder with an organic precursor in a spiral conveyor by hollow cathode glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitzau, M.; Wolter, M.; Zaporojtchenko, V.; Kersten, H.; Faupel, F.

    2010-06-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films were deposited on polyethylene (PE, (C2H4)n) powder by hollow cathode glow discharge. The reactive species in different HMDSO/Ar plasmas were studied by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Increasing the HMDSO fraction in the gas mixture additional compounds like CHx, OH, SiC and SiO can be identified. After deposition the formed silicon and carbon containing groups (C-O, C=O, SiC and SiO) on the PE powder surface have been analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Changes in wettability depending on the HMDSO fraction were investigated by contact angle measurements (CAM). The free surface energy of the PE powder decreases with increasing HMDSO fraction in the process gas and encapsulation of the powder particles occurs. An aging effect of the plasma treated PE surface was observed depending on the process gas composition. The higher the HMDSO fraction the less is the aging effect of the plasma treated PE surface.

  2. Discharge-measurement system using an acoustic Doppler current profiler with applications to large rivers and estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Michael R.; Oltmann, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    Discharge measurement of large rivers and estuaries is difficult, time consuming, and sometimes dangerous. Frequently, discharge measurements cannot be made in tide-affected rivers and estuaries using conventional discharge-measurement techniques because of dynamic discharge conditions. The acoustic Doppler discharge-measurement system (ADDMS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey using a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler coupled with specialized computer software to measure horizontal water velocity at 1-meter vertical intervals in the water column. The system computes discharge from water-and vessel-velocity data supplied by the ADDMS using vector-algebra algorithms included in the discharge-measurement software. With this system, a discharge measurement can be obtained by engaging the computer software and traversing a river or estuary from bank to bank; discharge in parts of the river or estuarine cross sections that cannot be measured because of ADDMS depth limitations are estimated by the system. Comparisons of ADDMS-measured discharges with ultrasonic-velocity-meter-measured discharges, along with error-analysis data, have confirmed that discharges provided by the ADDMS are at least as accurate as those produced using conventional methods. In addition, the advantage of a much shorter measurement time (2 minutes using the ADDMS compared with 1 hour or longer using conventional methods) has enabled use of the ADDMS for several applications where conventional discharge methods could not have been used with the required accuracy because of dynamic discharge conditions.

  3. Physical Properties of Low-Rank Coal Samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagin, P. N.; Zoback, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    We characterize the mechanical properties of coal samples from the Powder River Basin (Wyoming, USA) by conducting laboratory experiments. We present results from laboratory measurements of adsorption, static and dynamic elastic moduli, and permeability as a function of effective stress, pore pressure, and gas species. Notably, we observe that CO2 adsorption causes the static bulk modulus to decrease by a factor of two, while simultaneously causing the dynamic bulk modulus to increase by several percent. Permeability of both intact and powdered samples decreases by approximately an order of magnitude in the presence of CO2, which is consistent with observations of adsorption-related swelling of the coal matrix. Interestingly, CO2 appears to change the constitutive behavior of coal; helium saturated samples exhibit elastic behavior, while CO2 saturated samples exhibit viscous, anelastic behavior, as evidenced by creep strain observations.

  4. Retrieval of river discharge solely from satellite imagery and at-many-stations hydraulic geometry: Sensitivity to river form and optimization parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Colin J.; Smith, Laurence C.; Lee, Jinny

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of river discharge is critically important for water resource management, climate modeling, and improved understanding of the global water cycle, yet discharge is poorly known in much of the world. Remote sensing holds promise to mitigate this gap, yet current approaches for quantitative retrievals of river discharge require in situ calibration or a priori knowledge of river hydraulics, limiting their utility in unmonitored regions. Recently, Gleason and Smith (2014) demonstrated discharge retrievals within 20-30% of in situ observations solely from Landsat TM satellite images through discovery of a river-specific geomorphic scaling phenomenon termed at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG). This paper advances the AMHG discharge retrieval approach via additional parameter optimizations and validation on 34 gauged rivers spanning a diverse range of geomorphic and climatic settings. Sensitivity experiments reveal that discharge retrieval accuracy varies with river morphology, reach averaging procedure, and optimization parameters. Quality of remotely sensed river flow widths is also important. Recommended best practices include a proposed global parameter set for use when a priori information is unavailable. Using this global parameterization, AMHG discharge retrievals are successful for most investigated river morphologies (median RRMSE 33% of in situ gauge observations), except braided rivers (median RRMSE 74%), rivers having low at-a-station hydraulic geometry b exponents (reach-averaged b < 0.1, median RRMSE 86%), and arid rivers having extreme discharge variability (median RRMSE > 1000%). Excluding such environments, 26-41% RRMSE agreement between AMHG discharge retrievals and in situ gauge observations suggests AMHG can meaningfully address global discharge knowledge gaps solely from repeat satellite imagery.

  5. Stream Discharge Database, Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL) initiated a hydrologic research program on the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) in 1967. Continuous stream stage measurement began that year at two fixed-contro...

  6. On planetary torque signals and sub-decadal frequencies in the discharges of large rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, Rodolfo G.; Abuin, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    We explore the arguments presented in the past linking changes in the angular momentum modulus, | L | , of the Sun's barycentric orbit, with the discharges of Po River in Europe and Paraná River in South America, looking for any evidence regarding to a possible underlying physical mechanism. We clarify the planetary effect on solar torque presenting new analyses and results; we also improve prior results on Paraná River's cycles finding significant spectral lines around 6.5 yr, 7.6 yr, 8.7 yr, and 10.4 yr. We show that the truly important dynamical parameter in this issue is the vectorial planetary torque. Moreover, following the variations of L respect to the Sun's spin axis of rotation (i.e., a LS relationship), we found virtually the same Paraná River discharge peaks: 6.3 yr, 7.7 yr, 8.6 yr and 9.9 yr. An analysis based on Magnitude Squared Coherence and Wavelet Coherence between Paraná River discharge and our LS relationship shows significant, although intermittently, coherence near 8-yr periodicities. Wavelet Coherence also shows big and significant regions of coherence inside 12-19 yr band. Our results ruled out classical tidal effects in this problem; but suggest that, if these rivers are trully related to solar barycentric motion, the physical origin of this connection might be related to a working solar spin-orbit interaction.

  7. The response time of the Changjiang plume to river discharge in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Rui; Wu, Hui; Zhu, Jianrong; Li, Lu

    2016-02-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model was used to study the response time of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River plume to river discharge by artificially increasing the runoff over a short period and investigating the variation of salinity in the plume region. The time lagged between the change of river discharge and the change of salinity that reaches the 10% of the adjusted value is considered as the response time in this study. The response times in the plume region differed slightly when the river discharge during the spring tide and the neap tide was increased. Specifically, the response times near the river mouth and in the plume edge were ~ 1 days and more than 15 days, respectively. The brackish water volumes were also calculated to determine the variations in the plume extensions over time. A tracer was released to study the transport time from the Datong station to the East China Sea using the concept of water age. The tracer transport time ranged from 10 days near the river mouth to more than 50 days at the edge of the plume, which is much longer than the response time of the surface salinity.

  8. Effects of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River discharge on planktonic community respiration in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chung-Chi; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kemp, W. Michael

    2009-03-01

    Planktonic communities tend to flourish on the western margins of the East China Sea (ECS) fueled by substrates delivered largely from the Changjiang River, the fifth largest river in the world. To study the effects of the Changjiang River discharge on planktonic community respiration (CR), physical-chemical variables and key processes were measured in three consecutive summers in the ECS. Results showed that concentrations of nitrate and Chl a, protozoan biomass, bacterial production, as well as CR in the surface water were all negatively correlated with sea surface salinity, reflecting the strong influence of river discharge on the ECS shelf ecosystem. Moreover, mean values of nitrate, Chl a concentrations, and CR rates were proportionally related to the area of Changjiang diluted water (CDW; salinity ≤31.0 practical salinity units (psu)), an index of river discharge rate. Presumably, higher river flow delivers higher nutrient concentrations which stimulate phytoplankton growth, which in turn fuels CR. CR exhibited significant monthly and interannual variability, and rates appear to be dominated by bacteria and phytoplankton. Although the plankton community was relatively productive (mean = 0.8 mg C m-2 d-1) in the CDW, the mean ratio of production to respiration was low (0.42). This suggests that the heterotrophic processes regulating CR were supported by riverine organic carbon input in addition to in situ autotrophic production.

  9. Assessing SWOT discharge algorithms performance across a range of river types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, M. T.; Smith, L. C.; Gleason, C. J.; Bjerklie, D. M.; Garambois, P. A.; Roux, H.

