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Sample records for disclosing hiv status

  1. HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness beliefs among pediatric caregivers in Ghana who have not disclosed their child's HIV status.

    PubMed

    Paintsil, Elijah; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Dame, Joycelyn; Enimil, Anthony; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Alhassan, Amina; Ofori, Irene Pokuaa; Cong, Xiangyu; Kyriakides, Tassos; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2015-01-01

    The majority of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been informed of their HIV status. Caregivers are reluctant to disclose HIV status to their children because of concern about the child's ability to understand, parental sense of guilt, and fear of social rejection and isolation. We hypothesized that the low prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana is due to lack of accurate HIV information and high HIV stigma among caregivers. This is a preliminary analysis of baseline data of an HIV pediatric disclosure intervention study in Ghana ("Sankofa"). "Sankofa" - is a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial comparing disclosure intervention plus usual care (intervention arm) vs usual care (control arm) at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH; control arm) and Komfo-Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH; intervention arm). We enrolled HIV-infected children, ages 7-18 years who do not know their HIV status, and their caregivers. Baseline data of caregivers included demographic characteristics; Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ-18); Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire; and HIV Stigma Scale. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between caregiver characteristics and HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness perception. Two hundred and ninety-eight caregivers were enrolled between January 2013 and July 2014 at the two study sites; KBTH (n = 167) and KATH (n = 131). The median age of caregivers was 41 years; 80.5% of them were female and about 60% of caregivers were HIV-positive. Seventy-eight percent of caregivers were self-employed with low household income. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, HIV negative status and lower level of education were associated with poor scores on HIV-KQ. HIV positive status remained significant for higher level of stigma in the adjusted analyses. None of the caregiver's characteristics predicted caregiver's illness perception. Intensification of HIV education in schools and targeted community campaigns are needed. PMID:26616122

  2. HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness beliefs among pediatric caregivers in Ghana who have not disclosed their child's HIV status

    PubMed Central

    Paintsil, Elijah; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Dame, Joycelyn; Enimil, Anthony; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Alhassan, Amina; Ofori, Irene Pokuaa; Cong, Xiangyu; Kyriakides, Tassos; Reynolds, Nancy R.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been informed of their HIV status. Caregivers are reluctant to disclose HIV status to their children because of concern about the child’s ability to understand, parental sense of guilt, and fear of social rejection and isolation. We hypothesized that the low prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana is due to lack of accurate HIV information and high HIV stigma among caregivers. This is a preliminary analysis of baseline data of an HIV pediatric disclosure intervention study in Ghana (“Sankofa”). “Sankofa” – is a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial comparing disclosure intervention plus usual care (intervention arm) vs usual care (control arm) at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH; control arm) and Komfo-Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH; intervention arm). We enrolled HIV-infected children, ages 7–18 years who do not know their HIV status, and their caregivers. Baseline data of caregivers included demographic characteristics; Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ-18); Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire; and HIV Stigma Scale. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between caregiver characteristics and HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness perception. Two hundred and ninety-eight caregivers were enrolled between January 2013 and July 2014 at the two study sites; KBTH (n = 167) and KATH (n = 131). The median age of caregivers was 41 years; 80.5% of them were female and about 60% of caregivers were HIV-positive. Seventy-eight percent of caregivers were self-employed with low household income. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, HIV negative status and lower level of education were associated with poor scores on HIV-KQ. HIV positive status remained significant for higher level of stigma in the adjusted analyses. None of the caregiver’s characteristics predicted caregiver’s illness perception. Intensification of HIV education in schools and targeted community campaigns are needed. PMID:26616122

  3. Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Disclosure Practices: An Analysis of PLWHAs' Strategies for Disclosing HIV Status.

    PubMed

    Catona, Danielle; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS must make decisions about how, where, when, what, and to whom to disclose their HIV status. This study explores their perceptions of benefits and drawbacks of various HIV disclosure strategies. The authors interviewed 53 people living with HIV/AIDS from a large AIDS service organization in a northeastern U.S. state and used a combination of deductive and inductive coding to analyze disclosure strategies and advantages and disadvantages of disclosure strategies. Deductive codes consisted of eight strategies subsumed under three broad categories: mode (face-to-face, non-face-to-face, and third-party disclosure), context (setting, bringing a companion, and planning a time), and content (practicing and incremental disclosure). Inductive coding identified benefits and drawbacks for enacting each specific disclosure strategy. The discussion focuses on theoretical explanations for the reasons for and against disclosure strategy enactment and the utility of these findings for practical interventions concerning HIV disclosure practices and decision making. PMID:26075594

  4. Expanding the boundaries of informed consent: disclosing alcoholism and HIV status to patients.

    PubMed

    Spielman, B

    1992-08-01

    Since informed consent became legally required in the therapeutic setting, the risks physicians were to disclose have been limited to the risks of particular procedures. Two recent court decisions in which disclosure of surgeons' alcoholism and positive human immunodeficiency virus status was required may begin to erode that limit. The grounds for this expansion of disclosure requirements were inherent in the 20-year-old "materiality" standard for disclosure; nevertheless, the change they signal is profound. These cases may signal a trend that, in the long term, could result in a shift in physician-patient communication and a significant loss of privacy for physicians. PMID:1497019

  5. The 'Fears' of Disclosing HIV Status to Sexual Partners: A Mixed Methods Study in a Counseling Setting in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Yeboah, D; Amoako-Sakyi, D; Baidoo, I; Adu-Oppong, A; Rheinländer, T

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging disclosure within a trusting and supportive environment is imperative in dealing with HIV/AIDS related stigma. However, disclosure rates and the factors that influence it are vaguely understood in African societies. This study aimed at determining the disclosure rate and factors that influence disclosure in Cape Coast, Ghana. In-depth interviews of 15 peer educators and a survey of 510 PLHIV were used in a mixed methods study design. Majority of the study participants (78.6 %) had disclosed their HIV positive status to their sexual partners. Although peer educators in this study portrayed the overall outcome of disclosure to be negative, 84.0 % of disclosers were accepted by their partners without negative consequences after disclosure. This study suggests that the existing support services ill prepares newly diagnosed HIV positive clients and hampers disclosure initiatives. Providing comprehensive support services and re-training peer educators may be crucial in creating a safe disclosure environment in Ghana. PMID:25711298

  6. A combined chemometric and quantitative NMR analysis of HIV/AIDS serum discloses metabolic alterations associated with disease status

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Tracy R.; Yoshihara, Hikari A. I.; Sitole, Lungile J.; Martin, Jeffery N.; Steffens, Francois; Meyer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often suffer from concomitant metabolic complications. Treatment with antiretroviral therapy has also been shown to alter the metabolism of patients. Although chemometric analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of human sera can distinguish normal sera (HIVneg) from HIV-infected sera (HIVpos) and sera from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), quantitative analysis of the discriminating metabolites and their relationship to disease status has yet to be determined. The objectives of the study were to analyze NMR spectra of HIVneg, HIVpos, and ART serum samples with a combination of chemometric and quantitative methods and to compare the NMR data with disease status as measured by viral load and CD4 count. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy was performed on HIVneg (N = 10), HIVpos (N = 10), and ART (N = 10) serum samples. Chemometric linear discriminant analysis classified the three groups of spectra with 100% accuracy. Concentrations of 12 metabolites were determined with a semi-parametric metabolite quantification method named high-resolution quantum estimation (HR-QUEST). CD4 count was directly associated with alanine (p = 0.008), and inversely correlated with both glutamine (p = 0.017) and glucose (p = 0.022) concentrations. A multivariate linear model using alanine, glutamine and glucose as covariates demonstrated an association with CD4 count (p = 0.038). The combined chemometric and quantitative analysis of the data disclosed previously unknown associations between specific metabolites and disease status. The observed associations with CD4 count are consistent with metabolic disorders that are commonly seen in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25105420

  7. Cutaneous histoplasmosis disclosing an HIV-infection*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Silvares, Maria Regina Cavariani; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2013-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis endemic in extensive areas of the Americas. The authors report on an urban adult male patient with uncommon oral-cutaneous lesions proven to be histoplasmosis. Additional investigation revealed unnoticed HIV infection with CD4+ cell count of 7/mm3. The treatment was performed with amphotericin B, a 2065 mg total dose followed by itraconazole 200mg/daily plus antiretroviral therapy with apparent cure. Histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining opportunistic disease process; therefore, its clinical diagnosis must drive full laboratory investigation looking for unnoted HIV-infection. PMID:23793220

  8. Caregivers' Intentions to Disclose HIV Diagnosis to Children Living with HIV in South Africa: A Theory-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Heeren, G. Anita; Sidloyi, Lulama; Marange, C. Show; Tyler, Joanne C.; Ngwane, Zolani

    2015-01-01

    When people know their HIV serostatus, they can take steps to manage their health and the risk of transmitting HIV to others. Mounting evidence indicates that caregivers often do not disclose to HIV-positive children that the children are living with HIV, but little is known about the modifiable determinants of pediatric HIV disclosure. The present study examined theory-of-planned-behavior predictors of the intention to disclose to children their HIV diagnosis. The participants were 100 caregivers of HIV-positive children in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Proportional-odds logistic regression analysis revealed that normative support for disclosure and caregiver-child communication predicted the intention to disclose, whereas behavioral beliefs regarding the consequences of disclosing and self-efficacy to disclose did not. The results suggest that interventions to increase pediatric HIV disclosure in South Africa should help caregivers enlist support for disclosure among important referents and improve communication with their HIV-infected children. PMID:24310931

  9. HIV/AIDS Case Managers and Client HIV Status Disclosure: Perceived Client Needs, Practices, and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Klein, Susan J.; Kalichman, Moira O.; O'Connell, Daniel A.; Freedman, Jay A.; Eaton, Lisa; Cain, Demetria

    2007-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS often need assistance in deciding whether or how to disclose their HIV status to others, and case managers are in a unique position to offer this assistance. The current study surveyed 223 case managers providing services to people living with HIV/AIDS in New York State. The survey was conducted anonymously, and case…

  10. Caregivers' intentions to disclose HIV diagnosis to children living with HIV in South Africa: a theory-based approach.

    PubMed

    Jemmott, John B; Heeren, G Anita; Sidloyi, Lulama; Marange, C Show; Tyler, Joanne C; Ngwane, Zolani

    2014-06-01

    When children know their HIV serostatus, they are more likely to cooperate with steps to manage their health and the risk of transmitting HIV to others. Mounting evidence indicates that caregivers often do not disclose to HIV-positive children that the children are living with HIV, but little is known about the modifiable determinants of pediatric HIV disclosure. The present study examined theory-of-planned-behavior predictors of the intention to disclose to children their HIV diagnosis. The participants were 100 caregivers of HIV-positive children in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Proportional-odds logistic regression analysis revealed that normative support for disclosure and caregiver-child communication predicted the intention to disclose, whereas behavioral beliefs regarding the consequences of disclosing and self-efficacy to disclose did not. The results suggest that interventions to increase pediatric HIV disclosure in South Africa should help caregivers enlist support for disclosure among important referents and improve communication with their HIV-infected children. PMID:24310931

  11. Keeping and Disclosing a Secret among People with HIV in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Gila; York, Alan S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the association of key variables with the intention to disclose and actual disclosure to an additional significant other of being HIV-infected. Sixty-five participants were recruited from five AIDS/HIV centers in Israeli hospitals. Participants completed questionnaires at entry to the study. They were asked about the extent to…

  12. Selective disclosure of HIV status in egocentric support networks of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zang, Chunpeng; He, Xin; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate HIV disclosure activities in social support networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). An egocentric network study was conducted in Nanning, China. A sample of 147 PLWHAs (egos) nominated 922 network members (alters) who would provide egos with social support. All egos disclosed their HIV status to at least one alter in their support networks and 26.5 % disclosed to all alters. Among network alters, 95.7 % of spouse alters, 59.9 % of other family member alters, and 29.7 % of friend alters were aware of egos' HIV status. PLWHA egos were more likely to disclose their HIV status to their spouse and other family members, frequently-contacted alters, and alters who provided more social support. In addition, older egos and unmarried egos were more likely to disclose their HIV status. The findings indicate that network-based HIV intervention programs should take into consideration selective disclosure in social networks. PMID:24996393

  13. Selective Disclosure of HIV Status in Egocentric Support Networks of People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Chunpeng; He, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate HIV disclosure activities in social support networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). An egocentric network study was conducted in Nanning, China. A sample of 147 PLWHAs (egos) nominated 922 network members (alters) who would provide egos with social support. All egos disclosed their HIV status to at least one alter in their support networks and 26.5 % disclosed to all alters. Among network alters, 95.7 % of spouse alters, 59.9 % of other family member alters, and 29.7 % of friend alters were aware of egos’ HIV status. PLWHA egos were more likely to disclose their HIV status to their spouse and other family members, frequently-contacted alters, and alters who provided more social support. In addition, older egos and unmarried egos were more likely to disclose their HIV status. The findings indicate that network-based HIV intervention programs should take into consideration selective disclosure in social networks. PMID:24996393

  14. The duty to disclose in Kenyan health facilities: a qualitative investigation of HIV disclosure in everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Eileen; Igonya, Emmy Kageha; Both, Rosalijn; Cherutich, Peter; Hardon, Anita

    2013-07-01

    Disclosure of HIV status is routinely promoted as a public health measure to prevent transmission and enhance treatment adherence support. While studies show a range of positive and negative outcomes associated with disclosure, it has also been documented that disclosing is a challenging and ongoing process. This article aims to describe the role of health-care workers in Central and Nairobi provinces in Kenya in facilitating disclosure in the contexts of voluntary counselling and testing and provider-initiated testing and counselling and includes a discussion on how participants perceive and experience disclosure as a result. We draw on in-depth qualitative research carried out in 2008-2009 among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the health workers who provide care to them. Our findings suggest that in everyday practice, there are three models of disclosure at work: (1) voluntary-consented disclosure, in alignment with international guidelines; (2) involuntary, non-consensual disclosure, which may be either intentional or accidental; and (3) obligatory disclosure, which occurs when PLHIV are forced to disclose to access services at health facilities. Health-care workers were often caught between the three models and struggled with the competing demands of promoting prevention, adherence, and confidentiality. Findings indicate that as national and global policies shift to normalize HIV testing as routine in a range of clinical settings, greater effort must be made to define suitable best practices that balance the human rights and the public health perspectives in relation to disclosure. PMID:23826931

  15. Psychological and social correlates of HIV status disclosure: the significance of stigma visibility.

    PubMed

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P

    2011-08-01

    HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV. PMID:21861610

  16. Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10-19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085-17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to negotiate safer sex. There is a pressing need for effective interventions that mitigate the risks of disclosure and provide HIV-positive adolescents with skills to engage in safe sex. PMID:26616125

  17. Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D.; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10–19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085–17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to negotiate safer sex. There is a pressing need for effective interventions that mitigate the risks of disclosure and provide HIV-positive adolescents with skills to engage in safe sex. PMID:26616125

  18. HIV Status Discordance: Associated Factors Among HIV Positive Pregnant Women in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uah, Innocent A O; Ezechi, Oliver C; Ohihoin, Aigbe Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The HIV negative partner in a HIV serodiscordant relationship is at high risk of becoming HIV infected. The annual risk of HIV infection for a partner of a person with HIV is about 10%, with higher annual transmission rates of 20-25% per year reported in Rwanda and Zambia. Although there is considerable variation across countries, recent studies in southern and east Africa countries with mature epidemics reported that up to two-thirds of infected persons in stable relationship are discordant. HIV serodiscordance is thus a recognized priority for HIV prevention intervention. In Nigeria only few studies have studied the burden of serodiscordance, making planning difficult. In this study HIV serodiscordance rate and associated factors among pregnant women were assessed in a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria over a 9 years period. Information on HIV status disclosure, partners HIV status (confirmed by HIV test results), sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive information were obtained from the women after enrollment and entered into the case file. In the study, relevant information was managed with SPSS for windows version 19.0. The variables independently associated with HIV status discordance were determined in both univariate and multivariate analysis. P values and Odd ratio with their confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 4435 women enrolled during the study period, 3712 (83.7%) had disclosed their status to their partner. Partner's HIV status among the women with confirmed HIV status was negative in 2065 (66.8%) women, thus a discordant rate of 66.8%. HIV status disclosure rate was 83.7%; with significantly higher disclosure rate in concordant couple (83.3%) compared to 76.8% among women in serodiscordant relationship (p = 0.00; OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.25-1.82). Discordant HIV status in a female positive relationship was found to be associated with history of at least two termination of pregnancy (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 2.91-3.89) and five or more total life time sexual partnership (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.27-3.21). The perception that men are the index cases is not supported by evidence from this study. We recommend the tracking of both men and women as index cases in other to reduce HIV transmission within stable relationship. Social marketing aimed at reducing concurrency should focus on both male and females, if we must reduce new HIV infection within stable relationships. PMID:26506663

  19. The need to know: HIV status disclosure expectations and practices among non-HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dean A.; de Wit, John B.F.; Donohoe, Simon; Adam, Philippe C.G

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence of increasing overall rates of HIV status disclosure among gay and bisexual men, little is known about men's disclosure expectations and practices. In this study, we investigate the importance non-HIV-positive men in Australia vest in knowing the HIV status of their sexual partners, and the extent to which they restrict sex to partners of the same HIV status, and their HIV disclosure expectations. Data were collected through a national, online self-report survey. Of the 1044 men included in the study, 914 were HIV negative and 130 were untested. Participants completed the assessment of socio-demographic characteristics, HIV status preferences, and disclosure expectations and practices. Participants also completed reliable multi-item measures of perceived risk of HIV transmission, expressed HIV-related stigma, and engagement with the gay community and the community of people living with HIV. A quarter (25.9%) of participants wanted to know the HIV status of all sexual partners, and one-third (37.2%) restricted sex to partners of similar HIV status. Three quarters (76.3%) expected HIV-positive partners to disclosure their HIV status before sex, compared to 41.6% who expected HIV-negative men to disclose their HIV status. Less than half (41.7%) of participants reported that they consistently disclosed their HIV status to sexual partners. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified various covariates of disclosure expectations and practices, in particular of disclosure expectations regarding HIV-positive men. Men who expected HIV-positive partners to disclose their HIV status before sex more often lived outside capital cities, were less educated, were less likely to identify as gay, perceived more risk of HIV transmission from a range of sexual practices, were less engaged with the community of people living with HIV, and expressed more stigma towards HIV-positive people. These findings suggest that an HIV-status divide is emerging or already exists among gay men in Australia. HIV-negative and untested men who are most likely to sexually exclude HIV-positive men are less connected to the HIV epidemic and less educated about HIV risk and prevention. PMID:26616130

  20. The need to know: HIV status disclosure expectations and practices among non-HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dean A; de Wit, John B F; Donohoe, Simon; Adam, Philippe C G

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence of increasing overall rates of HIV status disclosure among gay and bisexual men, little is known about men's disclosure expectations and practices. In this study, we investigate the importance non-HIV-positive men in Australia vest in knowing the HIV status of their sexual partners, and the extent to which they restrict sex to partners of the same HIV status, and their HIV disclosure expectations. Data were collected through a national, online self-report survey. Of the 1044 men included in the study, 914 were HIV negative and 130 were untested. Participants completed the assessment of socio-demographic characteristics, HIV status preferences, and disclosure expectations and practices. Participants also completed reliable multi-item measures of perceived risk of HIV transmission, expressed HIV-related stigma, and engagement with the gay community and the community of people living with HIV. A quarter (25.9%) of participants wanted to know the HIV status of all sexual partners, and one-third (37.2%) restricted sex to partners of similar HIV status. Three quarters (76.3%) expected HIV-positive partners to disclosure their HIV status before sex, compared to 41.6% who expected HIV-negative men to disclose their HIV status. Less than half (41.7%) of participants reported that they consistently disclosed their HIV status to sexual partners. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified various covariates of disclosure expectations and practices, in particular of disclosure expectations regarding HIV-positive men. Men who expected HIV-positive partners to disclose their HIV status before sex more often lived outside capital cities, were less educated, were less likely to identify as gay, perceived more risk of HIV transmission from a range of sexual practices, were less engaged with the community of people living with HIV, and expressed more stigma towards HIV-positive people. These findings suggest that an HIV-status divide is emerging or already exists among gay men in Australia. HIV-negative and untested men who are most likely to sexually exclude HIV-positive men are less connected to the HIV epidemic and less educated about HIV risk and prevention. PMID:26616130

  1. Psychological differences between HIV-positive mothers who disclose to all, some, or none of their biological children.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Robin Ostrom; Serovich, Julianne M; Lim, Ji-Young

    2009-04-01

    This study explored the psychological differences between HIV-positive women who disclosed their serostatus to all, some, or none of their biological children. Data from this project come from a larger, longitudinal investigation of the disclosure process of HIV-infected women. Data were obtained regarding the disclosure processes and the psychological adjustment of women with children (n = 90) based on measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Results suggest that women who disclose to all, some, or none of their children are not significantly different with regard to emotional well-being. Implications for marriage and family therapists are provided. PMID:19302515

  2. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission--including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants-they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission. PMID:26348322

  3. Factors Related to Family Therapists' Breaking Confidence When Clients Disclose High-Risks-to-HIV/AIDS Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Shobha; Piercy, Fred; Miller, JoAnn

    1998-01-01

    Through a national survey of marriage and family therapists, this study examines what therapists do when their HIV-positive clients disclose that they are engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. Participants (N=309) were more likely to break confidence when their clients were male, young, gay, or African American. Describes characteristic of

  4. HIV disclosure status and factors among adult HIV positive patients in a secondary health facility in North-Eastern Nigeria, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Dankoli, Raymond Salanga; Aliyu, Alhaji A; Nsubuga, Peter; Nguku, Patrick; Ossai, Okechukwu P; Tukur, Dahiru; Ibrahim, Luka; Madi, James E.; Dalhat, Mahmood; Abdullaziz, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Disclosure of HIV status especially to sexual partners is an important prevention goal. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV status disclosure and the factors associated with disclosure by HIV positive patients attending the adult Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic in State Specialist Hospital Gombe (SSHG) a secondary health facility in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study among adult HIV positive patients enrolled into the HIV/AIDS programme of SSHG. Study participant were sampled using a systematic random sampling. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, disclosure status and factors associated with disclosure. Data was analyzed using Epi-info software. Results Of the 198 (99%) respondents, 159 (80.3%) were females. The mean age of respondents was 32.9years (SD ± 9.5). Sixty percent of the respondents were married. Most (97.5%) had disclosed their HIV status and majority (36.8%) disclosed to their spouses. Sixty four percent of the respondents had treatment supporter and spouses (42.9%) were their choice of a treatment supporter. Disclosure of HIV status was found to be associated with age < 40years Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 38.16; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.42-602.61. Gender, employment status, educational level, duration of infection and marital status were not found to be significantly associated with disclosure of HIV status. Conclusion Disclosure of HIV status was high in the study population. Spouses were the most preferred choice of persons to disclose HIV status to, and the most adopted as treatment supporter. HIV status disclosure is encouraged after diagnosis because of its importance especially among couples. PMID:25328623

  5. Disclosing HIV diagnosis to children in Odi district, South Africa: Reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure

    PubMed Central

    Mahloko, Johanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and survival of HIV-infected children has posed challenges to caregivers on disclosing the HIV diagnosis to children. Objectives The objectives of this study was to determine the reasons of caregivers for the disclosure and non-disclosure of the HIV diagnosis to children on ART and to determine the caregivers perceptions of children's reaction to disclosure. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 149 caregivers of children between 417 years who receive ART from a district hospital in South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. Results The prevalence of disclosure was 40% and the mean age of disclosure was 9.3 years. Reasons for disclosure included that the child was not adhering to treatment (n = 59; 39%); the child was consistently asking questions about the treatment and nature of the disease (n = 59; 39%). Reasons for non-disclosure were that the child was too young (n = 90; 72%); the child would tell others about diagnosis (n = 90; 21.1%); the child would be socially rejected (n = 90; 18.6%); fear of negative consequences for the child (n = 90; 13.3%); and caregivers do not know how to tell or approach disclosure (n = 90; 8.9%). Conclusion Caregivers disclosed the diagnosis so that their child would adhere to ART medication; non-disclosing caregivers delayed disclosure because their children were too young to understand the HIV diagnosis. Disclosure of HIV to children should be integrated into regular discussions with caregivers of children in ART settings to improve their knowledge and skills to manage disclosure.

  6. Strategies and Outcomes of HIV Status Disclosure in HIV-Positive Young Women with Abuse Histories

    PubMed Central

    Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings. PMID:23596649

  7. Factors Associated with Non-disclosure of HIV Status in a Cohort of Childbearing HIV-Positive Women in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jane V; Bailey, Heather; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Thorne, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine has one of the largest populations of persons living with HIV in Europe. Data on 2019 HIV-positive married or cohabiting women enrolled in a postnatal cohort from 2007 to 2012 were analysed to investigate prevalence and factors associated with self-reported non-disclosure of HIV status. Median age at enrolment was 27.5years, with two-thirds diagnosed during their most recent pregnancy. Almost all had received antenatal antiretroviral therapy and 24% were taking it currently. One-tenth (n=198) had not disclosed their HIV status to their partner and 1 in 20 (n=93) had disclosed to no-one. Factors associated with non-disclosure were: unmarried status (AOR 2.99 (95% CI 1.51-5.92), younger age at leaving full-time education (AOR 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.88) for?19 years vs?16 years) and lack of knowledge of partner's HIV status (AOR 2.01 (95% CI 1.09-3.66). Further work is needed to support disclosure in some groups and to explore relationships between disclosure and psychological factors in this setting, including depression, lack of support and perception of stigma. PMID:26054389

  8. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  9. Do support groups members disclose less to their partners? The dynamics of HIV disclosure in four African countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent efforts to curtail the HIV epidemic in Africa have emphasised preventing sexual transmission to partners through antiretroviral therapy. A component of current strategies is disclosure to partners, thus understanding its motivations will help maximise results. This study examines the rates, dynamics and consequences of partner disclosure in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, with special attention to the role of support groups and stigma in disclosure. Methods The study employs mixed methods, including a cross-sectional client survey of counselling and testing services, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with HIV-positive individuals in stable partnerships in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, recruited at healthcare facilities offering HIV testing. Results Rates of disclosure to partners varied between countries (32.7% – 92.7%). The lowest rate was reported in Malawi. Reasons for disclosure included preventing the transmission of HIV, the need for care, and upholding the integrity of the relationship. Fear of stigma was an important reason for non-disclosure. Women reported experiencing more negative reactions when disclosing to partners. Disclosure was positively associated with living in urban areas, higher education levels, and being male, while being negatively associated with membership to support groups. Conclusions Understanding of reasons for disclosure and recognition of the role of support groups in the process can help improve current prevention efforts, that increasingly focus on treatment as prevention as a way to halt new infections. Support groups can help spread secondary prevention messages, by explaining to their members that antiretroviral treatment has benefits for HIV positive individuals and their partners. Home-based testing can further facilitate partner disclosure, as couples can test together and be counselled jointly. PMID:23773542

  10. Should caregivers be compelled to disclose patients' HIV infection to the patients' sex partners without consent?

    PubMed

    Odunsi, Babafemi

    2007-12-01

    The emergence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has added to the tension between patients' private interests and public health interests regarding medical confidentiality. Many people become infected with HIV because they are unaware of the positive serostatus of their sexual partners. Informing or warning the sexual partners of HIV-positive patients of the patients'serostatus could assist in curtailing the spread of HIV/AIDS because sexual partners can thereby choose to avoid having unprotected sex with infected persons. By law, however, doctors have a duty to their patients to protect their medical confidentiality. Doctors, therefore, face a dilemma concerning which should prevail: patients' right to privacy and confidentiality or the importance to society of controlling the spread of the pandemic. Most medical regulatory bodies do not take clear-cut positions on the issue, leaving the decision to the discretion of individual doctors. The question of whether doctors should be legally empowered to breach the confidence of patients to protect the patients' sexual partners is discussed here with reference to the existing laws of Canada, the United States, and Nigeria. PMID:18284044

  11. HIV Status Disclosure to Sexual Partners, among People Living with HIV and AIDS on Antiretroviral Therapy at Sokodé Regional Hospital, Togo

    PubMed Central

    Yaya, Issifou; Saka, Bayaki; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Patchali, P’Niwè Massoubayo; Patassi, Akouda Akessiwè; Aboubakari, Abdoul-samadou; Makawa, Makawa-Sy; N’Dri, Mathias Kouamé; Senanou, Sékandé; Lamboni, Bassan; Idrissou, Daoudou; Salaka, Kao Tanang; Pitché, Palokinam

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported factors associated with HIV status disclosure among People Living With HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) but very few were conducted among PLWHA receiving ART. In Togo, no study on HIV status disclosure to sexual partners has been conducted among PLWHA on ART yet. We sought to document factors associated with HIV status disclosure among PLWHA receiving ART at Sokodé regional hospital in Togo. Method This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May to July 2013 at the regional hospital of Sokodé among 291 PLWHA who had been on ART for at least three months. Results A total of 291 PLWHA on ART were enrolled in this study. Their mean age (±SD) was 37.3±9.3 years and the sex ratio (Male/Female) was 0.4. Among them, 215 (74.6%) completed the questionnaire on HIV sero-status disclosure. We found that 131 PLWHA (60.9%) had disclosed their HIV sero-status to their sexual partners; 130 (60.5%) were aware of the HIV status of their sexual partners. In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with HIV status disclosure to sexual partners were: adherence to ART (aOR = 4.89; 95%CI = [1.52; 15.78]), sexual partner awareness of HIV sero-status (aOR = 52.73; 95%CI = [14.76; 188.36]) and marital status of PLWHA (aOR = 6.10; 95%CI = [1.74; 21.37]). Conclusion This study allowed us to note that the disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners is relatively low and to document the associated factors such as adherence to ART, sexual partner awareness of HIV sero-status and marital status. PMID:25658105

  12. The process of HIV status disclosure to HIV-positive youth in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Vaz, L; Corneli, A; Dulyx, J; Rennie, S; Omba, S; Kitetele, F; Behets, F

    2008-08-01

    As access to HIV/AIDS treatment increases in sub-Saharan Africa, greater attention is being paid to HIV-infected youth. Little is known about how HIV-positive youth are informed of their HIV infection. As part of a larger formative study informing a treatment program in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 youth (10-21 years) who had previously been told their HIV status and 21 caregivers who had disclosed the youth's HIV status to the youth. Questions explored youth's and caregivers' experiences of and immediate reactions to disclosure. Youth's median age at disclosure was 15 years old, with a range of 10-18 years based on caregiver reports (n=21) and from 10-19 years based on youth reports (n=18). The most common reasons spontaneously given for disclosing were the child's adherence to their treatment regimen (5/16), the need of the child to protect her/himself or stay healthy (5/16), the child's increasing age (4/16) and so that the child would know why they are suffering (3/16). Most youth (16/19) were surprised to learn of their diagnosis; 50% (8/16) wondered about the infection's origins. A large majority felt that it is better for them to know their HIV status (88%; 15/17). HIV care and treatment programs must be prepared to address the psychosocial needs of youth and their caregivers during the disclosure process. PMID:18608054

  13. HIV Status Disclosure to Families for Social Support in South Africa (NIMH Project Accept/ HPTN 043)

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; van Rooyen, Heidi; Groves, Allison K.

    2014-01-01

    Literature on HIV status disclosure among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is dominated by research on the rates, barriers and consequences of disclosure to sexual partners because of the assumed preventive health benefits of partner disclosure. Disclosure of HIV status can lead to an increase in social support and other positive psychosocial outcomes for PLWHA, but disclosure can also be associated with negative social outcomes including stigma, discrimination and violence. The purpose of this article is to describe the HIV status disclosure narratives of PLWHA living in South Africa. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 PLWHA (11 women, 2 men) over a three year time period. We explored disclosure narratives of the PLWHA through questions about who they chose to disclose to, how they disclosed to these individuals, and how these individuals reacted. Narratives focused on disclosure to family members and contained relatively little discussion of disclosure to sexual partners. Participants often disclosed first to one trusted family member, and news of the diagnosis remained with this person for a long period of time, prior to sharing with others. This family member helped the PLWHA cope with the news of their diagnosis and prepared them to disclose to others. Disclosure to one’s partner was motivated primarily by a desire to encourage partners to test for HIV. Two participants described overtly negative reactions from a partner upon disclosure, and none of the PLWHA in this sample described very supportive relationships with their partners after disclosure. The critical role that family members played in the narratives of these PLWHA emphasizes the need for a greater focus on disclosure to families for social support in HIV counseling protocols. PMID:23875539

  14. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.

  15. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  16. Discussing matters of sexual health with children: what issues relating to disclosure of parental HIV status reveal.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sara Liane; Fielding, Katherine; Avalos, Ava; Gaolathe, Tendani; Dickinson, Diana; Geissler, Paul Wenzel

    2009-03-01

    Little is published about the disclosure of parents' own HIV status to their children in Africa. Research shows that keeping family secrets from children, including those related to a parent's HIV status, can be detrimental to their psychological well-being and to the structure of the family. Further, children with HIV-positive parents have been shown to be more vulnerable to poorer reproductive health outcomes. This qualitative study in Botswana conducted in-depth interviews among 21 HIV-positive parents on antiretroviral therapy. The data revealed that parents found discussing the issue of HIV with children difficult, including disclosing their own HIV status to them. Reasons for disclosing included: children being HIV positive, the rest of the family knowing, or the parent becoming very sick. Reasons for not disclosing included: believing the child to be too young, not knowing how to address the issue of HIV, that it would be "too painful" for the child/ren. Concern that other people might find out about their status or fear of children experiencing stigmatising behaviour. Interviews elucidated the difficulty that parents have in discussing their own HIV status and more general sexual health issues with their children. Parents and other guardians require support in managing age-appropriate disclosure to their children. This may further enable access to forums that can help children cope with their fears about the future and develop life skills in preparation for dealing with relationships of a sexual nature and sexual health as children move into adulthood. In developing such support mechanisms, changing family roles in Botswana need to be taken into consideration and the role of other family members in the upbringing of children in Tswana society need to be recognised and utilised. PMID:19280415

  17. Caregivers’ Attitudes towards HIV Testing and Disclosure of HIV Status to At-Risk Children in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Rick; Grant, Eisha; Muyindike, Winnie; Maling, Samuel; Card, Claire; Henry, Carol; Nazarali, Adil J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested the child for HIV, when the child was informed of their positive status, and what the caregiver did to prepare themselves and the child for status disclosure. For a majority (96%) of respondents, the decision to test the child for HIV was due to existing illness in either the child or a relative. Other common themes identified included the existence of stigma in the caregivers’ communities and doubt that the children truly understood what was being explained to them when their status was disclosed. Most (65%) children were informed of their HIV status between the ages of 5 and 9, with the mean age of disclosure occurring at the age of 7. General provision of HIV information typically began at the same age as disclosure, and as many as two thirds (64%) of the caregivers sought advice from an HIV counsellor prior to disclosure. How a caregiver chose to prepare themselves and the child did not affect the caregiver’s perception of whether the disclosure experience was beneficial or not. These findings suggest that the HIV disclosure experience in Mbarara and Isingiro districts differs from current guidelines, especially with respect to age of disclosure, how caregivers prepare themselves and the child, and approaching disclosure as an ongoing process. The doubts expressed by caregivers regarding the child’s level of HIV understanding following the disclosure experience suggest the children may be insufficiently prepared at the time of the initial disclosure event. The findings also suggest that examining the content of pre-disclosure counselling and HIV education, and how health care professionals are trained to facilitate the disclosure process as important avenues for further research. PMID:26881773

  18. Disclosure of HIV status to children in resource-limited settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Rachel C; Gramelspacher, Anna Maria; Gisore, Peter O; Scanlon, Michael L; Nyandiko, Winstone M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Informing children of their own HIV status is an important aspect of long-term disease management, yet there is little evidence of how and when this type of disclosure takes place in resource-limited settings and its impact. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Databases were searched for the terms hiv AND disclos* AND (child* OR adolesc*). We reviewed 934 article citations and the references of relevant articles to find articles describing disclosure to children and adolescents in resource-limited settings. Data were extracted regarding prevalence of disclosure, factors influencing disclosure, process of disclosure and impact of disclosure on children and caregivers. Results Thirty-two articles met the inclusion criteria, with 16 reporting prevalence of disclosure. Of these 16 studies, proportions of disclosed children ranged from 0 to 69.2%. Important factors influencing disclosure included the child's age and perceived ability to understand the meaning of HIV infection and factors related to caregivers, such as education level, openness about their own HIV status and beliefs about children's capacities. Common barriers to disclosure were fear that the child would disclose HIV status to others, fear of stigma and concerns for children's emotional or physical health. Disclosure was mostly led by caregivers and conceptualized as a one-time event, while others described it as a gradual process. Few studies measured the impact of disclosure on children. Findings suggested adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved post-disclosure but the emotional and psychological effects of disclosure were variable. Conclusions Most studies show that a minority of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings know his/her HIV status. While caregivers identify many factors that influence disclosure, studies suggest both positive and negative effects for children. More research is needed to implement age- and culture-appropriate disclosure in resource-limited settings. PMID:23714198

  19. HIV status disclosure among infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Dolezal, Curtis; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men were recruited in Buenos Aires using respondent driven sampling. Of them, 46 respondents (24 of them not gay identified) who were HIV infected were asked questions on serodisclosure. The sample was characterized by indicators of low socioeconomic status. Most of the respondents reported being in good to excellent health despite 42% of them having been diagnosed with AIDS. Only 10% of respondents had not disclosed their serostatus to at least one person. Coworkers and lovers or main sexual partners were those most likely to know the respondents' serostatus. Reactions to disclosure were for the most part supportive. Those who had not disclosed anticipated less favorable reactions than those who had disclosed. No significant differences were observed between gay and non-gay identified respondents. The progressive social environment of Argentina that includes federal laws recognizing gay marriage may contribute to create a climate favorable for serostatus disclosure. PMID:24245593

  20. HIV/AIDS status disclosure increases support, behavioural change and, HIV prevention in the long term: a case for an Urban Clinic, Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disclosure of HIV status supports risk reduction and facilitates access to prevention and care services, but can be inhibited by the fear of negative repercussions. We explored the short and long-term outcomes of disclosure among clients attending an urban HIV clinic in Uganda. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews were administered to a purposeful sample of 40 adult HIV clients that was stratified by gender. The information elicited included their lived experiences and outcomes of disclosure in the short and long term. A text data management software (ATLAS.ti) was used for data analysis. Codes were exported to MS Excel and pivot tables, and code counts made to generate statistical data. Results Of the 134 short-term responses elicited during the interview regarding disclosure events, most responses were supportive including encouragement, advice and support regarding HIV care and treatment. The results show on-disclosing to spouse, there was more trust, and use of condoms for HIV prevention. Only one third were negative responses, like emotional shock and feeling of distress. The negative reactions to the spouses included rejection, shock and distress in the short term. Even then, none of these events led to drastic change such as divorce. Other responses reflected HIV prevention and call for behavioural change and advice to change sexual behaviour, recipient seeking HIV testing or care. Women reported more responses of encouragement compared to men. Men reported more preventive behaviour compared to women. Of the 137 long-term outcomes elicited during disclosure, three quarters were positive followed by behavioral change and prevention, and then negative responses. Men reported increased care and support when they disclosed to fellow men compared to when women disclosed to women. There was better or not change in relationship when women disclosed to women than when women disclosed to men. Conclusions There is overwhelming support to individuals that disclose their HIV status, especially in the long term. Besides, gender appears to influence responses to HIV disclosure, highlighting the need for gender specific disclosure support strategies. PMID:24950958

  1. Counselling about HIV serological status disclosure: nursing practice or law enforcement? a Foucauldian reflection.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave; Roy, Marie

    2015-06-01

    Recently, focus groups and qualitative interviews with nurses who provide frontline care for persons living with HIV highlighted the contentiousness surrounding the seemingly innocuous activity of counselling clients about HIV-status disclosure, hereafter disclosure counselling. These empirical studies highlighted that while some nurses felt they should instruct clients to disclose their HIV-positive status if HIV transmission were possible, other nurses were equally adamant that such counselling was outside the nursing scope of practice. A review of these opposing perceptions about disclosure counselling, including an examination of the empirical evidence which supports each point, revealed that the dichotomous arguments needed to be nuanced. The empirical evidence about serostatus disclosure neither supported nor refuted either of these assertions; rather, it substantiated parts of each. To create this understanding, both empirical and theoretical works are used. First, the results of empirical studies about serostatus disclosure, or lack thereof and HIV transmission is presented; as part of this, Marks and Crepaz's HIV disclosure and exposure framework is examined. Second, the work of Michel Foucault on disciplinary and pastoral power is drawn from. The outcome is a nuanced understanding about the interrelationships between disclosure counselling and nursing practice and a final interpretation about what this understanding means for public health practice. PMID:25053169

  2. The Demand for, and Impact of, Learning HIV Status

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates an experiment in which individuals in rural Malawi were randomly assigned monetary incentives to learn their HIV results after being tested. Distance to the HIV results centers was also randomly assigned. Without any incentive, 34 percent of the participants learned their HIV results. However, even the smallest incentive doubled that share. Using the randomly assigned incentives and distance from results centers as instruments for the knowledge of HIV status, sexually active HIV-positive individuals who learned their results are three times more likely to purchase condoms two months later than sexually active HIV-positive individuals who did not learn their results; however, HIV-positive individuals who learned their results purchase only two additional condoms than those who did not. There is no significant effect of learning HIV-negative status on the purchase of condoms. PMID:21687831

  3. Disclosure of HIV Serostatus and Sexual Orientation Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyun; Chi, Peilian; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    This study addressed the issue of disclosing HIV status and sexual orientation, and explored the consequences of such disclosures among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with 37 HIV-positive MSM. Of these participants, 3 (8.1 %) disclosed neither their HIV status nor their sexual orientation to anyone; 24 (64.9 %) voluntarily disclosed both their HIV-positive status and their sexual orientation; 7 (18.9 %) voluntarily disclosed their HIV status only, and 3 (8.1 %) involuntarily disclosed their HIV status and sexual orientation. Parents, partners, siblings and close friends were the most common disclosure targets. HIV-positive MSM were less likely to disclose their sexual orientation than their HIV status. The positive consequences of disclosure included receiving support, acquiring family care, reducing stress, improving mood and developing more positive values and beliefs. The negative consequences included the participants' perception of rejection and stigma toward themselves and their families. However, the stigma mainly comes from "outsiders" rather than family members and close friends. We did not find any differences with respect to consequences between participants who disclosed their HIV status only and those who disclosed both their HIV status and sexual orientation. In conclusion, partners, siblings and friends were main disclosure targets, and HIV positive MSM preferred to disclose their HIV serostatus than their sexual orientation. Voluntarily disclosing one's HIV status to significant others resulted in more positive consequences than negative consequences. Theses results were informative for developing mental health and coping interventions. PMID:26002087

  4. Uganda: Proposed bill would criminalize HIV transmission, force partners to reveal HIV-positive status.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The Uganda government has introduced in Parliament an omnibus AIDS bill which aims to criminalize the "intentional or willful" transmission of HIV, introduce "routine" HIV testing for pregnant women, and require disclosure of one's HIV-positive status to one's spouse or partner. The bill also contains measures to protect the rights of people living with HIV/AIDS, including guaranteeing access to treatment and providing protection against discrimination. PMID:19610205

  5. A Psychoanalytic Exploration of HIV Status Disclosure to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Skye R.; Derevenco, Maria R.

    As the AIDS epidemic grows, society is faced by a growing number of children who are born HIV infected. Unfortunately, little systematic research has been conducted which addresses the psychological and social ramifications of HIV status disclosure to children. While most parents prefer not to inform the child of the illness, most clinicians favor…

  6. Correlates and Experiences of HIV Stigma in Prisoners Living With HIV in Indonesia: A Mixed-Method Analysis.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Gabriel J; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Wulanyani, Ni Made Swasti; Wegman, Martin P; Waluyo, Agung; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, the syndemic nature of HIV, drug use, and incarceration may influence experiences of stigma for HIV-infected prisoners. This mixed-method study explores HIV stigma in prisoners living with HIV in Indonesia. Randomly selected male HIV-infected prisoners (n = 102) from two large prisons in Jakarta completed in-depth interviews and a structured HIV stigma survey. Quantitative results found four groups of HIV-infected prisoners with significantly higher HIV stigma levels, including those: (a) with drug-related offenses, (b) seeking help to decrease drug use, (c) diagnosed with HIV before the current incarceration, and (d) who had not disclosed their HIV status to family members or friends. Qualitative results highlighted the prominent role of HIV stigma in decisions to disclose HIV status to family members, partners, and other prisoners. Interventions should address HIV stigma in HIV-infected prisoners in Indonesia to achieve HIV treatment as prevention goals. PMID:26304049

  7. HIV Status among Patients with Tuberculosis and HIV Testing Practices by Connecticut Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian T.; Lobato, Mark N.; Gutierrez, Jesus; Sosa, Lynn E.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of persons infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important for individual treatment and preventing transmission. This evaluation analyzed surveillance data and surveyed health care providers who care for patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) to understand the factors contributing to suboptimal levels of Connecticut patients with TB having a known HIV status. During 2008 to 2010, 208 (76.2%) of 273 patients had a known HIV status; 12 (5.8%) were HIV-positive. Patients who were more likely to have a known HIV status were younger (40.5 vs 54.6 years, P < .001) or received care in a TB clinic (risk ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–1.42). Among 77 providers, 48 (62.3%) completed the survey, 42 (87.5%) reported routinely offering HIV testing to patients with TB, and 26 (54.2%) reported routinely offering HIV testing to patients with latent TB infection (LTBI). We conclude that interventions for improving HIV testing should focus on non-TB clinic providers and patients with LTBI. PMID:23442493

  8. The Perceived Impact of Disclosure of Pediatric HIV Status on Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence, Child Well-Being, and Social Relationships in a Resource-Limited Setting

    PubMed Central

    Nyandiko, Winstone M.; Ayaya, Samwel O.; Walumbe, Eunice G.; Marrero, David G.; Inui, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In resource-limited settings, beliefs about disclosing a child's HIV status and the subsequent impacts of disclosure have not been well studied. We sought to describe how parents and guardians of HIV-infected children view the impact of disclosing a child's HIV status, particularly for children's antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. A qualitative study was conducted using involving focus groups and interviews with parents and guardians of HIV-infected children receiving ART in western Kenya. Interviews covered multiple aspects of the experience of having children take medicines. Transcribed interview dialogues were coded for analysis. Data were collected from 120 parents and guardians caring for children 0–14 years (mean 6.8 years, standard deviation [SD] 6.4); 118 of 120 had not told the children they had HIV. Children's caregivers (parents and guardians) described their views on disclosure to children and to others, including how this information-sharing impacted pediatric ART adherence, children's well-being, and their social relationships. Caregivers believed that disclosure might have benefits such as improved ART adherence, especially for older children, and better engagement of a helping social network. They also feared, however, that disclosure might have both negative psychological effects for children and negative social effects for their families, including discrimination. In western Kenya, caregivers' views on the risks and benefits to disclosing children's HIV status emerged a key theme related to a family's experience with HIV medications, even for families who had not disclosed the child's status. Assessing caregivers' views of disclosure is important to understanding and monitoring pediatric ART. PMID:20836704

  9. Antiretroviral Therapy as HIV Prevention: Status and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Kartik K.

    2010-01-01

    As antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection has become increasingly accessible, attention has focused on whether these drugs can used for prevention because of increased tolerability of newer medications, decreased cost, and the limitations of other approaches. We review the status of antiretroviral HIV prevention, including chemoprophylaxis, as well as the effects of treatment of infected individuals on prevention. It is possible that the life-saving agents that have transformed the natural history of AIDS can be a critical component of HIV prevention efforts, but their ultimate role in affecting HIV transmission dynamics remains to be defined. PMID:20724682

  10. The Impact of Fear, Secrecy, and Stigma on Parental Disclosure of HIV Status to Children: A Qualitative Exploration with HIV Positive Parents Attending an ART Clinic in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madiba, Sphiwe

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is one of the sub Saharan countries where considerable progress in providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been made. The increased access to ART contributes to improvements in the prognosis of HIV and parents are more likely to raise their children than ever before. The study examined the social context influencing disclosure of parental HIV status to children from the perspectives of fathers and mothers accessing ART from an academic hospital in South Africa. Three focus group interviews were conducted with 26 non-disclosed biological parents of children aged between 7 and 18 years. Their ages ranged between 20-60 years and they cared for a total of 60 children. Parental decision not to disclose their HIV status to children was influenced by the fear of death and dying, the influence of television and media, stigma and discrimination. Parents delayed disclosure of their HIV status to children because children believed that AIDS kills. Parents also feared that the child may not be able to keep the parent's HIV status secret and might result in the family being subjected to stigma, discrimination, and isolation. Fear of stigma and discrimination were also responsible for the continuous efforts by parents to protect their HIV status from their children, family and neighbours. Parents also delayed disclosure to children because they lacked disclosure skills and needed support for disclosure from health care providers. Healthcare providers are in a unique position to provide such support and guidance and assist parents to disclose and children to cope with parental HIV infection. PMID:23445694

  11. [Status of HIV-infections 2005].

    PubMed

    Potthoff, Anja; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2005-09-01

    The course of HIV infection has changed dramatically since the beginning of the epidemic. In Germany, 19 antiretrovirally active substances are available. They prevent viral penetration into the cell, inhibit the reverse transcriptase or the protease that are necessary to release infectious viral particles. According to German-Austrian therapy guidelines highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) should be started at the onset of HIV-related symptoms and/or when the CD4 cell count is < 350/microl. Patients should be treated in specialized centers because of the complexity of HIV infection and its management. For monitoring, CD4 cell counts and viral load are determined. Potential reasons for therapeutic failure include drug interactions, resistance, or compliance problems. Although HIV infection is often compared to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, psychological and social impact on HIV patients is still high. Increasing viral multi-drug resistance, long-term toxicity like lipodystrophy, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are only some problems HIV-infected patients are facing in the next years. In Germany, 600-700 patients still die of AIDS every year. PMID:16170674

  12. Health & nutritional status of HIV infected children in Hyderabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Swetha, G. Krishna; Hemalatha, R.; Prasad, U.V.; Murali, Vasudev; Damayanti, K.; Bhaskar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Information on nutritional status of HIV infected children from India is lacking and is required before taking up nutritional supplementation trials. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the growth and morbidity status of HIV infected children over a period of one year in a city in southern India. Methods: This was an observational study carried out between July 2009 and February 2011, at two orphanages in Hyderabad, India. Seventy seven HIV-positive children aged between 1 and half and and 15 years, both on and not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included. Nutritional status was assessed longitudinally for one year by weight gain, linear growth and body composition. Serum samples were analyzed for haemoglobin, micronutrients, CD4 and CD8 counts. Dietary intakes were assessed by institutional diet survey and morbidity data were recorded every day for 12 months. Results: Mean energy intakes were less than recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in all age groups. Iron and folate intakes were less than 50 per cent of RDA; 46 (59.7%) children were stunted, 36 (46.8%) were underweight and 15 (19.5%) had low BMI for age. Anaemia was observed in 35 (45.5%) children. Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin D (40/77; 51.9%), vitamin A (11/77; 14.3%), folate (37/77; 48.1%), iron (38/77; 49.3%) were widely prevalent. HIV viral load was higher in children not on ART and those with morbidity. Respiratory (36.6%) and dermatological illnesses (18.8%) were the commonest presentations. Interpretation & conclusions: Acute, chronic malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies were common in HIV infected children, especially in those not on ART and having morbidity. With severe malnutrition being an alarming consequence of HIV, prophylactic nutritive care should be considered for integration into HIV care strategies besides initiation of ART to improve the nutritional status and quality of life of these children. PMID:25857494

  13. [Current status of HIV infection in Yunnan Province of China].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K; Tajima, K; Soda, K; Yi, Z; Dong, Z X; He, C H; Lin, Y G

    1997-05-01

    In cooperation with the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and Yunnan Province Provincial Office for AIDS Control and Prevention, we studied the current status of HIV infection intravenous drug users (IVDUs) and other high risk groups in Yunnan province of China. As of the end of 1995, 1,807 HIV cases were officially reported (Positive rate was 0.6%), of which 1,278 (77.9%) were IVDUs, and 24 were their spouses. The majority of cases were found among the Dai minority male farmers near Ruili which borders on Myammar, but HIV also appears to be spreading among the Han people. HIV antibody positive rates among commercial sex workers, pregnant women and blood donors were 0.2%, 0.07% and 0.04%, respectively. A system for surveillance of HIV has been developed, but preventive strategies to cope with HIV epidemic are not sufficient. As HIV/AIDS is now a global issue, (1) the integration and coordination of such preventive strategies in cooperation with community health workers, (2) general health education for condom use promotion and (3) care of psychological vulnerable person such as IVDUs, should be developed. PMID:9261209

  14. The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2013-06-01

    Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing number of countries demonstrating control of the epidemic. Human rights violations and/or legislation relating to sexual orientation, status of minors, injecting drug use and sex work together with stigma and discrimination remain key barriers to knowledge of HIV status and access to appropriate services. The use of anti-retrovirals prophylactically to reduce sexual and vertical transmission and systemically to treat infected infants and adults is central to the optimism in responses to the epidemic. In the current fiscal climate careful thought needs to be given to how to efficiently optimise combinations of what is available to have the biggest impact in the context of limited human and infrastructure resources. PMID:23568544

  15. The Role of Early HIV Status Disclosure in Retention in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Elopre, Latesha; Hook, Edward W; Westfall, Andrew O; Zinski, Anne; Mugavero, Michael J; Turan, Janet; Van Wagoner, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether nondisclosure or selective disclosure of HIV status to others is associated with retention in HIV care. This retrospective analysis evaluated the relationship of self-reported disclosure of HIV status as an indicator for poor retention in care (a gap in care >180 days) during the 12 months following initial entry into HIV care. Nondisclosure (disclosure to no one) and selective disclosure were compared to broad disclosure (referent). Univariate and multivariable (MV) logistic regression models were fit, including factors known to be associated with disclosure and retention in care. From 2007 to 2013, 508 HIV-infected patients presented to initiate care, of whom 63% were black, 54% had a CD4 + T lymphocyte count <350, and 82% were men (60% of whom were men who have sex with other men). Of these, 65 (13%) reported nondisclosure, 258 (49%) reported selective disclosure, and 185 (38%) reported broad disclosure. In MV analyses, nondisclosure was associated with poor retention in care (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2, 4.2). Evaluating disclosure patterns among patients establishing HIV care may help predict and prevent inconsistent care. Further work is needed to understand the relationship between disclosure and retention in care in order to guide future interventions to improve HIV-outcomes. PMID:26588053

  16. Internalized stigma and HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Kalichman, Seth C; Quinn, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are severely affected by the HIV epidemic, yet research on the relationship between HIV stigma and status disclosure is relatively limited among this population. Within this epidemic, internalized HIV stigma, the extent to which people living with HIV/AIDS endorse the negative beliefs associated with HIV as true of themselves, can negatively shape interpersonal outcomes and have important implications for psychological and physical health. In a sample of HIV-positive BMSM (N=156), the current study examined the effect of internalized stigma on HIV status disclosure to sexual partners, which can inform sexual decision-making in serodiscordant couples, and HIV status disclosure to family members, which can be beneficial in minimizing the psychological distress associated with HIV. Results revealed that greater internalized stigma was associated with less HIV status disclosure to participants' last sexual partner and to family members. Findings from this study provide evidence that internalized negative beliefs about one's HIV status are linked to adverse interpersonal consequences. Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to prevention and intervention efforts to reduce HIV stigmatization. PMID:23006008

  17. ‘We keep her status to ourselves’: Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Cloete, Allanise; Metcalf, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In HIV-discordant relationships, the HIV-negative partner also carries the burden of a stigmatised disease. For this reason, couples often hide their HIV-discordant status from family, friends and community members. This perpetuates the silence around HIV-discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. This article reports on experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. During 2008, HIV-discordant couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year were recruited purposively through health-care providers and civil society organisations in the three countries. Participants completed a brief self-administered questionnaire, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with each partner separately and with both partners together. Interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Fifty-one couples were recruited: 26 from South Africa, 10 from Tanzania, and 15 from Ukraine. Although most participants had disclosed their HIV status to someone other than their partner, few were living openly with HIV discordance. Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name-calling, and HIV-negative partners being labelled as HIV-positive. Perpetrators of discrimination included family members and health workers. Stigma and discrimination present unique and complex challenges to couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships in these three diverse countries. Addressing stigmatisation of HIV-discordant couples requires a holistic human rights approach and specific programme efforts to address discrimination in the health system. PMID:25778765

  18. 'We keep her status to ourselves': experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Cloete, Allanise; Metcalf, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In HIV-discordant relationships, the HIV-negative partner also carries the burden of a stigmatised disease. For this reason, couples often hide their HIV-discordant status from family, friends and community members. This perpetuates the silence around HIV-discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. This article reports on experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. During 2008, HIV-discordant couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year were recruited purposively through health-care providers and civil society organisations in the three countries. Participants completed a brief self-administered questionnaire, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with each partner separately and with both partners together. Interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Fifty-one couples were recruited: 26 from South Africa, 10 from Tanzania, and 15 from Ukraine. Although most participants had disclosed their HIV status to someone other than their partner, few were living openly with HIV discordance. Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name-calling, and HIV-negative partners being labelled as HIV-positive. Perpetrators of discrimination included family members and health workers. Stigma and discrimination present unique and complex challenges to couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships in these three diverse countries. Addressing stigmatisation of HIV-discordant couples requires a holistic human rights approach and specific programme efforts to address discrimination in the health system. PMID:25778765

  19. Advancing methodology in the study of HIV status disclosure: the importance of considering disclosure target and intent.

    PubMed

    Dima, Alexandra L; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Lyimo, Ramsey; de Bruin, Marijn

    2014-05-01

    Disclosure of HIV status has been the focus of three decades of research, which have revealed its complex relations to many behaviors involved in HIV prevention and treatment, and exposed its central role in managing the HIV epidemic. The causes and consequences of disclosure acts have recently been the subject of several theoretical models. Although it is acknowledged that individual disclosure events are part of a broader process of disclosing one's HIV status to an increasing number of people, this process has received less theoretical attention. In quantitative studies of disclosure, researchers have often implicitly assumed that disclosure is a single unidimensional process appropriately measured via the total number of one's disclosure acts. However, there is also evidence that disclosure may have different causes and consequences depending on the types of actors involved (e.g. family members, friends) and on the presence or absence of the discloser's intention, suggesting that the unidimensionality assumption may not hold. We quantitatively examined the dimensionality of voluntary and involuntary disclosure to different categories of actors, using data collected via structured interviews in the spring of 2010 from 158 people living with HIV in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. For voluntary disclosure, nonparametric item response analyses identified two multi-category clusters, family and community, and two single-category dimensions, partner and children. Involuntary disclosure consisted of several single- or two-category dimensions. Correlation analyses between the resulting disclosure dimensions and stigma and social support revealed distinct relationships for each disclosure dimension. Our results suggest that treating disclosure as a unidimensional construct is a simplification of disclosure processes that may lead to incorrect conclusions about disclosure correlates. We therefore recommend examining disclosure acts jointly to identify sample-specific dimensions before examining causes and consequences of disclosure. We propose a methodology for investigating disclosure processes, and recommend its adoption in future disclosure studies. PMID:24641881

  20. The risks of partner violence following HIV status disclosure, and health service responses: narratives of women attending reproductive health services in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Colombini, Manuela; James, Courtney; Ndwiga, Charity; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For many women living with HIV (WLWH), the disclosure of positive status can lead to either an extension of former violence or new conflict specifically associated with HIV status disclosure. This study aims to explore the following about WLWH: 1. the women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) risks following disclosure to their partners; 2. an analysis of the women's views on the role of health providers in preventing and addressing IPV, especially following HIV disclosure. Methods Thirty qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected WLWH attending clinics in Kenya. Data were coded using NVivo 9 and analyzed thematically. Results Nearly one third of the respondents reported experiencing physical and/or emotional violence inflicted by their partners following the sero-disclosure, suggesting that HIV status disclosure can be a period of heightened risk for partner stigma and abuse, and financial withdrawal, and thus should be handled with caution. Sero-concordance was protective for emotional and verbal abuse once the partner knew his positive status, or knew the woman knew his status. Our results show acceptance of the role of the health services in helping prevent and reduce anticipated fear of partner stigma and violence as barriers to HIV disclosure. Some of the approaches suggested by our respondents included couple counselling, separate counselling sessions for men, and facilitated disclosure. The women's narratives illustrate the importance of integrating discussions on risks for partner violence and fear of disclosure into HIV counselling and testing, helping women develop communication skills in how to disclose their status, and reducing fear about marital separation and break-up. Women in our study also confirmed the key role of preventive health services in reducing blame for HIV transmission and raising awareness on HIV as a chronic disease. However, several women reported receiving no counselling on safe disclosure of HIV status. Conclusion Integration of partner violence identification and care into sexual, reproductive and HIV services for WLWH could be a way forward. The health sector can play a preventive role by sensitizing providers to the potential risks for partner violence following disclosure and ensuring that the women's decision to disclose is fully informed and voluntary. PMID:27037140

  1. Murderer's HIV status irrelevant in trial of accomplice.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    A three-judge panel of the Missouri State Court of Appeals affirmed a lower court's decision refusing a defendant charged with instigating a murder to question the hit man about his HIV status. The defendant, [name removed], claims that [name removed] had nothing to lose by implicating her in the murder-for-hire shooting death of her ex-husband because [name removed] was HIV-positive. [Name removed] confessed to shooting [name removed] at the request of Mrs. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to first-degree murder and agreed to a life sentence without the possibility of parole in exchange for testimony against [name removed]. The panel ruled that evidence that [name removed] is HIV-positive does not demonstrate a bias against the defendant's interests. PMID:11364079

  2. HIV status and sexual behaviour among gay men in Ottawa: considerations for public health

    PubMed Central

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Phillips, J Craig; Kitson, Cynthia; Bryan, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives HIV prevention efforts, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM), have not achieved maximum effectiveness. A survey of MSM in Ottawa, Canada was completed to ascertain whether there were differences in how the perceived HIV status of participants and their partners influenced sexual practices. Methods Self-directed surveys were administered to a convenience sample of 721 MSM in Ottawa, Canada from November 2011 through May 2012. Data collection occurred at 14 sites. The survey identified whether participants identified as HIV positive, negative or unsure of their HIV status. Results The findings indicated variation between HIV-negative MSM and those who are unsure of their HIV status. Men who were unsure of their HIV status were less likely to report that they asked sexual partners or have had their partners ask about HIV status. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that some MSM may base decisions about HIV prevention on discussion about HIV status with their partners, rather than condom use. These practices may increase, rather than decrease, HIV transmission. Survey findings and extant literature demonstrate a need to inform MSM about the limitations of serosorting as a prevention strategy, and to provide facilitated access to sexually transmitted infection testing and treatment to further reduce onward HIV transmission. PMID:25239290

  3. HIV Testing and Awareness of Partner's HIV Status Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men in Main Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongyi; Yan, Hongjing; Raymond, H Fisher; Shi, Ling-En; Li, Jianjun; Yang, Haitao; McFarland, Willi

    2016-04-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) do not use condoms with their main partners, especially if both parties are of the same HIV status. However, significant proportions of MSM have never tested or recently tested and are unaware of their main partners' HIV status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 524 MSM in Jiangsu, China in 2013-2014. Time-location sampling and online convenience sampling were used to recruit participants. We compared awareness of HIV status and recent HIV testing between participants who had main partners versus those who did not, and identified factors associated with recent HIV testing among men in main partnerships. Participants in main partnerships were significantly more likely to report recent HIV testing and being HIV-negative instead of HIV-unknown compared to participants in casual partnerships only. Overall, 74.5 % of participants were aware of their main partners' HIV status. Among participants in main partnerships, those who had 2-5 male anal sex partners in the past 6 months and those who reported that their partners were HIV-negative had 2.36 (95 % CI 1.12, 4.97) and 4.20 (95 % CI 2.03, 8.70) fold greater odds of being tested in the past year compared to those who had main partners only and those whose partners were HIV-positive/unknown, respectively. Chinese MSM in main partnerships might be practicing serosorting and may be at lower risk for HIV infection due to increased awareness of main partners' HIV status and higher uptake of recent testing. PMID:26122649

  4. Reasons for Disclosure of HIV Status by People Living with HIV/AIDS and in HIV Care in Uganda: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Tumwine, Christopher; Segujja, Eric; Nekesa, Nicolate; Nannungi, Annet; Ryan, Gery; Wagner, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Most studies of HIV disclosure in Africa have focused on disclosure to spouses and sexual partners, and particularly among women. Few have examined disclosure to family, friends, and others. Understanding the reasons for disclosure and nondisclosure and how these reasons differ by disclosure target is needed for effective prevention interventions. Using a case study design and content analysis, this study explored whether the reasons for disclosure decisions differ by the nature of the relationship to the disclosure target. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 HIV clients in Kampala, with even stratification by gender and age. Most (95%) respondents reported disclosing to someone; among these, 84% disclosed to family members, 63% to friends, 21% to workplace colleagues, and 18% to others. Of the 24 participants who had a spouse, 13 (54%) reported disclosing to a spouse. The most common reasons for disclosure were to receive support (76%), associated with disclosure to family members; relationship ties (76%), associated with disclosure to all target types; explaining change in behavior or appearance (61%), associated with disclosing to family and friends; and HIV prevention (50%), associated with disclosure to spouse/partner and friends. The most common reasons for nondisclosure were: fear of abandonment, particularly among young women disclosing to spouse/partner; inaccessibility to the disclosure target; and not wanting to worry/upset the disclosure target. This exploratory analysis suggests that reasons for disclosure and nondisclosure differ depending on the targets of disclosure, highlighting the need for tailoring interventions for improving disclosure decisions making and outcomes. PMID:20863244

  5. Current Status of HIV/AIDS in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2009-01-01

    Background: According to the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS, 33.2 million adults and children are living with the infection worldwide. Of these, two to three million are estimated to be in South Asia. All countries of the region have a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, it is important to review the current epidemiological data to identify the trends of infection as it would have implications on prevention. Materials and Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search using phrases ‘South Asia’ plus ‘HIV’, ‘AIDS’, and names of individual countries in South Asia (limits: articles published in last 10 years, in English language). Clinical trials, reviews, meta-analyses, letters, editorials, and practice guidelines were all considered. The following countries were included as belonging to South Asia; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Recent estimates and data on country status, and details of national control programs were obtained from websites of international agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results and Discussion: This review looks into many aspects of HIV infection in South Asia including country profiles with regard to infection, economic and psychological burden of illness and treatment issues in the South Asian context. PMID:20300398

  6. Development of an electronic medical record-based algorithm to identify patients with unknown HIV status

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Eran Y.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.; Zingman, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with unknown HIV status are at risk for undiagnosed HIV, but practical and reliable methods for identifying these individuals have not been described. We developed an algorithm to identify patients with unknown HIV status using data from the electronic medical record (EMR) of a large healthcare system. We developed EMR-based criteria to classify patients as having known status (HIV-positive or HIV-negative) or unknown status and applied these criteria to all patients seen in the affiliated healthcare system from 2008–2012. Performance characteristics of the algorithm for identifying patients with unknown HIV status were calculated by comparing a random sample of the algorithm’s results to a reference standard medical record review. The algorithm classifies all patients as having either known or unknown HIV status. Its sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients with unknown status are 99.4% (95% CI: 96.5%–100%) and 95.2% (95% CI: 83.8%–99.4%), respectively; with positive and negative predictive values of 98.7% (95% CI: 95.5%–99.8%) and 97.6% (95% CI: 87.1%–99.1%), respectively. Using commonly available data from an EMR, our algorithm has high sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients with unknown HIV status. This algorithm may inform expanded HIV testing strategies aiming to test the untested. PMID:24779521

  7. Variations in patterns of sexual risk behavior among Seattle-area MSM based on their HIV status, the HIV status of their partner and partner type

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Richard D.; Thiede, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated sexual risk behavior in 368 Seattle-area MSM recruited in the 2008 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey. We found significant concordance between participants’ self-reported HIV status and that of their sexual partners. Persons unaware of partners’ HIV status were more likely to report only oral sex. Those aware were less likely to report non-concordant unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Participants reporting themselves HIV-positive were more likely than those self-reporting HIV-negative status to report non-concordant UAI and several other sexual risk behaviors. The level of non-concordant UAI did not materially differ by whether their partner was a main or casual partner. PMID:21691761

  8. HIV-Positive Status Disclosure in Patients in Care in Rural South Africa: Implications for Scaling up Treatment and Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Dellar, Rachael C; Bearnot, Benjamin; Werner, Lise; Frohlich, Janet A; Kharsany, Ayesha BM; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2015-01-01

    A nuanced understanding of HIV-positive status disclosure is urgently needed to inform the implementation of prevention interventions, including TasP and PrEP. To provide such understanding for the high HIV-burden setting of rural KwaZulu-Natal, we conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize determinants and trends in HIV-positive status disclosure. 687 consenting HIV-positive individuals (73.2% female; 60.3% ART initiated) were enrolled. Reports of any incidence of disclosure to either a family member or sexual partner at enrollment and follow-up visits (median 4.4 months post-enrolment) were common (91.0%); however, reports of disclosure specifically to sexual partners were relatively rare (34.1%), especially in women (29.8%). Participants not engaged in a stable partnerships, not ART-imitated, and/or who had disclosed to their family were at risk of non-disclosure to sexual partners. These data highlight both an urgent need to empower HIV-positive individuals, and the significant barriers to targeting sero-discordant couples for HIV prevention in this setting. PMID:25677128

  9. Brain Microbial Populations in HIV/AIDS: α-Proteobacteria Predominate Independent of Host Immune Status

    PubMed Central

    Branton, William G.; Ellestad, Kristofor K.; Maingat, Ferdinand; Wheatley, B. Matt; Rud, Erling; Warren, René L.; Holt, Robert A.; Surette, Michael G.; Power, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The brain is assumed to be a sterile organ in the absence of disease although the impact of immune disruption is uncertain in terms of brain microbial diversity or quantity. To investigate microbial diversity and quantity in the brain, the profile of infectious agents was examined in pathologically normal and abnormal brains from persons with HIV/AIDS [HIV] (n = 12), other disease controls [ODC] (n = 14) and in cerebral surgical resections for epilepsy [SURG] (n = 6). Deep sequencing of cerebral white matter-derived RNA from the HIV (n = 4) and ODC (n = 4) patients and SURG (n = 2) groups revealed bacterially-encoded 16 s RNA sequences in all brain specimens with α-proteobacteria representing over 70% of bacterial sequences while the other 30% of bacterial classes varied widely. Bacterial rRNA was detected in white matter glial cells by in situ hybridization and peptidoglycan immunoreactivity was also localized principally in glia in human brains. Analyses of amplified bacterial 16 s rRNA sequences disclosed that Proteobacteria was the principal bacterial phylum in all human brain samples with similar bacterial rRNA quantities in HIV and ODC groups despite increased host neuroimmune responses in the HIV group. Exogenous viruses including bacteriophage and human herpes viruses-4, -5 and -6 were detected variably in autopsied brains from both clinical groups. Brains from SIV- and SHIV-infected macaques displayed a profile of bacterial phyla also dominated by Proteobacteria but bacterial sequences were not detected in experimentally FIV-infected cat or RAG1−/− mouse brains. Intracerebral implantation of human brain homogenates into RAG1−/− mice revealed a preponderance of α-proteobacteria 16 s RNA sequences in the brains of recipient mice at 7 weeks post-implantation, which was abrogated by prior heat-treatment of the brain homogenate. Thus, α-proteobacteria represented the major bacterial component of the primate brain’s microbiome regardless of underlying immune status, which could be transferred into naïve hosts leading to microbial persistence in the brain. PMID:23355888

  10. Abuse, HIV status and health-related quality of life among a sample of HIV positive and HIV negative low income women.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Karen A; Gielen, Andrea C; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G

    2005-05-01

    The assessment of a person's quality of life as it relates to health, HIV status and intimate partner violence (IPV) among women has been limited in its scope of investigation. Consequently, little is known about the adjusted and combined effects of IPV and HIV on women's health status and QOL. 445 women (188 HIV + 257 HIV -) residing in an urban low income area were interviewed regarding current IPV experiences (no IPV, IPV more than 1 year ago, IPV in last year), HIV status (positive and negative), use of illicit drugs, and presence of instrumental social support. Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was measured using the MOS-HIV. Stratified bivariate analyses demonstrate that living with HIV or having experienced IPV in the past year was significantly associated with poorer levels of HRQOL. Multiple logistic regression models indicate a robust negative relationship between the experience of IPV in the past year, living with HIV, use of illicit drugs and a protective effect of social support on women's reported HRQOL. The results of the bivariate and multivariate analyses provide evidence that there are independent and adjusted detrimental associations of the experience of IPV and living with HIV with women's HRQOL. As HRQOL is a good indicator of physical and mental health, these findings should alert health care and other service providers to their responsibility to screen and treat women experiencing intimate partner violence and living with HIV. PMID:16041892

  11. Gender differences between predictors of HIV status among PWID in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, K.F.; Dvoryak, S.; Garver-Apgar, C.; Davis, J.M.; Brewster, J.T.; Lisovska, O.; Booth, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Ukraine is among the largest in Europe. While traditionally the epidemic has spread through injection risk behavior, sexual transmission is becoming more common. Previous research has found that women in Ukraine have higher rates of HIV and engage in more HIV risk behavior than men. This study extended that work by identifying risk factors that differentially predict men and womens HIV status among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. Methods From July 2010 through July 2013, 2480 sexually active PWID with unknown HIV status were recruited from three cities in Ukraine through street outreach. The average age was 31 years old. Results Women, who made up twenty-eight percent of the sample, had higher safe sex self-efficacy (p<0.01) and HIV knowledge (p<0.001) than men, but scored higher on both the risky injection (p<0.001) and risky sex (p<0.001) composite scores than men. Risky sex behaviors were associated with womens HIV status more than mens. We also report results identifying predictors of risky injection and sex behaviors. Conclusions Gender-specific interventions could address problem of HIV risk among women who inject drugs in a country with a growing HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest specific ways in which intervention efforts might focus on groups and individuals who are at the highest risk of contracting HIV (or who are already HIV positive) to halt the spread of HIV in Ukraine. PMID:24613219

  12. Correlates of HIV infection and being unaware of HIV status among soon-to-be-released Ukrainian prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Azbel, Lyuba; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prisoners bear a disproportionate burden of Ukraine's volatile and transitional HIV epidemic, yet little is known in Eastern Europe about HIV testing, treatment and HIV-related risk among prisoners. Methods A nationally representative biobehavioural health survey linked with serological testing was conducted among soon-to-be released prisoners in 13 Ukrainian prisons from June to November 2011. Results Among 402 participants, 78 (19.4%) tested HIV seropositive of whom 38 (50.7%) were previously unaware of their HIV status. Independent correlates of HIV infection included drug injection (AOR=4.26; 95% CI: 2.23–8.15), female gender (AOR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.06–3.78), previous incarceration (AOR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.07–3.70) and being from Southern Ukraine (AOR=5.46; 95% CI: 2.21–13.46). Those aware of being HIV-positive reported significantly more pre-incarceration sex- and drug-related HIV risk behaviours than those who were unaware. Conclusions Routine rather than risk-based HIV testing and expansion of opioid substitution and antiretroviral therapy among prisoners is urgently needed to reduce HIV transmission in volatile transitional HIV epidemics. PMID:25216073

  13. Reported HIV status of tuberculosis patients--United States, 1993-2005.

    PubMed

    2007-10-26

    Knowing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of tuberculosis (TB) patients is essential to optimal patient management. TB is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining opportunistic condition. Patients with both TB and HIV infection are five times more likely to die during anti-TB treatment than patients who are not HIV infected (CDC, unpublished data, 2003). HIV infection is the greatest known risk factor for progression from latent TB infection to TB disease. In the United States, after TB exposure and infection, HIV-infected persons who do not receive appropriate treatment progress to TB disease over 5 years at a rate 10 times greater than that for persons not infected with HIV. In 1989, CDC recommended that all TB patients be offered HIV testing and, in 2006, called for routine HIV screening of all TB patients after the patient is notified that testing will be performed, unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). In addition to enabling optimal patient management, knowing the HIV status (i.e., positive or negative) of TB patients helps public health agencies to identify HIV-infected contacts of TB patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce the progression to TB disease, TB relapse, and death. To assess reported HIV status of TB patients and selected characteristics of TB patients with HIV infection, CDC analyzed data from the U.S. National TB Surveillance System for the period 1993-2005. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that 1) reporting of HIV status among TB patients increased from 35% in 1993 to 68% in 2003, 2) HIV status of 31% of TB patients was unknown in 2005, 3) 9% of TB patients were HIV positive in 2005, and 4) groups of TB patients at greater risk for HIV infection included injection-drug users (IDUs), noninjection-drug users (NIDUs), homeless persons, non-Hispanic blacks, correctional-facility inmates, and alcohol abusers. Increased promotion of routine HIV testing and rapid HIV tests might increase acceptability of testing, which would allow health-care providers to know the HIV status of a greater percentage of TB patients and enable them to provide optimal care. PMID:17962801

  14. The importance of HIV status and gender when designing prevention strategies for anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Míguez, María José; Burbano-Levy, Ximena; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Malow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Our objective is to review and summarize relevant aspects of the literature regarding human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, and to compare how the trajectory of HPV may differ in persons who are and who are not co-infected with HIV. This comparison is particularly important because the literature on HPV has been largely based on individuals who are not co-infected with HIV. Also, HPV findings may differ in HIV-uninfected individuals versus HIV-infected individuals. In addition, many reviews ignore gender differences, although in HIV-uninfected individuals, anal cancers are up to 4 times more prevalent in women than men. Clinical decision making may be problematic if such critical factors as HIV status and gender are neglected. Therefore, we will review existing information on how HIV status and gender may affect the manifestation of HPV, particularly focusing on epidemiology, screening, and treatment issues. PMID:22035525

  15. Male circumcision, attitudes to HIV prevention and HIV status: a cross-sectional study in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In efficacy trials male circumcision (MC) protected men against HIV infection. Planners need information relevant to MC programmes in practice. In 2008, we interviewed 2915 men and 4549 women aged 15-29 years in representative cluster samples in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, asking about socio-economic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about HIV and MC and MC history. We tested finger prick blood samples for HIV. We calculated weighted frequencies of MC knowledge and attitudes, and MC history and HIV status. Multivariate analysis examined associations between MC and other variables and HIV status. In Botswana, 11% of young men reported MC, 28% in Namibia and 8% in Swaziland; mostly (75% in Botswana, 94% - mostly Herero - in Namibia and 68% in Swaziland) as infants or children. Overall, 6.5% were HIV positive (8.3% Botswana, 2.6% Namibia and 9.1% Swaziland). Taking other variables into account, circumcised men were as likely as uncircumcised men to be HIV positive. Nearly half of the uncircumcised young men planned to be circumcised; two-thirds of young men and women planned to have their sons circumcised. Some respondents had inaccurate beliefs and unhelpful views about MC and HIV, with variation between countries. Between 9 and 15% believed a circumcised man is fully protected against HIV; 20-26% believed men need not be tested for HIV before MC; 14-26% believed HIV-positive men who are circumcised cannot transmit the virus; and 8-34% thought it was "okay for a circumcised man to expect sex without a condom". Inaccurate perceptions about protection from MC could lead to risk compensation and reduce women's ability to negotiate safer sex. More efforts are needed to raise awareness about the limitations of MC protection, especially for women, and to study the interactions between MC roll out programmes and primary HIV prevention programmes. PMID:21933035

  16. Disclosing Sexual Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarlante, Mitru

    2007-01-01

    Exploring the process of disclosure for youth who have been sexually victimized, this article provides strategies for creating an environment where sexual violence is not accepted and where youth feel safe disclosing. It also provides strategies for working with youth who haven't yet disclosed. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  17. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-06-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort, dopamine (DA)-related genetic differences do not appear to impact the longitudinal neurocognitive functioning of HIV+ individuals. PMID:24737013

  18. Combined effects of HIV and marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning and immune status.

    PubMed

    Thames, April D; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Burggren, Alison C; Karimian, Ahoo; Kuhn, Taylor P

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined the independent and combined effects of HIV and marijuana (MJ) use (no use, light use, and moderate-to-heavy use) on neurocognitive functioning among a convenience sample of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals recruited from HIV community care clinics and advertisements in the Greater Los Angeles area. MJ users consisted of individuals who reported regular use of MJ for at least 12 months, with last reported use within the past month. Participants included 89 HIV+ (n = 55) and HIV- (n = 34) individuals who were grouped into non-users, light users, and moderate-to-heavy users based on self-reported MJ use. Participants were administered a brief cognitive test battery and underwent laboratory testing for CD4 count and viral load. HIV+ individuals demonstrated lower performance on neurocognitive testing than controls, and moderate-to-heavy MJ users performed more poorly on neurocognitive testing than light users or non-users. Moderate-to-heavy HIV+ users performed significantly lower on learning/memory than HIV- moderate-to-heavy users (MD = -8.34; 95% CI: -16.11 to -0.56) as well as all other comparison groups. In the domain of verbal fluency, HIV+ light users outperformed HIV- light users (MD = 7.28; 95% CI: 1.62-12.39), but no HIV group differences were observed at other MJ use levels. HIV+ MJ users demonstrated lower viral load (MD = -0.58; 95% CI: -1.30 to 0.14) and higher CD4 count than non-users (MD = 137.67; 95% CI: 9.48-265.85). The current study findings extend the literature by demonstrating the complex relationship between HIV status and MJ use on neurocognitive and clinical outcomes. PMID:26694807