    2014-12-01

    Scheduled for launch in 2020, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will measure river height, width, and slope, globally, as well as characterizing storage change in lakes, and ocean surface dynamics. Four discharge algorithms have been formulated to solve the inverse problem of river discharge from SWOT observations. Three of these approaches are based on Manning's equation, while the fourth utilizes at-many-stations hydraulic geometry relating width and discharge. In all cases, SWOT will provide some but not all of the information required to estimate discharge. The focus of the inverse approaches is estimation of the unknown parameters. The algorithms use a range of a priori information. This paper will generate synthetic measurements of height, width, and slope for a number of rivers, including reaches of the Sacramento, Ohio, Mississippi, Platte, Amazon, Garonne, Po, Severn, St. Lawrence, and Tanana. These rivers have a wide range of flows, geometries, hydraulic regimes, floodplain interactions, and planforms. One-year synthetic datasets will be generated in each case. We will add white noise to the simulated quantities and generate scenarios with different repeat time. The focus will be on retrievability of the hydraulic parameters across a range of space-time sampling, rather than on ability to retrieve under the specific SWOT orbit. We will focus on several specific research questions affecting algorithm performance, including river characteristics, temporal sampling, and algorithm accuracy. The overall goal is to be able to predict which algorithms will work better for different kinds of rivers, and potentially to combine the outputs of the various algorithms to obtain more robust estimates. Preliminary results on the Sacramento River indicate that all algorithms perform well for this single-channel river, with diffusive hydraulics, with relative RMSE values ranging from 9% to 26% for the various algorithms. Preliminary

  10. Climate change and its impacts on river discharge in two climate regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Luo, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of climate change and its impacts on annual and seasonal discharge and the difference between median flow and extreme flow in different climate regions is of utmost importance to successful water management. To quantify the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of climate change impacts on hydrological processes, this study simulated river discharge in the River Huangfuchuan in semi-arid northern China and in the River Xiangxi in humid southern China. The study assessed the uncertainty in projected discharge for three time periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using seven equally weighted GCMs (global climate models) for the SRES (Special Reports on Emissions Scenarios) A1B scenario. Climate projections that were applied to semi-distributed hydrological models (Soil Water Assessment Tools, SWAT) in both catchments showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions, particularly for the River Huangfuchuan. Results based on seven GCMs' projections indicated changes from -1.1 to 8.6 °C and 0.3 to 7.0 °C in seasonal temperature and changes from -29 to 139 % and -32 to 85 % in seasonal precipitation in the rivers Huangfuchuan and Xiangxi, respectively. The largest increases in temperature and precipitation in both catchments were projected in the spring and winter seasons. The main projected hydrologic impact was a more pronounced increase in annual discharge in the River Huangfuchuan than in the River Xiangxi. Most of the GCMs projected increased discharge in all seasons, especially in spring, although the magnitude of these increases varied between GCMs. The peak flows were projected to appear earlier than usual in the River Huangfuchuan and later than usual in the River Xiangxi, while the GCMs were fairly consistent in projecting increased extreme flows in both catchments with varying magnitude compared to median flows. For the River Huangfuchuan in the 2080s, median flow changed from -2 to 304 %, compared to a -1 to 145 % change in high flow

  11. Groundwater Discharge and Salinity Sources to an Impaired Major River in a Semi-Arid Coastal Region: Nueces River, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulet, V.; Murgulet, D.; Hay, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nueces River, an impaired stream located on the South Texas Gulf coast area, has shown water quality degradation due to to increased salinity levels in areas adjacent to the Calallen saltwater reservoir dam. This study investigates the role of submarine groundwater discharge in delivering increased salt contents to the river and how the subsurface hydrology is affected by the presence of a salt barrier (i.e. saltwater dam) which separates the tidal and non-tidal parts of the Nueces river basin. Thus, a combination of resistivity profiling and elemental and stable isotope geochemistry methods has been applied to portions of the river located downstream (tidal) and upstream (non-tidal) of the dam. Preliminary data show that salinity levels gradually increases at the river bank indicating that groundwater is likely a source of solutes to the river in the upper, non-tidal portion. The presence of vertical upwelling of conductive groundwater plumes is also revealed by marine resistivity profiles collected along the river. Different sampling during the spring and summer of 2014 show higher concentration values of major ions (i.e., calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, etc.) and salinity of pore water for the upstream river at several locations while it remains relatively constant for bottom- and surface water. In addition, because the groundwater and porewater have slightly lower pH values, a shift to more acidic surface water accompanied by some increases in dissolved major ion concentrations and salinity suggest that groundwater might represent a source of increased salt content in the upper portion of the river. On the other hand, downstream dissolved major ion concentrations generally decrease in pore- and bottom water from spring to summer and are correlated with decreases in salinity while surface water becomes more saline with an increase in major ions. Therefore, these preliminary data indicate different hydrology systems of the two portions of the

  12. Biogeochemical transport in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida: The role of submarine groundwater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Orem, W.H.; McPherson, B.F.; Baskaran, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The distributions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Ba, U, and a suite of naturally occurring radionuclides in the U/Th decay series (222Rn, 223,224,226,228Ra) were studied during high- and low-discharge conditions in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida to examine the role of submarine groundwater discharge in estuarine transport. The fresh water endmember of this still relatively pristine estuary may reflect not only river-borne constituents, but also those advected during active groundwater/surface water (hyporheic) exchange. During both discharge conditions, Ba concentrations indicated slight non-conservative mixing. Such Ba excesses could be attributed either to submarine groundwater discharge or particle desorption processes. Estuarine dissolved organic carbon concentrations were highest at salinities closest to zero. Uranium distributions were lowest in the fresh water sites and mixed mostly conservatively with an increase in salinity. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were generally lowest ( 28??dpm L- 1) at the freshwater endmember of the estuary and appear to identify regions of the river most influenced by the discharge of fresh groundwater. Activities of four naturally occurring isotopes of Ra (223,224,226,228Ra) in this estuary and select adjacent shallow groundwater wells yield mean estuarine water-mass transit times of less than 1 day; these values are in close agreement to those calculated by tidal prism and tidal frequency. Submarine groundwater discharge rates to the Loxahatchee River estuary were calculated using a tidal prism approach, an excess 226Ra mass balance, and an electromagnetic seepage meter. Average SGD rates ranged from 1.0 to 3.8 ?? 105??m3 d- 1 (20-74??L m- 2 d- 1), depending on river-discharge stage. Such calculated SGD estimates, which must include both a recirculated as well as fresh water component, are in close agreement with results obtained from a first-order watershed mass balance. Average submarine

  13. Magnitude and frequency of peak discharges for Mississippi River Basin Flood of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, W.O., Jr.; Eash, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of the 1993 peak discharges in the upper Mississippi River Basin are characterized by applying Bulletin 17B and L-moment methods to annual peak discharges at 115 unregulated watersheds in the basin. The analysis indicated that the 1993 flood was primarily a 50-year or less event on unregulated watersheds less than about 50,000 km2 (20,000 mi2). Of the 115 stations analyzed, the Bulletin 17B and L-moment methods were used to identify 89 and 84 stations, respectively, having recurrence intervals of 50 years or less, and 31 and 26 stations, respectively, having recurrence intervals greater than 50 years for the 1993 peak discharges. The 1993 flood in the upper Mississippi River Basin was significant in terms of (a) peak discharges with recurrence intervals greater than 50 years at approximately 25 percent of the stations analyzed, (b) peak discharges of record at 33 of the 115 stations analyzed, (c) extreme magnitude, duration, and areal extent of precipitation, (d) flood volumes with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years at many stations, and (e) extreme flood damage and loss of lives. Furthermore, peak discharges on several larger, regulated watersheds also exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval. However, for about 75 percent of the 115 unregulated stations in the analysis, the frequency of the 1993 peak discharges was less than a 50-year event.

  14. Geologic applications of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. After digitization, a noise rejection filter was applied to data obtained by USGS aircraft. An albedo image was formed by combining three bands of visible data. Along with the day and nighttime thermal data, the albedo image was used to construct a relative thermal-inertia image. This image, registered to a topographic base, shows there are thermal property differences in the vicinity of the contact between the Fort Union and Wasatch formations in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

  15. Stratigraphic framework of the upper Fort Union Formation, TA Hills, Western Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, Jean N.; Flores, Romeo M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to interpret a relationship between the stratigraphy and the environment of deposition of the upper part of the Fort Union Formation in the TA Hills in the western part of the Powder River Basin, Johnson County, Wyoming.  This framework was used to map and correlate coal beds with those mapped by Hose (1955) and Mapel (1959) in the southern and northern parts of the study area, respectively.  More specifically, the established stratigraphic and environmental relationships of the coal beds and associated rocks contribute to a depositional model for the upper part of the Fort Union Formation in the TA Hills.

  16. What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F.

    2008-11-15

    This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

  17. Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two night-time thermal images of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming distinctly show a major thermal feature. This feature is substantially coincident with a drainage divide and the southward facing slope appears cooler, suggesting a lower thermal inertia. An initial examination of regional geologic maps provides no clear evidence to suggest what type of geologic feature or structure may be present, although it can be noted that its northeastern end passes directly through Lead, South Dakota where the Homestake Gold Mine is located.

  18. An Object-Based Method for Estimation of River Discharge from Remotely-Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgett, D. A.; Blesius, L.; Davis, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    High resolution satellite and aerial imagery of fluvial systems contain much information about planform river channel features. However, not much is known about how these forms quantitatively related to river channel process, specifically, discharge. This research explores methods for remote image-based river discharge estimation through Object-Based Image Processing (OBIA) and GIS techniques. Previous efforts in image-based discharge estimation have relied primarily on manual delineation of river features and the input of reach-averaged values of these features into statistically based models for estimation. In addition to analyzing OBIA techniques for channel feature delineation and measurement, this approach investigates techniques of discharge estimation model design, validation, and correction along a reach, utilizing variation in “standard” channel features (e.g. water surface width), along with less tangible channel feature metrics derived from OBIA. Rather than predefine the channel unit of analysis, this work also considers the accuracy of model parameters derived from a range of channel scales, from longer reach-averaged to cross-sectional. High resolution (1 m) color infrared orthoimagery from 2005 and 2009 National Agricultural Inventory Program (NAIP) of 50 river reaches (ranging in discharge from approximately 13 m3s-1 to 856 m3s-1) were utilized for this analysis. These reaches, all near United States Geological Survey (USGS) river gages in California, USA, were split randomly and evenly into 25 reaches each for model design and validation, respectively. This approach allows better isolation of error resulting from user bias in channel feature measurement, and moves toward a more precise, standardized system of measurement for remotely observable channel form.