  19. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Andrew J.; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Becker, James T.; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Background Both HIV-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect ones risk for neurocognitive impairment. Both HIV and stimulant literature indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning was examined longitudinally over a 10 year period. Methods 952 Caucasian HIV+ and HIV− cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-HAART data was examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. Results No 4-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple 3-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologic-related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only CCL2 and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. Conclusion The findings support the role of immunologic-related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however their impact is minor. Consistent with findings from another cohort, DA-related genetic differences do not appear to impact the longitudinal neurocognitive functioning of HIV+ individuals. PMID:24737013

  20. Maternal Substance Use and HIV Status: Adolescent Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill

    2008-01-01

    We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in…

  1. Maternal Substance Use and HIV Status: Adolescent Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill

    2008-01-01

    We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in

  2. Effects of HIV Infection on the Metabolic and Hormonal Status of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Christoph P.; Kiyimba, Tonny; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Kiboneka, Elizabeth; Stevens, Robert; St. Peter, John V.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Bartlett, John; Freemark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection occurs in 30% of children with severe acute malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Effects of HIV on the pathophysiology and recovery from malnutrition are poorly understood. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 75 severely malnourished Ugandan children. HIV status/CD4 counts were assessed at baseline; auxologic data and blood samples were obtained at admission and after 14 days of inpatient treatment. We utilized metabolomic profiling to characterize effects of HIV infection on metabolic status and subsequent responses to nutritional therapy. Findings At admission, patients (mean age 16.3 mo) had growth failure (mean W/H z-score −4.27 in non-edematous patients) that improved with formula feeding (mean increase 1.00). 24% (18/75) were HIV-infected. Nine children died within the first 14 days of hospitalization; mortality was higher for HIV-infected patients (33% v. 5%, OR = 8.83). HIV-infected and HIV-negative children presented with elevated NEFA, ketones, and even-numbered acylcarnitines and reductions in albumin and amino acids. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and IGF-1 levels were low while growth hormone, cortisol, and ghrelin levels were high. At baseline, HIV-infected patients had higher triglycerides, ketones, and even-chain acylcarnitines and lower leptin and adiponectin levels than HIV-negative patients. Leptin levels rose in all patients following nutritional intervention, but adiponectin levels remained depressed in HIV-infected children. Baseline hypoleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions Our findings suggest a critical interplay between HIV infection and adipose tissue storage and function in the adaptation to malnutrition. Hypoleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia may contribute to high mortality rates among malnourished, HIV-infected children. PMID:25050734

  3. Disease status in African American single mothers with HIV: the role of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jones, D J; Beach, S R; Forehand, R

    2001-11-01

    The association between depressive symptoms and 2 measures of HIV disease status in 73 African American single mothers was examined. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that clinician-rated depressive symptoms predicted subjective, but not objective, parameters of disease status 12 to 14 months later. More symptoms of depression at the 1st assessment predicted an increase in physical complaints over the course of the study. Results suggest that researchers and clinicians interested in enhancing quality of life among African American single mothers with HIV infection, an understudied population within the HIV-AIDS literature, should consider both subjective and objective measures of the disease. PMID:11714183

  4. Cardiovascular status of infants and children of women infected with HIV-1 (P2C2 HIV): a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lipshultz, Steven E; Easley, Kirk A; Orav, E John; Kaplan, Samuel; Starc, Thomas J; Bricker, J Timothy; Lai, Wyman W; Moodie, Douglas S; Sopko, George; Schluchter, Mark D; Colan, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Data from cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal studies have suggested that children infected with HIV-1 might have cardiovascular abnormalities. We aimed to investigate this hypothesis in a long-term cohort study. Methods We measured cardiovascular function every 4–6 months for up to 5 years in a birth cohort of 600 infants born to women infected with HIV-1. We included 93 infants infected with HIV-1 and 463 uninfected infants (internal controls) from the same cohort. We also included a cross-sectionally measured comparison group of 195 healthy children born to mothers who were not infected with HIV-1 (external controls). Findings Children infected with HIV-1 had a significantly higher heart rate at all ages (mean difference 10 bpm, 95% CI 8–13) than internal controls. At birth, both cohort groups of children had similar low left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening. At 8 months, fractional shortening was similar in internal and external controls, whereas in children infected with HIV-1, fractional shortening remained significantly lower than in controls for the first 20 months of life (mean difference from internal controls at 8 months 3·7%, 2·3–5·1). LV mass was similar at birth in both cohort groups, but became significantly higher in children with HIV-1 from 4–30 months (mean difference 2·4 g at 8 months, 0·9–3·9). Conclusions Vertically-transmitted HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent cardiovascular abnormalities identifiable shortly after birth. Irrespective of their HIV-1 status, infants born to women infected with HIV-1 have significantly worse cardiac function than other infants, suggesting that the uterine environment has an important role in postnatal cardiovascular abnormalities. PMID:12241776

  5. AIDS Panic in the Twenty-First Century: The Tenuous Legal Status of HIV-Positive Persons in America.

    PubMed

    Cockerill, Richard; Wahlert, Lance

    2015-09-01

    Thirty-four states criminalize HIV in some way, whether by mandating disclosure of one's HIV status to all sexual partners or by deeming the saliva of HIV-positive persons a "deadly weapon." In this paper, we argue that HIV-specific criminal laws are rooted in historical prejudice against HIV-positive persons as a class. While purporting to promote public health goals, these laws instead legally sanction discrimination against a class of persons. PMID:26160604

  6. Oral mucosal immunity and HIV infection: current status.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, S J; Sweet, S P

    2002-01-01

    There is a paradox that profound HIV-induced immunodeficiency is present systemically, whereas the majority of infections associated with HIV disease are present or initiated at mucosal surfaces. There is therefore a need to understand both specific and non-specific mechanisms of mucosal protection against HIV and its copathogens. The majority of HIV infections occur as a result of the passage of virus across mucosal membranes. Resistance to HIV infection at mucosal surfaces may be related to HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in some individuals and may be the basis for protective vaccine design. However, T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells in mucosa may be a portal of entry for HIV. Transcytosis of HIV can occur from the mucosal to the submucosal surface and vice versa, and may be inhibited by mucosal immunoglobulins and neutralizing IgA within epithelial cells. HIV-induced alterations to oral epithelial cells, together with impairment of mucosal CD4+ T-cells and consequent altered cytokine secretion, may contribute to secondary infections. It also appears that HIV infection is associated with decreased salivary IgA levels, although a dichotomy between IgA concentrations in saliva and serum has been reported. Mucosal antibody responses, however, seem to be maintained. Considerable attention has been given to the possibility of mucosal immunization against HIV and there is evidence that secretory IgA antibody is neutralizing to different HIV strains. In addition to specific immune factors, it is likely that innate nonspecific factors may be significant in protecting mucosal surfaces, including lactoferrin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, mucins, proline rich proteins and cystatins. These may be useful candidate virucides in topical preparations. Thus humoral, cellular and innate immune mechanisms, as well as lymphocyte-epithelial interactions, may all be impaired at mucosal surfaces as a result of HIV infection and may contribute to the susceptibility of mucosa to infective processes. PMID:12164661

  7. Depression in caregivers of status-naïve pediatric HIV patients participating in a status disclosure study in Haiti and the Dominican Republic: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Pinzón-Iregui, María Claudia; Abreu-Pérez, Rosa; Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Gaston, Stephanie; Dean, Andrew G; Halpern, Mina; Rouzier, Vanessa; Bertrand, Rachel; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Pape, Jean William; Nicholas, Stephen W; Blasini, Ileana

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study is underway to assess safety and acceptability of an intervention to disclose their HIV infection status to status-naïve pediatric antiretroviral therapy patients in Hispaniola [the island shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic (DR)]. Of 22 Haiti and 47 DR caregivers recruited to date, 68.2% Haiti and 34.0% DR caregivers had clinically significant depressive symptomatology at the time of enrollment (p = 0.008). Depressive symptom prevalence was higher in Haiti caregivers who were female (81.3% vs. 0 in males; p = 0.02) and in DR caregivers who were patients' mothers (50.0%) or grandmothers (66.7%; 56.0% combined) than others (9.1%), (p < 0.001). Internalized stigma was more commonly reported by Haiti (85.7%) than DR (53.2%; p = 0.01) caregivers; 56.4% of Haiti and DR caregivers reporting internalized stigma vs. 26.1% of caregivers denying it had depressive symptoms (p = 0.02). Depression is common in Hispaniola caregivers possibly affecting disclosure timing. Study participation presents opportunities for addressing caregiver depression. PMID:25389181

  8. Nutritional Status and Lipid Profile in HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Stambullian, M; Feliu, M S; Cassetti, L I; Slobodianik, N H

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, there have been many reports of HIV infection and abnormalities in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims at describing the nutritional status of HIV-infected adults and its relation to lipid profile through traditional [total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL)] and other parameters [Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), fibrinogen, and high sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)]. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and references were taken from WHO. TC, HDL, TG and glucose were determined and non-HDL cholesterol and LDL were calculated. ApoB and fibrinogen were determined by quantitative radial immunodiffusion on agar plates (Diffuplate,Biocientífica SA,Argentina) and hs-CRP by immunoturbidimetric test. Qualitative variables were compared with the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Quantitative variables were compared applying parametrics or nonparametric tests. Pearson test for correlations. Software SPSS 17.0. 97 patients were analyzed: 69.1% were men. 80% were on antiretroviral treatment. Average (SD) BMI was 24.3 (4.1) kg/m(2). 29.4% were overweight and 5.9% obese. Patients with a BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) presented significantly higher levels of TG, ApoB and glycemia than well-nourished people [246.1(169.0) vs. 142.9(78.4) mg/dL;p=0.029, 198.6(69.3) vs. 126.4(50.6) mg/dL;p=0.01 and 100 (3.2) vs. 90.2 (6.9) mg/dL;p=0.008 resp.] and a significantly decreased HDL [37.2(1.5) vs. 49.8(10.4) mg/dL;p<0.01]. No statistically significant correlation was found between ApoB and non-HDL (p=0,063). There was no evidence that there is a direct relation between Apo B and the other lipid parameters. The potential increase in CVD in this group of patients, would be related to the higher levels of TG, ApoB and overweight/obesity. Nutritional education is needed to promote a healthy weight to warn against the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26343060

  9. Documentation Status as a Contextual Determinant of HIV Risk Among Young Transgender Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Palazzolo, Sarah L.; De Jesus, Maria; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Barker, Suyanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual factors that determine or mitigate vulnerability to HIV among Latina transgender women. Documentation status (legal authorization to live in the United States) has been cited by other studies as a barrier to recruitment or engagement in HIV-related care among immigrant Latinos, but not explored as a determinant of HIV risk for transgender immigrant Latinas. Methods: We collaborated with a community-based organization to explore these contextual, including social and structural, factors. In-depth interviews in Spanish captured life histories of eight 18- to 29-year-old transgender Latinas, who collectively self-identify as chicas trans. Codes were assigned deductively from the interview guide, and emerging themes were identified throughout data collection. Results: Most participants migrated to the United States from Central America after experiencing discrimination and violence in their countries of origin. Participants emphasized documentation status as a critical factor in three areas related to social and structural determinants of HIV risk: gender identity expression, access to services, and relationship power dynamics. Chicas trans who gained legal asylum reported greater control over sexual relationships, improved access to services, and less risky employment. Conclusions: Documentation status emerged as a key HIV risk factor for this population. For undocumented transgender Latinas, legal asylum appears to be a promising HIV-related protective factor. Further research could assess whether legal assistance combined with wraparound support services affects HIV prevention for this population. PMID:26669583

  10. Cross Sectional Characterization of Factors Associated with Pediatric HIV Status Disclosure in Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun; Foster, Byron Alexander; Berhan, Yifru

    2015-01-01

    Background Disclosure of HIV positive status to children and adolescents is a complex process. However, disclosure has been found to be associated with improved outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify the predictors that facilitate disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents and to study the reasons for non-disclosure. Methods Interviews of caregivers and reviews of records were done to collect data on caregiver and child information and details regarding the disclosure status of children. Bivariate analysis was done to test the association between HIV status disclosure and different caregiver and child factors. To identify the independent predictors of disclosure, we did multivariable logistic regression. Results A total of 177 children attending an HIV clinic were included. The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years (SD = 2.8), and about half (50.8%) were female. Most caregivers, 137 (77.8%) stated that disclosure of HIV status to children is important and should be done. However, disclosure had only been made to 59 (33.3%) of the participants. Child age more than 10 years [AOR = 6.7; 95%CI: 1.73–26.01], duration of HIV diagnosis of 5 years or more [AOR = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.26–15.06] and taking a zidovudin (AZT) based regimen [AOR = 3.5; 95%CI: 1.31–9.53] predicted HIV positive status disclosure. Additionally, length of treatment of caregivers of more than 14 years [AOR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.07–14.61], disclosure of caregiver’s HIV status to children and/or others [AOR = 4.7; 95%CI: 1.19–18.74], and the child’s inquiry about their condition [AOR = 4.5; 95%CI: 1.16–17.43] increased the odds of disclosure. Conclusion The rate of disclosure among HIV infected children in southern Ethiopia is low. Primarily time-based factors were associated with the probability of HIV positive status disclosure and a specific regimen which has not been found previously. Further qualitative research may elucidate more on these factors; educational strategies may address some of these determinants. PMID:26167687

  11. Internalized HIV and Drug Stigmas: Interacting Forces Threatening Health Status and Health Service Utilization Among People with HIV Who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Heimer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Marked overlap between the HIV and injection drug use epidemics in St. Petersburg, Russia, puts many people in need of health services at risk for stigmatization based on both characteristics simultaneously. The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of internalized HIV and drug stigmas on health status and health service utilization among 383 people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg. Participants self-reported internalized HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, health status (subjective rating and symptom count), health service utilization (HIV care and drug treatment), sociodemographic characteristics, and health/behavioral history. For both forms of internalized stigma, greater stigma was correlated with poorer health and lower likelihood of service utilization. HIV and drug stigmas interacted to predict symptom count, HIV care, and drug treatment such that individuals internalizing high levels of both stigmas were at elevated risk for experiencing poor health and less likely to access health services. PMID:26050155

  12. The Relationship between Housing Status and HIV Risk among Active Drug Users: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Convey, Mark; Corbett, A. Michelle; Weeks, Margaret; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between housing status and HIV risk using longitudinal, qualitative data collected in 2004-2005, from a purposeful sample of 65 active drug users in a variety of housed and homeless situations in Hartford, Connecticut. These data were supplemented with observations and in-depth interviews regarding drug use behavior collected in 2001-2005 to evaluate a peer-led HIV prevention intervention. Data reveal differences in social context within and among different housing statuses that affect HIV risky or protective behaviors including the ability to carry drug paraphernalia and HIV prevention materials, the amount of drugs in the immediate environment, access to subsidized and supportive housing, and relationships with others with whom drug users live. Policy implications of the findings, limitations to the data and future research are discussed. PMID:19142817

  13. The Status of Middle Level HIV/STD Education as Assessed by State and Local Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Wendy J.; Schoeberlein, Deborah R.

    1999-01-01

    A nationwide survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) project directors for state and local education agencies examined the status of middle school HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) programs. Results indicated that instruction about HIV prevention tended to decline after seventh grade. The decrease related to lack of opportunities for an…

  14. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-06-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893

  15. Association of Toll-like receptor polymorphisms with HIV status in North Americans.

    PubMed

    Willie, B; Hall, N B; Stein, C M; Jurevic, R J; Weinberg, A; Mehlotra, R K; Zimmerman, P A

    2014-12-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes TLR2-4 and TLR7-9, but not in TLR1 and TLR6, have been previously evaluated regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and disease progression in various populations, most of which were European. In this study, we examined associations between a total of 41 SNPs in 8 TLR genes (TLR1-4, TLR6-9) and HIV status in North American subjects (total n=276 (Caucasian, n=102; African American, n=150; other, n=24)). Stratification of the data by self-identified race revealed that a total of nine SNPs in TLR1, TLR4, TLR6 and TLR8 in Caucasians, and two other SNPs, one each in TLR4 and TLR8, in African Americans were significantly associated with HIV status at P<0.05. Concordant with the odds ratios of these SNPs, significant differences were observed in the SNP allele frequencies between HIV+ and HIV- subjects. Finally, in Caucasians, certain haplotypes of single (TLR1 and TLR4) and heterodimer (TLR2_TLR6) genes may be inferred as 'susceptible' or 'protective'. Our study provides in-depth insight into the associations between TLR variants, particularly TLR1 and TLR6, and HIV status in North Americans, and suggests that these associations may be race specific. PMID:25253287

  16. To tell or not to tell: South African women's disclosure of HIV status during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maretha J; Neufeld, Sharon; de Villiers, Annelize; Makin, Jennifer D; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2008-10-01

    HIV-positive pregnant women often do not disclose their serostatus to their partners, family and friends, creating potential barriers to preventing sexual transmission to partners and mother-to-child transmission through breastfeeding. This research explores recently diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women's reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of serostatus to various members of their social networks, as well as the consequences of their disclosure. Data were collected through open-ended questions as part of a semi-structured interview with 293 recently diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women recruited from antenatal clinics in two townships in Tshwane, South Africa. A content analysis of responses showed that women weighed fear of abandonment and discrimination against their desire to raise risk awareness and their need for support. Partners most often responded to disclosure with disbelief and shock, whereas parents frequently exhibited emotional distress, but were still supportive, as were other relatives and friends. The women subsequently experienced low levels of adverse consequences after disclosure. The results can assist healthcare providers in understanding the complexity of pregnant women's decisions to disclose to various members of their social networks and emphasize the need for continued counselling and support. PMID:18825520

  17. Mutual HIV disclosure among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Beijing, China, 2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; Lu, Hongyan; Li, Xuefeng; Sun, Yanming; He, Xiong; Fan, Song; McFarland, Willi; Jia, Yujiang; Raymond, H F; Xiao, Yan; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2013-10-01

    HIV is rising rapidly among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). Discussion of HIV status between sexual partners is potentially a key prevention behavior. It is unclear if HIV-negative Chinese MSM talk about HIV and disclose their HIV status with sexual partners. Understanding the correlates of disclosure among this population could provide insight into developing disclosure-based interventions. We conducted a respondent driven sampling based study of 500 MSM in Beijing. A total of 332 men had a previous HIV-negative test result and thus considered themselves to be HIV-negative and were included in our analysis of disclosure. Equal numbers of these men reported talking about HIV and disclosing their HIV status to at least one sexual partner. MSM who disclosed were more likely to be living with a main partner. No other demographic characteristics were associated with disclosure in bivariate analysis. We also used data on up to three sexual partners per participant to examine disclosure on the partnership level. Main partnerships, meeting partners at bars/clubs, sometimes using alcohol before sex in a partnership, and usually having sex at home compared to other venues were associated with disclosure. Using generalized estimating equation analysis to characterize individuals from their partnership data, we found only having at least one main partnership and knowing people who were infected with HIV to be associated with a participant being a discloser. Interventions that wish to harness discussion of HIV and HIV status among Chinese MSM will need to focus on moving these discussions towards having them with casual partners. PMID:22562616

  18. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    PubMed

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith Gb

    2016-02-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships. PMID:26551532

  19. HIV-1, human interaction database: current status and new features

    PubMed Central

    Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S.; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J. Rodney; Ptak, Roger G.; Pruitt, Kim D.

    2015-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database, available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 proteinhuman protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12 786 proteinprotein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14 102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set. PMID:25378338

  20. The Impact of Married Individuals Learning HIV Status in Malawi: Divorce, Number of Sexual Partners, and Condom Use With Spouses

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Behrman, Jere R.

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses how married individuals’ knowledge of HIV status gained through HIV testing and counseling (HTC) affects divorce, the number of sexual partners, and the use of condoms within marriage. This study improves upon previous studies on this topic because the randomized incentives affecting the propensity to be tested for HIV permit control for selective testing. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The results indicate that knowledge of HIV status (1) does not affect chances of divorce for either HIV-negative or HIV-positive respondents; (2) reduces the number of reported sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents; and (3) increases reported condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents. These results imply that individuals actively respond to information about their HIV status that they learn during HTC, invoking protective behavior against future risk of HIV/AIDS for them-selves and their actual and potential sexual partners. Some limitations of this study are a small sample size for those who are HIV-positive and dependence on self-reported sexual behaviors. PMID:25582891

  1. Effect of Couples Counselling on Reported HIV Risk Behaviour among HIV Serodiscordant Couples by ART Use, HIV Status and Gender in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    King, Rachel; Min, Jeong; Birungi, Josephine; Nyonyintono, Maureen; Muldoon, Katherine A.; Khanakwa, Sarah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Moore, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined several measures of self-reported HIV risk behaviour in mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples over time to see if a couples counselling intervention was associated with changes in these behaviors. Methods We analysed data from a prospective cohort study of HIV sero-discordant couples in Jinja, Uganda collected between June 2009 and December 2011. Participants received couples counselling, at 3-monthly intervals. We examined trends in reported condom-use, number of concurrent sexual partners, knowledge of HIV serostatus of concurrent partners and condom use of concurrent partners using Generalized Estimating Equation models, comparing responses at study enrollment with responses at six, 12 18 and 24 months of follow-up. Results A total of 586 couples were enrolled and the female member was HIV positive in 255 (44%) of them. The median age for female participants was 35 years and 42 years for men. Reported condom use at last sex with spouse increased over time (p<0.001) with the largest increases found among couples where the positive participant never received ART during the study(an increase from 68.8% at enrollment to 97.1% at 24 months). Male participants reported reductions in the number of concurrent sexual partners (p<0.001), increase in the knowledge of the HIV serostatus of these partners (p = 0.001) and a trend towards improved condom-use among non-primary partners (p = 0.070). Reported reduced risky behaviors did not wane over the study period. Conclusion Couples counselling resulted in increased condom use among all participants and among men the intervention resulted in reductions in risk behaviour with concurrent sexual partners. Routine counselling for serodiscordant couples should be integrated in routine ART care programs. PMID:26384103

  2. Housing Status and HIV Risk Behaviors among Transgender Women in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Kisler, Kimberly A.; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to social stigma, lack of social support, and minimal legal employment opportunities, transgender women (transwomen) face elevated rates of unstable housing. This study examined the association between housing status and HIV risk behaviors among 517 transwomen encountered through street outreach. Seven variables (including sociodemographics, HIV status, housing status, and sexual partner type) were used to estimate partial associations during multivariable analyses; housing status was coded trichotomously (housed, marginally housed, and homeless) for these analyses. Results demonstrated that homeless and marginally housed transwomen engaged in significantly higher rates of illicit drug use than housed transwomen; however, marginally housed and housed transwomen engaged in significantly higher rates of illegal hormone injections than homeless transwomen. Rates of sex work were high in the sample as a whole, though sex with an exchange partner was most common among the marginally housed transwomen. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that unstable housing moderated the association between HIV status and engagement in unprotected serodiscordant anal intercourse. The marginally housed transwomen exhibited the greatest risk profile for HIV acquisition or transmission. PMID:25190499

  3. Housing status and HIV risk behaviors among transgender women in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jesse B; Kisler, Kimberly A; Reback, Cathy J

    2014-11-01

    Due to social stigma, lack of social support, and minimal legal employment opportunities, transgender women (transwomen) face elevated rates of unstable housing. This study examined the association between housing status and HIV risk behaviors among 517 transwomen encountered through street outreach. Seven variables (including sociodemographics, HIV status, housing status, and sexual partner type) were used to estimate partial associations during multivariable analyses; housing status was coded trichotomously (housed, marginally housed, and homeless) for these analyses. Results demonstrated that homeless and marginally housed transwomen engaged in significantly higher rates of illicit drug use than housed transwomen; however, marginally housed and housed transwomen engaged in significantly higher rates of illegal hormone injections than homeless transwomen. Rates of sex work were high in the sample as a whole, though sex with an exchange partner was most common among the marginally housed transwomen. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that unstable housing moderated the association between HIV status and engagement in unprotected serodiscordant anal intercourse. The marginally housed transwomen exhibited the greatest risk profile for HIV acquisition or transmission. PMID:25190499

  4. Weighing the Consequences: Self-Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status among African American Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Maribel; Levy, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Theorists posit that personal decisions to disclose being HIV positive are made based on the perceived consequences of that disclosure. This study examines the perceived costs and benefits of self-disclosure among African American injection drug users (IDUs). A total of 80 African American IDUs were interviewed in-depth subsequent to testing HIV…

  5. Strengthening HIV Test Access and Treatment Uptake Study (Project STATUS): A Randomized Trial of HIV Testing and Counseling Interventions

    PubMed Central

    McNaghten, A. D.; Mneimneh, Allison Schilsky; Farirai, Thato; Wamai, Nafuna; Ntiro, Marylad; Sabatier, Jennifer; Makhunga-Ramfolo, Nondumiso; Mwanasalli, Salli; Awor, Anna; Moore, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine which of 3 HIV testing and counseling (HTC) models in outpatient departments (OPDs) increases HIV testing and entry of newly identified HIV-infected patients into care. Design Randomized trial of HTC interventions. Methods Thirty-six OPDs in South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda were randomly assigned to 3 different HTC models: (A) health care providers referred eligible patients (aged 18–49, not tested in the past year, not known HIV positive) to on-site voluntary counseling and testing for HTC offered and provided by voluntary counseling and testing counselors after clinical consultation; (B) health care providers offered and provided HTC to eligible patients during clinical consultation; and (C) nurse or lay counselors offered and provided HTC to eligible patients before clinical consultation. Data were collected from October 2011 to September 2012. We describe testing eligibility and acceptance, HIV prevalence, and referral and entry into care. Chi-square analyses were conducted to examine differences by model. Results Of 79,910 patients, 45% were age eligible and 16,099 (45%) age eligibles were tested. Ten percent tested HIV positive. Significant differences were found in percent tested by model. The proportion of age eligible patients tested by Project STATUS was highest for model C (54.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.4 to 65.9), followed by model A (41.7%, 95% CI: 30.7 to 52.8), and then model B (33.9%, 95% CI: 25.7 to 42.1). Of the 1596 newly identified HIV positive patients, 94% were referred to care (96.1% in model A, 94.7% in model B, and 94.9% in model C), and 58% entered on-site care (74.4% in model A, 54.8% in model B, and 55.6% in model C) with no significant differences in referrals or care entry by model. Conclusions Model C resulted in the highest proportion of all age-eligible patients receiving a test. Although 94% of STATUS patients with a positive test result were referred to care, only 58% entered care. We found no differences in patients entering care by HTC model. Routine HTC in OPDs is acceptable to patients and effective for identifying HIV-infected persons, but additional efforts are needed to increase entry to care. PMID:26258567

  6. Association of Human Papillomavirus–Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs With HIV Status: A National Study of Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Brewer, Noel T.; Reiter, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer and other diseases caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are more common among people who are HIV-positive. To understand the potential role of HIV status in HPV prevention efforts, we examined HPV-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men. Materials and Methods In January 2009, we interviewed a national sample of 247 adult gay men from the United States that included an oversample of HIV-positive men. Results Status of HIV was not associated with most beliefs about HPV-related diseases (i.e., genital warts, oral cancer, and anal cancer); however, HIV-positive men had higher worry about and perceived likelihood of these diseases. Most men correctly believed that HIV increases risk of HPV-related diseases, yet 29% to 42% still did not. Relatively few men believed that HPV vaccine works in males or that physicians are allowed to give it to men. Acceptability of the HPV vaccine was high and not associated with HIV status (78% of HIV-positive men vs 74% of HIV-negative men; adjusted odds ratio = 1.48; 95% confidence interval = 0.67–3.27). Conclusions The high acceptability of HPV vaccine, relatively low knowledge of how HIV increases risk for HPV-related diseases, and misperceptions about HPV vaccine can inform HPV prevention efforts for gay men. The few differences by HIV status suggest that HPV prevention programs may be able to use similar approaches with both HIV-negative and HIV-positive gay men. PMID:21169868

  7. HIV Disclosure and Transmission Risks to Sex Partners Among HIV-Positive Men.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey; Grebler, Tamar

    2016-05-01

    Disclosure of HIV-positive status to sex partners is critical to protecting uninfected partners. In addition, people living with HIV often risk criminal prosecution when they do not inform sex partners of their HIV status. The current study examined factors associated with nondisclosure of HIV status by men living with HIV in Atlanta, GA (92% African African, mean age = 43.8), who engage in condomless sex with uninfected sex partners. Sexually active HIV-positive men (N = 538) completed daily electronic sexual behavior assessments over the course of 28 days and completed computerized interviews, drug testing, medication adherence assessments, and HIV viral load retrieved from medical records. Results showed that 166 (30%) men had engaged in condomless vaginal or anal intercourse with an HIV-uninfected or unknown HIV status sex partner to whom they had not disclosed their HIV status. Men who engaged in nondisclosed condomless sex were less adherent to their HIV treatment, more likely to have unsuppressed HIV, demonstrated poorer disclosure self-efficacy, enacted fewer risk reduction communication skills, and held more beliefs that people with HIV are less infectious when treated with antiretroviral therapy. We conclude that undisclosed HIV status is common and related to condomless sex with uninfected partners. Men who engage in nondisclosed condomless sex may also be more infectious given their nonadherence and viral load. Interventions are needed in HIV treatment as prevention contexts that attend to disclosure laws and enhance disclosure self-efficacy, improve risk reduction communication skills, and increase understanding of HIV infectiousness. PMID:27158850

  8. AIDS impact special issue 2015: interpersonal factors associated with HIV partner disclosure among HIV-infected people in China

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV partner disclosure may facilitate social support, improve psychological well-being among HIV-infected individuals, and promote HIV testing and HIV prevention among their sexual partners. A growing literature emphasizes the critical role of interpersonal factors may play in decision-making and practice regarding HIV partner disclosure. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies that investigate how interpersonal factors may be associated with HIV partner disclosure. Using cross-sectional data collected from 791 HIV-infected people in Guangxi China, we examined the associations between these two interpersonal factors (quality of relationship with partner and family communication) and HIV partner disclosure. Descriptive analysis, t-test analysis, and gender stratified GLM analysis were conducted. We find that disclosing HIV status to partners was significantly related to better quality of relationship with partners and open and effective family communication. Gender and partner HIV status might moderate the associations between interpersonal factors and HIV partner disclosure. Our findings suggest the importance of considering relationship quality and enhancing open and comfortable family communication in HIV disclosure interventions. Gender difference and partner HIV status should be also considered in HIV disclosure intervention to address the diverse needs of HIV-infected people. PMID:26899370

  9. AIDS impact special issue 2015: interpersonal factors associated with HIV partner disclosure among HIV-infected people in China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-03-01

    HIV partner disclosure may facilitate social support, improve psychological well-being among HIV-infected individuals, and promote HIV testing and HIV prevention among their sexual partners. A growing literature emphasizes the critical role of interpersonal factors may play in decision-making and practice regarding HIV partner disclosure. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies that investigate how interpersonal factors may be associated with HIV partner disclosure. Using cross-sectional data collected from 791 HIV-infected people in Guangxi China, we examined the associations between these two interpersonal factors (quality of relationship with partner and family communication) and HIV partner disclosure. Descriptive analysis, t-test analysis, and gender stratified GLM analysis were conducted. We find that disclosing HIV status to partners was significantly related to better quality of relationship with partners and open and effective family communication. Gender and partner HIV status might moderate the associations between interpersonal factors and HIV partner disclosure. Our findings suggest the importance of considering relationship quality and enhancing open and comfortable family communication in HIV disclosure interventions. Gender difference and partner HIV status should be also considered in HIV disclosure intervention to address the diverse needs of HIV-infected people. PMID:26899370

  10. Present status and future prospects for HIV therapies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M I; Hoth, D F

    1993-05-28

    Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1983, significant progress has been made toward the discovery, development, and licensing of anti-HIV drugs. In vitro screens against whole virus are now being complemented by screens against specific viral targets, resulting in the development of clinical candidates acting at several critical stages of the viral life cycle. Despite these advances, clinical therapy remains largely palliative. In addition, it has recently been recognized that HIV resistance to most drugs may pose even greater obstacles. Moreover, emerging data on immunopathogenesis raise the possibility that even if virus was eliminated from an infected individual, the patient's immune system might not be capable of restoration to normal function. In the face of such obstacles, deeper insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of disease, aggressive exploitation of those mechanisms for therapeutic gain, and continued commitment of both public and private sectors to support and collaborate in this research are needed. PMID:7684163

  11. Factors associated with HIV status disclosure to one's steady sexual partner in PLHIV in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Loukid, Mohamed; Abadie, Alise; Henry, Emilie; Hilali, Mohamed Kamal; Fugon, Lionel; Rafif, Nadia; Mellouk, Othoman; Lahoucine, Ouarsas; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the factors independently associated with disclosure of seropositivity to one's steady sexual partner in people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are recipients of services provided by Association de Lutte Contre le Sida, a Moroccan community-based organization (CBO) working on AIDS response. Between May and October 2011, 300 PLHIV were interviewed about their sociodemographic and economic characteristics, their sexual life and disclosure of their serostatus to their friends, family and to their steady sexual partner. A weighted logistic regression was used to study factors associated with serostatus disclosure to one's steady sexual partner. We restricted the analysis to people who declared they had a steady sexual partner (n = 124). Median age was 36 years old, 56 % were men and 62 % declared that they had disclosed their serostatus to their steady sexual partner. The following factors were independently associated with disclosure: living with one's steady sexual partner [OR 95 % CI: 9.85 (2.86-33.98)], having a higher living-standard index [2.06 (1.14-3.72)], regularly discussing HIV with friends [6.54 (1.07-39.77)] and CBO members [4.44 (1.27-15.53)], and having a higher social exclusion score [1.24 (1.07-1.44)]. Unemployment (as opposed to being a housewife) was negatively associated with disclosure [0.12 (0.02-0.87)]. Despite the potential positive effects for the prevention of HIV transmission and for adherence to HIV treatment, many PLHIV had not disclosed their serostatus to their steady sexual partner. Some factors shown here to be significantly associated with such disclosure will help in the development of future support interventions. PMID:23913104

  12. Living with HIV, disclosure patterns and partnerships a decade after the introduction of HIV programmes in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo B; Rochat, Tamsen J; Bland, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child Transmission and HIV Treatment programmes were scaled-up in resource-constrained settings over a decade ago, but there is still much to be understood about women's experiences of living with HIV and their HIV disclosure patterns. This qualitative study explored women's experiences of living with HIV, 6-10 years after being diagnosed during pregnancy. The area has high HIV prevalence, and an established HIV treatment programme. Participants were enrolled in a larger intervention, "Amagugu", that supported women (n = 281) to disclose their HIV status to their children. Post-intervention we conducted individual in-depth interviews with 20 randomly selected women, stratified by clinic catchment area, from the total sample. Interviews were entered into ATLAS.ti computer software for coding. Most women were living with their current sexual partner and half were still in a relationship with the child's biological father. Household exposure to HIV was high with the majority of women knowing at least one other HIV-infected adult in their household. Eighteen women had disclosed their HIV status to another person; nine had disclosed to their current partner first. Two main themes were identified in the analyses: living with HIV and the normalisation of HIV treatment at a family level; and the complexity of love relationships, in particular in long-term partnerships. A decade on, most women were living positively with HIV, accessing care, and reported experiencing little stigma. However, as HIV became normalised new challenges arose including concerns about access to quality care, and the need for family-centred care. Women's sexual choices and relationships were intertwined with feelings of love, loyalty and trust and the important supportive role played by partners and families was acknowledged, however, some aspects of living with HIV presented challenges including continuing to practise safe sex several years after HIV diagnosis. PMID:26616127

  13. Living with HIV, disclosure patterns and partnerships a decade after the introduction of HIV programmes in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo B.; Rochat, Tamsen J.; Bland, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child Transmission and HIV Treatment programmes were scaled-up in resource-constrained settings over a decade ago, but there is still much to be understood about women's experiences of living with HIV and their HIV disclosure patterns. This qualitative study explored women's experiences of living with HIV, 6–10 years after being diagnosed during pregnancy. The area has high HIV prevalence, and an established HIV treatment programme. Participants were enrolled in a larger intervention, “Amagugu”, that supported women (n = 281) to disclose their HIV status to their children. Post-intervention we conducted individual in-depth interviews with 20 randomly selected women, stratified by clinic catchment area, from the total sample. Interviews were entered into ATLAS.ti computer software for coding. Most women were living with their current sexual partner and half were still in a relationship with the child's biological father. Household exposure to HIV was high with the majority of women knowing at least one other HIV-infected adult in their household. Eighteen women had disclosed their HIV status to another person; nine had disclosed to their current partner first. Two main themes were identified in the analyses: living with HIV and the normalisation of HIV treatment at a family level; and the complexity of love relationships, in particular in long-term partnerships. A decade on, most women were living positively with HIV, accessing care, and reported experiencing little stigma. However, as HIV became normalised new challenges arose including concerns about access to quality care, and the need for family-centred care. Women's sexual choices and relationships were intertwined with feelings of love, loyalty and trust and the important supportive role played by partners and families was acknowledged, however, some aspects of living with HIV presented challenges including continuing to practise safe sex several years after HIV diagnosis. PMID:26616127

  14. Disclosing a dyslexic identity.

    PubMed

    Evans, William

    Potential difficulties experienced by nursing students diagnosed with dyslexia can be minimised with the introduction of appropriate policies and guidance around reasonable adjustment and support. In order to access all relevant services, however, a student must actively decide to disclose their dyslexic identity to relevant faculty personnel. Disclosure of such personal information is a complex matter and, critically, requires a receptive environment where diversity and disability are embraced in a positive and meaningful way. The act of disclosure for the most part has previously been described in simplistic terms, with the focus being solely on the behaviour itself and not on the individual's own positioning of their dyslexia or the social context associated with the act. There is an onus on all students with dyslexia to self-monitor how this aspect of their identity interacts with their professional duty of care. PMID:25849235

  15. Emotion work: disclosing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Grace J.; Aviv, Caryn; Levine, Ellen G.; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for all women in the US. Current research has focused on the psychological relationship and not the sociological relationship between emotions and the experience of breast cancer survivors. This paper focuses on the emotion work involved in self-disclosing a breast cancer diagnosis in a racially or ethnically diverse population. Methods The participants (n=176) selected for this study were African American, Asian American, Latina, and Caucasian women who had been diagnosed with stages 0, I, or II breast cancer within the past 4 years. They completed an in-depth qualitative interview on self-disclosure and social support. Findings The results indicate self-disclosing was done at a time when important decisions about treatment needed to be made. Different strategies for disclosure were used, all of which entailed emotion work. Respondents talked about the various elements of emotion work in the disclosure process including: managing others' worry, protecting and soothing others, and educating and instructing others.. For many respondents, disclosure without calculating emotional management meant opening up to others which meant support and an increase in emotional resources. Conclusions The findings in this paper have implications for women with breast cancer and demonstrate the need for women to be involved in honest disclosure and less emotional management of others' feelings. There is also a need for education about the nature of the cancer experience among people who are not well educated about the treatment and consequences of cancer. This need may be even stronger among racial and ethnic minorities. PMID:19434430

  16. High HIV Prevalence Among Low-Income, Black Women in New York City with Self-Reported HIV Negative and Unknown Status

    PubMed Central

    Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Hagan, Holly; Wendel, Travis; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Black women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study investigates factors associated with newly identified HIV infection among previously self-reported HIV negative or unknown status black women living in high risk areas (HRAs) of New York City (NYC). Methods Heterosexuals residing in or socially connected to NYC HRAs were recruited using respondent driven sampling for participation in the United States Centers for Disease Control-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2010. Eligible individuals were interviewed and offered an HIV test. The analysis reported here focused on black women with valid HIV results who did not report being HIV positive, and examined factors related to HIV infection in this group. Results Of 153 black women who did not report being HIV positive at enrollment, 15 (9.8%) tested HIV positive. Age ≥40 years, ever injected drugs, and in the last 12 months had unprotected vaginal sex, exchange sex, last sex partner used crack, non-injection crack use, and non-injection heroin use were significantly associated with HIV infection (p<0.05). Only ever injected drugs (prevalence ratio: 5.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 12.9) was retained in the final model. Conclusions Black women who had reported being either HIV negative or unaware of their serostatus had high HIV prevalence. Efforts to identify and treat HIV positive black women in HRAs should target those with a history of injection drug use. Frequent testing for HIV should be promoted in HRAs. PMID:23931126

  17. Anemia in adults with tuberculosis is associated with HIV and anthropometric status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Saathoff, E.; Villamor, E.; Mugusi, F.; Bosch, R. J.; Urassa, W.; Fawzi, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Tuberculosis (TB) infected adults attending out-patient TB clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. OBJECTIVE To examine the association of anemia with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, indicators of socio-economic status (SES) and anthropometric status in TB-infected adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional data collection during screening for a clinical trial. RESULTS Overall, 750 females and 1693 males participated in this study, of whom respectively 49% and 24% were co-infected with HIV-1. Hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in females than in males and in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative participants. HIV co-infection in this antiretroviral-nave population was also associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin < 85 g/l) in both women (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.07, 95%CI 1.652.59) and men (PR 3.45, 95%CI 2.664.47). Although severe anemia was negatively associated with indicators of SES, especially in males, adjustment for SES indicators only marginally changed its association with HIV co-infection. In both sexes, anemia was inversely associated with anthropometric status, independently of HIV infection and SES. CONCLUSION Among TB-infected adults, anemia is strongly associated with HIV co-infection and anthropometric status, independently of SES indicators. As anemia is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in both infections, the management of anemia in TB-HIV co-infected patients warrants special attention. PMID:21682966

  18. The impact of maternal HIV status on infant feeding patterns in Nakuru, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Mwonya, Rose

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on infant feeding patterns. Two hundred eighty mothers (205 HIV uninfected, 75 infected) and their infants were recruited from the Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru, Kenya, from delivery and were followed for 14 weeks. From the feeding patterns, HIV-infected mothers were more likely to exclusively breastfeed in week 1 than HIV-uninfected mothers (71.7% vs 56.3%, P = .001), but there were no differences by week 14 (9.8% vs 4.8% P = .212). Mixed feeding increased for both groups from weeks 1 to 14. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal age (younger mothers, P < .05) was associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the 6th week and infant birth weight (> mean birth weight, P < .05) in the 10th week. The results indicate a need to reassess adherence to infant feeding recommendations irrespective of maternal HIV status and also the infant feeding counseling process in the hospital. J Hum Lact . 24(1):34-41. PMID:18281354

  19. 'You opened our eyes': care-giving after learning a child's positive HIV status in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Manderson, Lenore; Norris, Shane A; Kahn, Kathleen

    2010-05-01

    Caregivers of young children identified as HIV positive, residing in Agincourt, rural South Africa were advised of their child's status. How was this knowledge received, and how did it influence care-giving and support? Interviews were conducted in May to June 2008 with caregivers of HIV positive children aged 1-5 years, 1 year following the child's HIV test and disclosure of status. Drawing on data from 31 semi-structured questionnaires and 21 in-depth interviews, we describe caregivers' attitudes, reactions, fears and aspirations after learning a child's HIV status, the perceived usefulness of the knowledge, barriers to care-giving and support received. Sociodemographic data collected through the questionnaire were analysed using Stata. Qualitative data were coded in NVIVO 8 and analysed inductively to identify themes and their repetitions and variations. Although almost half of the caregivers responded negatively initially, 1 year later, almost all had accepted and valued knowing their child's HIV status as this had enhanced their competency in care-giving. Counselling from health providers and personal spirituality helped caregivers to accept the child's status and cope with its implications. Most caregivers had high aspirations for the child's future, despite some expressed difficulties associated with care-giving, including financial constraints, information gaps and barriers to healthcare. The results indicate an opportunity for paediatric HIV screening in communities with high HIV prevalence. This would facilitate early uptake of available interventions, so enhancing the survival of HIV positive children. PMID:20039969

  20. Nutritional status changes in HIV-infected children receiving combined antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fiore, P; Donelli, E; Boni, S; Pontali, E; Tramalloni, R; Bassetti, D

    2000-11-01

    Maintaining linear growth and weight gain in HIV-infected children is often difficult. Nutritional evaluation and support are recognised as important factors to improve their quality of life. Combination antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (HAART) reduces HIV-viral load and improves survival, quality of life and nutritional status. Our study aimed to determine changes in nutrional status based on body weight, height and nutritional habits, of HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Possible side effects of lipid metabolism were also studied. Twenty five children, 13 treated with HAART (group B) were followed up for 12 months. We did not observe statistically significant differences in nutritional status over that time or between groups A and B. Inadequate energy intake was more common in patients with advanced HIV-disease. Hyperlipidemia was found in 70% of children receiving ritonavir and in approximately 50% of children receiving nelfinavir. We observed an important although not statistically significative modification in the height of those in group B. PMID:11091066

  1. Managing identity impacts associated with disclosure of HIV status: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Fortin, Princess; MacKenzie, Sonja; Purcell, David; Edwards, Lorece V.; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Valverde, Eduardo; Garfein, R.; Metsch, Lisa; Latka, Mary H

    2011-01-01

    Disclosure of HIV status to potential and current sex partners by HIV-positive people (HIVPP) is a complex issue that has received a significant amount of attention. Research has found that disclosure depends upon the evaluation by HIVPP of potential benefits and risks, especially of the risks stemming from the profound social stigma of HIV and AIDS. Drawing on concepts from Goffman’s classic stigma theory and Anderson’s more recently developed cultural-identity theory of drug abuse, we analyzed data from in-depth, post-intervention qualitative interviews with 116 heterosexually active, HIV-positive injection drug users enrolled in a randomized trial of a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission. We explored how disclosure experiences lead to “identity impacts” defined as: (1) identity challenges (i.e. interactions that challenge an individual’s self-concept as a “normal” or non-deviant individual); and (2) identity transformations (i.e. processes whereby an individual comes to embrace a new identity and reject behaviors and values of an old one, resulting in the conscious adoption of a social and/or public identity as an HIV-positive individual). Participants engaged in several strategies to manage the identity impacts associated with disclosure. Implications of these findings for research and prevention programming are discussed. PMID:20024764

  2. HIV/AIDS Disclosure and Unprotected Sex: A Critical Issue for Counselors and Other Mental Health Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eddie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study found that African American males living with HIV/AIDS in rural southwest Alabama who did not disclose their HIV/AIDS seropositive status were more likely to engage in unprotected sex. Because much of the recent research is slanted to address homosexual behavior, which is still a taboo within the African American community, efforts to…

  3. Patterns and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence to Women Living With HIV/AIDS in Osogbo, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowookere, Samuel A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel A

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) to women living with HIV/AIDS in an antiretroviral clinic in Nigeria. Three hundred sixty respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Sixty percent were married, of which 24% had disclosed HIV status to their partner. About a quarter (23.6%) had experienced IPV since HIV diagnosis. Types of violence experienced were physical violence (17%), emotional violence (21%), and sexual violence (2%). Predictors of IPV included having a younger aged partner, disclosing status, and partner's alcohol use (p = .001). Suggestions to prevent IPV include increasing public awareness and family counseling. PMID:26175518

  4. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use in Adolescents with Negative or Unknown HIV status in Northwest Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lee; Kouya, Francine; Kwalar, Rene; Pilapil, Mariecel; Saito, Kohta; Palmer, Nancy; Posada, Roberto; Tih, Pius Muffih; Welty, Thomas; Jao, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between utilization of HIV testing and condom use amongst Cameroonian youth/adolescents who are not known to be HIV-infected. Background Worldwide, HIV is spreading most quickly amongst youth/adolescents. Between 44% and 82% of sexually active youth in Cameroon report inconsistent condom use. Data regarding utilization of HIV testing and condom use is lacking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 431 youth ages 12-26 years in Cameroon from September to December 2011. Data on socio-demographics, sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV status, and condom use were collected. We compared rates of inconsistent condom use between those known HIV negative who utilized testing (HIV-N) versus those with unknown status due to unutilized testing (HIV-U). Inconsistent condom use was defined as responding “never,” “sometimes,” or “usually,” while consistent condom use was defined as responding “always” to questions regarding frequency of condom use. Generalized Estimating Equations were applied to assess the association between HIV testing and inconsistent condom use adjusting for other confounders. Results Of 414 eligible respondents, 205 were HIV-U and 209 HIV-N. HIV-U subjects were younger (mean age =16.4 vs. 17.9, p<0.001) and more likely to report living in an urban area (p=0.002) than HIV-N subjects. Seventy-two percent (137/191) of sexually active youth reported inconsistent condom use. After adjusting for potential confounders, HIV-U status [Odds Ratio (OR) =3.97, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.68-6.01] was associated with inconsistent condom use. Similarly, female gender (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.29-7.89) was associated with inconsistent condom use, while older age at sexual debut was associated with a decreased risk for inconsistent condom use (OR=0.67, 95% CI=0.56-0.81). Conclusion Cameroonian adolescents report high rates of inconsistent condom use which we found to be associated with self-reported unknown HIV status due to unutilized HIV testing. Successful HIV prevention programs among African youths/adolescents may benefit from expanded HIV testing programs. PMID:24865769

  5. HIV serostatus disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disclosing HIV serostatus is important for HIV prevention and maintenance of health for people living with HIV their spouses and the community, it plays a role in the social relation which is critical in reducing HIV transmission. The process may have positive and negative effects to the HIV infected people who disclose their status. The present study was undertaken to describe HIV serostatus disclosure among HIV infected people attending care and treatment clinic at Sekou-Toure hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on 270 HIV infected adults attending Care and Treatment Clinic (CTC) at Sekou-Toure hospital between September and October, 2010. A Swahili questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and HIV disclosure information. Results Hundred and ninety five (72.5%) of all recruited participants were females, 88.1% (238/270) were aged above 30 years and 44.1% (119/270) were married. The prevalence of serostatus disclosure was 93.3% (252/270) with participants aged above 30 years having significantly higher proportion of serostatus disclosure compared to those aged below 30 years (94.5% vs. 84.4%, p < 0.05). Among the participants who disclosed their status, 69.3% reported closeness to the disclosed person as the reason for disclosure while 25.8% (65/252) disclosed because they needed help. Two hundred (79.4%) reported to have received emotional support following disclosure while 25.8% and 29.7% received financial support and freedom to use their anti-retroviral drugs around the person they disclosed their status respectively. Thirty four participants reported to have been discriminated following disclosure and 12 participants reported to have been divorced. Conclusions Rate of disclosure of HIV serostatus was noted to be high in this study. Delayed disclosure was also noted in small proportion of participants. Negative outcomes following disclosure of serostatus were reported by participants. Efforts need to be increased to promote disclosure of HIV serostatus in Tanzania through health education and awareness for both HIV infected individuals and the community. PMID:24450933

  6. Current status of substance abuse and HIV infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya

    2013-12-01

    Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive patients and 40% of 5,158 AIDS patients as of December 30, 2011. Intravenous drug use accounted for 0.3% and 0.4% of these cases, respectively. Drug abuse has changed during the past 20 years in Japan. The changes are summarized as follows: There has been (1) a remarkable decrease in solvent abuse, (2) a stabilization of MAP abuse, (3) a penetration of cannabis abuse, (4) an emergence of evasive drug abuse, and (5) a silent increase in medical drug dependence. This implies that (1) there has been a change from a "solvent dominant type" of use to a "cannabis dominant type," that is, from a "Japanese type" to a "Western type," (2) a shift to drugs which do not have a high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and (3) a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Regardless of whether the drug use is illicit or not, drug dependence is a mental disorder. Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only the criminal model but also the medical model. PMID:25278734

  7. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  8. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample

  9. HIV Disclosure to Partners and Family among Women Enrolled in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV Program: Implications for Infant Feeding in Poor Resourced Communities in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Letsoalo, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) has increased the number of pregnant women being tested and receiving prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions in South Africa. While many women may enroll in PMTCT, there are barriers that hinder the success of PMTCT programmes. The success of the PMTCT is dependent on the optimal utilization of PMTCT interventions which require the support of the woman's partner, and other members of her family. We conducted focus groups interviews with 25 HIV-positive post-natal women enrolled in PMTCT, in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. The study explored HIV-positive status disclosure to partners and significant family members and assessed the effect of nondisclosure on exclusive infant feeding. Most women disclosed to partners while few disclosed to significant family members. Most women initiated mixed feeding practices as early as one month and reported that they were pressurized by the family to mix feed. Mixed feeding was common among women who had not disclosed their HIV-positive status to families, and women who had limited understanding of mother to child transmission of HIV. Women who disclosed to partners and family were supported to adhere to the feeding option of choice. Health providers have a critical role to play in developing interventions to support HIV pregnant women to disclose in order to avoid mixed feeding. Improving the quality of information provided to HIV-positive pregnant women during counselling will also reduce mixed feeding. PMID:23777716

  10. Police must pay $60,000 for revealing waiter's HIV status.

    PubMed

    1997-04-18

    In Kokomo, IN, an out-of-court settlement of $60,000 was reached in an HIV privacy lawsuit. The case stemmed from a city police officer's demand that a restaurant assign him a new waiter because he did not want to be served by a "full-blown AIDS-infested person." The waiter, known in the case as John Doe, lost his job after the officer revealed his HIV status. Doe believed that during the exchange, [name removed] was threatening to arrest him. Doe fled the restaurant and was fired for leaving work before the shift ended. As part of the settlement, the city will train police officers on how HIV is transmitted and educate them regarding confidentiality. PMID:11364236

  11. Controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic: current status and global challenges.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Thorsten; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision (MC), pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PREP and PEP), vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral treatment options, their impact in the western world, and difficulties faced by emerging and resource-limited nations in providing and maintaining appropriate treatment regimens. Current clinical and pre-clinical approaches toward a cure for HIV are described, including new drug compounds that target viral reservoirs and gene therapy approaches aimed at altering susceptibility to HIV infection. Recent progress in vaccine development is summarized, including novel approaches and new discoveries. PMID:22912636

  12. Factors Associated With Smoking Status among HIV-Positive Patients in Routine Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Zyambo, Cosmas M; Willig, James H; Cropsey, Karen L; Carson, April P; Wilson, Craig; Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment-related reductions in morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have been attenuated by cigarette smoking, which increases risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, and neoplastic diseases. This study investigated factors associated with smoking status among HIV-positive patients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 2,464 HIV-positive patients attending the HIV Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between April 2008 and December 2013. Smoking status (current, former, never), psychosocial factors, and clinical characteristics were assessed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to obtain unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of the various factors with smoking status. Results Among HIV-positive patients (mean age 45 years, 75% male, 55% African-American), the majority reported a history of smoking (39% current and 22% former smokers). In adjusted models, patient characteristics associated with increased odds of current smoking were male gender (OR for heterosexual men, 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3–2.6]; for men who have sex with men, 1.5 [1.1–1.9]), history of respiratory diseases (1.5 [1.2–1.9]), unsuppressed HIV viral load (>50 copies/mL) (1.5 [1.1–1.9]), depression (1.6 [1.3–2.0]), anxiety (1.6 [1.2–2.1]), and prior and current substance abuse (4.7 [3.6–6.1] and 8.3 [5.3–13.3] respectively). Male gender, anxiety, and substance abuse were also associated with being a former smoker. Conclusions Smoking was common among HIV-positive patients, with several psychosocial factors associated with current and former smoking. This suggests smoking cessation programs in HIV clinic settings may achieve greater impact by integrating interventions that also address illicit substance abuse and mental health. PMID:26767146

  13. Differences in Gay Male Couples' Use of Drugs and Alcohol With Sex by Relationship HIV Status.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development. PMID:25424504

  14. The potential public health effects of a police announcement about HIV nondisclosure: a case scenario analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    In May 2010, a local police force released the details of an HIV-transmission-related criminal investigation. This involved the publication of the name and photograph of, and charges against a man who the police allege did not disclose his HIV status prior to engaging in sexual activities that pose a "significant risk" for HIV transmission. Presently, however, there are no public health analyses of this situation. Consequently, the available literature on Canadian criminal laws, HIV transmission within this jurisdiction, and HIV prevention are presented and discussed herein. The outcome of this analysis is the conclusion that the act of publicizing an HIV-related criminal investigation more likely inhibits than encourages STI/HIV testing among HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men. It is the assertion here that this undertaking thus conflicts with the overall public health goals of HIV prevention, and should likely not occur in the future. PMID:21733957

  15. Do message features influence reactions to HIV disclosures? a multiple-goals perspective.

    PubMed

    Caughlin, John P; Bute, Jennifer J; Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Kosenko, Kami A; Ramey, Mary E; Brashers, Dale E

    2009-04-01

    People who are HIV-positive must make decisions about disclosing their status to others but do so in the context of stigma and social isolation reported by many with the disease. Disclosing an HIV-positive diagnosis is necessary to seek social support, to manage health care, and to negotiate sexual encounters, but fear of how others will respond is a strong barrier to revealing that information. This investigation focuses on various ways that HIV can be disclosed. Using a multiple-goals perspective, 24 disclosure messages (representing 6 different types) were created. Participants (N = 548) were asked to imagine one of their siblings revealing an HIV-positive diagnosis, using 1 of the 24 messages. Participants' reactions to the disclosures differed substantially across the various message types. The discussion focuses on theoretical explanations for the variations in responses and the utility of these findings for practical interventions concerning HIV disclosures. PMID:19415559

  16. The relationship between ART adherence and smoking status among HIV+ individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Jose L.; Catley, Delwyn; Lee, Hyoung S.; Goggin, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent among HIV+ individuals and studies indicate that it may be associated with poor ART adherence, though the relationship is poorly understood. In addition little is known about interest in quitting among HIV+ smokers who are having adherence difficulties. We examined smoking and ART adherence among 203 HIV+ individuals enrolled in a randomized trial of interventions to increase ART adherence. Prior analyses indicated there were no overall treatment group effects. Smoking status and motivation to quit was assessed at baseline and ART adherence was assessed at week 12, 24, 36, and 48. Longitudinal generalized estimating equation analysis that controlled for treatment group revealed that smoking status was not significantly related to adherence over time. Motivation to quit was high with 58% intending to quit in the next 6 months and 25% intending to quit in the next 30 days. Findings suggest that smoking is not associated with adherence among those with adherence difficulties. However it does not diminish importance of addressing both behaviors especially given HIV+ smokers substantial interest in changing smoking behavior. PMID:25572828

  17. HIV status: the prima facie right not to know the result.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tak Kwong

    2016-02-01

    When a patient regains consciousness from Cryptococcus meningitis, the clinician may offer an HIV test (in case it has not already been done) (scenario 1) or offer to tell the patient his HIV status (in case the test has already been performed with a positive result while the patient was unconscious) (scenario 2). Youngs and Simmonds proposed that the patient has the prima facie right to refuse an HIV test in scenario 1 but not the prima facie right not to be told the HIV status in scenario 2. I submit that the claims to the right of refusal in both scenarios are similarly strong as they should both be grounded in privacy, self determination or dignity. But a conscientious agent should bear in mind that members of the public also have the right not to be harmed. When the circumstance allows, a proper balance of the potential benefits and harm for all the competing parties should guide the clinical decision as to whose right should finally prevail. Where a full ethical analysis is not possible, the presumption should favour respecting the patient's right of refusal in both scenarios. PMID:26811488

  18. The Status of HIV Testing and Counseling in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ng’ang’a, Anne; Waruiru, Wanjiru; Ngare, Carol; Ssempijja, Victor; Gachuki, Thomas; Njoroge, Inviolata; Oluoch, Patricia; Kimanga, Davies O.; Maina, William K.; Mpazanje, Rex; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is essential for successful HIV prevention and treatment programs. The national target for HTC is 80% of the adult population in Kenya. Population-based data to measure progress towards this HTC target are needed to assess the country’s changing needs for HIV prevention and treatment. Methods In 2012–2013, we conducted a national HIV survey among Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years. Respondents aged 15–64 years were administered a questionnaire that collected information on demographics, HIV testing behavior, and self-reported HIV status. Blood samples were collected for HIV testing in a central laboratory. Participants were offered home-based testing and counseling to learn their HIV status in the home and point-of-care CD4 testing if they tested HIV-positive. Results Of 13,720 adults who were interviewed, 71.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 70.2 to 73.1] had been tested for HIV. Among those, 56.1% (95% CI: 52.8 to 59.4) had been tested in the past year, 69.4% (95% CI: 68.0 to 70.8) had been tested more than once, and 37.2% (95% CI: 35.7 to 38.8) had been tested with a partner. Fifty-three percent (95% CI: 47.6 to 58.7) of HIV-infected persons were unaware of their infection. Overall 9874 (72.0%) of participants accepted home-based HIV testing and counseling; 4.1% (95% CI: 3.3 to 4.9) tested HIV-positive, and of those, 42.5% (95% CI 31.4 to 53.6) were in need of immediate treatment for their HIV infection but not receiving it. Conclusions HIV testing rates have nearly reached the national target for HTC in Kenya. However, knowledge of HIV status among HIV-infected persons remains low. HTC needs to be expanded to reach more men and couples, and strategies are needed to increase repeat testing for persons at risk for HIV infection. PMID:24732818

  19. Socioeconomic status and neuropsychological functioning: Associations in an ethnically diverse HIV+ cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Monzones, Jennifer; Coulehan, Kelly; Fuentes, Armando; Rosario, Ana; Miranda, Caitlin; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is limited research examining the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and neuropsychological functioning, particularly in racial/ethnic minority and HIV+ populations. However, there are complex associations between poverty, education, HIV disease, race/ethnicity, and health outcomes in the US. Method We explored these relationships among an ethnically diverse sample of 134 HIV+ adults using a standardized SES measure (i.e., the Hollingshead scale), a comprehensive NP test battery, and a functional evaluation (i.e., Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Modified Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale). Results Bivariate analyses showed that adult SES was significantly, positively correlated with neuropsychological performance on specific tests within the domains of verbal fluency, attention/concentration, learning, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, and childhood SES was significantly linked to measures of verbal fluency, processing speed, and executive functioning. In a series of linear regressions, controlling for SES significantly attenuated group differences in NP test scores between racial/ethnic minority individuals and non-Hispanic white individuals. Finally, SES scores significantly differed across HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) diagnoses. In a binary logistic regression, SES was the only independent predictor of HAND diagnosis. Conclusions HIV+ individuals with lower SES may be more vulnerable to HIV-associated neuropsychological sequelae due to prominent health disparities, although the degree to which this is influenced by factors such as test bias remains unclear. Overall, our results suggest that SES is significantly linked to neuropsychological test performance in HIV+ individuals, and is an important factor to consider in clinical practice. PMID:25871409

  20. Association of maternal depression and infant nutritional status among women living with HIV in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaaya, Sylvia; Garcia, Maria E; Li, Nan; Lienert, Jeffrey; Twayigize, William; Spiegelman, Donna; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2014-11-01

    Antenatal and post-natal depression has demonstrated a significant burden in sub-Saharan Africa, with rates ranging from 10% to 35%. However, perinatal women living with HIV in Tanzania have reported an even greater prevalence of depression (43-45%). The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and infant malnutrition among women living with HIV. The design was a retrospective cohort study within the context of a randomised controlled trial among women living with HIV and their infants. Within this trial, 699 mother-child pairs were analysed for the present study. Although antenatal depression was not associated with infant malnutrition and post-natal depression was negatively associated [relative risk (RR = 0.80, P = 0.04], cumulative depression demonstrated a positive association with infant wasting (RR = 1.08, P < 0.01) and underweight (RR = 1.03, P < 0.01) after controlling for confounding factors. Variation in the association between depression and infant nutritional status was observed for episodic vs. chronic depression. These findings suggest that providing evidence-based services for persistent depression among women living with HIV may have an effect on infant malnutrition. In addition, other positive outcomes may be related to infant cognitive development as well as HIV disease prognosis and survival among women. PMID:25382710

  1. Disclosure of HIV results among discordant couples in Rakai, -Uganda: A facilitated couple counselling approach

    PubMed Central

    Kairania, Robert M.; Gray, Ronald H.; Kiwanuka, Noah; Makumbi, Fredrick; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Semanda, John; Wawer, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Disclosure of HIV seropositive results among HIV-discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa is generally low. We describe a facilitated couple counselling approach to enhance disclosure among HIV-discordant couples. Using unique identifiers, 293 HIV-discordant couples were identified through retrospective linkage of married or cohabiting consenting adults individually enrolled into a cohort study and into two randomized trials of male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. HIV discordant couples and a random sample of HIV-infected concordant and HIV-negative concordant couples (to mask HIV status) were invited to sensitization meetings to discuss the benefits of disclosure and couple counselling. HIV-infected partners were subsequently contacted to encourage HIV disclosure to their HIV uninfected partners. If the index positive partner agreed, the counsellor facilitated the disclosure of HIV results, and provided ongoing support. The proportion of disclosure was determined. 81% of HIV-positive partners in discordant relationships disclosed their status to their HIV-uninfected partners in the presence of the counsellor. The rates of disclosure were 81.3% in male HIV-positive and 80.2% in female HIV-positive discordant couples. Disclosure did not vary by age, education or occupation. In summary, disclosure of HIV-positive results in discordant couples using facilitated couple counselling approach is high, but requires a stepwise process of sensitization and agreement by the infected partner. PMID:20824557

  2. BD Biosciences contributions in CD4 counting and immune status for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert A; Maino, Vernon C; Recktenwald, Diether J; Webster, H Kyle

    2002-04-15

    BD Biosciences is a leader in the use of flow cytometry for determining immune system status and for counting CD4 cells in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The company has gained this position through many years of basic research and product development in immunology and cell biology, dye chemistry, immunoassays, instrumentation, and software. Some of the highlights of these developments and their historical perspective are described in this review. PMID:12116356

  3. HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors associated with awareness of HIV status among men who have sex with men in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Velter, Annie; Barin, Francis; Bouyssou, Alice; Guinard, Jérôme; Léon, Lucie; Le Vu, Stéphane; Pillonel, Josiane; Spire, Bruno; Semaille, Caroline

    2013-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey, using self-sampled finger-prick blood on blotting paper and anonymous behavioral self-administrated questionnaires was conducted in Paris in 2009 among MSM attending gay venues. Paired biological results and questionnaires were available for 886 participants. HIV seroprevalence was 17.7 % (95 % CI: 15.3-20.4). Four groups were identified according to their knowledge of their HIV biological status. Among the 157 found to be seropositive, 31 (19.7 %) were unaware of their status and reported high levels of sexual risk behaviors and frequent HIV testing in the previous 12 months. Among the 729 MSM diagnosed HIV-negative, 183 were no longer sure whether they were still HIV-negative, or had never been tested despite the fact that they engaged in at-risk sexual behaviors. This study provides the first estimate of HIV seroprevalence among MSM in Paris and underlines the specific need for combined prevention of HIV infection in this MSM population. PMID:22968398

  4. Percentages, Process, and Patterns of HIV Disclosure Among the Spouses of HIV-Infected Men in South India.

    PubMed

    Suhadev, Mohanarani; Mahadevan, Udaya; Dilip, Meenalochani; Suryanarayanan, Devaraj; Sikhamani, Rajasekaran; Thomas, Beena

    2011-01-01

    Most studies have described the outcome of HIV status disclosure rather than the process of disclosure. Hence, a study was conducted among 201 women who accompanied their spouses and children to 3 hospitals at Chennai and Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, during January to June 2007. Majority of the respondents were sero-positive (69%) and marriage was the only risk factor for them. Of 201 women, 49% did not know the reason for their husbands' HIV infection. Confidentiality of the patient was often breached during disclosure as family members were drawn into the process without consulting the patient. Only for 117 (50%) respondents, HIV diagnosis was disclosed directly by the health providers. There was a considerable delay for men in disclosing their HIV status to their spouses. Apart from the spouses, 122 (61%) shared their diagnosis with other family members. Disgrace to self and family (54%), fear of discrimination (27%), and fear of rejection (9%) were reported for nondisclosure. PMID:21266322

  5. Maternal HIV disclosure to HIV-uninfected children in rural South Africa: a pilot study of a family-based intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As access to treatment increases, large numbers of HIV-positive parents are raising HIV-negative children. Maternal HIV disclosure has been shown to have benefits for mothers and children, however, disclosure rates remain low with between 30-45% of mothers reporting HIV disclosure to their children in both observational and intervention studies. Disclosure of HIV status by parent to an HIV-uninfected child is a complex and challenging psychological and social process. No intervention studies have been designed and tested in Southern Africa to support HIV-positive parents to disclose their status, despite this region being one of the most heavily affected by the HIV epidemic. Method This paper describes the development of a family-centred, structured intervention to support mothers to disclose their HIV status to their HIV-negative school-aged children in rural South Africa, an area with high HIV prevalence. The intervention package includes printed materials, therapeutic tools and child-friendly activities and games to support age-appropriate maternal HIV disclosure, and has three main aims: (1) to benefit family relationships by increasing maternal HIV disclosure; (2) to increase children’s knowledge about HIV and health; (3) to improve the quality of custody planning for children with HIV-positive mothers. We provide the theoretical framework for the intervention design and report the results of a small pilot study undertaken to test its acceptability in the local context. Results The intervention was piloted with 24 Zulu families, all mothers were HIV-positive and had an HIV-negative child aged 6–9 years. Lay counsellors delivered the six session intervention over a six to eight week period. Qualitative data were collected on the acceptability, feasibility and the effectiveness of the intervention in increasing disclosure, health promotion and custody planning. All mothers disclosed something to their children: 11/24 disclosed fully using the words "HIV" while 13/24 disclosed partially using the word "virus". Conclusion The pilot study found the intervention was feasible and acceptable to mothers and counsellors, and provides preliminary evidence that participation in the intervention encouraged disclosure and health promotion. The pilot methodology and small sample size has limitations and further research is required to test the potential of this intervention. A larger demonstration project with 300 families is currently underway. PMID:23418933

  6. Bloodborne Infections: Should They Be Disclosed? Is Differential Treatment Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukka, Christine

    2004-01-01

    There are students and staff in many schools with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV infections. Should parents or guardians be expected to disclose students' bloodborne infections to school officials? Can infected students play contact sports given the increased risk of blood spills? What type of response plan should schools develop in the event of

  7. Bloodborne Infections: Should They Be Disclosed? Is Differential Treatment Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukka, Christine

    2004-01-01

    There are students and staff in many schools with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV infections. Should parents or guardians be expected to disclose students' bloodborne infections to school officials? Can infected students play contact sports given the increased risk of blood spills? What type of response plan should schools develop in the event of…

  8. Disclosing traumatic experiences: Correlates, context, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Brigid R; Lewis, Cara C; Gobin, Robyn L

    2016-03-01

    The type and severity of traumatic events differentially predict negative posttraumatic outcomes, with betrayal traumas (in which the victim is perpetrated by someone s/he trusts) touted as the most harmful. Although disclosure is considered an important component of the "healing process," nondisclosure and delayed disclosure persist. This study explored factors predicting and the context surrounding disclosure as well as the link between disclosure timing and a trauma survivor's experience with depression. Participants (N = 124) were attendees of a Mental Health Awareness event who had experienced a traumatic event. Participant report of traumatic experiences revealed that 28.2%, 36.3%, and 35.5% of participants had experienced a low betrayal (LB), medium betrayal (MB), and high betrayal (HB) trauma, respectively. Almost half (43.5%) disclosed immediately after the trauma, 32.3% disclosed within a month, and 24.2% disclosed after 1 month or more. Betrayal trauma level significantly predicted disclosure timing with individuals who had experienced HB traumas significantly more likely to delay disclosure (HB:LB, odds ratio [OR] = 21.79; MB:LB, OR = 4.57). Trauma survivors predominantly first disclosed to informal support sources (e.g., friends, family), typically citing that they thought it would allow them to feel better or they perceived the other person to be concerned about their well-being as their reason for disclosing. Experiencing a HB trauma predicted subsequent depression severity, but disclosure status was not predictive of subsequent depression. Results will be discussed with respect to implications for assessment and interventions for trauma survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010111

  9. Sociocultural factors influencing HIV disclosure among men in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Sofolahan-Oladeinde, Yewande; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2015-05-01

    In South Africa, more than 2 million people living with HIV are men aged 15 years and older, and heterosexual intercourse remains the predominant mode of HIV transmission. Knowledge of the sociocultural factors that influence men's decisions about whether, when, or how to disclose seropositive status remains incompletely understood. Using the PEN-3 cultural model as a guide, this study explored the sociocultural factors influencing HIV disclosure among men in South Africa. Four focus group discussions with 27 participants were used to determine the perceptions, enabling and nurturing factors that influence how men chose to reveal or conceal knowledge of their seropositive status. The results revealed that notions of male identity in the South African context, family, and community factors contribute to disclosure and nondisclosure of seropositive status among men living with HIV/AIDS. Future interventions should work to address these factors, as they are necessary with supporting disclosure among men living with HIV. PMID:24871161

  10. Nutritional status of HIV-positive patients in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Senna, Andrea F Kroll; De Oliveira, Solange A; Velarde, Luis G C; Setúbal, Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the nutritional status of HIV-positive patients in a hospital in the city of Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We studied 235 patients (130 men and 105 women) from May 2009 to June 2010. The frequency of undernourishment among women was 7.6%; 26.7% of the women were overweight, and 16.2% were obese. Among men, the frequency of undernourishment was 3.8%; 25.4% of the men were overweight, and 6.9% were obese. A logistic regression was done to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and potential predisposing factors. Women were more frequently affected by obesity and undernourishment than men. However, only the difference in obesity was significant, and women had almost three times higher odds of being obese (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.03-6.65). According to a nationwide survey done in Brazil during 2008-2009, 50.1% of the Brazilian healthy males were overweight, and 12.5% were obese; 48% of healthy females were overweight, and 16.9% were obese. Although the prevalence of undernourishment in HIV-positive patients is now lower than that observed in the beginning of the AIDS epidemic and excess weight is increasingly common among people living with HIV/AIDS, the proportion of excess weight was found lower and of undernourishment was higher in the present study than that found in the Brazilian population. PMID:25895192

  11. Vengeance, HIV Disclosure, and Perceived HIV Transmission to Others

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, David A.; Roloff, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Feelings of vengefulness result from being treated unfairly. However, some individuals are more sensitive to unfair treatment and more likely to demand restitution than others. Degrees of vengefulness may influence behavior in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), where highly vengeful men may seek limited retribution by placing others at risk, for example, by failing to disclose their HIV-status to sexual partners. This study examined the tendency towards vengefulness in HIV-positive MSM and its associations with disclosure and condom use behaviors. Results showed that greater certainty of from whom participants had contracted HIV was associated with lowered vengefulness over time. Though condom use did not vary by vengefulness, MSM reporting higher vengefulness concealed their HIV serostatus more than men reporting less vengefulness. Vengeance was not related to individuals’ perceptions that they had transmitted the disease to others. Overall, the data suggested identifying one’s HIV transmitter was reconciliatory. Men reporting higher vengefulness might also derive a sense of justice from not disclosing their serostatus. PMID:18512142

  12. Effect of HIV status on fertility intention and contraceptive use among women in nine sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mumah, Joyce N.; Ziraba, Abdhalah K.; Sidze, Estelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) means that HIV is no longer a death sentence. This change has implications for reproductive decisions and behaviors of HIV-infected individuals. Design Using multiple rounds of biomarker data from Demographic and Health Surveys (2004–2012) in nine sub-Saharan African countries, we compare patterns of associations between HIV status and fertility intention and between current use of modern contraception and HIV status in the context of expanding ART coverage. Results Generally, results show that knowledge of HIV status and proportion of women ever tested for HIV increased substantially between the two surveys for almost all countries. Whereas modern contraceptive use slightly increased, fertility intentions remained relatively stable, except for Rwanda, where they decreased. Results from the two surveys for the nine countries do however indicate that there is no clear consistent pattern of fertility intention and modern contraceptive use behavior by HIV status, with variations observed across countries. However, multivariate analyses show that for Rwanda and Zimbabwe women who were HIV positive, with knowledge of their status, had lower odds of wanting more children. Similarly only in Rwanda (both surveys) were HIV-positive women who knew their status more likely to be current users of contraception compared with women who were HIV negative. The reverse was observed for Zimbabwe. Conclusions Generally, the results point to the fact that the assumption that reproductive intention and behavior of HIV-positive women will differ compared with that of HIV-negative women may only hold true to the extent that women know their HIV status. Continuous expansion of voluntary counseling and testing services and integration of HIV treatment and care services with reproductive health services are thus warranted. PMID:25361729

  13. Benefits of Disclosure of HIV Status to Infected Children and Adolescents: Perceptions of Caregivers and Health Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Eric; Okyere, Paul; Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Adjei, Rose Odotei; Mensah, Kofi Akohene

    2015-01-01

    The rate of disclosure of HIV status to infected children and adolescents remains low in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach to determine the perceptions of caregivers and health care providers about the benefits of HIV status disclosure to infected children and adolescents and to assess the support needed by caregivers during disclosure. We recruited a convenience sample of 118 caregivers of HIV-infected children and adolescents for the quantitative component of the study and completed in-depth qualitative interviews with 10 purposefully sampled key informants, including health care providers and volunteer workers. The main benefits of disclosure included improved medication adherence and healthier, more responsible adolescent sexual behavior. The main supports required by caregivers during disclosure included biomedical information, emotional and psychological support, and practical guidelines regarding disclosure. We confirmed the importance of disclosure to HIV-infected children and adolescents and the need to develop culturally specific disclosure guidelines. PMID:26324523

  14. Testing Comprehensive Models of Disclosure of Sexual Orientation in HIV-Positive Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Lechuga, Julia; Zea, María Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who disclose their sexual orientation are more likely to also disclose their HIV status. Disclosure of HIV-serostatus is associated with better health outcomes. The goal of this study was to build and test comprehensive models of sexual orientation that included 8 theory-informed predictors of disclosure to mothers, fathers, and closest friends in a sample of HIV-positive Latino gay and bisexual men. US acculturation, gender non-conformity to hegemonic masculinity in self-presentation, comfort with sexual orientation, gay community involvement, satisfaction with social support, sexual orientation and gender of the closest friend emerged as significant predictors of disclosure of sexual orientation. PMID:22690708

  15. Correlates of HIV-related stigma among HIV-positive mothers and their uninfected adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Austin, Erika Laine; Greenwell, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree and impact of HIV-related stigma among HIV positive mothers and their uninfected children. One hundred eighteen HIV-infected mothers and their uninfected early- and middle-adolescent children (mean age=13 years) participated in a study of maternal mental and physical health and child school performance and psychological distress. Mothers and a subset of children (to whom the mother's HIV status had previously been disclosed) were administered a series of questions to measure stigma related to the mother's HIV status. Mothers reporting high levels of HIV-related stigma scored significantly lower on measures of physical, psychological, and social functioning. Mothers' levels of depression were also significantly higher when their levels of stigma were higher. No significant differences were found in children's depression by perceived level of stigma; however, adolescents who perceived high levels of stigma because of their mothers' HIV status were more likely to participate in delinquent behavior, compared with those reporting low HIV-related stigma. The experience of stigma had consequences for many aspects of well-being among the HIV-infected mothers. While their children were aware of and perceived stigma, they appeared to be affected primarily in the realm of delinquent behavior. PMID:17255064

  16. Effect of HIV status on fertility desire and knowledge of long-acting reversible contraception of postpartum Malawian women.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Michele S; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Stuart, Gretchen S; Miller, William C; Kaliti, Stephen M; Mwale, Mwawi; Bonongwe, Phylos P; Tang, Jennifer H

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the most recent pregnancy intentions and family planning preferences of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected postpartum Malawian women, and to assess whether HIV status is associated with fertility desire and knowledge of intrauterine contraception (IUC) and the subdermal contraceptive implant. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline characteristics of Malawian women enrolled in a prospective cohort study assessing postpartum contraceptive uptake and continuation. Women at a government hospital completed a baseline survey assessing reproductive history, family planning preferences, and knowledge of IUC and the implant. We used Pearson's chi-square tests to compare these parameters between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Modified Poisson regression was performed to assess the association between HIV status and fertility desire and knowledge about IUC and the implant. Of 634 postpartum women surveyed, HIV-infected women were more likely to report their most recent pregnancy was unintended (49% vs. 37%, p = 0.004). Nearly all women (97%) did not want a child in the next 2 years, but HIV-infected women were more likely to desire no more children (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33, 1.89). HIV-infected women were also less likely to know that IUC (adjusted PR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.84) and the implant (adjusted PR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.92) are safe during breast-feeding. Postpartum women strongly desire family spacing and many HIV-infected postpartum women desire no more children, suggesting an important role for these long-acting methods. Education about the efficacy and safety of IUC and the implant particularly during breast-feeding may facilitate postpartum use. PMID:25367269