  19. Origin of thick lower tertiary coal beds in the powder river basin, Wyoming and Montana. Some paleogeographic constraints (Chapter Q). Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Seeland, D.

    1993-01-01

    The late Paleocene and early Eocene paleogeography of the Powder River Basin suggests that the thick coals in the basin formed from peat deposits in dip-elongate swamps near the basin-axis trunk streams. The Powder River Basin has more than 80 percent of the coal resources in Wyoming, and therefore factors not related to climate or subsidence rate must be unique to the Powder River Basin. The most likely factor is regional paleogeography.

  20. Use of a Smartphone for Collecting Data on River Discharge and Communication of Flood Risk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena-Haro, S.; Lüthi, B.; Philippe, T.

    2015-12-01

    Although many developed countries have well-established systems for river monitoring and flood early warning systems, the population affected in developing countries by flood events is unsettled. Even more, future climate development is likely to increase the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events and therefore bigger impacts on the population can be expected.There are different types of flood forecasting systems, some are based on hydrologic models fed with rainfall predictions and observed river levels. Flood hazard maps are also used to increase preparedness in case of an extreme event, however these maps are static since they do not incorporate daily changing conditions on river stages. However, and especially in developing countries, data on river stages are scarce. Some of the reasons are that traditional fixed monitoring systems do not scale in terms of costs, repair is difficult as well as operation and maintenance, in addition vandalism poses additional challenges. Therefore there is a need of cheaper and easy-to-use systems for collecting information on river stage and discharge. We have developed a mobile device application for determining the water stage and discharge of open-channels (e.g. rivers, artificial channels, irrigation furrows). Via image processing the water level and surface velocity are measured, combining this information with priori knowledge on the channel geometry the discharge is estimated. River stage and discharge measurement via smart phones provides a non-intrusive, accurate and cost-effective monitoring method. No permanent installations, which can be flooded away, are needed. The only requirement is that the field of view contains two reference markers with known scale and with known position relative to the channel geometry, therefore operation and maintenance costs are very low. The other advantage of using smartphones, is that the data collected can be immediately sent via SMS to a central database. This

  1. Variability of effective discharge for suspended sediment transport in a large semi-arid river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuanxu; Huang, He Qing; Xu, Jiongxin; Brierley, Gary J.; Yao, Zhijun

    2010-07-01

    SummaryThe variability of effective discharge is analysed for three geomorphological zones (gullied hilly loess, valley-hill loess and eolian sand) in the Wuding River basin, China, based on mean daily flow discharge and mean daily suspended sediment discharge from 1959 to 1969, a period when human disturbance in this catchment was less intensive. A modified approach to the determination of discharge class intervals is developed, framed in terms of equal arithmetic intervals of the standard deviation S for all the discharges, such as S, 0.75 S, 0.5 S, and 0.25 S. The average flow duration of effective discharge in the river basin ranges primarily from 0.026% to 3.16% in the two loess regions (corresponding to large flood events), and from 18.75% to 91.51% in the eolian sand region (corresponding to low or moderate flows). The average flow duration of effective discharge is significantly influenced by the size of class intervals and by characteristics of the flow and sediment regime. Using the most appropriate class interval of 0.25 S, the average flow duration of effective discharge is about 0.026% in the two loess regions (other than 0.104% at Hengshan), but in the eolian sand region it reaches 24.50% at Yulin and 52.66% at Hanjiamao, respectively. Histograms of suspended sediment transport indicate that there is a bimodal dominant discharge for suspended sediment transport, with one peak in the range of low flows and the other in the range of large floods. Drainage density and specific sediment yields are lower in the eolian sand region, where effective discharge events occur more frequently and suspended sediment concentration is much lower than that carried by events of the same discharge in the loess region. In contrast, drainage density is higher in the two loess regions, where infrequent hyperconcentrated flows generate high specific sediment yields. Effective discharge differs significantly from bankfull discharge across the whole Wuding River basin.

  2. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D. A.; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing

    2015-03-01

    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of 223Ra, 226Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km2), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 107 m3/d to 6.36 × 107 m3/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 108 m3/d to 6.20 × 108 m3/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters.

  3. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D A; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of (223)Ra, (226)Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km(2)), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 10(7) m(3)/d to 6.36 × 10(7) m(3)/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 10(8) m(3)/d to 6.20 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters. PMID:25742712

  4. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants in River Waters Discharging into the Black Sea along the Ukrainian Coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major rivers of Ukraine, including the Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug and Danube, discharge approximately 8500 m3/s of freshwater into the northern and western portions of the Black Sea. As one of the largest countries in Europe, Ukraine also has one of the largest human po...

  5. Heated Discharge Control and Management Alternatives: Small Water Bodies and Rivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLaren, James F.

    Basic concepts of waste heat management on shallow and deep small water bodies and rivers are reviewed and examples are given. This study defines a small water body as a body in which the far field hydrothermal effects of a heated discharge can be detected in a major portion or practically all of the water body. Environmental effects due to…

  6. EFFECTS OF THERMAL DISCHARGES ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND WATER QUALITY, VISTULA RIVER, POLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study on the influence of thermal water discharge from the Koezienice power plant on thermal regimes and water quality of the Vistula River was carried out between January 1973 and December 1975. Results of field survey of the thermal plume indicate that under non-extreme condi...

  7. Continuous measurement of suspended-sediment discharge in rivers by use of optical backscatterance sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Wright, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Optical sensors have been used to measure turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration by many marine and estuarine studies, and optical sensors can provide automated, continuous time series of suspended-sediment concentration and discharge in rivers. Three potential problems with using optical sensors are biological fouling, particle-size variability, and particle-reflectivity variability. Despite varying particle size, output from an optical backscatterance sensor in the Sacramento River at Freeport, California, USA, was calibrated successfully to discharge-weighted, cross-sectionally averaged suspended-sediment concentration, which was measured with the equal discharge-, or width-increment, methods and an isokinetic sampler. A correction for sensor drift was applied to the 3-year time series. However, the calibration of an optical backscatterance sensor used in the Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, USA, was affected by particle-size variability. The adjusted time series at Freeport was used to calculate hourly suspended-sediment discharge that compared well with daily values from a sediment station at Freeport. The appropriateness of using optical sensors in rivers should be evaluated on a site-specific basis and measurement objectives, potential particle size effects, and potential fouling should be considered.

  8. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D. A.; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of 223Ra, 226Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km2), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 107 m3/d to 6.36 × 107 m3/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 108 m3/d to 6.20 × 108 m3/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters. PMID:25742712

  9. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992.

  10. River discharge controls phytoplankton dynamics in the northern San Francisco Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Alpine, A.E.; Cole, B.E.; Wong, R.L.J.; Arthur, J.F.; Ball, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Phytoplankton dynamics in the upper reach of the northern San Francisco Bay estuary are usually characterized by low biomass dominated by microflagellates or freshwater diatoms in winter, and high biomass dominated by neritic diatoms in summer. During two successive years of very low river discharge (the drought of 1976-77), the summer diatom bloom was absent. This is consistent with the hypothesis that formation of the diatom population maximum is a consequence of the same physical mechanisms that create local maxima of suspended sediments in partially-mixed estuaries: density-selective retention of particles within an estuarine circulation cell. Because the estuary is turbid, calculated phytoplankton growth rates are small in the central deep channel but are relatively large in lateral shallow embayments where light limination is less severe. When river discharge falls within a critical range (100-350 m3 s-1) that positions the suspended particulate maximum adjacent to the productive shallow bays, the population of neritic diatoms increases. However, during periods of high discharge (winter) or during periods of very low discharge (drought), the suspended particulate maximum is less well-defined and is uncoupled (positioned downstream or upstream) from the shallow bays of the upper estuary, and the population of neritic diatoms declines. Hence, the biomass and community composition of phytoplankton in this estuary are controlled by river discharge. ?? 1983.

  11. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE. PMID:27255892

  12. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-06-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE.

  13. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE. PMID:27255892

  14. Application for 3d Scene Understanding in Detecting Discharge of Domesticwaste Along Complex Urban Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninsalam, Y.; Qin, R.; Rekittke, J.

    2016-06-01

    In our study we use 3D scene understanding to detect the discharge of domestic solid waste along an urban river. Solid waste found along the Ciliwung River in the neighbourhoods of Bukit Duri and Kampung Melayu may be attributed to households. This is in part due to inadequate municipal waste infrastructure and services which has caused those living along the river to rely upon it for waste disposal. However, there has been little research to understand the prevalence of household waste along the river. Our aim is to develop a methodology that deploys a low cost sensor to identify point source discharge of solid waste using image classification methods. To demonstrate this we describe the following five-step method: 1) a strip of GoPro images are captured photogrammetrically and processed for dense point cloud generation; 2) depth for each image is generated through a backward projection of the point clouds; 3) a supervised image classification method based on Random Forest classifier is applied on the view dependent red, green, blue and depth (RGB-D) data; 4) point discharge locations of solid waste can then be mapped by projecting the classified images to the 3D point clouds; 5) then the landscape elements are classified into five types, such as vegetation, human settlement, soil, water and solid waste. While this work is still ongoing, the initial results have demonstrated that it is possible to perform quantitative studies that may help reveal and estimate the amount of waste present along the river bank.