  17. Structural bridging network position is associated with HIV status in a younger Black men who have sex with men epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirav S.; Iveniuk, James; Muth, Stephen Q.; Michaels, Stuart; Jose, Jo-Anne; Laumann, Edward O.; Schneider, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Younger Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) ages 16–29 have the highest rates of HIV in the United States. Despite increased attention to social and sexual networks as a framework for biomedical intervention, the role of measured network positions, such as bridging and their relationship to HIV risk has received limited attention. A network sample (N=620) of BMSM respondents (n=154) and their MSM and transgendered person network members (n=466) was generated through respondent driven sampling of BMSM and elicitation of their personal networks. Bridging status of each network member was determined by a constraint measure and was used to assess the relationship between this bridging and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), sex-drug use (SDU), group sex (GS) and HIV status within the network in South Chicago. Low, moderate and high bridging was observed in 411 (66.8%), 81 (13.2%) and 123 (20.0%) of the network. In addition to age and having sex with men only, moderate and high levels of bridging were associated with HIV status (AOR 3.19; 95% CI 1.58–6.45 and AOR 3.83; 95% CI 1.23–11.95, respectively). Risk behaviors observed including UAS, GS, and SDU were not associated with HIV status, however, they clustered together in their associations with one another. Bridging network position but not risk behavior was associated with HIV status in this network sample of younger BMSM. Socio-structural features such as position within the network may be important when implementing effective HIV prevention interventions in younger BMSM populations. PMID:24337699

  18. HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón, María Virgínia; Tello, Ines Constanza; Rincón-Hoyos, Hernan Gilberto; Galindo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objetive: To determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of Popayan-Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated. Results: Mean age 33.5±10,2; 66 %women. Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86 % (95% CI:1.87-5.85), greater in men (7.38%; p= 0.013). Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 h). Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection. PMID:24892315

  19. Relationship between HIV Stigma and Self-Isolation among People Living with HIV in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Audet, Carolyn M.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Kipp, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV stigma is a contributing factor to poor patient outcomes. Although HIV stigma has been documented, its impact on patient well-being in the southern US is not well understood. Methods Thirty-two adults participated in cognitive interviews after completing the Berger HIV or the Van Rie stigma scale. Participant responses were probed to ensure the scales accurately measured stigma and to assess the impact stigma had on behavior. Results Three main themes emerged regarding HIV stigma: (1) negative attitudes, fear of contagion, and misperceptions about transmission; (2) acts of discrimination by families, friends, health care providers, and within the workplace; and (3) participants’ use of self-isolation as a coping mechanism. Overwhelming reluctance to disclose a person’s HIV status made identifying enacted stigma with a quantitative scale difficult. Discussion Fear of discrimination resulted in participants isolating themselves from friends or experiences to avoid disclosure. Participant unwillingness to disclose their HIV status to friends and family could lead to an underestimation of enacted HIV stigma in quantitative scales. PMID:23950897

  20. "Know Your Status": results from a novel, student-run HIV testing initiative on college campuses.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Caitlin; Cuneo, C Nicholas; Rutstein, Sarah E; Hicks, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Know Your Status (KYS), a novel, student-run program offered free HIV-testing at a private university (PU) and community college (CC). Following completion of surveys of risk behaviors/reasons for seeking testing, students were provided with rapid, oral HIV-testing. We investigated testing history, risk behaviors, and HIV prevalence among students tested during the first three years of KYS. In total, 1408 tests were conducted, 5 were positive: 4/408 CC, 1/1000 PU (1% vs. 0.1%, p=0.01). Three positives were new diagnoses, all black men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Over 50% of students were tested for the first time and 59% reported risk behaviors. CC students were less likely to have used condoms at last sex (a surrogate for risk behavior) compared to PU (OR 0.73, CI [0.54, 0.98]). Race, sexual identity, and sex were not associated with condom use. These results demonstrate that KYS successfully recruited large numbers of previously untested, at-risk students, highlighting the feasibility and importance of testing college populations. PMID:25068179

  1. Oral lesions and immune status of HIV infected adults from eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Rachana; Singh, Asutosh K.; Rajbhandary, Srijana; Mishra, Rajeev K.; Sagtani, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To document the prevalence, age and gender distribution of oral lesions in HIV infected adults and the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy and correlate them to the immune status of the patients. Materials and Methods: Oral lesions were diagnosed by a detailed physical examination by trained and calibrated examiners according to the case definitions established by the Oral HIV/AIDS research alliance. Demographic details, risk behavior patterns and oral symptoms and habits were collected by a questionnaire. Results: 81 patients; 54 men and 27 women aged between 20 – 55 years participated in the study. A total of 49 patients; 60.5% had some oral lesion when examined. Oral candidiasis (21 %) and oral melanosis (21%) were the most common lesions, followed by linear gingival erythema, oral hairy leukoplakia, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis/gingivitis, herpes labialis, parotid gland enlargement and reccurent apthous ulcers. Oral hairy leukoplakia was exclusively seen in men (p=0.018). All six cases of herpes simplex lesion were seen in non - anti retro viral group (p=0.073) while oral candidiasis was commonly noted in the anti retro viral group (p=0.073). Lowering CD4 counts had the strongest association with the prevalence of oral candidasis (p=0.012), pseudomembranous candidiasis (p=0.014) and oral hairy leukoplakia (p= 0.065). Conclusion: This study shows a high prevalence of oral candidiasis, melanosis, linear gingival erythema and oral hairy leukoplakia in the patients. Key words:HIV, AIDS, oral lesions, prevalence. PMID:24455044

  2. HIV+ women's narratives of non-disclosure: resisting the label of immorality.

    PubMed

    Groves, Allison Kjellman; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2012-01-01

    Increasing partner disclosure rates among HIV+ individuals is widely seen as an important public health strategy to reduce HIV transmission. One approach for encouraging disclosure is to emphasise individuals' moral responsibility to disclose their status to their partners. We use South Africa as a case study to draw attention to two problems with labelling non-disclosure as immoral. First, we argue that because women are tested for HIV at much higher rates than men, any approach that involves blaming HIV+ individuals for not disclosing their status will disproportionately burden women. Second, through the narratives of six HIV+ women, we highlight how a focus on morality undervalues the complexity of sexual partnerships. Specifically, women describe how their perceived obligation to disclose their status is directly influenced by communication with their sexual partners. Women also discuss how the onset of different life events might alter the meaning of HIV and change obligations regarding disclosure within the partnership. The differences in testing rates across gender combined with the complexity of sexual partnerships leads us to suggest that labelling non-disclosure as immoral does little to advance HIV prevention. There is an urgent need to identify alternative interventions that support women through the disclosure process. PMID:22594880

  3. Association between muscle strength and the cardiopulmonary status of individuals living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Raso, Vagner; Shephard, Roy J.; Casseb, Jorge; da Silva Duarte, Alberto José; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos; Greve, Júlia Maria D′Andréa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare aerobic function [anaerobic threshold (%V˙O2-AT), respiratory compensation point (%V˙O2-RCP) and peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak)] between physically active patients with HIV/AIDS and matched controls and to examine associations between disease status, poor muscle strength, depression (as estimated by the profile of mood states questionnaire) and the aerobic performance of patients. METHODS: Progressive treadmill test data for %V˙O2-AT (V-slope method), RCP and (V˙O2peak) were compared between 39 male patients with HIV/AIDS (age 40.6±1.4 years) and 28 male controls (age 44.4±2.1 years) drawn from the same community and matched for habitual physical activity. Within-patient data were also examined in relation to CD4+ counts (nadir and current data) and peak isokinetic knee torque. RESULTS: AT, RCP and (V˙O2peak) values were generally similar for patients and controls. Within the patient sample, binary classification suggested that AT, RCP and (V˙O2peak) values were not associated with either the nadir or current CD4+ count, but treadmill test variables were positively associated with peak isokinetic knee torque. CONCLUSION: The aerobic performance of physically active patients with HIV/AIDS is generally well conserved. Nevertheless, poor muscle strength is observed in some HIV/AIDS patients, which is associated with lower anaerobic power and (V˙O2peak), suggesting the possibility of enhancing the aerobic performance of patients with weak muscles through appropriate muscle-strengthening activities. PMID:23644856

  4. Nutritional Status of HIV-positive Patients in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Solange A.; Velarde, Luis G.C.; Setúbal, Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the nutritional status of HIV-positive patients in a hospital in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We studied 235 patients (130 men and 105 women) from May 2009 to June 2010. The frequency of undernourishment among women was 7.6%; 26.7% of the women were overweight, and 16.2% were obese. Among men, the frequency of undernourishment was 3.8%; 25.4% of the men were overweight, and 6.9% were obese. A logistic regression was done to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and potential predisposing factors. Women were more frequently affected by obesity and undernourishment than men. However, only the difference in obesity was significant, and women had almost three times higher odds of being obese (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.03-6.65). According to a nationwide survey done in Brazil during 2008-2009, 50.1% of the Brazilian healthy males were overweight, and 12.5% were obese; 48% of healthy females were overweight, and 16.9% were obese. Although the prevalence of undernourishment in HIV-positive patients is now lower than that observed in the beginning of the AIDS epidemic and excess weight is increasingly common among people living with HIV/AIDS, the proportion of excess weight was found lower and of undernourishment was higher in the present study than that found in the Brazilian population. PMID:25895192

  5. [Analysis on HIV infection status of voluntary blood donors in Chinese Nanjing area from 2003 to 2013].

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-Na; Zhu, Shao-Wen; Zhou, Chun; Chen, Bao-An; Sun, Jun

    2014-10-01

    This study was purposed to analyze HIV infections status among the unpaid blood donation population in Chinese Nanjing area from 2003 to 2013, to understand the HIV antibody positive and/or HIV-RNA positive population characteristics in order to provide evidence for recruiting strategy of blood donation without compensation. The whole blood samples of unpaid donors and the platelet donors were tested by ELISA, from June 2010 the NAT test was added for the samples that were ELISA test with unilateral negative. Every HIV reactive sample (HIV-antibody and/or HIV-RNA) was sent to confirm in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Nanjing, including 1 case of enzyme bilateral positive and HIV-RNA reactivity has been sentenced as indeterminacy; another 1 case of enzyme bilateral negative and HIV-RNA reactive was sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Jiangsu Province to test nucleic acid quantification to be positive; The unpaid donor HIV screening results from 2003 to 2013 in Chinese Nanjing area were analysed statistically. The results showed that from 2003 to 2013 years 641401 unpaid blood donors were tested,out of them 57 cases were contirmed to be HIV antibody positive (HIV-1),the total positive rate was 8.89/100 000. Since 2010 years, the HIV antibody positive rate increased significantly (P < 0.01), then it was stable until to 2012 years, the HIV antibody positive rate was 15.43/100 000. In the 2013 year, the HIV antibody positive rate was 10.03/100 000. The HIV antiboby positive rates in male and female were 13.25: 1. The years of male cases were 18-30 that accounted for 56.14%, and the years of male cases were 31-40 that accounted for 31.58%. The men who first time donated blood were 46 cases and accounted for 80.70%. The men who donated blood again were 11 cases and accounted for 19.30%. The men who donated blood on streets of blood donation accounted for 80.70% and their HIV antibody positive rate was 11.88/100 000. The men who donated blood in the plan organization of donators were 8.78%, and their HIV antibody possitive rate was 2.33/100 000. The HIV antibody positive rate were different in the different times and different donation types, and were statistical significance (P < 0.01). It is concluded that based on the present status of HIV antibldy positive rate in Chinese Nanjing area, the HIV antibody possitive donors are more observed in the first blood donation population, especially in the higher educated young men. This situation or tendency indicates that the voluntary blood donors should be organized or selected from low risk population, and should popularize the knowlege of unpaid blood donation, especiatly the knowlege of AIDS, strengthen cosulting work on the mobile donation points in streets before donating blood, and should establish the cyber-database to ensure blood safety. PMID:25338600

  6. HIV/AIDS-related stigma in South African alcohol-serving venues and its potential impact on HIV disclosure, testing and treatment-seeking behaviours.

    PubMed

    Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Choi, Karmel W; Abler, Laurie; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol-serving venues in South Africa are sites for high-risk behaviours that may lead to HIV transmission. Prevention and treatment interventions are sorely needed in these settings, but HIV-related stigma may limit their effectiveness. This study explored expressions of stigma among alcohol-serving venue patrons in Cape Town and examined the potential impact of stigma on HIV disclosure, testing and treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 92 in-depth interviews with male and female, black and coloured patrons were conducted. Transcripts were analysed via memo-writing and diagramming techniques. Many participants mentioned knowing other patrons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and this visibility of HIV impacted expressions of HIV-related stigma. Participants discussed four forms of HIV-related stigma in the venues: fearing PLWH, fearing HIV acquisition, blaming others for spreading HIV and isolating PLWH. HIV visibility and expressions of HIV-related stigma, particularly fear of isolation, influenced participants' willingness to disclose their status. HIV-related stigma in the venues also appeared to indirectly influence testing and treatment-seeking behaviour outside the venue. Results suggest that efforts to change norms and reduce expressions of HIV-related stigma in alcohol-serving venues are necessary to successfully deliver tailored HIV prevention interventions and increase uptake of HIV testing and care in this important social setting. PMID:25630531

  7. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (χ(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (χ(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981

  8. Health Status, Sexual and Drug Risk, and Psychosocial Factors Relevant to Post-release Planning for HIV+ Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Feaster, Daniel J.; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Zack, Barry; McCartney, Kathleen; Gregorich, Steven; Brincks, Ahnalee M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection among male prison inmates is significantly higher than the United States population. Adequate planning to ensure continued medication adherence and continuity of care after release is important for this population. This study describes the pre-release characteristics of 162 incarcerated HIV-positive men (40 from jails and 122 from prisons). The results include a demographic description of the sample and their sexual risk behaviors, substance use, health status and HIV medication adherence, health care utilization, mental health, and family and social support. The results highlight a potentially high level of need for services and low levels of support and social connectedness. Post-release planning should include support for improving HIV medication adherence as well as reducing both sexual and IDU-related transmission risk for these individuals. PMID:24078623

  9. Xpert MTB/RIF as a Measure of Sputum Bacillary Burden. Variation by HIV Status and Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Theron, Grant; Bassett, Jean; Dheda, Keertan; Scott, Lesley; Stevens, Wendy; Sanne, Ian; Van Rie, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Xpert MTB/RIF cycle threshold values are a measure of sputum mycobacterial burden. Data on the impact of HIV infection and immunosuppression on this measure are limited. Objectives: Examine the impact of HIV status and level of immunosuppression on the distribution of mean cycle threshold values, and the correlation of cycle threshold values and smear microscopy grade with time to culture positivity. Methods: Paired sputum samples from 2,406 individuals with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF, concentrated smear microscopy, and liquid culture to quantify bacterial burden using cycle threshold values, smear grading, and time to culture positivity. Measurements and Main Results: Cycle threshold values were lower in HIV-uninfected versus HIV-infected individuals (22.9 vs. 26.6; P < 0.001). Among HIV-infected, CD4 count was an independent predictor of cycle threshold value, with an average increase of 1.50 cycles for CD4 count greater than or equal to 200 (P 0.071) and 3.66 cycles for CD4 count less than 200 (P < 0.001) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. Correlation between cycle threshold value and time to culture positivity was similar to that between smear status and time to culture positivity (both Spearman ρ 0.58). The strength of correlation between measures decreased as the level of immunosuppression increased. A cycle threshold value cutoff of 28 had good predictive value for smear positivity. Conclusions: We observed decreasing bacillary burden with increasing level of immunosuppression as measured by Xpert MTB/RIF cycle threshold values. A cycle threshold value of 28 can be used as a measure of bacterial burden and smear status in a high HIV burden setting. PMID:24786895

  10. HIV testing and clinical status upon admission to a specialized health care unit in Pará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Abati, Paulo Afonso Martins; Segurado, Aluisio Cotrim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HIV-infected individuals upon admission to a reference health care center. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1999 and 2010 on 527 individuals with confirmed serological diagnosis of HIV infection who were enrolled in an outpatient health care service in Santarém, PA, Northern Brazil. Data were collected from medical records and included the reason for HIV testing, clinical status, and count of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes upon enrollment. The data were divided into three groups, according to the patient’s year of admission – P1 (1999-2002), P2 (2003-2006), and P3 (2007-2010) – for comparative analysis of the variables of interest. RESULTS In the study group, 62.0% of the patients were assigned to the P3 group. The reason for undergoing HIV testing differed between genders. In the male population, most tests were conducted because of the presence of symptoms suggesting infection. Among women, tests were the result of knowledge of the partner’s seropositive status in groups P1 and P2. Higher proportion of women undergoing testing because of symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection abolished the difference between genders in the most recent period. A higher percentage of patients enrolling at a more advanced stage of the disease was observed in P3. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increased awareness of the number of HIV/AIDS cases, these patients have identified their serological status late and were admitted to health care units with active disease. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pará presents specificities in its progression that indicate the complex characteristics of the epidemic in the Northern region of Brazil and across the country. PMID:25741647

  11. Mediation and Moderation: Testing Relationships between Symptom Status, Functional Health, and Quality of Life in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptom status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is…

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of Disclosure of HIV Status to Children and Adolescents in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Rachel C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Mwangi, Ann; Turissini, Matthew; Ayaya, Samuel O.; Tenge, Constance; Nyandiko, Winstone M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Disclosure of HIV status to children is essential for disease management but is not well characterized in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of disclosure and associated factors among a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Kenya. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study, randomly sampling HIV-infected children ages 6–14 years attending 4 HIV clinics in western Kenya. Data were collected from questionnaires administered by clinicians to children and their caregivers, supplemented with chart review. Descriptive statistics and disclosure prevalence were calculated. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the association between disclosure and key child-level demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics. Results Among 792 caregiver-child dyads, mean age of the children was 9.7 years (SD = 2.6) and 51% were female. Prevalence of disclosure was 26% and varied significantly by age; while 62% of 14-year-olds knew their status, only 42% of 11-year-olds and 21% of 8-year-olds knew. In multivariate regression, older age (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.35–1.63), taking antiretroviral drugs (OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.29–3.97), and caregiver-reported depression symptoms (OR 2.63, 95%CI 1.12–6.20) were significantly associated with knowing one’s status. Treatment site was associated with disclosure for children attending one of the rural clinics compared to the urban clinic (OR 3.44, 95%CI 1.75–6.76). Conclusions Few HIV-infected children in Kenya know their HIV status. The likelihood of disclosure is associated with clinical and psychosocial factors. More data are needed on the process of disclosure and its impact on children. PMID:24475159

  13. Prison employees not immune from HIV disclosure suit.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that people do not lose their right to maintain confidentiality of their HIV status upon being jailed. A case filed by [name removed], an inmate at the Albion Correctional Facility in New York, alleged that a corrections officer gratuitously disclosed her HIV-positive status and transsexual status to a coworker in front of other inmates. The disclosures exposed [name removed] to harassment by guards and prisoners. Although [name removed] died of AIDS-related complications in 1995, her estate continued the suit. Judge Dennis G. Jacobs ruled that while it was permissible to disclose such information for legitimate penological purposes, this revelation was done for gossip with deliberate indifference to the inmate's safety. The judge also found the defendants were entitled to qualified immunity because the right to privacy in a prison setting had not been established at the time of the disclosures. PMID:11366534

  14. Evaluation of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs in Cte dIvoire, Guyana, and Tanzania: Effect of HIV Status

    PubMed Central

    Estep, Deb; Besana, Giulia; Kibwana, Sharon; Varallo, John; Sun, Kai; Lu, Enriquito

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV infection increases a womans risk for cervical cancer, and cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher in countries with high HIV prevalence and limited resources for screening. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allows screening and treatment of cervical lesions in a single-visit approach (SVA), but data on its performance in HIV-infected women are limited. This studys objective was to examine cervical cancer screening using VIA/SVA in programs serving HIV-infected women. Methods A VIA/SVA program with cryotherapy for VIA-positive lesions was implemented in Cte dIvoire, Guyana, and Tanzania from 2009 to 2012. The effect of HIV status on VIA positivity and on presence of cryotherapy-eligible lesions was examined using a cross-sectional study design, with Chi-square tests for comparisons and constructed multivariate logistic regression models. A P-value of < 0.05 was significant. Findings VIA was performed on 34,921 women, 10% (3,580) were VIA positive; 2,508 (85%) eligible women received cryotherapy during the same visit; only 234 (52%) of those who postponed returned for treatment; 622 (17%) VIA-positive women had lesions too large to be treated with cryotherapy and were referred for excisional treatment. In multivariate analysiscontrolling for HIV status, location of the screening clinic, facility location, facility type, and countrycompared to HIV-uninfected/unknown women, HIV-infected women had higher odds of being VIA positive (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.76, 2.16, P<0.0001) and of having large lesions requiring referral (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.49, 2.51, P< 0.0001). Minor treatment complications occurred in 19 of 3,032 (0.63%) women; none required further intervention. Conclusions This study found that compared to HIV-uninfected/unknown women, HIV-infected women had nearly twice the odds of being VIA-positive and to require referral for large lesions. SVA was safe and resulted in significant reductions in loss to follow-up. There is increased need for excisional treatment in countries with high HIV prevalence. PMID:26405784

  15. "It's my secret": fear of disclosure among sub-Saharan African migrant women living with HIV/AIDS in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Arrey, Agnes Ebotabe; Bilsen, Johan; Lacor, Patrick; Deschepper, Reginald

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV not only have to deal with the challenges of living with an incurable disease but also with the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their status to their partners, families and friends. This study explores the extent to which sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant women in Belgium disclose their HIV positive status, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and how they deal with HIV disclosure. A qualitative study consisting of interviews with twenty-eight SSA women with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify themes as they emerged. Our study reveals that these women usually only disclose their status to healthcare professionals because of the treatment and care they need. This selective disclosure is mainly due to the taboo of HIV disease in SSA culture. Stigma, notably self-stigma, greatly impedes HIV disclosure. Techniques to systematically incorporate HIV disclosure into post-test counseling and primary care services are highly recommended. PMID:25781906

  16. HIV+ women’s narratives of non-disclosure: resisting the label of immorality

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Allison K; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2014-01-01

    Increasing partner disclosure rates among HIV positive individuals is widely seen as an important public health strategy to reduce HIV transmission. One approach for encouraging disclosure is to emphasize individuals’ moral responsibility to disclose their status to their partners. We use South Africa as a case study to draw attention to two problems with labeling non-disclosure as immoral. First, we argue that because women are tested for HIV at much higher rates than men, any approach that involves blaming HIV positive individuals for not disclosing their status will disproportionately burden women. Second, through the narratives of six HIV positive women, we highlight how a focus on morality undervalues the complexity of sexual partnerships. Specifically, women describe how their perceived obligation to disclose is directly influenced by communication with their sexual partners. Women also discuss how the onset of different life events might alter the meaning of HIV and change obligations regarding disclosure within the partnership. The differences in testing rates across gender combined with the complexity of sexual partnerships leads us to suggest that labeling non-disclosure as immoral does little to advance HIV prevention. There is an urgent need to identify alternative interventions that support women through the disclosure process. PMID:22594880

  17. Factors influencing social self-disclosure among adolescents living with HIV in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Buyze, Jozefien; Loos, Jasna; Buvé, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV aged 13-17 years in Kampala, Uganda, and Western Kenya. Data were collected between February and April 2011. Among them, 39% were double orphans. We conducted a secondary data analysis to assess the degree of social disclosure, reactions received, and influencing factors. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed medical, socio-demographic, and psychological variables (Rosenberg self-esteem scale; self-efficacy to disclose to peers), HIV-related stigma (10-item stigma scale), and social support (family-life and friends). Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed with social self-disclosure to peers with gender as covariates. Almost half of ALHIV had told nobody (except health-care providers) about their HIV status, and about 18% had disclosed to either one of their friends, schoolmates, or a boy- or girlfriend. Logistic regression models revealed that having disclosed to peers was significantly related to being older, being a paternal orphan, contributing to family income, regular visits to the HIV clinic, and greater social support through peers. Low self-efficacy to disclose was negatively associated to the outcome variable. While social self-disclosure was linked to individual factors such as self-efficacy, factors relating to the social context and adolescents' access to psychosocial resources play an important role. ALHIV need safe environments to practice disclosure skills. Interventions should enable them to make optimal use of available psychosocial resources even under constraining conditions such as disruptive family structures. PMID:26616124

  18. Factors influencing social self-disclosure among adolescents living with HIV in Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Buyze, Jozefien; Loos, Jasna; Buvé, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV aged 13–17 years in Kampala, Uganda, and Western Kenya. Data were collected between February and April 2011. Among them, 39% were double orphans. We conducted a secondary data analysis to assess the degree of social disclosure, reactions received, and influencing factors. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed medical, socio-demographic, and psychological variables (Rosenberg self-esteem scale; self-efficacy to disclose to peers), HIV-related stigma (10-item stigma scale), and social support (family–life and friends). Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed with social self-disclosure to peers with gender as covariates. Almost half of ALHIV had told nobody (except health-care providers) about their HIV status, and about 18% had disclosed to either one of their friends, schoolmates, or a boy- or girlfriend. Logistic regression models revealed that having disclosed to peers was significantly related to being older, being a paternal orphan, contributing to family income, regular visits to the HIV clinic, and greater social support through peers. Low self-efficacy to disclose was negatively associated to the outcome variable. While social self-disclosure was linked to individual factors such as self-efficacy, factors relating to the social context and adolescents’ access to psychosocial resources play an important role. ALHIV need safe environments to practice disclosure skills. Interventions should enable them to make optimal use of available psychosocial resources even under constraining conditions such as disruptive family structures. PMID:26616124

  19. The Relationship Between Online Social Network Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Sero-Status Among a Sample of Predominately African American and Latino Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) Social Media Users.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Social networking technologies have emerged as potential platforms to reach HIV(+) MSM in HIV interventions. This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNSs) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(-) individuals among a sample of predominately African American and Latino SNS-using MSM. A total of 112 MSM Facebook users were recruited online and offline and completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for age, race, and employment status, being HIV positive was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners (ARR = 2.84, p = 0.0017) and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status on SNSs (AOR: 0.23, p = 0.011). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among SNS-using MSM. We discuss the implications for online HIV prevention. PMID:25572831

  20. Binge Drinking and Risky Sexual Behavior among HIV-Negative and Unknown HIV Status Men who have Sex with Men, 20 U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kristen L.; Chavez, Pollyanna R.; Kanny, Dafna; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Lansky, Amy; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent over half of new HIV infections in the United States. It is important to understand the factors associated with engaging in risky sexual behavior to develop effective prevention interventions. Binge drinking (≥5 drinks on ≥1 occasion) is the most common form of excessive alcohol consumption. This study examines the relationship between binge drinking and sexual risk behaviors among MSM who are current drinkers and who were either HIV-negative or unaware of their HIV status. Methods Using the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system and multivariable Poisson models with robust error estimates, we assessed the association between binge drinking and sexual risk behaviors among current drinkers. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Results Overall, 85% of MSM were current drinkers, and 59% of MSM who drank reported ≥1 episode of binge drinking in the preceding 30 days. In multivariable models, binge drinking was associated with condomless anal intercourse (CAI) at last sex with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (receptive: PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6; insertive: PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4), having exchanged sex for money or drugs at last sex (PR: 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), having concurrent partners in the past year (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2), and having more CAI partners in the past year (PR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4) compared to non-binge drinkers. Conclusions Evidence-based strategies for reducing binge drinking could help reduce risky sexual behavior among MSM. PMID:25555622

  1. 'The world has changed': pharmaceutical citizenship and the reimagining of serodiscordant sexuality among couples with mixed HIV status in Australia.

    PubMed

    Persson, Asha

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I revisit the question of whether HIV can ever be reimagined and re-embodied as a potentially non-infectious condition, drawing on a current qualitative study of couples with mixed HIV status (serodiscordance) in Australia. Recent clinical trials have consolidated a shift in scientific understandings of HIV infectiousness by showing that antiretroviral treatment effectively prevents the sexual transmission of HIV. Contrary to common critiques, I explore how the increasing biomedicalisation of public health and the allied discourse of 'normalisation' can in fact de-marginalise stigmatised relationships and sexualities. Invoking Ecks's concept of 'pharmaceutical citizenship', I consider whether the emerging global strategy of HIV 'treatment-as-prevention' (TasP) can open up new trajectories that release serodiscordant sexuality from its historical moorings in discourses of risk and stigma, and whether these processes might re-inscribe serodiscordant sexuality as 'normal' and safe, potentially shifting the emphasis in HIV prevention discourses away from sexual practice toward treatment uptake and adherence. PMID:26360799

  2. Narratives of HIV disclosure and masculinity in a South African village.

    PubMed

    Mfecane, Sakhumzi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes men's experiences of disclosing their HIV status, arguing that disclosure restored their social respect, which was previously undermined by an illness from AIDS. Results are from a 14-month ethnographic study conducted in rural South African health facility, among a group of 25 men attending an AIDS support group. The men included in this study tested while they were critically ill and some were negatively labelled as 'already dead' because of their poor state of health. The majority voluntarily disclosed their HIV status to the public after recovering from the physical symptoms of AIDS. This elicited positive reaction from the community, who treated them with admiration for disclosing their HIV status. The paper emphasises the fact that the good response received by participants from the community was predicated mainly on having healthy physical looks that men gained from using antiretroviral medication. This paper then further analyses the ways in which a 'healthy appearance' facilitates disclosure of HIV status and also disrupts the stigma attached to HIV in the studied community. PMID:22236354

  3. Housing Status, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes Among People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael G.; Shubert, Virginia; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Rueda, Sergio; Bozack, Anne K.; Caban, Maria; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Accumulating evidence suggests responses to HIV that combine individual-level interventions with those that address structural or contextual factors that influence risks and health outcomes of infection. Housing is such a factor. Housing occupies a strategic position as an intermediate structural factor, linking “upstream” economic, social, and cultural determinants to the more immediate physical and social environments in which everyday life is lived. The importance of housing status for HIV prevention and care has been recognized, but much of this attention has focused on homeless individuals as a special risk group. Analyses have less often addressed community housing availability and conditions as factors influencing population health or unstable, inadequate, or unaffordable housing as a situation or temporary state. A focus on individual-level characteristics associated with literal homelessness glosses over social, economic, and policy drivers operating largely outside any specific individual’s control that affect housing and residential environments and the health resources or risk exposures such contexts provide. Objectives. We examined the available empirical evidence on the association between housing status (broadly defined), medical care, and health outcomes among people with HIV and analyzed results to inform future research, program development, and policy implementation. Search methods. We searched 8 electronic health and social science databases from January 1, 1996, through March 31, 2014, using search terms related to housing, dwelling, and living arrangements and HIV and AIDS. We contacted experts for additional literature. Selection criteria. We selected articles if they were quantitative analyses published in English, French, or Spanish that included at least 1 measure of housing status as an independent variable and at least 1 health status, health care, treatment adherence, or risk behavior outcome among people with HIV in high-income countries. We defined housing status to include consideration of material or social dimensions of housing adequacy, stability, and security of tenure. Data collection and analysis. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and quality appraisal. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for randomized controlled trials and a modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Appraisal Tool for nonintervention studies. In our quality appraisal, we focused on issues of quality for observational studies: appropriate methods for determining exposure and measuring outcomes and methods to control confounding. Results. Searches yielded 5528 references from which we included 152 studies, representing 139 757 HIV-positive participants. Most studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. Studies examined access and utilization of HIV medical care, adherence to antiretroviral medications, HIV clinical outcomes, other health outcomes, emergency department and inpatient utilization, and sex and drug risk behaviors. With rare exceptions, across studies in all domains, worse housing status was independently associated with worse outcomes, controlling for a range of individual patient and care system characteristics. Conclusions. Lack of stable, secure, adequate housing is a significant barrier to consistent and appropriate HIV medical care, access and adherence to antiretroviral medications, sustained viral suppression, and risk of forward transmission. Studies that examined the history of homelessness or problematic housing years before outcome assessment were least likely to find negative outcomes, homelessness being a potentially modifiable contextual factor. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies indicate an independent effect of housing assistance on improved outcomes for formerly homeless or inadequately housed people with HIV. Housing challenges result from complex interactions between individual vulnerabilities and broader economic, political, and legal structural determinants of health. The broad structural processes sustaining social exclusion and inequality seem beyond the immediate reach of HIV interventions, but changing housing and residential environments is both possible and promising. PMID:26562123

  4. Growth patterns and anaemia status of HIV-infected children living in an institutional facility in India

    PubMed Central

    Kapavarapu, Prasanna K.; Bari, Omar; Perumpil, Mathew; Duggan, Christopher; Dinakar, Chitra; Krishnamurthy, Shubha; Arumugam, Karthika; Shet, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the health status of HIV orphans in a well-structured institutional facility in India. Method Prospective longitudinal analysis of growth and anaemia prevalence among these children, between June 2008 and May 2011. Results A total of 85 HIV-infected orphan children residing at Sneha Care Home, Bangalore, for at least 1 year, were included in the analysis. Prevalence of anaemia at entry into the home was 40%, with the cumulative incidence of anaemia during the study period being 85%. At baseline, 79% were underweight and 72% were stunted. All children, irrespective of their antiretroviral therapy (ART) status, showed an improvement in nutritional status over time as demonstrated by a significant increase in weight (median weight-for-age Z-score: −2.75 to −1.74, P < 0.001) and height Z-scores (median height-for-age Z-score: −2.69 to −1.63, P < 0.001). Conclusion These findings suggest that good nutrition even in the absence of ART can bring about improvement in growth. The Sneha Care Home model indicates that the holistic approach used in the Home may have been helpful in combating HIV and poor nutritional status in severely malnourished orphaned children. PMID:22686454

  5. Dietary intake and nutritional status of HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Florianopolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation. PMID:24352121

  6. HIV Disclosure and Sexual Transmission Behaviors among an Internet Sample of HIV-positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in Asia: Implications for Prevention with Positives

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Koe, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between HIV disclosure and sexual transmission behaviors, and factors that influence disclosure are unknown among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia. We describe disclosure practices and sexual transmission behaviors, and correlates of disclosure among this group of MSM in Asia. A cross-sectional multi-country online survey was conducted among 416 HIV-positive MSM. Data on disclosure status, HIV-related risk behaviors, disease status, and other characteristics were collected. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant correlates of disclosure. Only 7.0% reported having disclosed their HIV status to all partners while 67.3% did not disclose to any. The majority (86.5%) of non-disclosing participants had multiple partners and unprotected insertive or receptive anal intercourse with their partners (67.5%). Non-disclosure was significantly associated with non-disclosure from partners (AOR = 37.13, 95% CI: 17.22, 80.07), having casual partners only (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.53), drug use before sex on a weekly basis (AOR: 6.48, 95% CI: 0.99, 42.50), being diagnosed with HIV between 1–5 years ago (AOR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.74), and not knowing one’s viral load (AOR = 2.80, 95% CI: 1.00, 7.83). Given the high HIV prevalence and incidence among MSM in Asia, it is imperative to include Prevention with Positives for MSM. Interventions on disclosure should not solely focus on HIV-positive men but also need to include their sexual partners and HIV-negative men. PMID:22198313

  7. 31 CFR 1010.717 - Disclosing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disclosing information. 1010.717... § 1010.717 Disclosing information. (a) Any part of any administrative ruling, including names, addresses, or information related to the business transactions of private parties, may be disclosed pursuant...

  8. 31 CFR 1010.717 - Disclosing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disclosing information. 1010.717... § 1010.717 Disclosing information. (a) Any part of any administrative ruling, including names, addresses, or information related to the business transactions of private parties, may be disclosed pursuant...