  15. Assessments of Environmental Impacts and Beneficial Use of Coalbed Methane Produced Water in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Morris

    2009-03-15

    Impact on water quality and the beneficial use of the coal bed methane (CBM) produced water are imminent questions to be answered due to the rapidly growing CBM exploration in the Powder River Basin (PRB). The practice of discharging large volumes of water into drainage channels or using it to irrigate rangeland areas has the potential of causing serious problems. The elevated salinity and sodicity in the CBM water may be detrimental to soils, plants and the associated microbial communities. There are limited studies on CBM water characterization; however, a comprehensive understanding of CBM water influence on the local ecosystem is lacking. It is very important that the water applied to soils meets the favorable combination of salinity and sodicity that will allow the plants to grow at good production levels and that will maintain the structure of the soils. The purpose of this study was to access various CBM water treatment technologies and the influence of the treated water on local biogeochemical settings in order to evaluate and identify the proper technologies to treat the CBM produced water from CBM operations, and use it in an environmentally safe manner. Unfortunately, a suitable field site was not identified and the funds for this effort were moved to a different project.

  16. Observed shift towards earlier spring discharge in the main Alpine rivers.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Matteo; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Gualdi, Silvio; Navarra, Antonio

    2015-01-15

    In this study, we analyse the observed long-term discharge time-series of the Rhine, the Danube, the Rhone and the Po rivers. These rivers are characterised by different seasonal cycles reflecting the diverse climates and morphologies of the Alpine basins. However, despite the intensive and varied water management adopted in the four basins, we found common features in the trend and low-frequency variability of the spring discharge timings. All the discharge time-series display a tendency towards earlier spring peaks of more than two weeks per century. These results can be explained in terms of snowmelt, total precipitation (i.e. the sum of snowfall and rainfall) and rainfall variability. The relative importance of these factors might be different in each basin. However, we show that the change of seasonality of total precipitation plays a major role in the earlier spring runoff over most of the Alps. PMID:25005239

  17. Assessment of peak discharge uncertainty in the American River basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Flood-discharge data, current-meter and indirect measurements, and stage-discharge relations, the oldest of which dates to the early 1900's, were used to estimate the uncertainty about annual flood peaks in or near the American River Basin at 20 stream-gaging stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. The study estimates that, in the study area, most flood peaks that were determined from current-meter measurements have an uncertainty of about plus or minus 3 percent, whereas the peaks that were determined from indirect measurements have an uncertainty ranging from plus or minus 10 to plus or minus 70 percent. The study also determined that the stage-discharge relations that have been developed for most of the sites in the American River Basin are correct.

  18. Landforms Affect Gravel-Cobble Bed River Hydraulics at Different Spatial Scales and Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, R. L.; Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Johnson, T.

    2012-12-01

    River hydraulics are generally modeled to predict inundation extents, assess aquatic species habitat, understand sediment transport regimes, and describe geomorphic processes. These metrics are in turn used to guide floodplain development, instream flow requirements, river rehabilitation projects, reservoir management, and further research. Consequently, the emergence of 2D hydraulic modeling is usually a means to some end other than characterizing and discussing the fundamental aspects of fluvial hydraulics. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the role of different components of multi-scalar, heterogeneous fluvial landforms in controlling the spatial pattern of river hydraulics at 28 different flows ranging from 0.06 to 22 times bankfull discharge. The testbed data for the study consisted of 1-m resolution rasters of depth, velocity, and Shields stress over 37.5 km of the regulated gravel-cobble bed Lower Yuba River (LYR) located in the Sacramento River Valley of California. Each variable was analyzed for its discharge-dependent power function (i.e. at-a-station hydraulic geometry) at segment, reach, and morphologic spatial scales, with data stratified by 8 reaches, 4 inundation zones, two vegetation regions, and 31 morphological units. This was done using all points, not just at cross-sections. At each spatial scale, trend lines were statistically compared to determine if they were differentiated. Mean velocity and Shields stress as a function of discharge vary by reach, including several velocity and Shields stress reversals. The range of mean velocity and Shields stress between reaches increases with discharge. There are several reach-scale velocity reversals that take place among the reaches, especially at 0.3 and 2 times bankfull discharge, whereas there is only one major Shields stress reversal at 6 times bankfull discharge. Stage-dependent cross sectional area and substrate size govern these interactions. The two most downstream reaches had the

  19. Multi-Seam Well Completion Technology: Implications for Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Production

    SciTech Connect

    Office of Fossil Energy; National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential benefits of applying multiseam [well] completion (MSC) technology to the massive stack of low-rank coals in the Powder River Basin. As part of this, the study objectives are: Estimate how much additional CBM resource would become accessible and technically recoverable--compared to the current practice of drilling one well to drain a single coal seam; Determine whether there are economic benefits associated with MSC technology utilization (assuming its widespread, successful application) and if so, quantify the gains; Briefly examine why past attempts by Powder River Basin CBM operators to use MSC technology have been relatively unsuccessful; Provide the underpinnings to a decision whether a MSC technology development and/or demonstration effort is warranted by DOE. To a great extent, this assessment builds on the previously published study (DOE, 2002), which contains many of the key references that underlie this analysis. It is available on the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy technology Laboratory, Strategic Center for Natural Gas website (www.netl.doe.gov/scng). It is suggested that readers obtain a copy of the original study to complement the current report.

  20. Diagnostics and Prediction of Anomalous River Discharge in Northern South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    1990-10-01

    The annual cycles of rainfall and river discharge in northern South America are dominated by the seasonal latitude migration of the intertropical convergence zone. The catchments in the west (Madden. Magdalena and Orinoco) have their high stands between August and December, while those of the Guyanas (Cuyuni, Essequibo, Suriname, Maroni and Oyapock) peak between May and July. Anomalously abundant discharge is in almost all catchments (except Orinoco) associated with the high SO phase (defined by anomalously high/low pressure at Tahiti/Darwin), weakened Caribbean tradewinds. and accelerated cross-equatorial southerly flow over the eastern Pacific.In a series of experiments a sharp distinction was kept between a `dependent' dataset (1940-70, or the part available in the river series) used as training period and an `independent' portion of the record (1971-87) reserved for prediction. Stepwise multiple regression models for bimonthly `seasons' used as input river discharge as regressand, and as regressors index series of Tahiti minus Darwin pressure difference, equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature PWT, zonal wind component over the Caribbean and meridional wind component over the eastern equatorial Pacific, all two seasons earlier. The resulting equations were then used to predict the discharge anomalies in the independent dataset 1971-87. There is considerable predictive skill for various rivers/seasons, with the overall best predictability for the low discharge time of year. In particular, for Magdalena 55% and for Essequibo 74% of the interannual variance of January-February discharge during 1971-87 is predictable by this method, in which for Essequibo PWT serves as sole predictor.

  1. River discharge and flood inundation over the Amazon based on IPCC AR5 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Rodrigo; Sorribas, Mino; Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila; Melack, John; Bravo, Juan Martin; Beighley, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and related effects over the hydrologic regime of the Amazon River basin could have major impacts over human and ecological communities, including issues with transportation, flood vulnerability, fisheries and hydropower generation. We examined future changes in discharge and floodplain inundation within the Amazon River basin. We used the hydrological model MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias - Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas) coupled with a 1D river hydrodynamic model simulating water storage over the floodplains. The model was forced using satellite based precipitation from the TRMM 3B42 dataset, and it had a good performance when validated against discharge and stage measurements as well as remotely sensed data, including radar altimetry-based water levels, gravity anomaly-based terrestrial water storage and flood inundation extent. Future scenarios of precipitation and other relevant climatic variables for the 2070 to 2100 time period were taken from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The climate models were chosen based on their ability to represent the main aspects of recent (1970 to 2000) Amazon climate. A quantile-quantile bias removal procedure was applied to climate model precipitation to mitigate unreliable predictions. The hydrologic model was then forced using past observed climate data altered by delta change factors based on the past and future climate models aiming to estimate projected discharge and floodplain inundation in climate change scenario at several control points in the basin. The climate projections present large uncertainty, especially the precipitation rate, and predictions using different climate models do not agree on the sign of changes on total Amazon flood extent or discharge along the main stem of the Amazon River. However, analyses of results at different regions indicate an increase

  2. Determination of trace elements in high purity alumina powder by helium enhanced direct current glow discharge mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sehoon; Kim, Sunhye; Hinrichs, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Trace impurities in high purity alumina powder were determined by fast flow direct current glow discharge mass spectrometry (GD-MS). The non-conductive samples were prepared with high purity graphite powder and used as a sample binder and as a secondary cathode. To improve the sensitivity of the GD-MS analysis, helium was introduced as an additional glow discharge gas to argon plasma. The quantification results of the GD-MS measurement were calculated by external calibration with matrix matched certified reference materials. The GD-MS results for the determination of Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Ga in the alumina samples agreed well with the certified values of a reference material and the results of chemical analysis using wet sample digestion with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The GD-MS analysis is a rapid analysis technique to determine trace elements in non-conductive alumina to below mg·kg- 1 levels.