  9. To disclose, or not to disclose? Context matters

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Avard, Denise; Sénécal, Karine; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Sinnett, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Progress in understanding childhood disease using next-generation sequencing (NGS) portends vast improvements in the nature and quality of patient care. However, ethical questions surrounding the disclosure of incidental findings (IFs) persist, as NGS and other novel genomic technologies become the preferred tool for clinical genetic testing. Thus, the need for comprehensive management plans and multidisciplinary discussion on the return of IFs in pediatric research has never been more immediate. The aim of this study is to explore the views of investigators concerning the return of IFs in the pediatric oncology research context. Our findings reveal at least four contextual themes underlying the ethics of when, and how, IFs could be disclosed to participants and their families: clinical significance of the result, respect for individual, scope of professional responsibilities, and implications for the healthcare/research system. Moreover, the study proposes two action items toward anticipatory governance of IF in genetic research with children. The need to recognize the multiplicity of contextual factors in determining IF disclosure practices, particularly as NGS increasingly becomes a centerpiece in genetic research broadly, is heightened when children are involved. Sober thought should be given to the possibility of discovering IF, and to proactive discussions about disclosure considering the realities of young participants, their families, and the investigators who recruit them. PMID:24916647

  10. To disclose, or not to disclose? Context matters.

    PubMed

    Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Avard, Denise; Sénécal, Karine; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Sinnett, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Progress in understanding childhood disease using next-generation sequencing (NGS) portends vast improvements in the nature and quality of patient care. However, ethical questions surrounding the disclosure of incidental findings (IFs) persist, as NGS and other novel genomic technologies become the preferred tool for clinical genetic testing. Thus, the need for comprehensive management plans and multidisciplinary discussion on the return of IFs in pediatric research has never been more immediate. The aim of this study is to explore the views of investigators concerning the return of IFs in the pediatric oncology research context. Our findings reveal at least four contextual themes underlying the ethics of when, and how, IFs could be disclosed to participants and their families: clinical significance of the result, respect for individual, scope of professional responsibilities, and implications for the healthcare/research system. Moreover, the study proposes two action items toward anticipatory governance of IF in genetic research with children. The need to recognize the multiplicity of contextual factors in determining IF disclosure practices, particularly as NGS increasingly becomes a centerpiece in genetic research broadly, is heightened when children are involved. Sober thought should be given to the possibility of discovering IF, and to proactive discussions about disclosure considering the realities of young participants, their families, and the investigators who recruit them. PMID:24916647

  11. HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Clements-Nolle, K; Marx, R; Guzman, R; Katz, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study described HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of male-to-female and female-to-male transgender persons and determined factors associated with HIV. METHODS: We recruited transgender persons through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals; 392 male-to-female and 123 female-to-male transgender persons were interviewed and tested for HIV. RESULTS: HIV prevalence among male-to-female transgender persons was 35%. African American race (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.82, 11.96), a history of injection drug use (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.56, 4.62), multiple sex partners (adjusted OR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.50, 4.62), and low education (adjusted OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.68) were independently associated with HIV. Among female-to-male transgender persons, HIV prevalence (2%) and risk behaviors were much lower. Most male-to-female (78%) and female-to-male (83%) transgender persons had seen a medical provider in the past 6 months. Sixty-two percent of the male-to-female and 55% of the female-to-male transgender persons were depressed; 32% of each population had attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: High HIV prevalence suggests an urgent need for risk reduction interventions for male-to-female transgender persons. Recent contact with medical providers was observed, suggesting that medical providers could provide an important link to needed prevention, health, and social services. PMID:11392934

  12. Dating, Marriage, and Parenthood for HIV-Positive Heterosexual Puerto Rican Men: Normalizing Perspectives on Everyday Life With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M.; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  13. Dating, marriage, and parenthood for HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men: normalizing perspectives on everyday life with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2015-03-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  14. HIV Positivity but not HPV/p16 Status is Associated with Higher Recurrence Rate in Anal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Joshua E.; Panico, Vinicius J. A.; Marconato, Heloisa M. F.; Sherr, David L.; Christos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Aim Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a pathogenic factor of squamous cell carcinoma in various mucosal locations, including anal carcinoma (ACA). It is also known that patients positive for HIV are at high risk of ACA. The goal of this study was to examine clinical outcome in ACA in relation to HPV/p16 positivity, histologic tumor differentiation, and HIV status. Patients with oropharyngeal cancers that are positive for HPV and show overexpression of p16 as well as having non-keratinizing/basaloid histology have been reported to have better outcomes following chemoradiation (CRT). However, such relationships in ACA remain unknown. Methods Forty-two patients with SCC of the anus treated with CRT between 1997 and 2009 were identified. The tumors were subclassified as either non-keratinizing (including basaloid) or keratinizing categories. HPV testing was performed using SPF10-PCR, and all cases were immunostained for p16. Results There were 23 men and 19 women; 43 % of men and 11 % of women were HIV-positive (p =0.04). Fifty-five percent of patients had local disease (stages I and II) and 41 % were stages III and IV, with 4 % stage unknown. All tumors were positive for high-oncogenic risk HPVs, and all were positive with p16 immunostain. Sixty-four percent of tumors were non-keratinizing/basaloid and 36 % were keratinizing. The keratinizing tumors were more common in HIV-positive patients (67 %), whereas non-keratinizing/basaloid tumors were more common in HIV-negative patients (77 %) (p =0.008). Thirty-one percent of patients had recurrence of disease, including 50 % HIV-positive patients and 23 % HIV-negative patients (p =0.09). There was no difference in the recurrence rate between non-keratinizing and keratinizing tumor subtypes (p =0.80). The 24-month recurrence-free survival for the cohort was 66 % (95 % CI=46 %, 81 %), with HIV-positive patients having worse recurrence-free survival compared to HIV-negative patients (HR=2.85, 95 % CI= 0.95, 8.53; p =0.06). Conclusion The regional and distant failure rate was not related to HPV/p16 positivity or histologic differentiation of ACA; however, HIV positivity appeared to be associated with a higher recurrence rate and worse recurrence-free survival. PMID:24014082

  15. FRAILTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    SMIT, E.; WANKE, C.; DONG, K.; GROTHEER, A.; HANSEN, S.; SKINNER, S.; TANG, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutritional status and food insecurity are associated with frailty in the general U.S. population, yet little is known about this in the aging population of people living with HIV (PLWH). Objectives Given the potential importance of nutrition and the amenability to intervention, we examined the association between nutritional status, food insecurity, and frailty in PLWH. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Participants 50 PLWH, age ≥45 years, recruited from a cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Measurements Frailty, duration of HIV, use of antiretroviral therapy, disease history, food insecurity, physical function, and physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records. Blood was drawn for CD4+ cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lipid levels. Physical measurements included height, weight, and skinfold thickness. Results The prevalence of frailty was 16% (n=8), 44% were pre-frail (n=22) and 40% were not frail (n=20). The number of reported difficulties with 20 activities of daily living was highest in frail (mean 10.4±3.9 SD), followed by pre-frail (6.5±4.6), and lowest in not frail participants (2.0±2.3). Seven (88%) of the frail PLWH lost weight with an average weight loss of 22.9 pounds; 6 (75%) reported unintentional weight loss, and all 6 of these met the frailty criteria for weight loss of 10 or more pounds. Nine (45%) of the not frail PLWH reported losing weight with an average weight loss of 6.2 pounds; 5 (23%) reported unintentional weight loss of <10 pounds. Frail PLWH were more likely to report being food insecure than not frail PLWH (63% vs. 10%, p=0.02), and tended to have lower energy intake than not frail PLWH. Conclusion Research is needed on targeted interventions to improve food security and activities of daily living in PLWH for both the prevention and improvement of frailty. PMID:26689809

  16. “It’s My Secret”: Fear of Disclosure among Sub-Saharan African Migrant Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Arrey, Agnes Ebotabe; Bilsen, Johan; Lacor, Patrick; Deschepper, Reginald

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV not only have to deal with the challenges of living with an incurable disease but also with the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their status to their partners, families and friends. This study explores the extent to which sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant women in Belgium disclose their HIV positive status, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and how they deal with HIV disclosure. A qualitative study consisting of interviews with twenty-eight SSA women with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify themes as they emerged. Our study reveals that these women usually only disclose their status to healthcare professionals because of the treatment and care they need. This selective disclosure is mainly due to the taboo of HIV disease in SSA culture. Stigma, notably self-stigma, greatly impedes HIV disclosure. Techniques to systematically incorporate HIV disclosure into post-test counseling and primary care services are highly recommended. PMID:25781906

  17. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV-negative status were significantly less likely to use religion as a coping strategy (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09–0.83). Conclusion History of forced sexual initiation and HIV status affected perception of events as stressors and use of specific coping strategies. Our study findings could inform best practice interventions and policies to prevent and address forced sexual initiation among adolescents in Nigeria and other countries. PMID:27163436

  18. Food consumption patterns, diversity of food nutrients and mean nutrient intake in relation to HIV/AIDS status in Kisumu district Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Agatha Christine; Walingo, Mary Khakoni; Othuon, Lucas

    2009-09-01

    As the causes and consequences of the AIDS epidemic become clearer, so does the fundamental importance of food and nutritional security for HIV-affected individuals. Even as food insecurity remains a major problem in poor households, its effects are worsened in disease states like HIV infection. Food deficiency and nutritional inadequacy compromise an individual's physical status and work capacity, and may also diminish their resource base and household provisioning. The prevalence of HIV and AIDS in Kenya threatens food production systems, which intensifies poverty, increases the nutritional implications for HIV-infected individuals, accelerates the rate of orphanhood beyond what existing social networks can cope with, and basically affects all indicators of socio-economic development in the country. This cross-sectional study sought to assess food and nutrient intake in HIV-affected versus non-HIV-affected households. Purposive sampling was used to select 160 households (77 HIV-affected households and 83 non-HIV-affected households) in Kisumu district, a lowland area along Lake Victoria. A consolidated questionnaire that included a food-frequency checklist and personal 24-hour dietary recall was used to gather information from 40 households. The data were analysed quantitatively; descriptive statistics were mainly measures of central tendency, and inferential statistics involved chi-square tests and independent t-test samples. A table depicting food composition was used to compute the nutrient intake of each household. The findings reveal a significant relationship between a household's HIV/AIDS status and nutrient intake. PMID:25864550

  19. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Haberlen, Sabina; Amin, Avni; Baggaley, Rachel; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence. Articles, conference abstracts and programme reports were included if they reported post-intervention evaluation results and were published before 1 April 2015. Searching was conducted through electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and conference abstracts, reviewing websites of relevant organizations for grey literature, hand searching reference lists of included studies and contacting experts. Systematic methods were used for screening and data abstraction, which was conducted in duplicate. Study quality (rigor) was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Two interventions met the inclusion criteria: the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone cluster-randomized trial of combination HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) services in Rakai, Uganda, and the South Africa HIV/AIDS Antenatal Post-Test Support study individual randomized trial of an enhanced counselling intervention for pregnant women undergoing HIV testing and counselling. Both programmes integrated screening for IPV into HIV testing services and trained counsellors to facilitate discussions about disclosure based on a woman's risk of violence. However, both were implemented as part of multiple-component interventions, making it impossible to isolate the impact of the safer disclosure components. Conclusions The existing evidence base for interventions to facilitate safe HIV serostatus disclosure for women who experience or fear violence is limited. Development and implementation of new approaches and rigorous evaluation of safe disclosure outcomes is needed to guide programme planners and policy makers. PMID:26643462

  20. Nutritional status and lipid profile of HIV-positive children and adolescents using antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Contri, Patricia Viganó; Berchielli, Érica Miranda; Tremeschin, Marina Hjertquist; de Moura Negrini, Bento Vidal; Salomão, Roberta Garcia; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe nutritional status, body composition and lipid profile in children and adolescents receiving protease inhibitors. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients, 23 treated with protease inhibitors (group 1) and 36 not using protease inhibitors (group 2). Their dietary intake, anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis and lipid profile variables were measured. RESULTS: There was no difference in nutritional status or body composition between groups at the beginning of the study. After 6 months of follow-up, there was an increase in weight and height in both groups, as well as in waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. In group 2, body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness adequacy were significantly higher after 6 months of follow-up. The groups had similar energy and macronutrient intake at any time point. After 6 months, group 1 had a higher cholesterol intake and group 2 had a higher fiber intake. Triglyceride serum levels were significantly different between the groups, with higher values in G1, at any time point [G1: 153 mg/dl (30–344); 138 (58–378) versus G2: 76 mg/dl (29–378); 76 (29–378)]. After 6 months of follow-up, G1 had higher LDL-cholesterol than G2 [104 mg/dl (40–142) versus 82 (42–145)]. CONCLUSION: The use of protease inhibitors, per se, does not seem to significantly interfere with anthropometric measures, body composition and food intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents. However, this antiretroviral therapy was associated with a significant increase in triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in our subjects. PMID:21808865

  1. Racial differences in the accuracy of perceived partner HIV status among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Grey, Jeremy A; Rothenberg, Richard; Sullivan, Patrick S; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2015-01-01

    We compared perceptions of partner HIV status to HIV test results in a cross-sectional study of sexual networks of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Atlanta. We then examined differences between black and white MSM in the predictive value of perceived partner status. We recruited men ("seeds") using time-space venue sampling. These seeds then referred up to three partners, who could also refer partners. All participants reported sexual behavior and HIV status for recent partners and received HIV tests. For partners who enrolled, we compared laboratory diagnoses to their partner's perception of their status. Black MSM who perceived themselves to be HIV negative were more likely than perceived-negative white MSM to have a positive partner among those they perceived to be HIV negative or whose status was unknown to them (OR=6.6). Furthermore, although frequency of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) was similar by race, black men were more likely to have had UAI with an unknown-positive partner (OR=9.3). PMID:25348797

  2. EGFR and KRAS mutation status in non-small-cell lung cancer occurring in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Créquit, Perrine; Ruppert, Anne-Marie; Rozensztajn, Nathalie; Gounant, Valérie; Vieira, T; Poulot, Virginie; Antoine, Martine; Chouaid, Christos; Wislez, Marie; Cadranel, Jacques; Lavole, Armelle

    2016-06-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related malignancy responsible for death. Mutational status is crucial for choosing treatment of advanced NSCLC, yet no data is available on the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten ras (KRAS) mutations and their impact on NSCLC in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients (HIV-NSCLC). All consecutive HIV-NSCLC patients diagnosed between June 1996 and August 2013 at two Paris university hospitals were reviewed, with tumor samples analyzed for EGFR and KRAS mutational status. Overall, 63 tumor samples were analyzed out of 73 HIV-NSCLC cases, with 63% of advanced NSCLC. There were 60 non-squamous and nine squamous cell carcinomas, with EGFR and KRAS mutations identified in two (3.3%) and seven (11.5%) tumors, respectively. The proportion of KRAS mutations was 29% if solely the more sensitive molecular techniques were considered. The two patients with advanced adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations exhibited lasting partial response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Overall survival for patients with advanced NSCLC were >30 months for those with EGFR mutations, <3 months for KRAS mutations (n=2), and the median was 9 months [4.1-14.3] for wild-type (n=34). In multivariate analysis, KRAS mutation and CD4<200 cells/μL were associated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio (HR): 24 [4.1-140.2], p=0.0004; HR: 3.1 [1.3-7.5], p=0.01, respectively). EGFR mutation must be investigated in HIV-NSCLC cases due to its predictive and prognostic impact, whereas KRAS mutation is of poor prognostic value. Clinicians should search for drugs dedicated to this target population. PMID:27133754

  3. Exploring risk of experiencing intimate partner violence after HIV infection: a qualitative study among women with HIV attending postnatal services in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Mulrenan, Claire; Colombini, Manuela; Kikuvi, Joshua; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore risks of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) after HIV infection among women with HIV in a postnatal care setting in Swaziland. Design A qualitative semistructured in-depth interview study, using thematic analysis with deductive and inductive coding, of IPV experiences after HIV infection extracted from service-integration interview transcripts. Setting Swaziland. Participants 19 women with HIV, aged 18–44, were purposively sampled for an in-depth interview about their experiences of services, HIV and IPV from a quantitative postnatal cohort participating in an evaluation of HIV and reproductive health services integration in Swaziland. Results Results indicated that women were at risk of experiencing IPV after HIV infection, with 9 of 19 disclosing experiences of physical violence and/or coercive control post-HIV. IPV was initiated through two key pathways: (1) acute interpersonal triggers (eg, status disclosure, mother-to-child transmission of HIV) and (2) chronic normative tensions (eg, fertility intentions, initiating contraceptives). Conclusions The results highlight a need to mitigate the risk of IPV for women with HIV in shorter and longer terms in Swaziland. While broader changes are needed to resolve gender disparities, practical steps can be institutionalised within health facilities to reduce, or avoid increasing, IPV pathways for women with HIV. These might include mutual disclosure between partners, greater engagement of Swazi males with HIV services, and promoting positive masculinities that support and protect women. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:25976760

  4. Status of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among prisoners in the Middle East and North Africa: review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. Methods The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015) and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015). Sources of data included peer-reviewed publications and country-level reports and databases. Results and discussion We estimated a population of 496,000 prisoners in MENA, with drug-related offences being a major cause for incarceration. Twenty countries had data on HIV among incarcerated populations with a median prevalence of 0.6% in Afghanistan, 6.1% in Djibouti, 0.01% in Egypt, 2.5% in Iran, 0% in Iraq, 0.1% in Jordan, 0.05% in Kuwait, 0.7% in Lebanon, 18.0% in Libya, 0.7% in Morocco, 0.3% in Oman, 1.1% in Pakistan, 0% in Palestine, 1.2% in Saudi Arabia, 0% in Somalia, 5.3% in Sudan and South Sudan, 0.04% in Syria, 0.05% in Tunisia, and 3.5% in Yemen. Seven countries had data on HCV, with a median prevalence of 1.7% in Afghanistan, 23.6% in Egypt, 28.1% in Lebanon, 15.6% in Pakistan, and 37.8% in Iran. Syria and Libya had only one HCV prevalence measure each at 1.5% and 23.7%, respectively. There was strong evidence for injecting drug use and the use of non-sterile injecting-equipment in prisons. Incarceration and injecting drugs, use of non-sterile injecting-equipment, and tattooing in prisons were found to be independent risk factors for HIV or HCV infections. High levels of sexual risk behaviour, tattooing and use of non-sterile razors among prisoners were documented. Conclusions Prisons play an important role in HIV and HCV dynamics in MENA and have facilitated the emergence of large HIV epidemics in at least two countries, Iran and Pakistan. There is evidence for substantial but variable HIV and HCV prevalence, as well as risk behaviour including injecting drug use and unprotected sex among prisoners across countries. These findings highlight the need for comprehensive harm-reduction strategies in prisons.

  5. Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Mortality, Morbidity, and Growth Failure among a Prospective Cohort of HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Tanzanian Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; Duggan, Christopher; Aboud, Said; Kupka, Roland; Manji, Karim P; Kisenge, Rodrick; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator, but its impact on morbidity and mortality among infants remains unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to prospectively assess the association of vitamin D status with mortality, morbidity, and growth during the first 2 y of life. Methods: A prospective cohort of 253 HIV-infected and 948 HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants enrolled in a randomized trial of multivitamins (not including vitamin D) was studied. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured at 5–7 wk of age and infants were followed at monthly clinic visits until 24 mo. Physicians performed a clinical exam every 3 mo or when an illness was noted. Results: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were (means ± SDs) 18.6 ± 10.3 ng/mL and 18.1 ± 9.2 ng/mL for HIV-infected and HIV-exposed infants, respectively. Unexpectedly, serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥30 ng/mL were significantly associated with higher mortality as compared to the 20–29.9 ng/mL reference for HIV-infected (HR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.13, 5.44; P = 0.02) and HIV-exposed (HR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.67, 9.58; P < 0.01) infants after multivariate adjustment. We found no statistically significant association between 25(OH)D concentrations <10 ng/mL and mortality for HIV-infected (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.74, 2.78; P = 0.29) and HIV-exposed (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 0.60, 4.03; P = 0.36) infants. Among HIV-exposed infants, 25(OH)D concentrations ≥30 ng/mL were significantly associated with clinical [incidence ratio rate (IRR): 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06,1.70; P = 0.02] and confirmed (IRR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.71; 1.15, 2.54; P < 0.01) malaria diagnoses, whereas concentrations of <10 ng/mL were associated with oral candidiasis (IRR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.00–2.15; P = 0.046) and wasting (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.43; P < 0.01). Conclusion: The observational design of this study does not allow for causal interpretation; however, the results indicate a strong need for additional studies of vitamin D among HIV-infected and -exposed children, particularly in malaria-endemic settings. The parent trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00197730. PMID:25527666

  6. Choice-disability and HIV infection: a cross sectional study of HIV status in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal power gradients may prevent people implementing HIV prevention decisions. Among 7,464 youth aged 15-29 years in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland we documented indicators of choice-disability (low education, educational disparity with partner, experience of sexual violence, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), poverty, partner income disparity, willingness to have sex without a condom despite believing partner at risk of HIV), and risk behaviours like inconsistent use of condoms and multiple partners. In Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, 22.9, 9.1, and 26.1% women, and 8.3, 2.8, and 9.3% men, were HIV positive. Among both women and men, experience of IPV, IPV interacted with age, and partner income disparity interacted with age were associated with HIV positivity in multivariate analysis. Additional factors were low education (for women) and poverty (for men). Choice disability may be an important driver of the AIDS epidemic. New strategies are needed that favour the choice-disabled. PMID:21390539

  7. Bloodborne infections: should they be disclosed? Is differential treatment necessary?

    PubMed

    Kukka, Christine

    2004-12-01

    There are students and staff in many schools with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV infections. Should parents or guardians be expected to disclose students' bloodborne infections to school officials? Can infected students play contact sports given the increased risk of blood spills? What type of response plan should schools develop in the event of a blood spill to protect student health and privacy? This article summarizes the policies and approaches that the federal government and medical, school nursing, teacher, and parent organizations have taken on these issues. It suggests strategies school nurses can employ to protect the civil rights, privacy, and health of all students and school staff. PMID:15560729

  8. Importance of Women's Relative Socioeconomic Status within Sexual Relationships in Communication about Safer Sex and HIV/STI Prevention.

    PubMed

    Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-06-01

    The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N = 684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention. PMID:25665522

  9. Prevention needs of HIV-positive men and women awaiting release from prison.

    PubMed

    Catz, Sheryl L; Thibodeau, Laura; BlueSpruce, June; Yard, Samantha S; Seal, David W; Amico, K Rivet; Bogart, Laura M; Mahoney, Christine; Balderson, Benjamin H K; Sosman, James M

    2012-01-01

    Greater understanding of barriers to risk reduction among incarcerated HIV+ persons reentering the community is needed to inform culturally tailored interventions. This qualitative study elicited HIV prevention-related information, motivation and behavioral skills (IMB) needs of 30 incarcerated HIV+ men and women awaiting release from state prison. Unmet information needs included risk questions about viral loads, positive sexual partners, and transmission through casual contact. Social motivational barriers to risk reduction included partner perceptions that prison release increases sexual desirability, partners' negative condom attitudes, and HIV disclosure-related fears of rejection. Personal motivational barriers included depression and strong desires for sex or substance use upon release. Behavioral skills needs included initiating safer behaviors with partners with whom condoms had not been used prior to incarceration, disclosing HIV status, and acquiring clean needles or condoms upon release. Stigma and privacy concerns were prominent prison context barriers to delivering HIV prevention services during incarceration. PMID:21553252

  10. Prevention Needs of HIV-Positive Men and Women Awaiting Release from Prison

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Laura; BlueSpruce, June; Yard, Samantha S.; Seal, David W.; Amico, K. Rivet; Bogart, Laura M.; Mahoney, Christine; Balderson, Benjamin H. K.; Sosman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Greater understanding of barriers to risk reduction among incarcerated HIV+ persons reentering the community is needed to inform culturally tailored interventions. This qualitative study elicited HIV prevention-related information, motivation and behavioral skills (IMB) needs of 30 incarcerated HIV+ men and women awaiting release from state prison. Unmet information needs included risk questions about viral loads, positive sexual partners, and transmission through casual contact. Social motivational barriers to risk reduction included partner perceptions that prison release increases sexual desirability, partners’ negative condom attitudes, and HIV disclosure-related fears of rejection. Personal motivational barriers included depression and strong desires for sex or substance use upon release. Behavioral skills needs included initiating safer behaviors with partners with whom condoms had not been used prior to incarceration, disclosing HIV status, and acquiring clean needles or condoms upon release. Stigma and privacy concerns were prominent prison context barriers to delivering HIV prevention services during incarceration. PMID:21553252

  11. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Shaw, Stacey A.; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Primbetova, Sholpan; Ma, Xin; Chang, Mingway; Ismayilova, Leyla; Hunt, Tim; West, Brooke; Wu, Elwin; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). Methods We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics. Results Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants. Conclusion Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population. PMID:26967159

  12. A pilot study of immigration status, homosexual self-acceptance, social support, and HIV reduction in high risk Asian and Pacific Islander men.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, L S; Faust, M; Roque, J S; Loue, S

    1999-04-01

    This article reports the results of a cross-sectional study that was conducted to describe the sexual behavior and HIV risk reduction behaviors of homosexual and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men and to relate immigration status, self-acceptance as a homosexual, and levels of social support to the adoption of safe sexual behaviors in this population. Thirty-one gay and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men in San Diego County, California, participated. Generally high levels of knowledge about HIV and transmission risks as well as self-acceptance and social support were found. While most (84%) reported some attempts to increase condom use in the previous 6 months, 42% reported engaging in unprotected intercourse during that same time period. An inverse relationship between self-acceptance and utilization of risk reduction strategies was found. No association was found between immigration status or self-reported HIV status and level of HIV knowledge, level of HIV risk behavior, or level of HIV risk reduction efforts. The findings are discussed within the context of other social network studies and HIV prevention programs for gay and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men. PMID:16228708

  13. [Women living with AIDS and the Family Health Program professionals: disclosing the diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernanda Cristina; Nichiata, Lúcia Yasuko Izumi

    2008-09-01

    This qualitative study was carried out with women living with HIV/AIDS cared by a specialized STD/AIDS service and registered in a Family Health Program (FHP) unit. The purpose was to identify the motivations of women living with HIV/AIDS to provide private information to the FHP team. The study was performed using semi-structured interviews, analyzed with the bioethics theoretical framework. It was verified that women disclose the diagnosis to the FHP team when: the HIV/AIDS diagnosis was made in the unit; they feel there is better treatment for being HIV positive; they are bond as family members; there is trust; and women feel that they do not feel pity of them. Women so not disclose when: the professional's attitude produces fear and unreliability; they think that the FHP takes care of bedridden patients; they do not trust by fearing secret disclosure; and they already have all the care needed in the SCS. PMID:18856115

  14. HIV Screening in the Health Care Setting: Status, Barriers, and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rizza, Stacey A.; MacGowan, Robin J.; Purcell, David W.; Branson, Bernard M.; Temesgen, Zelalem

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years into the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States, an estimated 50,000 persons become infected each year: highest rates are in black and Hispanic populations and in men who have sex with men. Testing for HIV has become more widespread over time, with the highest rates of HIV testing in populations most affected by HIV. However, approximately 55% of adults in the United States have never received an HIV test. Because of the individual and community benefits of treatment for HIV, in 2006 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended routine screening for HIV infection in clinical settings. The adoption of this recommendation has been gradual owing to a variety of issues: lack of awareness and misconceptions related to HIV screening by physicians and patients, barriers at the facility and legislative levels, costs associated with testing, and conflicting recommendations concerning the value of routine screening. Reducing or eliminating these barriers is needed to increase the implementation of routine screening in clinical settings so that more people with unrecognized infection can be identified, linked to care, and provided treatment to improve their health and prevent new cases of HIV infection in the United States. PMID:22958996

  15. Intimate Partner Violence after Disclosure of HIV Test Results among Pregnant Women in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Shamu, Simukai; Zarowsky, Christina; Shefer, Tamara; Temmerman, Marleen; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV status disclosure is a central strategy in HIV prevention and treatment but in high prevalence settings women test disproportionately and most often during pregnancy. This study reports intimate partner violence (IPV) following disclosure of HIV test results by pregnant women. Methods In this cross sectional study we interviewed 1951 postnatal women who tested positive and negative for HIV about IPV experiences following HIV test disclosure, using an adapted WHO questionnaire. Multivariate regression models assessed factors associated with IPV after disclosure and controlled for factors such as previous IPV and other known behavioural factors associated with IPV. Results Over 93% (1817) disclosed the HIV results to their partners (96.5% HIV− vs. 89.3% HIV+, p<0.0001). Overall HIV prevalence was 15.3%, (95%CI:13.7–16.9), 35.2% among non-disclosers and 14.3% among disclosers. Overall 32.8% reported IPV (40.5% HIV+; 31.5% HIV− women, p = 0.004). HIV status was associated with IPV (partially adjusted 1.43: (95%CI:1.00–2.05 as well as reporting negative reactions by male partners immediately after disclosure (adjusted OR 5.83, 95%CI:4.31–7.80). Factors associated with IPV were gender inequity, past IPV, risky sexual behaviours and living with relatives. IPV after HIV disclosure in pregnancy is high but lower than and is strongly related with IPV before pregnancy (adjusted OR 6.18, 95%CI: 3.84–9.93). Conclusion The study demonstrates the interconnectedness of IPV, HIV status and its disclosure with IPV which was a common experience post disclosure of both an HIV positive and HIV negative result. Health services must give attention to the gendered nature and consequences of HIV disclosure such as enskilling women on how to determine and respond to the risks associated with disclosure. Efforts to involve men in antenatal care must also be strengthened. PMID:25350001

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia. Objectives The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and 263 HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the study. Results Analyses revealed that knowledge on disclosure was good, with 68% who thought it was important. The majority (73%) have disclosed and 60% disclosed within 1 week of receiving their results. The most common reasons for disclosure were that 32% needed help, 25% wanted his or her partner to go for testing, and 20% wanted to let relatives know. Reasons for non-disclosure were mainly the fear of gossip (79%). Seventy-three per cent had disclosed to their partners, and 23% had disclosed to more than one person. People's reactions were supportive in 43%, whereas 29% understood, 9% accepted and 6% were angry. Upon disclosure 40% received help, 24% of partners were tested, 23% received psychological support and 5% were stigmatised. Disclosure was higher amongst the married and cohabitating. Conclusion The attitude was positive with regard to knowledge of disclosure, with most participants thinking that disclosure was important and good. The attitudes and actual practices of disclosure were encouraging; however, people are disclosing only to trusted individuals in the society and the fear of stigma is still present although the actual stigma was very low.

  17. HLA-A is a Predictor of Hepatitis B e Antigen Status in HIV-Positive African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Philippa C.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Beloukas, Apostolos; Malik, Amna; Jooste, Pieter; Ogwu, Anthony; Shapiro, Roger; Riddell, Lynn; Chen, Fabian; Luzzi, Graz; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Jeffery, Katie; Jojic, Nebojsa; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J. R.; Geretti, Anna Maria; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are varied, with increased morbidity reported in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The factors driving different outcomes are not well understood, but there is increasing interest in an HLA class I effect. We therefore studied the influence of HLA class I on HBV in an African HIV-positive cohort. We demonstrated that virologic markers of HBV disease activity (hepatitis B e antigen status or HBV DNA level) are associated with HLA-A genotype. This finding supports the role of the CD8+ T-cell response in HBV control, and potentially informs future therapeutic T-cell vaccine strategies. PMID:26655301

  18. HLA-A is a Predictor of Hepatitis B e Antigen Status in HIV-Positive African Adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philippa C; Carlson, Jonathan M; Beloukas, Apostolos; Malik, Amna; Jooste, Pieter; Ogwu, Anthony; Shapiro, Roger; Riddell, Lynn; Chen, Fabian; Luzzi, Graz; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Jeffery, Katie; Jojic, Nebojsa; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J R; Geretti, Anna Maria; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    Outcomes of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are varied, with increased morbidity reported in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The factors driving different outcomes are not well understood, but there is increasing interest in an HLA class I effect. We therefore studied the influence of HLA class I on HBV in an African HIV-positive cohort. We demonstrated that virologic markers of HBV disease activity (hepatitis B e antigen status or HBV DNA level) are associated with HLA-A genotype. This finding supports the role of the CD8(+) T-cell response in HBV control, and potentially informs future therapeutic T-cell vaccine strategies. PMID:26655301

  19. Why the wait? Delayed HIV diagnosis among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Thiede, Hanne; Hawes, Stephen E; Golden, Matthew R; Hutcheson, Rebecca; Carey, James W; Kurth, Ann; Jenkins, Richard A

    2010-07-01

    We sought to identify factors associated with delayed diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; testing HIV-seropositive 6 months or more after HIV seroconversion), by comparing delayed testers to non-delayed testers (persons who were diagnosed within 6 months of HIV seroconversion), in King County, Washington among men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were recruited from HIV testing sites in the Seattle area. Delayed testing status was determined by the Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion or a self-reported previous HIV-negative test. Quantitative data on sociodemographic characteristics, health history, and drug-use and sexual behaviors were collected via computer-assisted self-interviews. Qualitative semi-structured interviews regarding testing and risk behaviors were also conducted. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with delayed diagnosis. Content analysis was used to establish themes in the qualitative data. Out of the 77 HIV-seropositive MSM in this sample, 39 (51%) had evidence of delayed diagnosis. Factors associated with delayed testing included being African-American, homeless, "out" to 50% or less people about male-male sex, and having only one sex partner in the past 6 months. Delayed testers often cited HIV-related sickness as their reason for testing and fear and wanting to be in denial of their HIV status as reasons for not testing. Delayed testers frequently did not identify as part of the MSM community, did not recognize that they were at risk for HIV acquisition, and did not feel a responsibility to themselves or others to disclose their HIV status. This study illustrates the need to further explore circumstances around delayed diagnosis in MSM and develop outreach methods and prevention messages targeted specifically to this potentially highly marginalized population in order to detect HIV infections earlier, provide HIV care, and prevent new infections. PMID:20186493

  20. Impact of HIV Status on Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Six Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Gebreslassie; Asmamaw, Getachew; Hussen, Muktar; Hailemariam, Mengistu Z.; Asegu, Demissie; Astatkie, Ayalew; Amsalu, Anteneh G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite implementation of different strategies, the burden and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A six-year retrospective data (from September 2008 to August 2014) of tuberculosis patients (n = 1649) registered at the directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) clinic of Arsi Negele Health Center was reviewed. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of HIV status separately on default/failure and death in relation to those who were successfully treated. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to check the presence and strength of association between TB treatment outcome and HIV status and other independent variables. Results Out of the 1649 TB patients, 94.7% (1562) have been tested for HIV of whom 156(10%) were HIV co-infected. The mean (standard deviation) age of the patients was 28.5(15.5) years. The majority were new TB cases (96.7%), male (53.7%), urban (54.7%), and had smear negative pulmonary TB (44.1%). Overall, the treatment success rate of TB patients with or without HIV was 87.3%. Using cure/completion as reference, patients without known HIV status had significantly higher odds of default /failure [aOR, 4.26; 95%CI, 1.684–10.775] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.92; 95%CI, 1.545–5.521] whereas those who tested positive for HIV had a significantly higher odds of death [aOR, 6.72; 95%CI, 3.704–12.202] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.02; 95%CI, 1.111–3.680]. Conclusion Overall, treatment outcome and HIV testing coverage for TB patients is promising to reach the WHO target in the study area. However, default/failure among patients without known HIV status, and higher rate of mortality among HIV positive TB patients and transfer-out cases deserves concern. Therefore further prospective studies on quality of services, socioeconomics and psychology of this group should be conducted. PMID:27096159

  1. Sexual negotiation and HIV serodisclosure among men who have sex with men with their online and offline partners.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Keith J; Oakes, J Michael; Rosser, B R Simon

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine online profile and in-person communication patterns and their associations with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in online and offline partnerships between men who have sex with men (MSM) who have never tested for HIV ("Never Tested"), had been tested at least once for HIV ("Tested"), and had tested positive for HIV. Between September and November 2005, 2,716 MSM participated in a one-time online survey. Although 75% and 72% of the Tested and Never Tested groups disclosed a HIV-negative status in all of their online profiles, 17% of HIV-positive participants did so. Exchanging HIV status information was highest among the Tested group, while HIV-positive men were most likely to negotiate UAI. Serodisclosure was not an independent predictor of UAI, although making an explicit agreement to engage in UAI was. Sexual communication and risk-taking patterns differed by testing status. Explicit agreements to avoid UAI were associated with reduced sexual risk-taking. Misrepresentation of HIV status is an identified challenge for HIV prevention. PMID:18649141

  2. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate

  3. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

  4. Health care utilization and access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and care and treatment services in a rural area with high HIV prevalence, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ackers, Marta-Louise; Hightower, Allen; Obor, David; Ofware, Peter; Ngere, Lilian; Kubaje, Adazu; Laserson, Kayla F

    2014-02-01

    We present health and demographic surveillance system data to assess associations with health care utilization and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) service receipt in a high HIV prevalence area of western Kenya. Eighty-six percent of 15,302 residents indicated a facility/clinician for routine medical services; 60% reported active (within the past year) attendance. Only 34% reported a previous HIV test, and self-reported HIV prevalence was 6%. Active attendees lived only slightly closer to their reported service site (2.8 versus 3.1 km; P < 0.001) compared with inactive attendees. Multivariate analysis showed that younger respondents (< 30 years of age) and active and inactive attendees were more likely to report an HIV test compared with non-attendees; men were less likely to report HIV testing. Despite traveling farther for HIV services (median distance = 4.4 km), 77% of those disclosing HIV infection reported HIV care enrollment. Men and younger respondents were less likely to enroll in HIV care. Socioeconomic status was not associated with HIV service use. Distance did not appear to be the major barrier to service receipt. The health and demographic surveillance system data identified patterns of service use that are useful for future program planning. PMID:24323517

  5. HIV Infection Status, Immunodeficiency, and the Incidence of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), including basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is not well documented among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. Methods We identified 6560 HIV+ and 36 821 HIV-negative (HIV−) non-Hispanic white adults who were enrolled and followed up in Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 1996 to 2008. The first biopsy-proven NMSCs diagnosed during follow-up were identified from pathology records. Poisson models estimated rate ratios that compared HIV+ (overall and stratified by recent CD4 T-cell counts and serum HIV RNA levels) with HIV− subjects and were adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, obesity diagnosis history, and census-based household income. Sensitivity analyses were adjusted for outpatient visits (ie, a proxy for screening). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The NMSC incidence rate was 1426 and 766 per 100 000 person-years for HIV+ and HIV− individuals, respectively, which corresponds with an adjusted rate ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9 to 2.3). Similarly, the adjusted rate ratio for HIV+ vs HIV− subjects was 2.6 (95% CI = 2.1 to 3.2) for SCCs, and it was 2.1 (95% CI = 1.8 to 2.3) for BCCs. There was a statistically significant trend of higher rate ratios with lower recent CD4 counts among HIV+ subjects compared with HIV− subjects for SCCs (P trend < .001). Adjustment for number of outpatient visits did not affect the results. Conclusion HIV+ subjects had a twofold higher incidence rate of NMSCs compared with HIV− subjects. SCCs but not BCCs were associated with immunodeficiency. PMID:23291375

  6. Stigmatization of patients with HIV/AIDS among doctors and nurses in Belize.

    PubMed

    Andrewin, Aisha; Chien, Li-Yin

    2008-11-01

    This study, conducted from August to September 2007, utilized a population-based survey to investigate stigmatizing attitudes and acts of discrimination against HIV/AIDS patients among doctors and nurses working in public hospitals in Belize. A total of 230 subjects (81.0%) completed the survey. The mean age was 36.8 years; 75% were women; 61% were nurses; 74% were Belizean. Stigmatization was greatest for "attitudes of blame/judgment"; disclosing a patient's HIV/AIDS status to colleagues was the most frequent act of discrimination (29%). Formal HIV/AIDS training was significantly associated with less stigmatization for "attitudes towards imposed measures" (p < .01); "attitudes of blame/judgment" (p < 0.05); and testing without consent (p < 0.05). Doctors showed more stigmatization in "attitudes towards imposed measures," conducted HIV tests without consent and disclosed patient status to colleagues more frequently than nurses (p < 0.05) while nurses gave differential care to patients based on HIV status more frequently (p < 0.01) than doctors. Female and religious health care workers (HCWs) were more stigmatizing in their "attitudes of blame/judgment" than male and nonreligious HCWs (p < 0.05). Cuban HCWs were more stigmatizing in their "attitudes toward imposed measures" and were less comfortable dealing with HIV/AIDS patients than their Belizean counterparts (p < 0.01). Older age was associated with less frequent disclosure of patients' HIV status (p < 0.05). HIV/AIDS training that incorporates stigma reduction strategies tailored to the target groups identified is needed. Additionally, we recommend that the effectiveness of national HIV/AIDS policies be investigated. PMID:19025484

  7. ‘I am doing fine only because I have not told anyone’: the necessity of concealment in the lives of people living with HIV in India

    PubMed Central

    George, Mathew Sunil; Lambert, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In HIV prevention and care programmes, disclosure of status by HIV-positive individuals is generally encouraged to contain the infection and provide adequate support to the person concerned. Lack of disclosure is generally framed as a barrier to preventive behaviours and accessing support. The assumption that disclosure is beneficial is also reflected in studies that aim to identify determinants of disclosure and recommend individual-level measures to promote disclosure. However, in contexts where HIV infection is stigmatised and there is fear of rejection and discrimination among those living with HIV, concealment of status becomes a way to try and regain as much as possible the life that was disrupted by the discovery of HIV infection. In this study of HIV-positive women and children in India, concealment was considered essential by individuals and families of those living with HIV to re-establish and maintain their normal lives in an environment where stigma and discrimination were prevalent. This paper describes why women and care givers of children felt the need to conceal HIV status, the various ways in which people tried to do so and the implications for treatment of people living with HIV. We found that while women were generally willing to disclose their status to their husband or partner, they were very keen to conceal their status from all others, including family members. Parents and carers with an HIV-positive child were not willing to disclose this status to the child or to others. Understanding the different rationales for concealment would help policy makers and programme managers to develop more appropriate care management strategies and train care providers to assist clients in accessing care and support without disrupting their lives. PMID:25706959

  8. Stigma, disclosure, and psychological functioning among HIV-infected and non-infected African-American women.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heather Jordon; Lindner, Gretchen; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    HIV is on the rise among African-American women. AIDS-related stigma plays an important role in the lives of HIV-infected and non-infected African-American women. Among HIV-infected women, the decision to disclose HIV seropositive status is likely affected by perceived stigma. The first purpose of the study is to examine perceived AIDS-related stigma over a six year period and across two groups of African-American women: HIV-infected and non-infected. The second purpose of the study examines whether disclosure of HIV seropositive status moderates the relationship between stigma and psychological functioning. Participants were 98 HIV-infected and 146 non-infected African-American women, between the ages of 18 and 50. Data were collected at four points across six years. Results indicated that HIV-infected women perceived a significantly higher level of AIDS-related stigma than non-infected women at all four assessments. Perceptions of stigma did not significantly change over time for the entire sample or within either HIV group. Among HIV-infected women, as the level of perceived stigma increased, the level of disclosure and psychological functioning decreased. Regarding the hypothesized moderating relationship, at high, but not low, levels of disclosure, the relationship between stigma and distress was significant. Implications for health professionals' work with HIV-infected African-American women around the issue of disclosure and stigma are discussed. PMID:14750776

  9. HIV testing in re-education through labour camps in Guangxi Autonomous Region, China (a cross-sectional survey)

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Reekie, Joanne; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Jianghong; Zhang, Lei; Wand, Handan; Donovan, Basil; Butler, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV testing is mandatory in re-education-through-labour camps (laojiaosuo) in China yet no studies have reported on the process. Methods The survey response rate was 100% although 29 detainees were excluded because they were under 18 years of age. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in three labour camps in Guangxi, located in the south-western region of China. Results Of the 755 detainees surveyed, 725 (96%) reported having a blood test in the labour camps of whom 493 (68%) thought this included an HIV test. 61 detainees self-reported they were HIV infected, their status confirmed by medical records, if available. Of these, 53 (87%) recalled receiving post-test HIV education, and 15 (25%) were currently receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy. Pretest education on HIV was provided to 233/725 (32%) detainees. The study further reports on detainees’ reactions and feelings towards non-disclosure and disclosure of their HIV test results in the labour camps. Conclusions Mandatory testing is almost universal in the labour camps although a proportion of detainees were unaware that this included an HIV test. HIV test results should be disclosed to all labour camp detainees to reduce their distress of not knowing and prevent misconceptions about their HIV status. Labour camps provide another opportunity to implement universal treatment (‘Test and Treat’) to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:25739879

  10. To tell or not to tell: disclosure to children and family amongst Thai women living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2016-03-01

    HIV disclosure is a complex phenomenon. The choice of disclosure or non-disclosure is a reflection of how each HIV-positive person experiences and deals with HIV/AIDS in their everyday life. In this study, we qualitatively explore the experiences of disclosing HIV status to family members and children among HIV-positive women living in Thailand. Due to fear of stigma and discrimination, the women decided to tell only a few people, usually their significant others including parents and children. Although most women received good support from their family members, some were rejected and discriminated against by their family members. This stems from lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among family members. Women found disclosure to their children a difficult decision to make. Only some women told their children about their HIV status. They wished to protect their children from emotional burden. This protection also appeared in their attempts to prepare their children for dealing with HIV/AIDS. Support from family members played a major role in the lives of HIV-positive women. Although disclosure has been promoted as a means of ending stigma and discrimination, our data suggested that disclosure may not be positive for some women. This has implications for health promotion in HIV health care. Healthcare providers need to appreciate the ramifications of promoting disclosure to HIV-positive women who are mothers. PMID:25034726

  11. Number of Drinks to "Feel a Buzz" by HIV Status and Viral Load in Men

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Fiellin, David A.; Tate, Janet P.; Cook, Robert L; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bryant, Kendall J.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Gordon, Adam J.; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Maisto, Stephen; Justice, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of HIV and its treatment on the effects of alcohol remain unclear. Blood alcohol concentrations have been noted to be higher in HIV infected individuals prior to antiretroviral initiation. Our goal was to compare number of drinks to “feel a buzz or high” among HIV infected and uninfected men, stratified by viral load (VL) suppression. Data includes 1,478 HIV infected and 1,170 uninfected men in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study who endorsed current drinking. Mean (SD) number of drinks to feel a buzz was 3.1 (1.7) overall. In multivariable analyses, HIV infected men reported a lower mean number of drinks to feel a buzz compared to uninfected men (coef = −0.14 for VL<500; −0.34 for VL>500; p<.05). Men with HIV, especially those with a detectable viral load, reported fewer drinks to feel a buzz. Future research on the relationship between alcohol and HIV should consider the role of VL suppression. PMID:26936030

  12. Number of Drinks to "Feel a Buzz" by HIV Status and Viral Load in Men.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Kathleen A; Fiellin, David A; Tate, Janet P; Cook, Robert L; Braithwaite, R Scott; Bryant, Kendall J; Edelman, E Jennifer; Gordon, Adam J; Kraemer, Kevin L; Maisto, Stephen A; Justice, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    The impact of HIV and its treatment on the effects of alcohol remain unclear. Blood alcohol concentrations have been noted to be higher in HIV infected individuals prior to antiretroviral initiation. Our goal was to compare number of drinks to "feel a buzz or high" among HIV infected and uninfected men, stratified by viral load (VL) suppression. Data includes 1478 HIV infected and 1170 uninfected men in the veterans aging cohort study who endorsed current drinking. Mean (SD) number of drinks to feel a buzz was 3.1 (1.7) overall. In multivariable analyses, HIV infected men reported a lower mean number of drinks to feel a buzz compared to uninfected men (coef = -14 for VL < 500; -34 for VL ≥ 500; p ≤ .05). Men with HIV, especially those with a detectable VL, reported fewer drinks to feel a buzz. Future research on the relationship between alcohol and HIV should consider the role of VL suppression. PMID:26936030

  13. Disclosure of their Status to Youth with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Pinzón-Iregui, Maria Claudia; Abreu-Pérez, Rosa; Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Navarro, Christi M.; Ibanez, Gladys; Soto, Solange; Halpern, Mina; Nicholas, Stephen W.; Dévieux, Jessy G.