  3. Geospatial database of estimates of groundwater discharge to streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Adriana; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the Department of the Interior’s WaterSMART (Sustain and Manage America’s Resources for Tomorrow) initiative, compiled published estimates of groundwater discharge to streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin as a geospatial database. For the purpose of this report, groundwater discharge to streams is the baseflow portion of streamflow that includes contributions of groundwater from various flow paths. Reported estimates of groundwater discharge were assigned as attributes to stream reaches derived from the high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset. A total of 235 estimates of groundwater discharge to streams were compiled and included in the dataset. Feature class attributes of the geospatial database include groundwater discharge (acre-feet per year), method of estimation, citation abbreviation, defined reach, and 8-digit hydrologic unit code(s). Baseflow index (BFI) estimates of groundwater discharge were calculated using an existing streamflow characteristics dataset and were included as an attribute in the geospatial database. A comparison of the BFI estimates to the compiled estimates of groundwater discharge found that the BFI estimates were greater than the reported groundwater discharge estimates.

  4. Sea Surface Salinity Variability in Response to the Congo River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, D.; Chao, Y.; Farrara, J. D.; Schumann, G.; Andreadis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) variability associated with the Congo River discharge is examined using Aquarius satellite-retrieved SSS data and vertical profiles of salinity measured by the Argo floats. The Congo River plume can be clearly identified in the Aquarius SSS data with a westward extension of 500 to 1000 km off the coast of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The peak amplitude of the SSS variability associated with the Congo River discharge exceeds 2.0 psu. Using the first two years of Aquarius data, a well-defined seasonal cycle is described: maximum fresh-water anomalies are found in the boreal winter and spring seasons. The fresh-water anomalies during the 2012-2013 winter and spring seasons are significantly fresher than the 2011-2012 winter and spring seasons. Vertical profiles of salinity derived from the Argo floats reveal that these fresh-water anomalies can be traced to 40 meters below the sea surface. Combining the Aquarius SSS data with the Argo vertical profiles of salinity, the 3D volume of these fresh-water anomalies can be inferred and used to estimate the Congo River discharge. Reasonably good agreement is found between the Congo River discharge as observed by a stream gauge at Kinshasa and that estimated from the combined Aquarius and Argo data, indicating that Aquarius data can be used to close the fresh-water budget between the coastal ocean and the Congo River. The precipitation minus evaporation portion of the freshwater flux is found to play a secondary role in this region.

  5. Discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance in the Virgin River, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona, in support of Pah Tempe Springs discharge remediation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Matthew P.; Lambert, Patrick M.; Hardy, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Pah Tempe Springs discharge hot, saline, low dissolved-oxygen water to the Virgin River in southwestern Utah, which is transported downstream to Lake Mead and the Colorado River. The dissolved salts in the Virgin River negatively influence the suitability of this water for downstream agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Therefore, various remediation scenarios to remove the salt load discharged from Pah Tempe Springs to the Virgin River are being considered. One concern about this load removal is the potential to impact the ecology of the Virgin River. Specifically, information is needed regarding possible impacts of Pah Tempe Springs remediation scenarios on the abundance, distribution, and survival of native fish in the Virgin River. Future efforts that aim to quantitatively assess how various remediation scenarios to reduce the load of dissolved salts from Pah Tempe Springs into the Virgin River may influence the abundance, distribution, and survival of native fish will require data on discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance. This report contains organized accessible discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance data sets from the Virgin River, documents the compilation of these data, and discusses approaches for quantifying relations between abiotic physical and chemical conditions, and fish abundance.

  6. Understanding the relationship between rainfall and river discharge: trends in an Amazonian watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, Rodolfo; Guzha, Alphonce; Freire, Paula; Santos, Celso; Gerold, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    A research challenge in the Amazon rainforest is to understand different environmental patterns in a five million km2 region which with poor and/or unavailable environmental data. Deforestation and degradation in this forest have motivated intense monitoring activities in order to understand its impact and support the formulation of sustainable environmental policies. Time series analysis of hydrologic data is often use as a tool to evaluate watershed responses to climatic and anthropogenic influences. In this study, trend analysis of stream discharge from a 35600 km² watershed (Curuá River), located in southern Amazon was performed using 31 years discharge and rainfall data (1976-2006). The Curuá River is a tributary of Xingu River, site of the controversial Belo Monte dam. The aim of this work was to investigate the temporal variability of discharge, in relation to associated rainfall variability in order to contribute to a better understanding of the hydrological status of the watershed. The Mann Kendall non parametric tests were performed on daily, seasonal and annual discharge data. Frequency analysis using wavelet transform was also done, and annual and seasonal rainfall data was analyzed and correlated to discharge. Results from this study indicate decreasing trends in discharge (intra- and inter-annual) but while there is no evidence of a decreasing trend in in rainfall. Further interpretation of the data for possible causes of discharge changes is needed at the local study level, and implications of these results discussed in the context of climate change, deforestation and water resource management (including dam's constructions last decades). Results from this study do not confirm findings from other regional scale trend analyses, and therefore is it important to quantify the spatial extension of these decreasing stream flow trends in the Amazonia.

  7. Re-Evaluation of the 1921 Peak Discharge at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The peak discharge record at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington, is a key record that has come under intense scrutiny by the scientific and lay person communities in the last 4 years. A peak discharge of 240,000 cubic feet per second for the flood on December 13, 1921, was determined in 1923 by USGS hydrologist James Stewart by means of a slope-area measurement. USGS then determined the peak discharges of three other large floods on the Skagit River (1897, 1909, and 1917) by extending the stage-discharge rating through the 1921 flood measurement. The 1921 estimate of peak discharge was recalculated by Flynn and Benson of the USGS after a channel roughness verification was completed based on the 1949 flood on the Skagit River. The 1949 recalculation indicated that the peak discharge probably was 6.2 percent lower than Stewart's original estimate but the USGS did not officially change the peak discharge from Stewart's estimate because it was not more than a 10-percent change (which is the USGS guideline for revising peak flows) and the estimate already had error bands of 15 percent. All these flood peaks are now being used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to determine the 100-year flood discharge for the Skagit River Flood Study so any method to confirm or improve the 1921 peak discharge estimate is warranted. During the last 4 years, two floods have occurred on the Skagit River (2003, 2006) that has enabled the USGS to collect additional data, do further analysis, and yet again re-evaluate the 1921 peak discharge estimate. Since 1949, an island/bar in the study reach has reforested itself. This has complicated the flow hydraulics and made the most recent recalculation of the 1921 flood based on channel roughness verification that used 2003 and 2006 flood data less reliable. However, this recent recalculation did indicate that the original peak-discharge calculation by Stewart may be high, and it added to a

  8. Detection of discharge changes in Pyrenean mountain rivers using seismic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar; Diaz, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The seismic noise is a continuous vibration of the ground due to natural and artificial sources (e.g. oceanic waves, human activities). The investigation on this noise allows understanding the physical processes of its sources. Water flow in rivers has been identified as one of the sources of seismic noise at local scale. Its generation is related to two important processes associated, turbulence and transport of sediments. Those processes creates vibrations in the ground that travel as seismic waves and can be monitored using seismic stations close to the river channel. In the work by Díaz et al. (2004) we analysed the seismic signal of one station located in Canfranc underground Laboratory (LSC). We found an unusual signal in the 2-10 Hz frequency band and documented if relationship with the variations in the discharge of the Aragon River (southern Pyrenees), about 400 meters from LSC. We want to highlight that the conditions of this station, located in a tunnel, are privileged, as it is slightly affected by other sources of seismic noise, as wind or cultural noise. We concluded that the seismic record can be used to monitor the river discharge. Following this study, we are now testing if the same observations can this relation can be seen with seismic stations in typical conditions. To do so, we have installed three temporal stations close to Cinca and Segre Rivers (southern Pyrenees) and collected the hydrologic and atmospheric data available in the vicinity of the stations. First results show that a seismic signal associated to river can be identified for moderate increases in river discharge. However, wind gusts also produce seismic noise in similar frequency bands. Our aim now is to discriminate between wind- and river-related seismic noise episodes, in order to be able to monitor river discharges only using seismic data. As seismic data can be recorded and processed in near-real time, the seismic monitor of hydrological events can be of interest to prevent

  9. Characteristics and Trends of River Discharge into Hudson, James, and Ungava Bays, 1964-2000.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déry, Stephen J.; Stieglitz, Marc; McKenna, Edward C.; Wood, Eric F.

    2005-07-01

    The characteristics and trends of observed river discharge into the Hudson, James, and Ungava Bays (HJUBs) for the period 1964-2000 are investigated. Forty-two rivers with outlets into these bays contribute on average 714 km3 yr-1 [= 0.023 Sv (1 Sv 106 m3s-1)] of freshwater to high-latitude oceans. For the system as a whole, discharge attains an annual peak of 4.2 km3 day-1 on average in mid-June, whereas the minimum of 0.68 km3 day-1 occurs on average during the last week of March. The Nelson River contributes as much as 34% of the daily discharge for the entire system during winter but diminishes in relative importance during spring and summer. Runoff rates per contributing area are highest (lowest) on the eastern (western) shores of the Hudson and James Bays. Linear trend analyses reveal decreasing discharge over the 37-yr period in 36 out of the 42 rivers. By 2000, the total annual freshwater discharge into HJUBs diminished by 96 km3 (-13%) from its value in 1964, equivalent to a reduction of 0.003 Sv. The annual peak discharge rate associated with snowmelt has advanced by 8 days between 1964 and 2000 and has diminished by 0.036 km3 day-1 in intensity. There is a direct correlation between the timing of peak spring discharge rates and the latitude of a river's mouth; the spring freshet varies by 5 days for each degree of latitude. Continental snowmelt induces a seasonal pulse of freshwater from HJUBs that is tracked along its path into the Labrador Current. It is suggested that the annual upper-ocean salinity minimum observed on the inner Newfoundland Shelf can be explained by freshwater pulses composed of meltwater from three successive winter seasons in the river basins draining into HJUBs. A gradual salinization of the upper ocean during summer over the period 1966-94 on the inner Newfoundland Shelf is in accord with a decadal trend of a diminishing intensity in the continental meltwater pulses.

  10. An improved methodology to estimate river stage and discharge using Jason-2 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, A. K.; Gupta, P. K.; Dutta, S.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite altimetry over inland water bodies is a technique to estimate water level of rivers, lakes and reservoirs. In this study river flow characteristics such as water level and discharge is estimated using Jason-2, 20 Hz waveform data. An improved approach is adopted to retrieve the water level information over the braided reaches of the Brahmaputra river. The morphological dynamics of braided rivers often makes it difficult to retrieve water level accurately. In the proposed methodology, supplementary information from microwave and optical images of monsoon and non-monsoon seasons is used to establish the virtual stations over the main channel of the river. A nested approach is adopted to create dynamic virtual stations to address the frequent channel shifting phenomena over the braided reaches of the river. The results indicate that, there is high variation in backscattering coefficient, which ranges from mean value of 35 dB during the non-monsoon season to 48 dB during the monsoon season. It clearly highlights the seasonal variability of river flow in the Brahmaputra. The water level retrieval is done using Ice-1 retracking algorithm. The statistical analysis of retrieved water level have shown good agreement with in situ (observed) water levels when compared for Jason-2 satellite tracks 53, 166, 231 and 242 passing over the Brahmaputra river. The water level information is converted into discharge time series for the satellite 166 using the rating curve of Guwahati gauge station. The root mean square error of retrieved water levels is in the range of 50-55 cm. Water level retrieved using proposed methodology are compared with Hydroweb and DAHITI water level product. It was found that proposed methodology has enhanced the altimeter derived water level accuracy for the different reaches of the braided Brahmaputra river.

  11. Sea surface salinity variability in response to the Congo river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Schumann, Guy; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Moller, Delwyn

    2015-05-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) variability associated with the Congo River discharge is examined using Aquarius satellite-retrieved SSS data and vertical profiles of salinity measured by the Argo floats. The Congo River and its adjacent coastal ocean region are selected for study because of their global importance in ocean-freshwater dynamics undermined by the lack of observational data and coordinated efforts to make in situ measurements in this region. With a weekly repeat orbit, Aquarius provides a unique opportunity to routinely map the SSS in this relatively remote and understudied region. The Congo River plume can be clearly identified in the Aquarius SSS data with a northwestward extension of 500-1000 km off the coast of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The peak amplitude of the SSS variability associated with the Congo River discharge exceeds 3.0 psu, significantly greater than the designed Aquarius SSS retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu. Using the first two years of Aquarius data from September 2011 to August 2013, a well-defined seasonal cycle is described: maximum freshwater anomalies are found in the boreal winter and spring seasons. The anomalies during the 2012-2013 winter and spring seasons are significantly fresher than the 2011-2012 winter and spring seasons, suggesting a strong year-to-year variability. A strong correlation is found between month-to-month variations in upper ocean salinity (as revealed by Aquarius satellite and Argo observations) and month-to-month variations in the freshwater discharge from the Congo River over a region off the coast of West Africa that is large enough to be easily observed by the Aquarius satellite. Vertical profiles of salinity derived from Argo floats reveal that these freshwater anomalies can be traced to 30 m below the sea surface. Combining the spatial area characterized by strong negative correlations between Aquarius SSS data and Congo discharge with the Argo vertical profiles of salinity, the volume of the

  12. Effects of fluvial discharges on meiobenthic and macrobenthic variability in the Vistula River prodelta (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Mazurkiewicz, Mikołaj; Jankowska, Emilia; Kotwicki, Lech; Damrat, Mateusz; Zajączkowski, Marek

    2016-05-01

    The role of environmental variability produced by river discharges in shaping the spatial and seasonal patterns of meiobenthic and macrobenthic communities was studied in the Vistula River (Baltic Sea) prodelta. Seven stations located in the delta front, the plume influence area and the distal zone of the prodelta were visited over the four seasons of 2012. Meiofauna, macrofauna, water (temperature, salinity, and suspended matter) and sediments (grain size, POC, TN, δ15N and δ13C and photosynthetic pigments) were analysed. The seasonal variations in the river discharges (with maximum flows in spring) resulted in a strong temporal variability in the studied environmental characteristics. In the benthic biota, the signals of seasonal variability, if present, were much weaker than spatial zonation. The benthic communities inhabiting the delta front where the main bulk of fluvial materials was deposited were taxonomically impoverished. The richest fauna dwelled within the plume influence area where the physical disturbance ceased and primary marine production was enhanced by river transported nutrients. In the distal zone outside the river influence, the fauna was dominated by deeper dwelling species, and the numbers of individuals and taxa decreased. Factors related to the riverine discharges (i.e., salinity, mineral suspension, POC and δ13C in the water and sediments) were identified as having high correlation with variability in the meiofaunal and macrofaunal community descriptors. Evidently, the interplay of food (i.e., the quantity and quality of organic matter) and disturbance (i.e., the deposition of river transported minerals) constraints shaped the patterns of benthic variability in the prodelta of the second largest river entering the Baltic Sea.

  13. Water-quality characteristics and trend analyses for the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins, Wyoming and Montana, for selected periods, water years 1991 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is an area of ongoing coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development. Waters produced during CBNG development are managed with a variety of techniques, including surface impoundments and discharges into stream drainages. The interaction of CBNG-produced waters with the atmosphere and the semiarid soils of the Powder River structural basin can affect water chemistry in several ways. Specific conductance and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of CBNG-produced waters that are discharged to streams have been of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the use of the water for irrigation. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted since 2001 at main-stem and tributary sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins in response to concerns about CBNG effects. A study was conducted to summarize characteristics of stream-water quality for water years 2001–10 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2010) and examine trends in specific conductance, SAR, and primary constituents that contribute to specific conductance and SAR for changes through time (water years 1991–2010) that may have occurred as a result of CBNG development. Specific conductance and SAR are the focus characteristics of this report. Dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium, which are primary contributors to specific conductance and SAR, as well as dissolved alkalinity, chloride, and sulfate, which are other primary contributors to specific conductance, also are described. Stream-water quality in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins was variable during water years 2001–10, in part because of variations in streamflow. In general, annual runoff was less than average during water years 2001–06 and near or above average during water years 2007–10. Stream water of the Tongue River had the smallest specific conductance values, sodium adsorption ratios

  14. Hydrogeologic framework of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, Joanna N.; LeCain, Gary D.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sando, Roy; Long, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Regionally, water in the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems flows in a northerly or northeasterly direction from the Powder River structural basin to the Williston structural basin. Groundwater flow in the Williston structural basin generally is easterly or northeasterly. Flow in the uppermost hydrogeologic units generally is more local and controlled by topography where unglaciated in the Williston structural basin than is flow in the glaciated part and in underlying aquifers. Groundwater flow in the Powder River structural basin generally is northerly with local variations greatest in the uppermost aquifers. Groundwater is confined, and flow is regional in the underlying aquifers.

  15. Synoptic Discharge, Water-Property, and pH Measurements for Muddy River Springs Area and Muddy River, Nevada, February 7, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, David A.; Wilson, Jon W.

    2006-01-01

    On February 7, 2001, synoptic discharge measurements at selected sites along the Muddy River in Nevada, indicated three trends in discharge resulting from contributions of spring discharge, influences of diversionary flow, and contributions from shallow ground water. Effects from diversionary and tributary flow were local in nature and resulted in a net gain of 2.6 cubic feet per second throughout the measured reach. The minor increase in discharge may be the result of contributions from ground-water flow and measurement error. Comparison of 1963 and 2001 discharge measurements within the Muddy River Springs area indicated that discharge rates and trends from these source waters were similar. Along the mainstem of the Muddy River, water-temperature measurements indicated a net decrease of 8.8 degrees Celsius. Water samples collected and analyzed for specific conductance indicated a net increase of 390 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, whereas pH measurements remained relatively constant.

  16. The Influence of Dam Discharge Regime and Canyon Orientation on Ecosystem Metabolism in the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, T. A.; Tietjen, T.; Wright, S.

    2005-05-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam and the beginning of flow regulation of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in 1963, considerable efforts have been directed toward understanding the aquatic ecology of this altered ecosystem. Understanding what controls resource availability has been a central focus of these efforts because the Colorado River supports populations of sport fish and endangered humpback chub, both of which appear to be strongly resource limited. There is evidence that dam discharge regime and canyon orientation influence algal standing crop due to their effects on water velocity (scour) and solar insolation, respectively. We explored whether these physical factors influenced rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, two different metrics of resource availability, in the clear tailwater section of the Colorado River by conducting whole system metabolism measurements across a range of discharge regimes and in reaches with different orientation (i.e. N-S vs. E-W). We found that while both discharge regime and canyon orientation influence rates of primary production, seasonal changes in light availability appear to have a far stronger influence on rates of primary production in the Colorado River. Water temperature appeared to be the main driver of ecosystem respiration.