    2014-01-01

    A mixed-methods study was conducted to determine the proportion of HIV-infected children who knew their status, identify characteristics associated with children’s knowledge of their status, and describe caregivers’ and adolescents’ experiences relevant to disclosure in the Dominican Republic (DR). Of 327 patients aged 6–18 years treated in the principal DR pediatric HIV facilities, 74 (22.6%) knew their status. Patients aged 13 years or older and/or who had participated in non-clinical activities for HIV-infected children were more likely to know their status. Caregivers who had disclosed cited healthcare providers’ advice, children’s desire to know and concerns that children might initiate sexual activity before knowing or discover their status by accidental or malicious disclosure. Non-disclosing caregivers worried that children would be traumatized by disclosure and/or stigmatized if they revealed it to others. Adolescents supported disclosure by 10–12 years of age, considered withholding of children’s HIV diagnosis ill-advised, and recommended a disclosure process focused initially on promoting non-stigmatizing attitudes about HIV. PMID:25186784

  14. Gender differences in HIV disclosure, stigma, and perceptions of health.

    PubMed

    Geary, Cindy; Parker, Warren; Rogers, Susan; Haney, Erica; Njihia, Carolyne; Haile, Amaha; Walakira, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    HIV disclosure is a gateway to HIV prevention - particularly among couples living in regions severely affected by the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study utilizes data collected from 862 people living with HIV across three countries (Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Uganda) in 2011 to determine the role of partner disclosure on self-reported health perceptions and changes in sexual risk behavior. The study's secondary aims are to understand whether or not internalized stigma mediates this relationship and if there is a different pattern of results by gender. The multivariate analysis reveals that the three key HIV-related independent variables, belonging to a support group, doing volunteer work, and disclosing to one's spouse or partner, were significantly associated with lower levels of internalized stigma. Internalized stigma was associated with self-perceptions of poorer health for both women and men, with women reporting higher levels of internalized stigma than men. Disclosure to spouse was positively associated with perceptions of better health for women but not for men. For men, doing HIV-related volunteer work and disclosing their status to their spouse were positively associated with self-reported changes in sexual risk behavior, although stigma was not found to mediate this relationship. Findings from this study suggest that disclosure and stigma have gender-specific effects on individual well-being and changes in sexual risk behaviors. As such, programs must address gender inequity in disclosure patterns and stigma to enhance prevention efforts. PMID:24921155

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sexual Network Mixing: A Log-Linear Analysis of HIV Status by Partnership and Sexual Behavior Among Most at-Risk MSM.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Williams, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    Mixing patterns within sexual networks have been shown to have an effect on HIV transmission, both within and across groups. This study examined sexual mixing patterns involving HIV-unknown status and risky sexual behavior conditioned on assortative/dissortative mixing by race/ethnicity. The sample used for this study consisted of drug-using male sex workers and their male sex partners. A log-linear analysis of 257 most at-risk MSM and 3,072 sex partners was conducted. The analysis found two significant patterns. HIV-positive most at-risk Black MSM had a strong tendency to have HIV-unknown Black partners (relative risk, RR = 2.91, p < 0.001) and to engage in risky sexual behavior (RR = 2.22, p < 0.001). White most at-risk MSM with unknown HIV status also had a tendency to engage in risky sexual behavior with Whites (RR = 1.72, p < 0.001). The results suggest that interventions that target the most at-risk MSM and their sex partners should account for specific sexual network mixing patterns by HIV status. PMID:25081598

  16. Telling Others You Are HIV Positive

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language: Fact Sheet 204 Telling Others You are HIV Positive WHAT ARE THE ISSUES? GENERAL GUIDELINES SPECIAL ... SPECIAL SITUATIONS People You May Have Exposed to HIV: It can be very difficult to disclose your ...

  17. Characteristics of HIV-infected adolescents enrolled in a disclosure intervention trial in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Rachel C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Marete, Irene; Mwangi, Ann; Inui, Thomas S.; McAteer, Carole I.; Nyandiko, Winstone M.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of one’s own HIV status is essential for long-term disease management, but there are few data on how disclosure of HIV status to infected children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with clinical and psychosocial health outcomes. We conducted a detailed baseline assessment of the disclosure status, medication adherence, HIV stigma, depression, emotional and behavioral difficulties, and quality of life among a cohort of Kenyan children enrolled in an intervention study to promote disclosure of HIV status. Among 285 caregiver–child dyads enrolled in the study, children’s mean age was 12.3 years. Caregivers were more likely to report that the child knew his/her diagnosis (41%) compared to self-reported disclosure by children (31%). Caregivers of disclosed children reported significantly more positive views about disclosure compared to caregivers of non-disclosed children, who expressed fears of disclosure related to the child being too young to understand (75%), potential psychological trauma for the child (64%), and stigma and discrimination if the child told others (56%). Overall, the vast majority of children scored within normal ranges on screenings for behavioral and emotional difficulties, depression, and quality of life, and did not differ by whether or not the child knew his/her HIV status. A number of factors were associated with a child’s knowledge of his/her HIV diagnosis in multivariate regression, including older age (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.1), better WHO disease stage (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.4), and fewer reported caregiver-level adherence barriers (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.4). While a minority of children in this cohort knew their HIV status and caregivers reported significant barriers to disclosure including fears about negative emotional impacts, we found that disclosure was not associated with worse psychosocial outcomes. PMID:26616121

  18. Characteristics of HIV-infected adolescents enrolled in a disclosure intervention trial in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Rachel C; Scanlon, Michael L; Marete, Irene; Mwangi, Ann; Inui, Thomas S; McAteer, Carole I; Nyandiko, Winstone M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of one's own HIV status is essential for long-term disease management, but there are few data on how disclosure of HIV status to infected children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with clinical and psychosocial health outcomes. We conducted a detailed baseline assessment of the disclosure status, medication adherence, HIV stigma, depression, emotional and behavioral difficulties, and quality of life among a cohort of Kenyan children enrolled in an intervention study to promote disclosure of HIV status. Among 285 caregiver-child dyads enrolled in the study, children's mean age was 12.3 years. Caregivers were more likely to report that the child knew his/her diagnosis (41%) compared to self-reported disclosure by children (31%). Caregivers of disclosed children reported significantly more positive views about disclosure compared to caregivers of non-disclosed children, who expressed fears of disclosure related to the child being too young to understand (75%), potential psychological trauma for the child (64%), and stigma and discrimination if the child told others (56%). Overall, the vast majority of children scored within normal ranges on screenings for behavioral and emotional difficulties, depression, and quality of life, and did not differ by whether or not the child knew his/her HIV status. A number of factors were associated with a child's knowledge of his/her HIV diagnosis in multivariate regression, including older age (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), better WHO disease stage (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.4), and fewer reported caregiver-level adherence barriers (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4). While a minority of children in this cohort knew their HIV status and caregivers reported significant barriers to disclosure including fears about negative emotional impacts, we found that disclosure was not associated with worse psychosocial outcomes. PMID:26616121

  19. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice

    PubMed Central

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the “Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law.” This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that “[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV.” As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  20. Persistent HIV Type 1 Seronegative Status Is Associated With Lower CD8+ T-Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Peter J; Mehrotra, Megha L; Shaw, Brian I; Leadabrand, Kaitlyn S; Milush, Jeffrey M; York, Vanessa A; Defechereux, Patricia; Grant, Robert M; Kallás, Esper G; Nixon, Douglas F

    2016-02-15

    We leveraged data from the Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx), a global trial of preexposure chemoprophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, to compare T-cell activation between those who remained negative for HIV-1 and those who became infected during the trial. The frequency of CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) CD8(+) T cells was greater in those who seroconverted, relative to the frequency in those who remained uninfected (1.30% vs 0.82%, respectively; P = .005). This translated to an odds ratio of 4.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.54-11.78) for the association between CD8(+) T-cell activation and infection with HIV-1. T-cell activation may be a biomarker for elevated HIV-1 infection risk. PMID:26310308

  1. Geographically Structured Populations of Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii in Asia Correlate with HIV Status and Show a Clonal Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Simwami, Sitali; Fisher, Matthew C.; Wahyuningsih, Retno; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Ikeda, Reiko; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Khan, Ziauddin; Ip, Margaret; Imran, Darma; Sjam, Ridhawati; Sriburee, Pojana; Liao, Wanqing; Chaicumpar, Kunyaluk; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Meyer, Wieland; Trilles, Luciana; van Iersel, Leo J. J.; Meis, Jacques F.; Klaassen, Corné H. W.; Boekhout, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is an important fungal disease in Asia with an estimated 140,000 new infections annually the majority of which occurs in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A) is the major causative agent of this disease. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using the ISHAM MLST consensus scheme for the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex was used to analyse nucleotide polymorphisms among 476 isolates of this pathogen obtained from 8 Asian countries. Population genetic analysis showed that the Asian C. neoformans var. grubii population shows limited genetic diversity and demonstrates a largely clonal mode of reproduction when compared with the global MLST dataset. HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded. However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates. Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia. PMID:24019866

  2. HIV/STI risk by migrant status among workers in an urban high-end entertainment centre in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jianfang; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Zhou, Feng; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale internal migration in China may be an important mechanism for the spread of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of the risk behaviours of migrants. We conducted a self-administered survey among 724 employees of a high-end entertainment centre in Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of hometown of origin (Kunshan city, elsewhere in Jiangsu Province, or another province in China) and consecutive years living in Kunshan with measures of HIV/STI risk behaviour. We found that increased time living in Kunshan was associated with lower odds of using condoms as contraception [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–0.95] and consistent condom use with a casual partner (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47–0.93), after controlling for gender, marital status age and income. The odds of having had an STI were significantly lower for Kunshan natives than those originally from outside provinces (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.96), but increasing years living in Kunshan was not related to lower risk for an STI. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that migrants living far from home participate in higher risk behaviour than locals. Findings suggest that adaptation to local culture over time may increase HIV/STI risk behaviours, a troublesome finding. PMID:21389063

  3. Intimate relationships in young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a qualitative study of strategies used to manage HIV disclosure.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Clare; Evangeli, Michael; Frize, Graham; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of children born with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) are surviving into late adolescence and early adulthood. At this developmental stage, forming and sustaining intimate relationships is important. Young adults with PAH face both normative challenges and additional, HIV-related, relationship stressors. One key issue is the decision about whether and how to share their HIV status with others. Being able to disclose one's HIV status to sexual partners may reduce the risk of onward HIV transmission but is associated with the fear of rejection. There has been little research on how young people with PAH manage such disclosure-related stressors in intimate relationships. This study examined how disclosure challenges are managed by young adults with PAH in the UK within their intimate relationships. Seven participants (five females and two males) currently or previously in an intimate relationship, aged 18-23 years, were recruited from a UK hospital clinic. The majority of participants were of sub-Saharan African origins. They took part in in-depth interviews, with data analysed according to the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four themes were elicited: (1) decisions about starting, continuing or resuming relationships shaped by disclosure, (2) disclosing early to avoid the pain of future rejection, (3) using condoms to avoid disclosure and (4) testing likely partner reactions to disclosure. The study revealed the significant extent to which HIV disclosure affected the experience of relationships in this population. Interventions to support adolescents and young adults with PAH to disclose to their partners should be developed alongside guidance for professionals. Future research should include older samples of adults with PAH and studies in sub-Saharan African settings. PMID:26444656

  4. Clinical characteristics and risk behavior as a function of HIV status among heroin users enrolled in methadone treatment in northern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Methadone treatment was introduced in Taiwan in 2006 as a harm-reduction program in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is endemic among Taiwanese heroin users. The present study was aimed at examining the clinical and behavioral characteristics of methadone patients in northern Taiwan according to their HIV status. Methods The study was conducted at four methadone clinics. Participants were patients who had undergone methadone treatment at the clinics and who voluntarily signed a consent form. Between August and November 2008, each participant completed a face-to-face interview that included questions on demographics, risk behavior, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. Data on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, methadone dosage, and morphine in the urine were retrieved from patient files on the clinical premises, with permission of the participants. Results Of 576 participants, 71 were HIV positive, and 514 had hepatitis C. There were significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups on source of treatment payment, HCV infection, urine test results, methadone dosage, and treatment duration. The results indicate that HIV-negative heroin users were more likely to have sexual intercourse and not use condoms during the 6 months prior to the study. A substantial percent of the sample reported anxiety (21.0%), depression (27.2%), memory loss (32.7%), attempted suicide (32.7%), and administration of psychiatric medications (16.1%). There were no significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients on psychiatric symptoms or quality of life. Conclusions HIV-positive IDUs were comorbid with HCV, indicating the need to refer both HIV- and HCV-infected individuals for treatment in methadone clinics. Currently, there is a gap between psychiatric/psychosocial services and patient symptoms, and more integrated medical services should be provided to heroin-using populations. PMID:21473789

  5. Tackling HIV through robust diagnostics in the developing world: current status and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Desai, Darash; Wu, Grace; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2011-01-21

    Over the last thirty years, the world has seen HIV circulate the globe, affecting 33 million people to date and killing 2 million people a year. The disease has affected developed and developing countries alike, and in the U.S., remains one of the top ten leading causes of death. Many regions of the world are highly impacted by this disease, including sub-Saharan Africa, South and South-East Asia, and Eastern Europe. Fortunately, multilateral, global efforts, along with successful developments in diagnostic tools and anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) have successfully curbed the spread of HIV over the last ten years. In spite of this fact, access to HIV treatment and preventive healthcare is varying and limited in developing countries. A lack of healthcare infrastructure, financial support, and healthcare workers are some logistical factors that are responsible. HIV stigmatization, discrimination, and inadequate education pose additional social challenges that are hindering countries from advancing in HIV prevention. This review focuses on current technological tools that are used for HIV diagnosis and ongoing research that is aimed at addressing the conditions in low-resource settings. Recent developments in microfluidic applications and mobile health technologies are promising approaches to building a compact, portable, and robust device that can provide information-rich, real-time diagnoses. We also discuss the role that governments, healthcare workers, and even researchers can play in order to increase the acceptance of newly introduced devices and treatments in rural communities. PMID:21125097

  6. Disclosure of HIV serostatus among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tam, Melanie; Amzel, Anouk; Phelps, B Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Disclosure of one's HIV status can help to improve uptake and retention in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services; yet, it remains a challenge for many women. This systematic review evaluates disclosure rates among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa, timing of disclosure, and factors affecting decisions to disclose. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevant studies published between January 2000 and April 2014. Rates of HIV serostatus disclosure to any person ranged from 5.0% to 96.7% (pooled estimate: 67.0%, 95% CI: 55.7%-78.3%). Women who chose to disclose their status did so more often to their partners (pooled estimate: 63.9%; 95% CI: 56.7%-71.1%) than to family members (pooled estimate: 40.1; 95% CI: 26.2%-54.0%), friends (pooled estimate: 6.4%; 95% CI: 3.0%-9.8%), or religious leaders (pooled estimate: 7.1%; 95% CI: 4.3%-9.8%). Most women disclosed prior to delivery. Decisions to disclose were associated with factors related to the woman herself (younger age, first pregnancies, knowing someone with HIV, lower levels of internalized stigma, and lower levels of avoidant coping), the partner (prior history of HIV testing and higher levels of educational attainment), their partnership (no history of domestic violence and financial independence), and the household (higher quality of housing and residing without co-spouses or extended family members). Interventions to encourage and support women in safely disclosing their status are needed. PMID:25636060

  7. Nondisclosure of HIV Status in a Clinical Trial Setting: Antiretroviral Drug Screening Can Help Distinguish Between Newly Diagnosed and Previously Diagnosed HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Wang, Lei; Cummings, Vanessa; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Breaud, Autumn; Griffith, Sam; Buchbinder, Susan; Shoptaw, Steven; del Rio, Carlos; Magnus, Manya; Mannheimer, Sharon; Fields, Sheldon D.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Wheeler, Darrell P.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Fogel, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    In The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study, 155 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men reported no prior HIV diagnosis; 83 of those men had HIV RNA levels of <1000 copies/mL at enrollment. Antiretroviral drug testing revealed that 65 of the 83 (78.3%) men were on antiretroviral treatment. Antiretroviral drug testing can help distinguish between newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed HIV infection. PMID:24092804

  8. When Should Genome Researchers Disclose Misattributed Parentage?

    PubMed

    Mandava, Amulya; Millum, Joseph; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2015-01-01

    Researchers need a decision-making framework about disclosing a finding of misattributed parentage that accounts for nonclinical factors like the effects of personal identity and familial relationships. PMID:25677868

  9. Living positively: the experiences of Thai women living with HIV/AIDS in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Haritavorn, Niphattra; Kiatying-Angsulee, Niyada

    2012-04-01

    Living with an incurable illness such as HIV/AIDS is a stressful experience. However, many HIV-positive individuals are able to maintain their emotional well-being. This begs the question of what strategies these individuals employ to allow them to do so. In this article, we examine how Thai women living with HIV/AIDS learned about their health status, what feelings they had, and how they dealt with the illness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women in central Thailand. The women adopted several strategies to deal with their HIV status, including taking care of themselves, accepting their own faith, disclosing their HIV status to family, and joining AIDS support groups. These strategies can be situated within the "living positively" discourse, which helped to create a sense of optimism to combat the HIV epidemic among the women. Additionally, the acceptance of their HIV status played an essential role in the meaning-making process because it assisted the women in sustaining the equilibrium of their emotional well-being. PMID:21890710

  10. Acceptability of Couples’ Voluntary HIV Testing Among HIV-infected Patients in Care and Their HIV-negative Partners in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kristin M.; Canary, Lauren; Workowski, Kimberly; Lockard, Annie; Jones, Jeb; Sullivan, Patrick; Hills, Katherine; Fofana, Kadija; Stephenson, Rob; Allen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Couples’ voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CHTC) is an HIV risk reduction strategy not widely available in the US. Methods: We assessed willingness to participate in CHTC among US HIV-infected clinic patients via tablet-based survey and among HIV-negative persons with HIV-infected partners in care via mixed-method phone interviews. Results: Most of the N=64 HIV-infected partners surveyed were men (89%), on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (92%), and many self-identified homosexual (62%). We observed high levels of willingness to participate in CHTC (64%) among HIV-infected partners. Reasons for not wanting to participate included perceived lack of need (26%), desire to self-disclose their status (26%), and fear of being asked sensitive questions with their partner present (17%). HIV-infected partners were interested in discussing ART (48%), other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (44%), and relationship agreements like monogamy (31%) during CHTC sessions. All N=15 HIV-negative partners interviewed were men, most identified as homosexual (73%), and about half (54%) reported consistent condom use with HIV-infected partners. We observed high levels of willingness to participate in CHTC (87%) among HIV-negative partners, who were also interested in discussing ART (47%), other STIs (47%), mental health services (40%), and relationship agreements (33%). Most negative partners (93%) indicated that they believed their HIV-infected partner was virally suppressed, but in the event that they were not, many (73%) were willing to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Conclusion: These results indicate that CHTC for serodiscordant couples is acceptable and should emphasize aspects most pertinent to these couples, such as discussion of ART/PrEP, STIs, and relationship agreements. PMID:27014393

  11. HIV disclosure as practice and public policy

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Barry D.; Corriveau, Patrice; Elliott, Richard; Globerman, Jason; English, Ken; Rourke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Responses to the largest surveys of HIV-positive people in Ontario show that most either disclose to or do not have partners who are HIV-negative or of unknown status. Non-disclosure strategies and assumptions are reported by relatively small sets of people with some variation according to employment status, sexual orientation, gender, ethnicity, and having had a casual partner. Interviews with 122 people living with HIV show that disclosure is an undertaking fraught with emotional pitfalls complicated by personal histories of having misread cues or having felt deceived leading up to their own sero-conversion, then having to negotiate a stigmatized status with new people. In gay communities, constructions of the self as individual actors in a marketplace of risk co-exist with the sexual etiquette developed throughout the AIDS era of care of the self and other through safer sex. Among heterosexual populations, notions of responsibility show some divergence by gender. The findings of this study suggest that the heightened pressure of criminal sanction on decision-making about disclosure in personal interactions does not address difficulties in HIV transmission and is unlikely to result in enhanced prevention. PMID:26339127

  12. Status of HIV infection among the pregnant women attending in outpatient department.

    PubMed

    Khanam, N N; Hussain, M A; Ferdous, J; Kulsum, S U; Alam, H; Chakma, B; Zabin, F

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been spreading rapidly in the developing countries and vertical transmission also taking place. This study has been done to find out the prevalence of HIV infection among the pregnant women, so that necessity of routine screening test can be identified. It is a cross sectional study. Five hundred two pregnant women were included. Three ml venous blood was taken and then HIV screening test was done by ELISA method. All reactive tests were confirmed by Western blot antibody testing. The positive cases were followed up and necessary treatment was given. Delivery was conducted in this hospital. Baby's blood was tested to see vertical transmission after 18 months. Most of the subject were educated housewife, mean age was 25 years. Six (6%) husband was overseas service holder, 12% were smoker and 1.6% had drug addiction. Eight (8%) subject had previous history of blood transfusion and 49% subject or her husband had history of surgery or got parental therapy. 2% subject gave the history of familial disharmony and 2% had multiple sex partners. HIV infection was found in 2 patients (0.4%). Both of them got infection from their husband. One husband was over seas service holder and another one was injecting drug user. For the prevention of spread, reduction of vertical transmission and providing early management to the positive patient all pregnant women should be screened for HIV routinely. PMID:21240164

  13. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing. PMID:26607926

  14. Pilot Trial of a Disclosure Intervention for HIV+ Mothers: The TRACK Program

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D.; Payne, Diana L.; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Teaching, Raising, And Communicating with Kids (TRACK) program was a longitudinal pilot-trial intervention designed to assist mothers living with HIV (MLH) to disclose their serostatus to their young children (age 6 – 12 years). Method MLH and child dyads (N = 80 dyads) were recruited and randomized to intervention or control; the intervention group had three individual sessions and one follow-up phone call. The sessions focused on preparing MLH for disclosure through behavioral exercises utilizing Derlaga’s model of HIV-disclosure. Both MLH and their child were assessed across multiple time-points (baseline, 3-, 6-, and 9-months) regarding disclosure of HIV status, and specific outcome variables (i.e., relationship context, mother’s health, child’s mental health, and family outcomes). Results MLH in the intervention group were six times more likely to disclose their HIV status than those in the control group (O.R. 6.33, 95% C.I.: 1.64 – 24.45), with 33% disclosing in the intervention group compared to 7.3% in the control group. MLHs in the intervention group showed increases in disclosure self-efficacy across time, increased communication with their child, and improvement in emotional functioning. Children of MLHs in the intervention group exhibited reductions in depression and anxiety, and increases in happiness. Conclusions TRACK was found to be successful in helping MLH disclose their HIV status to their children, with positive outcomes noted for both MLH and their children. PMID:21355637

  15. Access denied? The status of co-receptor inhibition to counter HIV entry.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Priscilla; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2007-05-01

    As resistance and long-term metabolic abnormalities hamper the efficacy of previous drugs against HIV-1, targeting of HIV co-receptors represents an exciting new frontier for antiretroviral therapeutics. CCR5 inhibitors are most likely to be the new available drugs within the class of entry inhibitors. This paper reviews the most recent clinical data available on the small-molecule compounds vicriviroc and maraviroc and on the antibodies PRO 140 and CCR5mAb004, as well as some novel genetic approaches. A thorough overview of the many challenges, past, present and future, that CCR5 inhibitors encounter during their development pathway is then presented. Possible immunologic consequences are also discussed. It could be foreseen that the benefit for HIV-infected individuals derived by the use of these potential novel drugs will outweigh the costs/risks intrinsically present in every new therapeutic approach. PMID:17472538

  16. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    YOUNG, Sera L.; PLENTY, Albert H. J.; LUWEDDE, Flavia A.; NATAMBA, Barnabas K.; NATUREEBA, Paul; ACHAN, Jane; MWESIGWA, Julia; RUEL, Theodore D.; ADES, Veronica; OSTERBAUER, Beth; CLARK, Tamara D.; DORSEY, Grant; CHARLEBOIS, Edwin D.; KAMYA, Moses; HAVLIR, Diane V.; COHAN, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Household food insecurity may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore explored if greater household food insecurity was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. Methods We assessed these outcomes among 180 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. Results Household food insecurity was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3%, 40.5%, and 52.2%, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower BMIs at enrollment (21.3 vs 22.5, p<0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p<0.01). However, MSHH was not associated with maternal BMI or gestational weight gain in multivariate models. The prevalence (95% CI) of EBF at 6 months was 66.4% (59.0%-72.8%), and the proportion of women breastfeeding at 12 months was 80.0% (73.0%-85.3%).MSHH was not associated with EBF at 6 months or breastfeeding at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.0% of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR: 2.52, 95% CI 1.03-6.19). Conclusions Interventions addressing household food insecurity, maternal malnutrition and suboptimal breastfeeding practices are urgently needed. PMID:24585398

  17. High HIV Prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is associated with Social Vulnerability and other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, JP; Weir, SS; Jones-Cooper, C; Byfield, L; Hobbs, MM; McKnight, I; Cummings, S

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. Methods With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. MSM were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. Results One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2% – 47.9%) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: Chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhea 3.5% and Trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had a STI (48% vs. 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21 – 5.04, p=0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs. 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21 – 4.71, p=0.008). MSM who were of low socio-economic status, ever homeless and victims of physical violence were twice as likely to be HIV positive. The majority (60%) of HIV positive MSM had not disclosed their status to their partner and over 50% were not comfortable disclosing their status to anyone. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence among MSM is an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in Jamaica. More effective ways need to be found to reduce the high prevalence of HIV among MSM including measures to reduce their social vulnerability, combat stigma and discrimination and empower them to practice safe sex. PMID:24756602

  18. Status of immune-based therapies in HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, J L; Schooley, R

    1992-01-01

    As our understanding of HIV disease pathogenesis progresses, approaches to immune-based therapy are evolving. Initial therapies aiming to alter immune function in patients with HIV infection have had mixed results. Clinical benefit in the trials so far has not been dramatic, although the studies are still at an early stage, and the correct protocols for the various agents or combinations of agents have yet to be established. As might be expected, where apparent benefit has occurred, it has been more obvious in those patients whose immune system was still intact. PMID:1563093

  19. Disclosure of their status to youth with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the Dominican Republic: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Pinzón-Iregui, Maria Claudia; Abreu-Pérez, Rosa; Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Navarro, Christi M; Ibanez, Gladys; Soto, Solange; Halpern, Mina; Nicholas, Stephen W; Malow, Robert; Dévieux, Jessy G

    2015-02-01

    A mixed-methods study was conducted to determine the proportion of HIV-infected children who knew their status, identify characteristics associated with children's knowledge of their status, and describe caregivers' and adolescents' experiences relevant to disclosure in the Dominican Republic (DR). Of 327 patients aged 6-18 years treated in the principal DR pediatric HIV facilities, 74 (22.6 %) knew their status. Patients aged 13 years or older and/or who had participated in non-clinical activities for HIV-infected children were more likely to know their status. Caregivers who had disclosed cited healthcare providers' advice, children's desire to know and concerns that children might initiate sexual activity before knowing or discover their status by accidental or malicious disclosure. Non-disclosing caregivers worried that children would be traumatized by disclosure and/or stigmatized if they revealed it to others. Adolescents supported disclosure by 10-12 years of age, considered withholding of children's HIV diagnosis ill-advised, and recommended a disclosure process focused initially on promoting non-stigmatizing attitudes about HIV. PMID:25186784

  20. Optimism and education buffer the effects of syndemic conditions on HIV status among African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Stevens, Robin; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Icard, Larry D

    2014-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Surprisingly, we also replicated a previous finding (Stall et al., Am J Public Health, 93(6):939-942, 2003) that the effects of syndemic burden on HIV status fell off at the highest levels of syndemic conditions. Among a variety of potential resilience factors, two-optimism and education-buffered the syndemic effect on HIV prevalence. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper to identify resilience factors buffering against syndemic effects among MSM. It also constitutes a significant contribution to the literature regarding prevention among black MSM. These results point to the need to identify HIV-positive black MSM and provide effective treatment for them and to develop interventions addressing both syndemic and resilience factors. PMID:24705710

  1. Risk Environments, Race/Ethnicity, and HIV Status in a Large Sample of People Who Inject Drugs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Linton, Sabriya; Kelley, Mary E.; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E.; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Zlotorzynska, Maria; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Tempalski, Barbara; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Broz, Dita; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed relationships between place characteristics and being HIV-negative among black, Latino, and white people who inject drugs (PWID) in the US. Methods Data on PWID (N = 9077) were from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. Administrative data were analyzed to describe the 968 ZIP codes, 51 counties, and 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) where they lived. Multilevel multivariable models examined relationships between place characteristics and HIV status. Exploratory population attributable risk percents (e-PAR%s) were estimated. Results Black and Latino PWID were more likely to be HIV-negative if they lived in less economically disadvantaged counties, or in MSAs with less criminal-justice activity (i.e., lower drug-related arrest rates, lower policing/corrections expenditures). Latino PWID were more likely to be HIV-negative in MSAs with more Latino isolation, less black isolation, and less violent crime. E-PAR%s attributed 8–19% of HIV cases among black PWID and 1–15% of cases among Latino PWID to place characteristics. Discussion Evaluations of structural interventions to improve economic conditions and reduce drug-related criminal justice activity may show evidence that they protect black and Latino PWID from HIV infection. PMID:26974165

  2. Optimism and Education Buffer the Effects of Syndemic Conditions on HIV Status among African American Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Stevens, Robin; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Icard, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Surprisingly, we also replicated a previous finding (Stall et al., 2003) that the effects of syndemic burden on HIV status fell off at the highest levels of syndemic conditions. Among a variety of potential resilience factors, two--optimism and education--buffered the syndemic effect on HIV prevalence. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper to identify resilience factors buffering against syndemic effects among MSM. It also constitutes a significant contribution to the literature regarding prevention among black MSM. These results point to the need to identify HIV-positive black MSM and provide effective treatment for them and to develop interventions addressing both syndemic and resilience factors. PMID:24705710

  3. Relationship Between Health Literacy, Knowledge of Health Status, and Beliefs about HIV/AIDS Transmission among Ryan White Clients in Miami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooss, Angela; Brock-Getz, Petra; Ladner, Robert; Fiano, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between health literacy, knowledge of health status, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) transmission beliefs among recipients of Ryan White care. Design: Quota and convenience sampled, quantitative analysis captured with closed and…

  4. Relationship Between Health Literacy, Knowledge of Health Status, and Beliefs about HIV/AIDS Transmission among Ryan White Clients in Miami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooss, Angela; Brock-Getz, Petra; Ladner, Robert; Fiano, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between health literacy, knowledge of health status, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) transmission beliefs among recipients of Ryan White care. Design: Quota and convenience sampled, quantitative analysis captured with closed and

  5. Results from an Empirical Study of School Principals' Decisions about Disclosure of HIV Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenneville, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Elementary school principals' decisions about disclosure of school age children's confidential medical information was empirically studied. Participants included a stratified sample of 339 elementary school principals from the seven largest school districts in Florida. Each participant received one of six vignettes describing a student with HIV,

  6. Antiretrovirals for Primary HIV Prevention: The Current Status of Pre- and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S.; Jain, Sachin; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the 2 million HIV infections that occur globally each year, there is a need to optimize strategies that integrate biomedical and behavioral approaches to HIV prevention. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) immediately after acute high-risk exposures and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for those who engage in recurrent high-risk behaviors are promising bio-behavioral approaches to decreasing HIV transmission. Guidelines have recommended PEP for occupational and non-occupational exposures for over 15 years, but uptake of PEP has been limited, partly as a result of insufficient awareness of this intervention among persons at highest risk for acquiring HIV. However, since the publication of large randomized clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of PrEP, and the dissemination of guidelines endorsing its use, there is a renewed focus on bio-behavioral prevention. Numerous studies have recently assessed the acceptability of bio-behavioral prevention programs among diverse populations or described experiences implementing these programs in “real-world” settings. As research and clinical data informing optimal utilization of PEP and PrEP are rapidly accumulating, this review provides a timely summary of recent progress in bio-behavioral prevention. By contextualizing the most noteworthy recent findings regarding PEP and PrEP, this review seeks to inform successful implementation of these promising prevention approaches. PMID:25600106

  7. Results from an Empirical Study of School Principals' Decisions about Disclosure of HIV Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenneville, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Elementary school principals' decisions about disclosure of school age children's confidential medical information was empirically studied. Participants included a stratified sample of 339 elementary school principals from the seven largest school districts in Florida. Each participant received one of six vignettes describing a student with HIV,…

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with

  9. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…

  10. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection: current status, future opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2015-02-01

    As the global incidence of HIV exceeds 2 million new infections annually, effective interventions to decrease HIV transmission are needed. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with a fixed-dose combination tablet containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine can significantly reduce HIV incidence among diverse at-risk populations. In these studies, the efficacy of PrEP was correlated with levels of adherence. Official guidelines recommend provision of PrEP to people at greatest risk of HIV acquisition, and demonstration projects suggest that high levels of uptake and adherence are possible outside of controlled studies. However, several potential barriers to implementing PrEP remain. These challenges include low awareness and utilization of PrEP by at-risk individuals, uncertainty about adherence in 'real-world' settings, the majority of healthcare providers being untrained in PrEP provision, limited data about potential adverse effects from long-term use of tenofovir-emtricitabine, high costs of PrEP medications, and stigma associated with PrEP use and the behaviors that would warrant PrEP. Innovative pharmacologic chemoprophylactic approaches could provide solutions to some of these challenges. Less-than-daily oral dosing regimens and long-acting injectable medications could reduce pill burdens and facilitate adherence, and local delivery of PrEP medications to genital compartments via gels, rings and films may limit systemic drug exposure and potential toxicities. As the portfolio of chemoprophylactic agents and delivery systems expands to meet the diverse sexual health needs and product preferences of individuals who may benefit from PrEP, it is hoped that antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis could become an acceptable, feasible, and highly effective addition to existing HIV prevention strategies. PMID:25673022

  11. HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative childrens perspectives on disclosure of a parents and childs illness in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Gary J.; Ferraro, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis. We present data on the process of disclosure based on how participants recommended full disclosure be approached to HIV-positive and negative children. Participants recommended disclosure as a process starting at five years with full disclosure delivered at 10 years when the child was capable of understanding the illness, or by 14 years when the child was mature enough to receive the news if full disclosure had not been conducted earlier. Important considerations at the time of full disclosure included the parents and/or childs health statuses, number of infected family members illnesses to be disclosed to the child, childs maturity and understanding level, and the person best suited to deliver full disclosure to the child. The results also revealed it was important to address important life events such as taking a national school examination during disclosure planning and delivery. Recommendations are made for inclusion into HIV disclosure guidelines, manuals, and programs in resource-poor nations with high HIV prevalence. PMID:25071999

  12. Childbearing motivations, pregnancy desires, and perceived partner response to a pregnancy among urban female youth: does HIV-infection status make a difference?