  17. River Discharge and Bathymetry Estimation from Hydraulic Inversion of Surface Currents and Water Surface Elevation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, J.; Holland, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    We developed an inversion model for river bathymetry and discharge estimation based on measurements of surface currents, water surface elevation and shoreline coordinates. The model uses a simplification of the 2D depth-averaged steady shallow water equations based on a streamline following system of coordinates and assumes spatially uniform bed friction coefficient and eddy viscosity. The spatial resolution of the predicted bathymetry is related to the resolution of the surface currents measurements. The discharge is determined by minimizing the difference between the predicted and the measured streamwise variation of the total head. The inversion model was tested using in situ and remote sensing measurements of the Kootenai River east of Bonners Ferry, ID. The measurements were obtained in August 2010 when the discharge was about 223 m3/s and the maximum river depth was about 6.5 m. Surface currents covering a 10 km reach with 8 m spatial resolution were estimated from airborne infrared video and were converted to depth-averaged currents using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements along eight cross-stream transects. The streamwise profile of the water surface elevation was measured using real-time kinematic GPS from a drifting platform. The value of the friction coefficient was obtained from forward calibration simulations that minimized the difference between the predicted and measured velocity and water level along the river thalweg. The predicted along/cross-channel water depth variation was compared to the depth measured with a multibeam echo sounder. The rms error between the measured and predicted depth along the thalweg was found to be about 60cm and the estimated discharge was 5% smaller than the discharge measured by the ADCP.

  18. A comparative study of fuzzy logic systems approach for river discharge prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, A. W.; Perera, E. D. P.; Zhu, Bing; Amarasekara, J. D.; Vereivalu, V.

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, flood disasters resulting from extreme rainfall have been on the increase in many regions of the world. In developed countries, the usual practice of mitigating flood disasters is by structural means which can reduce infrastructural damages as well as casualties but are unaffordable in most developing countries. The alternative then is to look for non-structural means that involve, among other things, early warning systems which can reduce casualties. The basic technical components of an early warning system involves a measurable input data set that trigger floods, a measurable output data set that quantify the extent of flood and an appropriate mathematical model that transforms the input data set into a corresponding output data set. There are many types of mathematical models that can be used to transform the input data into corresponding output data. The crux of this paper is on one type of data driven mathematical models, namely the use of fuzzy logic approach. The reliability and robustness of the approach are demonstrated with daily and 6-hourly discharge predictions in 4 rivers in 3 countries having contrasting climatological, geographical and land use characteristics. The first application is for two tropical rivers in Sri Lanka using daily upstream rainfall and discharge data to predict downstream discharge with the minimum implication function type Mamdani fuzzy inference system. The second application is for another tropical river in Fiji using similar type of data with daily and 6-h time scales. Both Mamdani type fuzzy inference system with minimum and product implication functions as well as Larsen type inference systems were used. In the third application, daily upstream and tributary discharges were used to predict downstream discharges in a temperate-climate river in China using the TSK type fuzzy inference system with clustering. The methods are robust and the results obtained are within reasonable agreement with observations.

  19. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  20. A Particular River-Whiting Phenomenon Caused by Discharge of Hypolimnetic Water from a Stratified Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingan; Yang, Haiquan; Zhang, David Dian; Xu, Dan; Luo, Jing; Wang, Jingfu

    2015-01-01

    A particular river-whiting phenomenon occurred in the early 2000s in the Xiaoche River and since then it has been reoccurring from June to November each year. Residents were surprised by this phenomenon and worried about it. This study was designed to reveal the forming mechanism of the river-whiting phenomenon. A comparison of T, EC, ORP, DO, TDS and δ34S in the culvert water and discharge pipe water with that in the water column of Aha Reservoir strongly indicated that the culvert water and discharge pipe water derived primarily from the hypolimnetic reservoir water. When the hypolimnetic water enriched in SO42- and H2S, through seepage from the penstock, flows into the Xiaoche River, the water's supersaturation degree with respect to CaSO4 is increased as a result of increased temperature and DO, thus colloid CaSO4 can be formed. This is the essential cause of the river-whiting phenomenon. The sources of high concentrations of SO42- and H2S in hypolimnetic water include not only direct SO42- and H2S input of acid mine drainage as a result of irrational coal mining in the watershed, but also the sulfur-enriched surface sediments which may release H2S through the sulfate reduction processes. The contaminated sediment has acted as an important contamination source for sulfur to the overlying water in Aha Reservoir. There are more than 50,000 large dams in the world until now. With the increase of reservoir age and the persistent accumulation of pollutants within the reservoir system, discharged hypolimnetic water may contain high levels of pollutants and lead to unpredicted disasters. More investigations are needed to illuminate the water quality condition of discharge water from reservoirs and estimate its impacts on the downstream eco-environment. PMID:26361219

  1. A Particular River-Whiting Phenomenon Caused by Discharge of Hypolimnetic Water from a Stratified Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingan; Yang, Haiquan; Zhang, David Dian; Xu, Dan; Luo, Jing; Wang, Jingfu

    2015-01-01

    A particular river-whiting phenomenon occurred in the early 2000s in the Xiaoche River and since then it has been reoccurring from June to November each year. Residents were surprised by this phenomenon and worried about it. This study was designed to reveal the forming mechanism of the river-whiting phenomenon. A comparison of T, EC, ORP, DO, TDS and δ34S in the culvert water and discharge pipe water with that in the water column of Aha Reservoir strongly indicated that the culvert water and discharge pipe water derived primarily from the hypolimnetic reservoir water. When the hypolimnetic water enriched in SO42- and H2S, through seepage from the penstock, flows into the Xiaoche River, the water's supersaturation degree with respect to CaSO4 is increased as a result of increased temperature and DO, thus colloid CaSO4 can be formed. This is the essential cause of the river-whiting phenomenon. The sources of high concentrations of SO42- and H2S in hypolimnetic water include not only direct SO42- and H2S input of acid mine drainage as a result of irrational coal mining in the watershed, but also the sulfur-enriched surface sediments which may release H2S through the sulfate reduction processes. The contaminated sediment has acted as an important contamination source for sulfur to the overlying water in Aha Reservoir. There are more than 50,000 large dams in the world until now. With the increase of reservoir age and the persistent accumulation of pollutants within the reservoir system, discharged hypolimnetic water may contain high levels of pollutants and lead to unpredicted disasters. More investigations are needed to illuminate the water quality condition of discharge water from reservoirs and estimate its impacts on the downstream eco-environment. PMID:26361219

  2. Estimation of natural dissolved-solids discharge in the Upper Colorado River basin, Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.K.; Osen, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical method was developed to estimate monthly natural dissolved-solids discharge at selected sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Natural dissolved-solids discharge was defined as the rate of inorganic-solute flow past a specific site that would have occurred if there had been no water-resources development in the basin upstream from the site. The method used weighted least-squares regression to fit a model of dissolved-solids discharge as a function of streamflow and several variables representing development. After the model had been calibrated for an individual site, the development variables were assigned a value of zero to yield the relation between dissolved-solids discharge and streamflow for conditions of no upstream development. Natural dissolved-solids discharge was calculated using this relation and estimates of natural streamflow provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Limitations of the method included lack of data to verify estimates of the natural dissolved-solids discharge and to represent all the effects of development adequately. However, model statistics indicated a good fit to historical data. Also, the estimates of natural dissolved-solids-discharge had the expected monthly distribution and were consistent between upstream and downstream sites. (USGS)

  3. Water discharge affects Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt production: a 27 year study in the River Orkla, Norway.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, N A; Diserud, O H; Jensen, A J; Jensås, J G; Johnsen, B O; Ugedal, O

    2015-01-01

    A model that explains 48% of the annual variation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt production in the River Orkla, Norway, has been established. This variation could be explained by egg deposition, minimum daily discharge during the previous winter and minimum weekly discharge during the summer 3 years before smolt migration. All coefficients in the model were positive, which indicates that more eggs and higher minimum discharge levels during the winter before smolt migration and the summer after hatching benefit smolt production. Hence, when the spawning target of the river is reached, the minimum levels of river discharge, in both winter and summer, are the main bottlenecks for the parr survival, and hence for smolt production. The River Orkla was developed for hydropower production in the early 1980s by the construction of four reservoirs upstream of the river stretch accessible to S. salar. Although no water has been removed from the catchment, the dynamics of water flow has been altered, mainly by increasing discharges during winter and reducing spring floods. In spite of the higher than natural winter discharges, minimum winter discharge is still a determinant of smolt production. Hence, in regulated rivers, the maintenance of discharges to ensure that they are as high as possible during dry periods is an important means of securing high S. salar smolt production. PMID:25418585

  4. Impact of river discharge on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in eutrophic estuaries: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; de Swart, Huib E.

    2015-12-01

    Field observations in estuaries reveal that phytoplankton blooms are strongly affected by advection processes related to river flow. To gain quantitative insight into this dependence, experiments were performed with a new idealised model that couples physical and biological processes. Advection of phytoplankton and nutrient by subtidal flow was explicitly accounted for, as well as longitudinal and vertical mixing processes. Results show that the idealised model is capable of reproducing the observed bloom. The specific spatial distribution of phytoplankton population emerges because the latter is suppressed in the upper reach by the advection processes, and the growth is limited in the lower reach by low nutrient concentrations. A sensitivity study of model results to different river discharges reveals the presence of three regimes. In the low discharge regime, blooms form because growth is faster than decay due to advection processes. In the high discharge regime, the situation is opposite and no blooms form. If time scales of growth and advection are comparable (in moderate discharge regime), phytoplankton population increases significantly slower compared to the low discharge regime. Results of additional model runs, in which water depth and the e-folding length scale of estuarine width convergence were varied, revealed that the three regimes occur in all these cases.

  5. Quantifying the suspended sediment discharge to the ocean from the Markham River, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renagi, Ora; Ridd, Peter; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The Markham River is a small river draining a tropical mountain range with altitudes between 1000 and 3000 m and discharges directly into a submarine canyon, the head of which is at 30 m depth and reaches depths of 500 m only 4 km from the shore. As such, the Markham discharge system serves as a possible analogue for rivers discharging onto margins during low stands of sea-level. Located in a tectonically active area and with high rainfall, sediment supply is high and episodic and is sometimes related to catastrophic mountain landslides. The river has an estimated sediment load of 12 Mt yr -1. Occasionally, high energy flows are generated at the river mouth which is evident from the channel morphology and sediment distribution. Profiles of salinity and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) show that sediment is dispersed via a plume with components at both the surface, intermediate depth along isopycnal surfaces and near the sea bed. The dispersal pattern of the surface freshwater plume is largely determined by the buoyancy force. The surface plume is very thin with salinity gradients 15 ppt m -1 while a Richardson number greater than unity suggested that the mixing zone is highly stratified. Estimates of the horizontal sediment flux gradient of the surface plume along the estuary axis suggest that about 80% of the sediment discharged is lost from the plume within a distance of 2 km from the river mouth. Particle fall velocities estimated from the vertical flux indicate values less than those of flocculated material. Layers of sediment with SSCs between 500 and 1000 mg l -1 were observed at intermediate depths and near the seabed during periods of both high and intermediate discharge. The mass of sediment in a SSC layer at intermediate depths between 150 and 250 m within the canyon channel was estimated to be equivalent to an average of 2 to 3 days of Markham sediment discharge. SSCs near the seabed of between 250 and 750 mg l -1 suggest that layers of

  6. Specific Conductivity Synoptic Surveys to Map Groundwater-Surface Water Discharges in a Lowland River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, H.; Villamizar, S. R.; Harmon, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying distributed groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) discharges at the watershed scale is a challenging but important aspect of tracking nonpoint-source pollutants and their potential impacts on riverine water quality. This work analyzes high spatiotemporal longitudinal river sampling along a 38 km reach of the lower Merced River (LMR) in California's San Joaquin River (SJR) watershed and estimates GW-SW discharges using a simple discretized mixing model. The LMR flow is dam-controlled upstream and has several distributed surface discharges from SW diversions, SW canal inputs, and potential GW discharges influenced by the surrounding agricultural and municipal landscapes. We collected longitudinal datasets covering a wide range of flows (1.3 to 150 m3/s), sampling georeferenced water specific conductance (SC) at intervals of less than 1 minute. Whole-reach gradients of SW specific conductance (SC), representing GW-SW salinity loading (mS/cm/river km), decreased in proportion to the flow and stage, indicating either (1) a simple dilution effect or (2) reduced GW-SW discharges due to a reduced GW-SW hydraulic gradient at higher stages. With respect to distributed discharges, local gradients were significant (p < 0.05), with estimated local salinity loads varying from -0.4 to 8.9 mS/cm/river km for the LMR conditions. Using local groundwater salinity estimates, we inverted a discretized mixing model to estimate distributed groundwater fluxes. Summation of the fluxes agreed well with stream gage estimates. However, local flux estimates were nonuniform, with mid-reach values consistently increasing to a maximum value at intermediate stream flows, then decreasing for greater flows. Causes for this behavior remain uncertain but may be due to one or more of the following: (1) uncertainty in the groundwater salinity data, (2) salinity reduction in the hyporheic zone (e.g., denitrification), and (3) access to preferential GW-SW flowpaths at intermediate flows and stages

  7. Calculation of groundwater discharge to the Columbia River in the 100-N Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, T.J.; Newcomer, D.R.; Wurstner, S.K.; Spane, F.A.

    1992-04-01

    A computer code called WATDIS (an acronym for water discharge) was developed that, when used with the commercially available software, WATER-VEL{trademark}, calculates the volumetric discharge to a specific cross-sectional area of the aquifer. This report describes the development of the WATDIS code and its application. The development of this code is Phase 1 of a two-phased project whose objective is to estimate the amounts of radionuclides reaching the Columbia River through the unconfined aquifer as a result of natural'' conditions.

  8. Evaluation of seepage and discharge uncertainty in the middle Snake River, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Williams, Marshall L.; Evetts, David M.; Vidmar, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Idaho, Idaho Power Company, and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, evaluated seasonal seepage gains and losses in selected reaches of the middle Snake River, Idaho, during November 2012 and July 2013, and uncertainty in measured and computed discharge at four Idaho Power Company streamgages. Results from this investigation will be used by resource managers in developing a protocol to calculate and report Adjusted Average Daily Flow at the Idaho Power Company streamgage on the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam, near Murphy, Idaho, which is the measurement point for distributing water to owners of hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River. The evaluated reaches of the Snake River were from King Hill to Murphy, Idaho, for the seepage studies and downstream of Lower Salmon Falls Dam to Murphy, Idaho, for evaluations of discharge uncertainty. Computed seepage was greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty for subreaches along the middle Snake River during November 2012, the non-irrigation season, but not during July 2013, the irrigation season. During the November 2012 seepage study, the subreach between King Hill and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful (greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty) seepage gain of 415 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the subreach between Loveridge Bridge and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful seepage gain of 217 ft3/s. The meaningful seepage gain measured in the November 2012 seepage study was expected on the basis of several small seeps and springs present along the subreach, regional groundwater table contour maps, and results of regional groundwater flow model simulations. Computed seepage along the subreach from C J Strike Dam to Murphy was less than cumulative measurement uncertainty during November 2012 and July 2013; therefore, seepage cannot be quantified with certainty along this subreach. For the uncertainty evaluation, average

  9. Predicting groundwater flow system discharge in the river network at the watershed scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between rivers and aquifers affects the quality and the quantity of surface and subsurface water since it plays a crucial role for solute transport, nutrient cycling and microbial transformations. The groundwater-surface water interface, better known as hyporheic zone, has a functional significance for the biogeochemical and ecological conditions of the fluvial ecosystem since it controls the flux of groundwater solutes discharging into rivers, and vice versa. The hyporheic processes are affected by the complex surrounding aquifer because the groundwater flow system obstructs the penetration of stream water into the sediments. The impact of large-scale stream-aquifer interactions on small scale exchange has generally been analyzed at local scales of a river reach, or even smaller. However, a complete comprehension of how hyporheic fluxes are affected by the groundwater system at watershed scale is still missing. Evaluating this influence is fundamental to predict the consequences of hyporheic exchange on water quality and stream ecology. In order to better understand the actual structure of hyporheic exchange along the river network, we firstly examine the role of basin topography complexity in controlling river-aquifer interactions. To reach this target, we focus on the analysis of surface-subsurface water exchange at the watershed scale, taking into account the river-aquifer interactions induced by landscape topography. By way of a mathematical model, we aim to improve the estimation of the role of large scale hydraulic gradients on hyporheic exchange. The potential of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of a benchmark case's study, which shows how the topographic conformation influences the stream-aquifer interaction and induces a substantial spatial variability of the groundwater discharge even among adjacent reaches along the stream. The vertical exchange velocity along the river evidences a lack of autocorrelation. Both the groundwater

  10. Evaluation of the depth-integration method of measuring water discharge in large rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, John A.; Troutman, Brent M.

    1992-07-01

    The depth-integration method oor measuring water discharge makes a continuos measurement of the water velocity from the water surface to the bottom at 20 to 40 locations or verticals across a river. It is especially practical for large rivers where river traffic makes it impractical to use boats attached to taglines strung across the river or to use current meters suspended from bridges. This method has the additional advantage over the standard two- and eight-tenths method in that a discharge-weighted suspended-sediment sample can be collected at the same time. When this method is used in large rivers such as the Missouri, Mississippi and Ohio, a microwave navigation system is used to determine the ship's position at each vertical sampling location across the river, and to make accurate velocity corrections to compensate for shift drift. An essential feature is a hydraulic winch that can lower and raise the current meter at a constant transit velocity so that the velocities at all depths are measured for equal lengths of time. Field calibration measurements show that: (1) the mean velocity measured on the upcast (bottom to surface) is within 1% of the standard mean velocity determined by 9-11 point measurements; (2) if the transit velocity is less than 25% of the mean velocity, then average error in the mean velocity is 4% or less. The major source of bias error is a result of mounting the current meter above a sounding weight and sometimes above a suspended-sediment sampling bottle, which prevents measurement of the velocity all the way to the bottom. The measured mean velocity is slightly larger than the true mean velocity. This bias error in the discharge is largest in shallow water (approximately 8% for the Missouri River at Hermann, MO, where the mean depth was 4.3 m) and smallest in deeper water (approximately 3% for the Mississippi River at Vickbsurg, MS, where the mean depth was 14.5 m). The major source of random error in the discharge is the natural