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Sweat, Michael D; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Anderson, Jean R; Jennings, Jacky M; Keller, Jean M; Vyas, Amita A; Trent, Maria E

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing literature assessing pregnancy desires among HIV-infected women enrolled in clinical care, little attention has been paid to HIV-infected youth for whom pregnancy is a very relevant issue. In urban areas with high rates of teen pregnancy and HIV infection, further understanding of childbearing motivations and relationship dynamics influencing pregnancy desires among female youth is needed. This study compares the childbearing motivations, pregnancy desires, and perceived partner desire for a pregnancy among predominately African-American HIV-infected (n=46) and HIV-uninfected (n=355) female youth (15-24 years). An HIV-infected status was not significantly associated with childbearing motivations or the desire for a future pregnancy, p>0.10. HIV-infection was, however, associated with an increased likelihood to perceive that one's partner would have a positive response to a pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-10.4, p=0.02) compared to uninfected peers. While race was not associated with participants' own desire for a child, white youth were significantly less likely to perceive a positive partner response to becoming pregnant than their African-American peers (aOR 0.23, 95% CI 0.09-0.56, p=0.001). These data suggest that the desire for childbearing is not diminished by HIV infection among urban female youth, highlighting the need for routine, provider-initiated discussions about childbearing with urban youth to minimized unintended pregnancies and HIV transmission. PMID:21777077

  13. Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Racialized Immigrants, Refugees, and Non-Status People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Y Brandon; Li, Alan Tai; Fung, Kenneth Po; Wong, Josephine Pui

    2015-05-01

    The demographic characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) in Canada are increasingly diverse. Despite literature suggesting a potentially heightened mental health burden borne by racialized immigrant, refugee, and non-status PHAs (IRN-PHAs), researchers have hitherto paid insufficient attention to whether existing services adequately address this need and how services might be improved. Employing community-based research methodology involving PHAs from five ethnoracial groups in Toronto, Ontario, this study explored IRN-PHAs' mental health service-seeking behaviors, service utilization experiences, and suggestions for service improvements. Results showed that while most IRN-PHAs were proactive in improving their mental health, their attempts to obtain support were commonly undermined by service provider mistreatment, unavailability of appropriate services, and multiple access barriers. A three-pronged approach involving IRN-PHA empowerment, anti-stigma and cultural competence promotion, and greater service integration is proposed for improving IRN-PHAs' mental health service experience. PMID:25913347

  14. HIV and identity: the experience of AIDS support group members who unexpectedly tested HIV negative in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Janet; Mbonye, Martin; Ogunde, Nelly; Kalanzi, Isaiah; Wolff, Brent; Coutinho, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Living with HIV, for many of those infected, has meant adjusting to life with a stigmatised condition and, until recently, the threat of looming death. We explore the adjustment of a group of long-term former clients of The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) in Uganda who, when tested for HIV during the rollout of antiretroviral therapy in 2004, were found to be HIV negative. In-depth semi-structured interviews with 34 former TASO clients were conducted between 2005 and 2007. Their narratives reveal a great deal about the biographical disruption they have faced, and the biographical work that they have undertaken in both the personal and the social dimensions of their lives in order to manage their new-found HIV-uninfected status. After the negative test result, as they were no longer HIV-infected, they had to leave TASO and that support was sorely missed, as was the friendship of TASO members to whom they often felt reluctant to disclose their new status. The identity 'reversal' or change was often handled privately. Compared with their transition to an HIV-positive identity, they now lacked a social dimension to their identity transformation as they managed their new identity in the face of self- and public doubt. PMID:21707665

  15. Disclosure of parental HIV infection to children and psychosocial impact on children in China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Kaljee, Linda; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to investigate parental HIV disclosure and psychological impact from the perspectives of their children. In-depth individual interviews with 47 children who had lost one or both parents to AIDS were conducted in China. All transcripts were coded using the software ATLAS.ti 5. Results showed that few of children knew of parental HIV status before the death of their parents. The main disclosers were the children’s current caregivers. Some children knew about their parent’s HIV infection based on their own observations or through overheard conversation, or their interactions with villagers. Both positive and negative psychological outcomes related to parental HIV disclosure were reported. Psychological counseling is needed for both parents and children to dealing with the parental HIV infection. PMID:24761258

  16. Children's Expressed Emotions when Disclosing Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayfan, Liat; Mitchell, Emilie B.; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to examine children's expressed emotions when they disclose maltreatment. Little scientific research exists on this topic, and yet children's emotional expressions at disclosure may inform psychological theory and play a crucial role in legal determinations. Method: One hundred and twenty-four videotaped forensic interviews…

  17. 31 CFR 103.87 - Disclosing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosing information. 103.87 Section 103.87 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL... withdrawn if the requestor so chooses. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  18. Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW) and derive fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Methods/Design This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396. PMID:21936938

  19. Prevalence of anemia and nutritional status among HIV-positive children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Harar, eastern Ethiopa

    PubMed Central

    Teklemariam, Zelalem; Mitiku, Habtamu; Mesfin, Firehiwot

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anemia and growth retardation are common manifestations of HIV-positive children, which threaten their lives. Therefore, this study tried to assess the burden of anemia and the nutritional status of HIV-positive children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in eastern Ethiopa. Patients and methods A total of 108 records of children on ART followed up in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital from 2007 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed from November 1 to November 30, 2011. Results Approximately 54.4% of the children had been anemic before the initiation of their ART (at baseline): 7.8% were severely anemic and 44.7% were moderately anemic. These percentages were higher in preschool children than in school children (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.80 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.96, 11.75]), and were higher in males than in females (AOR: 2.61 [95% CI: 1.06, 6.45]). The prevalence of anemia was reduced to 39.2% 1 year after initiation of ART. The increasing of hemoglobin values was highly significant for both zidovudine (AZT)- and stavudine (d4T)-based ART (P<0.05). At baseline, 51.6% of the study subjects were underweight (weight-for-age Z score less than −2 standard deviation [SD]); 49.1% were stunted (height-for-age Z score less than −2 SD); and 31.5% were wasted (body mass index less than −2 SD), which, after a year on ART, declined to 8.9%, 15.9%, and 9.8%, respectively. Conclusion There was high prevalence of anemia and growth failure among HIV-infected children in the study area. However, there was a decline after initiation of ART. Therefore, adherence counseling to strengthen the uptake of ART is recommended. Moreover, large-scale, prospective studies should be done to understand the magnitude and etiology of the problems with HIV-negative control groups. PMID:26089702

  20. Social Support, Stigma and Disclosure: Examining the Relationship with HIV Medication Adherence among Ryan White Program Clients in the Mid-South USA

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Latrice C.; Rossi, Kristen R.; Ogg, Siri A.; Krull, Lisa J.; Griffin, Dorcas Young

    2015-01-01

    Social support from friends and family is positively related to better health outcomes among adults living with HIV. An extension of these networks such as religious communities may be an untapped source of social support for promoting HIV medical adherence. This paper explores the association of HIV medication adherence to satisfaction with support from family, friends and church members, as well as HIV-related stigma, and HIV disclosure. In partnership with the Shelby County Health Department, the Memphis Ryan White Part A Program, and the University of Memphis School of Public Health, a total of 286 interviewer-administered surveys were conducted with Ryan White clients. Seventy-six percent (n = 216) of participants reported being prescribed antiretroviral medication (ARVs). Nearly all participants (n = 202, 94%) prescribed ARVs reported disclosing their HIV status to someone. Almost 20% (n = 40) of those prescribed ARVs reported not being satisfied with support received from his/her church. Interestingly, participants reported rarely experiencing stigma as a result of their HIV status. The extent to which satisfaction with support from personal networks and institutional settings like the church affect medication adherence is yet to be understood. The complexity of HIV disclosure and HIV stigma in relation to these supports warrants further investigation to understand how best to improve HIV health outcomes. PMID:26103592

  1. Social Support, Stigma and Disclosure: Examining the Relationship with HIV Medication Adherence among Ryan White Program Clients in the Mid-South USA.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Latrice C; Rossi, Kristen R; Ogg, Siri A; Krull, Lisa J; Griffin, Dorcas Young

    2015-06-01

    Social support from friends and family is positively related to better health outcomes among adults living with HIV. An extension of these networks such as religious communities may be an untapped source of social support for promoting HIV medical adherence. This paper explores the association of HIV medication adherence to satisfaction with support from family, friends and church members, as well as HIV-related stigma, and HIV disclosure. In partnership with the Shelby County Health Department, the Memphis Ryan White Part A Program, and the University of Memphis School of Public Health, a total of 286 interviewer-administered surveys were conducted with Ryan White clients. Seventy-six percent (n = 216) of participants reported being prescribed antiretroviral medication (ARVs). Nearly all participants (n = 202, 94%) prescribed ARVs reported disclosing their HIV status to someone. Almost 20% (n = 40) of those prescribed ARVs reported not being satisfied with support received from his/her church. Interestingly, participants reported rarely experiencing stigma as a result of their HIV status. The extent to which satisfaction with support from personal networks and institutional settings like the church affect medication adherence is yet to be understood. The complexity of HIV disclosure and HIV stigma in relation to these supports warrants further investigation to understand how best to improve HIV health outcomes. PMID:26103592

  2. “MY MOTHER TOLD ME I MUST NOT COOK ANYMORE”—FOOD, CULTURE, AND THE CONTEXT OF HIV- AND AIDS-RELATED STIGMA IN THREE COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA*

    PubMed Central

    OKOROR, T. A.; AIRHIHENBUWA, C. O.; ZUNGU, M.; MAKOFANI, D.; BROWN, D. C.; IWELUNMOR, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of food as an instrument in expressing and experiencing HIV/AIDS stigma by HIV-positive women and their families, with the goal of reducing discrimination. It goes beyond willingness to share utensils, which has been identified in HIV/AIDS research. As part of an ongoing capacity-building HIV/AIDS stigma project in South Africa, 25 focus groups and 15 key informant interviews were conducted among 195 women and 54 men in three Black communities. Participants were asked to discuss how they were treated in the family as women living with HIV and AIDS, and data was organized using the PEN-3 model. Findings highlight both the positive and negative experiences HIV-positive women encounter. Women would not disclose their HIV status to avoid being isolated from participating in the socio-cultural aspects of food preparation, while others that have disclosed their status have experienced alienation. The symbolic meanings of food should be a major consideration when addressing the elimination of HIV/AIDS stigma in South Africa. PMID:19095587

  3. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Young, Sera L; Plenty, Albert H J; Luwedde, Flavia A; Natamba, Barnabas K; Natureeba, Paul; Achan, Jane; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ruel, Theodore D; Ades, Veronica; Osterbauer, Beth; Clark, Tamara D; Dorsey, Grant; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Cohan, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity (HHFI) may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore described the prevalence of HHFI and explored if it was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. We assessed these outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses among 178 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. HHFI was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3, 39.9, and 52.8 %, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower body mass index (BMIs) at enrollment (21.3 vs. 22.5, p < 0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p < 0.01). BMI across time during pregnancy, but not gestational weight gain, was significantly lower for MSHH [adjusted beta (95 % CI) -0.79 (-1.56, -0.02), p = 0.04; -2.06 (-4.31, 0.19), p = 0.07], respectively. The prevalence (95 % CI) of EBF at 6 months was 67.2 % (59.7-73.5 %), and the proportion of women BF at 12 months was 80.4 % (73.3-85.7 %). MSHH was not associated with prevalence of EBF at 6 months or BF at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.4 % of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.02-5.58). The prevalence of HHFI, maternal malnutrition, and suboptimal infant feeding practices are high and the causal relationships among these phenomena must be further explored. PMID:24585398

  4. Self-compassion and reactions to serious illness: the case of HIV.

    PubMed

    Brion, John M; Leary, Mark R; Drabkin, Anya S

    2014-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that self-compassion buffers people against the emotional impact of illness and is associated with medical adherence, 187 HIV-infected individuals completed a measure of self-compassion and answered questions about their emotional and behavioral reactions to living with HIV. Self-compassion was related to better adjustment, including lower stress, anxiety, and shame. Participants higher in self-compassion were more likely to disclose their HIV status to others and indicated that shame had less of an effect on their willingness to practice safe sex and seek medical care. In general, self-compassion was associated with notably more adaptive reactions to having HIV. PMID:23300046

  5. Parents’ Disclosure of Their HIV Infection to Their Children in the Context of the Family

    PubMed Central

    Cowgill, Burton O.; Bogart, Laura M.; Corona, Rosalie; Ryan, Gery W.; Murphy, Debra A.; Nguyen, Theresa; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    We interviewed 33 HIV-infected parents from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), 27 of their minor children, 19 adult children, and 15 caregivers about the process of children learning that their parents were HIV positive. We summarize the retrospective descriptions of parents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their children, from the perspective of multiple family members. We analyzed transcripts of these interviews with systematic qualitative methods. Both parents and children reported unplanned disclosure experiences with positive and negative outcomes. Parents sometimes reported that disclosure was not as negative as they feared. However, within-household analysis showed disagreement between parents and children from the same household regarding disclosure outcomes. These findings suggest that disclosure should be addressed within a family context to facilitate communication and children’s coping. Parents should consider negative and positive outcomes, unplanned disclosure and children’s capacity to adapt after disclosure when deciding whether to disclose. PMID:20509046

  6. Self-compassion and reactions to serious illness: The case of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Brion, John M; Leary, Mark R; Drabkin, Anya S

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that self-compassion buffers people against the emotional impact of illness and is associated with medical adherence, 187 HIV-infected individuals completed a measure of self-compassion and answered questions about their emotional and behavioral reactions to living with HIV. Self-compassion was related to better adjustment, including lower stress, anxiety, and shame. Participants higher in self-compassion were more likely to disclose their HIV status to others and indicated that shame had less of an effect on their willingness to practice safe sex and seek medical care. In general, self-compassion was associated with notably more adaptive reactions to having HIV. PMID:23300046

  7. Must doctors disclose their fees before treatment?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, David Jan

    2015-02-01

    The bioethical principles of patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice or fairness require doctors to disclose their fees before treating patients. The provisions regarding disclosures about fees in the Health Professions Act and National Health Act are in conflict. Those in the National Health Act are likely to be applied by the courts to impose a legal duty on healthcare practitioners to disclose their fees before treating patients. This is because the National Health Act is consistent with the access to healthcare provision in the Constitution, as the nature of the access is often determined by the patient's ability to afford the treatment. Given the unequal bargaining power between doctors and patients, very few patients may ask doctors what their fees are before being treated. It is feasible for doctors to provide such information, or an estimate, and ethically and legally they have a duty to do so. PMID:26242523

  8. Case Series of Fertility Treatment in HIV-Discordant Couples (Male Positive, Female Negative): The Ontario Experience

    PubMed Central

    Newmeyer, Trent; Tecimer, Sandy N.; Jaworsky, Denise; Chihrin, Steven; Gough, Kevin; Rachlis, Anita; Martin, James; Mohammed, Saira; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    The success of combination antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has resulted in prolonged life expectancy (over 40 years from diagnosis) and an improved quality of life for people living with HIV. The risk of vertical HIV transmission during pregnancy has been reduced to less than 1%. As a result of these breakthroughs and as many of these individuals are of reproductive age, fertility issues are becoming increasingly important for this population. One population in which conception planning and reduction of horizontal HIV transmission warrants further research is HIV-discordant couples where the male partner is HIV-positive and the female partner is HIV-negative. Sperm washing is a technique carried out in a fertility clinic that separates HIV from the seminal fluid. Although sperm washing followed by intrauterine insemination significantly reduces the risk of horizontal HIV transmission, there has been limited access to the procedure in North America. Furthermore, little is known about the conception decision-making experiences of HIV-discordant couples who might benefit from sperm washing. Chart reviews and semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 HIV-discordant couples in Ontario, Canada. Couples were recruited through HIV clinics and one fertility clinic that offered sperm washing. Participants identified a number of factors that affected their decision-making around pregnancy planning. Access to sperm washing and other fertility services was an issue (cost, travel and few clinics). Participants identified a lack of information on the procedure (availability, safety). Sources of support (social networks, healthcare providers) were unevenly distributed, especially among those who did not disclose their HIV status to friends and family. Finally, the stigmatisation of HIV continues to have a negative affect on HIV-discordant couples and their intentions to conceive. Access to sperm washing and fertility service is significantly limited for this population and is accompanied with a number of challenges. PMID:21969863

  9. Case series of fertility treatment in HIV-discordant couples (male positive, female negative): the Ontario experience.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, Trent; Tecimer, Sandy N; Jaworsky, Denise; Chihrin, Steven; Gough, Kevin; Rachlis, Anita; Martin, James; Mohammed, Saira; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-01-01

    The success of combination antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has resulted in prolonged life expectancy (over 40 years from diagnosis) and an improved quality of life for people living with HIV. The risk of vertical HIV transmission during pregnancy has been reduced to less than 1%. As a result of these breakthroughs and as many of these individuals are of reproductive age, fertility issues are becoming increasingly important for this population. One population in which conception planning and reduction of horizontal HIV transmission warrants further research is HIV-discordant couples where the male partner is HIV-positive and the female partner is HIV-negative. Sperm washing is a technique carried out in a fertility clinic that separates HIV from the seminal fluid. Although sperm washing followed by intrauterine insemination significantly reduces the risk of horizontal HIV transmission, there has been limited access to the procedure in North America. Furthermore, little is known about the conception decision-making experiences of HIV-discordant couples who might benefit from sperm washing. Chart reviews and semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 HIV-discordant couples in Ontario, Canada. Couples were recruited through HIV clinics and one fertility clinic that offered sperm washing. Participants identified a number of factors that affected their decision-making around pregnancy planning. Access to sperm washing and other fertility services was an issue (cost, travel and few clinics). Participants identified a lack of information on the procedure (availability, safety). Sources of support (social networks, healthcare providers) were unevenly distributed, especially among those who did not disclose their HIV status to friends and family. Finally, the stigmatisation of HIV continues to have a negative affect on HIV-discordant couples and their intentions to conceive. Access to sperm washing and fertility service is significantly limited for this population and is accompanied with a number of challenges. PMID:21969863

  10. Retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality by HIV status in a Georgia, USA, prisoner cohort during the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Zlotorzynska, Maria; Spaulding, Anne C; Messina, Lauren C; Coker, Daniella; Ward, Kevin; Easley, Kirk; Baillargeon, Jacques; Mink, Pamela J; Simard, Edgar P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) have emerged as significant contributors to cancer mortality and morbidity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Because NADCs are also associated with many social and behavioural risk factors that underlie HIV, determining the extent to which each of these factors contributes to NADC risk is difficult. We examined cancer incidence and mortality among persons with a history of incarceration, because distributions of other cancer risk factors are likely similar between prisoners living with HIV and non-infected prisoners. Design Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Participants Cohort of 22 422 persons incarcerated in Georgia, USA, prisons on 30 June 1991, and still alive in 1998. Outcome measures Cancer incidence and mortality were assessed between 1998 and 2009, using cancer and death registry data matched to prison administrative records. Age, race and sex-adjusted standardised mortality and incidence ratios, relative to the general population, were calculated for AIDS-defining cancers, viral-associated NADCs and non-infection-associated NADCs, stratified by HIV status. Results There were no significant differences in cancer mortality relative to the general population in the cohort, regardless of HIV status. In contrast, cancer incidence was elevated among the PLWH. Furthermore, incidence of viral-associated NADCs was significantly higher among PLWH versus those without HIV infection (standardised incidence ratio=6.1, 95% CI 3.0 to 11.7, p<0.001). Conclusions Among PLWH with a history of incarceration, cancer incidence was elevated relative to the general population, likely related to increased prevalence of oncogenic viral co-infections. Cancer prevention and screening programmes within prisons may help to reduce the cancer burden in this high-risk population. PMID:27067888

  11. Using communication privacy management theory to examine HIV disclosure to sexual partners/spouses among PLHIV in Guangxi

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2015-01-01

    The current study employed Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory to examine the factors associated with disclosure of HIV infection to sexual partners or spouses as well as gender differences in these associations among a sample of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China. A total of 1254 PLHIV who had 5–16 years old children were invited to answer the questions related to disclosure of HIV infection to sexual partners/spouses. Prevalence of HIV disclosure was reported. Key variables related to CPM theory (such as motivations for disclosure and nondisclosure, HIV-related stigma, and relational factors) were compared between females and males. Logistic regression was employed to determine the factors of influencing whether or not the participants disclosed their HIV status to spouses/partners for the male, the female and the combined samples. Fear of rejection was a significant predictor of HIV nondisclosure for the male, the female and the combined samples. Concern about privacy was a significant factor in not disclosing to sexual partners/spouses only in the male sample. The endorsement of duty to inform/educate was the only motivation factor that was significantly related to HIV disclosure for the three samples. The motivation to establish a close/supportive relationship with intimate partners/spouses was found to be associated with HIV disclosure for the combined and male samples. The current study confirmed the utilities of CPM in studying HIV disclosure to sexual partners/spouse. The findings have theoretical and practical implications for HIV disclosure interventions among PLHIV in Guangxi. PMID:25564893

  12. Addressing gender inequalities to improve the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Avni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Globally, women constitute 50% of all persons living with HIV. Gender inequalities are a key driver of women's vulnerabilities to HIV. This paper looks at how these structural factors shape specific behaviours and outcomes related to the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV. Discussion There are several pathways by which gender inequalities shape the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV. First, gender norms that privilege men's control over women and violence against women inhibit women's ability to practice safer sex, make reproductive decisions based on their own fertility preferences and disclose their HIV status. Second, women's lack of property and inheritance rights and limited access to formal employment makes them disproportionately vulnerable to food insecurity and its consequences. This includes compromising their adherence to antiretroviral therapy and increasing their vulnerability to transactional sex. Third, with respect to stigma and discrimination, women are more likely to be blamed for bringing HIV into the family, as they are often tested before men. In several settings, healthcare providers violate the reproductive rights of women living with HIV in relation to family planning and in denying them care. Lastly, a number of countries have laws that criminalize HIV transmission, which specifically impact women living with HIV who may be reluctant to disclose because of fears of violence and other negative consequences. Conclusions Addressing gender inequalities is central to improving the sexual and reproductive health outcomes and more broadly the wellbeing of women living with HIV. Programmes that go beyond a narrow biomedical/clinical approach and address the social and structural context of women's lives can also maximize the benefits of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. PMID:26643464

  13. Using communication privacy management theory to examine HIV disclosure to sexual partners/spouses among PLHIV in Guangxi.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2015-01-01

    The current study employed Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory to examine the factors associated with disclosure of HIV infection to sexual partners or spouses as well as gender differences in these associations among a sample of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China. A total of 1254 PLHIV who had 5-16 years old children were invited to answer the questions related to disclosure of HIV infection to sexual partners/spouses. Prevalence of HIV disclosure was reported. Key variables related to CPM theory (such as motivations for disclosure and nondisclosure, HIV-related stigma, and relational factors) were compared between females and males. Logistic regression was employed to determine the factors of influencing whether or not the participants disclosed their HIV status to spouses/partners for the male, the female and the combined samples. Fear of rejection was a significant predictor of HIV nondisclosure for the male, the female and the combined samples. Concern about privacy was a significant factor in not disclosing to sexual partners/spouses only in the male sample. The endorsement of duty to inform/educate was the only motivation factor that was significantly related to HIV disclosure for the three samples. The motivation to establish a close/supportive relationship with intimate partners/spouses was found to be associated with HIV disclosure for the combined and male samples. The current study confirmed the utilities of CPM in studying HIV disclosure to sexual partners/spouse. The findings have theoretical and practical implications for HIV disclosure interventions among PLHIV in Guangxi. PMID:26616128

  14. Feasibility of using an iPod touch device and acceptability of a stigma reduction intervention with HIV-infected women in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Relf, Michael V; Silva, Susan G; Williams, Megan Scull; Moore, Elizabeth; Arscott, Joyell; Caiola, Courtney; Barroso, Julie

    2015-10-01

    As with many infectious diseases throughout history, stigma is a part of the trajectory of the HIV disease process. HIV-related stigma impedes women from being tested for HIV. Once infected, HIV-related stigma hinders women from disclosing their HIV status to sexual partners and health care providers, engaging in medical care, effectively self-managing the disease after infection, and adhering to anti-retroviral therapy. After three decades of the HIV epidemic, no evidenced-based, culturally relevant, gender-specific interventions exist to help women infected with HIV manage the stigma associated with HIV infection. This manuscript reports the feasibility of using an iPod touch device and acceptability of a stigma reduction intervention with HIV-infected women in the Deep South in a mixed-method, randomized clinical trial. Results from the study demonstrate that it is feasible to utilize an iPod touch device to deliver an HIV-related stigma intervention to women. Further, women report that the HIV-related stigma intervention is acceptable and meaningful. PMID:25761644

  15. A Mixed-Methods Study Supporting a Model of Chinese Parental HIV Disclosure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joyce P; Xie, Tianyi; Simoni, Jane M; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Zhao, Hongxin; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    Parents who are HIV-positive confront difficult decisions regarding whether, when, and how to disclose their HIV status to their children. In China, a setting of acute HIV stigma where family harmony is culturally valued, limited research has been conducted on parental disclosure. We aimed to develop a model of parental disclosure that accounts for the cultural context in China based on a mixed-methods study. In our individual, in-depth interviews (N = 24) as well as survey data (N = 84) collected from parents living with HIV in Shanghai and Beijing, we found the primary barriers to disclosure were stigma, fear of exposing the mode by which they acquired HIV, psychologically burdening the child, rejection by the child, and negative social consequences for the family. Parents concurrently cited many motivations for disclosure, such as disease progression, ensuring safety of the child, gaining assistance, and fulfilling their parental responsibility. Most parents had not actively disclosed their HIV status (68 %); many parents reported some form of partial disclosure (e.g., sharing they have a blood disease but not labeling it HIV), unplanned disclosure, or unintentional disclosure to their children by other people. Findings informed the development of a Chinese Parental HIV Disclosure Model, with primary components accounting for distal cultural factors, decision-making (balancing approach and avoid motivations), the disclosure event, and outcomes resulting from the disclosure. This model highlights the cultural context of the Chinese parental disclosure process, and may be useful in guiding future observational research and intervention work. PMID:25877832

  16. Intimate relationships in young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: partner considerations.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Clare; Evangeli, Michael; Frize, Graham; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Due to developments in anti-retroviral treatment, an increasing number of children with perinatally acquired HIV are now surviving into late adolescence and young adulthood. This cohort is facing normative challenges in terms of their intimate relationships as well as challenges that face all individuals with HIV regardless of the route of transmission (for example, concerns about disclosure). There may be additional issues specific to having grown up with HIV that affect intimate relationships, for example, the awareness of being HIV positive before the onset of intimate relationships and the way that identity is shaped by having lived with HIV from a young age. To date there has been some limited research on the experience of intimate relationships in perinatally infected adolescents but none in young adults. This exploratory study examined, in depth, experiences of intimate relationships in perinatally acquired young adults and how they perceived having grown up with HIV to have affected such relationships. Seven participants (five females, two males) aged 18-23 years, were interviewed, with the data analysed according to the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three themes emerged that related to partners' perceptions of HIV: (1) HIV being viewed by partners as being linked to AIDS and sexual transmission, (2) discrepancy between young people and their partners' views of HIV, (3) partner views of risk of HIV transmission. There were strong links between participants' personal experiences of HIV-related challenges, for example, disclosure and HIV-related stigma, and their thinking about the perceptions of partners. These findings have important implications for supporting young people in disclosing their HIV status to intimate partners in appropriate ways. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:22909272

  17. The impact of criminalization of HIV non-disclosure on the healthcare engagement of women living with HIV in Canada: a comprehensive review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sophie E; Milloy, M-J; Ogilvie, Gina; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; Vonn, Micheal; Hogg, Robert; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that people living with HIV (PLWH) must disclose their HIV status to sexual partners prior to sexual activity that poses a “realistic possibility” of HIV transmission for consent to sex to be valid. The Supreme Court deemed that the duty to disclose could be averted if a person living with HIV both uses a condom and has a low plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load during vaginal sex. This is one of the strictest legal standards criminalizing HIV non-disclosure worldwide and has resulted in a high rate of prosecutions of PLWH in Canada. Public health advocates argue that the overly broad use of the criminal law against PLWH undermines efforts to engage individuals in healthcare and complicates gendered barriers to linkage and retention in care experienced by women living with HIV (WLWH). Methods We conducted a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed evidence published between 1998 and 2015 evaluating the impact of the criminalization of HIV non-disclosure on healthcare engagement of WLWH in Canada across key stages of the cascade of HIV care, specifically: HIV testing and diagnosis, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Where available, evidence pertaining specifically to women was examined. Where these data were lacking, evidence relating to all PLWH in Canada or other international jurisdictions were included. Results and discussion Evidence suggests that criminalization of HIV non-disclosure may create barriers to engagement and retention within the cascade of HIV care for PLWH in Canada, discouraging access to HIV testing for some people due to fears of legal implications following a positive diagnosis, and compromising linkage and retention in healthcare through concerns of exposure of confidential medical information. There is a lack of published empirical evidence focused specifically on women, which is a concern given the growing population of WLWH in Canada, among whom marginalized and vulnerable women are overrepresented. Conclusions The threat of HIV non-disclosure prosecution combined with a heightened perception of surveillance may alter the environment within which women engage with healthcare services. Fully exploring the extent to which HIV criminalization represents a barrier to the healthcare engagement of WLWH is a public health priority. PMID:26701080

  18. Navigating condom use and HIV status disclosure with partners met online: A qualitative pilot study with gay and bisexual men from Craigslist.org

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Agyemang, Linda; Ventuneac, Ana; Breslow, Aaron S.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 50 men recruited off the New York City men-seeking-men section of Craigslist.org. Participants discussed their favorite venues for meeting sex partners (n = 28 said the Internet), and we focused on these men’s responses to probes regarding decisions around condom use and HIV status disclosure with online partners. A majority indicated they set a priori rules for themselves to always use condoms, and cited the Internet as their favorite venue in part because it helped them sort for like-minded partners. Participants indicated that having in-person conversations around condom use and HIV was often difficult, and that the Internet was a convenient medium to facilitate the process. Notable differences were observed in how HIV-positive and HIV-negative men navigated serostatus disclosure—HIV-negative men were less subtle in starting the conversation. Finally, participants described a common narrative around distrust with online partners, which is one reason why they consistently use condoms. These data suggest that features which allow men to easily indicate, and filter for, condom use preferences should be built into (or maintained on) profile-based sexual networking sites and sexual bulletin board sites. PMID:23387953

  19. Comparative evaluation of profiles of antibodies to mycobacterial capsular polysaccharides in tuberculosis patients and controls stratified by HIV status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xian; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Jenny-Avital, Elisabeth R; Sosa, Katherine; Casadevall, Arturo; Achkar, Jacqueline M

    2012-02-01

    Despite the complexity of tuberculosis (TB) serology, antibodies (Abs) remain attractive biomarkers for TB. Recent evidence of a mycobacterial capsule that consists mainly of the polysaccharides arabinomannan (AM) and glucan provides new options for serologic targets. For this study, Ab responses to AM and glucan for 47 U.S. TB patients (33 HIV negative [HIV(-)], 14 HIV positive [HIV(+)]), 42 healthy controls, and 38 asymptomatic HIV(+) controls were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The results were compared with Ab responses to the mycobacterial glycolipid cell wall antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and to the proteins malate synthase (MS) and MPT51. We found that the main immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype response to polysaccharides was IgG, predominantly of subclass IgG2. IgG responses to AM were significantly higher for HIV(-) and HIV(+) TB cases than for controls (P, <0.0001 and <0.01, respectively); significantly higher for HIV(-) than for HIV(+) TB cases (P, <0.01); and significantly higher in sputum smear-positive than smear-negative patients in both HIV(-) and HIV(+) cases (P, 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). In both TB groups, titers of Ab to glucan were significantly lower than titers of Ab to AM (P, <0.0001). IgG responses to AM and MS or to AM and MPT51 did not correlate with each other in HIV(-) TB patients, while they correlated significantly in HIV(+) TB patients (P, 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). We conclude that Ab responses to AM could contribute to the serodiagnosis of TB, especially for HIV(-) TB patients. This study also provides new and important insights into the differences in the profiles of Abs to mycobacterial antigens between HIV(-) and HIV(+) TB patients. PMID:22169090

  20. Social network predictors of disclosure of MSM behavior and HIV-positive serostatus among African American MSM in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Latkin, Carl; Yang, Cui; Tobin, Karin; Roebuck, Geoffrey; Spikes, Pilgrim; Patterson, Jocelyn

    2012-04-01

    This study examined correlates of disclosure of MSM behavior and seropositive HIV status to social network members among 187 African American MSM in Baltimore, MD. 49.7% of participants were HIV-positive, 64% of their social network members (excluding male sex partners) were aware of their MSM behavior, and 71.3% were aware of their HIV-positive status. Disclosure of MSM behavior to network members was more frequent among participants who were younger, had a higher level of education, and were HIV-positive. Attributes of the social network members associated with MSM disclosure included the network member being HIV-positive, providing emotional support, socializing with the participant, and not being a female sex partner. Participants who were younger were more likely to disclose their positive HIV status. Attributes of social network members associated with disclosure of positive serostatus included the network member being older, HIV-positive, providing emotional support, loaning money, and not being a male sex partner. PMID:21811844

  1. Smoking, HIV status, and HIV risk behaviors in a respondent-driven sample of injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland: The BeSure Study.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea; German, Danielle; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Flynn, Colin; Holtgrave, David

    2012-04-01

    Tobacco use is the largest preventable cause of death in the United States. Associations between cigarette smoking and HIV risk behaviors were examined among 669 injection drug users (IDU) in the 2006 wave of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in Baltimore, Maryland, using respondent-driven sampling. The adjusted prevalence of smoking among IDU was 92.1%, with 32.7% smoking < 1 pack of cigarettes per day (light smoking) and 59.3% smoking ? 1 packs per day (heavy smoking). Self-reported HIV prevalence decreased as smoking frequency increased (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, heavy smokers were more likely to report painkiller use and binge drinking and less likely to report anal sex or health care use in the past year than light smokers. Results suggest that health care use mediates the relationship between heavy smoking and self-reported HIV. Integrating smoking cessation with HIV prevention services could address unmet health needs in IDU. PMID:22468974

  2. Perinatal HIV Status and Executive Function During School-Age and Adolescence: A Comparative Study of Long-Term Cognitive Capacity Among Children From a High HIV Prevalence Setting.

    PubMed

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Kizza, Florence N; Zalwango, Sarah K; Nkwata, Allan K; Zhang, Ming; Rivera, Mariana L; Sekandi, Juliet N; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) versus HIV-unexposed (PHU) status predicted long-term executive function (EF) deficit in school-aged Ugandan children.Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months via DNA polymerase chain reaction test and confirmed at cognitive assessment between 6 and 18 years using HIV rapid-diagnostic test. Primary outcome is child EF measured using behavior-rating inventory of executive function questionnaire across 8 subscales summed to derive the global executive composite (GEC). EF was proxy-reported by caregivers and self-reported by children 11 years or older. Descriptive analyses by perinatal HIV status included derivation of mean, standard deviations (SD), number, and percent (%) of children with EF deficits warranting clinical vigilance. Raw scores were internally standardized by age and sex adjustment. EF scores warranting clinical vigilance were defined as ≥ mean + 1.5SD. t Tests for mean score differences by perinatal HIV status and linear-regression models were implemented in SAS version 9.4 to derive HIV status-related EF deficits (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Proxy-reported and self-reported EF were assessed in 166 and 82 children, respectively. GEC deficit was highest for PHIV (mean = 121.9, SD = 29.9), intermediate for PHEU (mean = 107.5, SD = 26.8), and lowest for PHU (mean = 103.4, SD = 20.7; P-trend < 0.01). GEC deficit levels warranting clinical vigilance occurred in 9 (15.8%), 5 (9.3%) and 0 (0%) PHIV, PHEU, and PHU children, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Nineteen percent (n = 32) children had deficits requiring clinical vigilance in ≥2 proxy-reported EF subscales. Of these, multisubscale deficits occurred in 35.1%, 13.0%, and 9.3% of PHIV, PHEU, and PHU respectively (P-trend = 0.001). Multivariable analyses find significantly higher GEC deficits for PHIV compared with PHU and PHEU children regardless of respondent (all P values <0.01). Proxy-reported EF performance was similar for PHEU compared with PHU; however, child self-reported GEC scores were elevated by 12.8 units (95% CI: 5.4-25.5) for PHEU compared with PHU.PHIV had long-term EF deficits compared with other groups. Furthermore, PHEU ≥11 years may have long-term EF deficits compared with PHU, but future studies are needed to clarify this relationship. Cognitive remediation interventions with emphasis on EF may translate to improvements in long-term functional survival in HIV-affected children from sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27124032

  3. Treatment options for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-infected persons: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Loignon, Maude; Toma, Emil

    2016-02-01

    Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus was frequently encountered in AIDS patients before combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Incidence decreased and the outcome improved with cART. The immune reconstitution with cART is beneficial for HIV-infected patients and is an effective treatment for PML. However, when it is excessive an inflammatory response immune syndrome might occur with deterioration of PML. So far, no specific therapy has proven efficacious in small clinical trials in spite of some optimistic case reports. Combination of drugs targeted at different stages of JC virus life cycle seems to have a better effect. Passive and active immune therapies, immune competence "boosters" appear promising. New future approaches such as gene editing are not far away. PMID:26655489

  4. Stress, social support and housing are related to health status among HIV-positive persons in the deep south of the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, K E; Cianfrini, L R; Walker, J F

    2005-04-01

    Self-report health status measures are consistently associated with medical outcomes and are cost-effective. Studies using such measures find that those who live in rural areas or have limited access to support experience poorer health status and poorer outcomes. A survey addressing these issues was administered to 401 HIV-positive persons throughout Alabama. Hierarchical regression models examined the relation of housing stability, stress, substance use and other variables to physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health status. The sample was 34% female and 66% African-American. Most were receiving antiretroviral medications, and nearly 20% were in unstable housing. Age showed a significant negative relationship to health status. CD4 cell count (p < 0.01) was positively associated with PCS; perceived general stress (p < 0.02) and housing stability (p < 0.04) were negatively associated. The model accounted for 14% of the variance in PCS (p < 0.001). For MCS, general stress (p < 0.001) was negatively associated and substance use tended towards a negative association (p < 0.075). Social support (p < 0.02) was positively associated with MCS. The model accounted for nearly 31% of the MCS variance (p < 0.001). Health status among HIV-positive persons may be improved by assessing and addressing social issues such as social isolation, life stressors and housing. PMID:15832883

  5. Community Cultural Norms, Stigma and Disclosure to Sexual Partners among Women Living with HIV in Thailand, Brazil and Zambia (HPTN 063)

    PubMed Central

    Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Pathak, Subash; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Limbada, Mohammed; Friedman, Ruth; Li, Shuying; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Serostatus disclosure may facilitate decreased HIV transmission between serodiscordant partners by raising risk awareness and heightening the need for prevention. For women living with HIV (WLWH), the decision to disclose may be influenced by culturally determined, community-level stigma and norms. Understanding the impact of community HIV stigma and gender norms on disclosure among WLWH in different countries may inform intervention development. Methods HPTN063 was a longitudinal, observational study of sexually active HIV-infected individuals, including heterosexual women, in care in Zambia, Thailand and Brazil. At baseline, a questionnaire measuring community HIV stigma and gender norms, anticipated stigma, demographic, partner/relationship characteristics, and intimate partner violence was administered. Longitudinal HIV disclosure to sexual partners was determined via audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) at the baseline and quarterly during the one year following up. Logistic regression was conducted to identify the predictors of disclosure. Results Almost half (45%) of women living with HIV acknowledged perceived community HIV stigma (the belief that in their community HIV infection among women is associated with sex work and multiple sexual partners). Many women (42.9%) also acknowledged perceived community gender norms (the belief that traditional gender norms such as submissiveness to husbands/male sexual partners is necessary and that social status is lost if one does not procreate). HIV disclosure to current sex partners was reported by 67% of women. In multivariate analysis, among all women, those who were older [OR 0.16, 95%CI(0.06,0.48)], reported symptoms of severe depression [OR 0.53, 95%CI(0.31, 0.90)], endorsed anticipated stigma [OR 0.30, 95%CI(0.18, 0.50)], and were unmarried [OR 0.43, 95%CI(0.26,0.71)] were less likely to disclose to current partners. In an analysis stratified by marital status and cohabitation, unmarried [OR 0.41, 95%CI(0.20,0.82)] and non-cohabiting women [OR 0.31, 95%CI(0.13,0.73)] who perceived community HIV stigma were less likely to disclose to their sex partners. Conclusions Perceived community level HIV stigma, along with individual level factors such as anticipated stigma, depressive symptoms, and older age, predict non-disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners among WLWH in diverse geographic settings. Interventions to promote disclosure among women in serodiscordant relationships should incorporate community-level interventions to reduce stigma and promote gender equality. PMID:27152618

  6. CD127 Expression, Exhaustion Status and Antigen Specific Proliferation Predict Sustained Virologic Response to IFN in HCV/HIV Co-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kared, Hassen; Saeed, Sahar; Klein, Marina B.; Shoukry, Naglaa H.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV co-infected population. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) remains a major component of anti-HCV therapy despite its deleterious effects on the immune system. Furthermore, IFN-α was recently shown to diminish the size of the latent HIV reservoir. The objectives of this study were to monitor the impact of IFN-α on T cell phenotype and proliferation of HIV and HCV-specific T cells during IFN therapy, and to identify immune markers that can predict the response to IFN in HICV/HIV co-infected patients. We performed longitudinal analyses of T cell numbers, phenotype and function in co-infected patients undergoing IFN-α therapy with different outcomes including IFN-α non-responders (NR) (n = 9) and patients who achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) (n = 19). We examined the expression of activation (CD38, HLA-DR), functional (CD127) and exhaustion markers (PD1, Tim-3, CD160 and CD244) on total CD4 and CD8 T cells before, during and after therapy. In addition, we examined the HIV- and HCV-specific proliferative responses against HIV-p24 and HCV-NS3 proteins. Frequencies of CD127+ CD4 T cells were higher in SVR than in NR patients at baseline. An increase in CD127 expression on CD8 T cells was observed after IFN-α therapy in all patients. In addition, CD8 T cells from NR patients expressed a higher exhaustion status at baseline. Finally, SVR patients exhibited higher proliferative response against both HIV and HCV antigens at baseline. Altogether, SVR correlated with higher expression of CD127, lower T cell exhaustion status and better HIV and HCV proliferative responses at baseline. Such factors might be used as non-invasive methods to predict the success of IFN–based therapies in co-infected individuals. PMID:25007250

  7. Circumcision Status and Risk of HIV Acquisition during Heterosexual Intercourse for Both Males and Females: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    WEI, Qiang; YANG, Lu; SONG, Tu run; YUAN, Hai chao; LV, Xiao; HAN, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated if male circumcision was associated with lower HIV acquisition for HIV (−) males and HIV (−) females during normal sexual behavior. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases to identify studies that compared HIV acquisition for the circumcised and uncircumcised groups. The reference lists of the included and excluded studies were also screened. Fifteen studies (4 RCTs and 11 prospective cohort studies) were included, and the related data were extracted and analyzed in a meta-analysis. Our study revealed strong evidence that male circumcision was associated with reduced HIV acquisition for HIV(−) males during sexual intercourse with females [pooled adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.30, 95% CI 0.24 0.38, P < 0.00001] and provided a 70% protective effect. In contrast, no difference was detected in HIV acquisition for HIV (−) females between the circumcised and uncircumcised groups (pooled adjusted RR after sensitivity analysis: 0.68, 95%CI 0.40–1.15, P = 0.15). In conclusion, male circumcision could significantly protect males but not females from HIV acquisition at the population level. Male circumcision may serve as an additional approach toward HIV control, in conjunction with other strategies such as HIV counseling and testing, condom promotion, and so on. PMID:25942703

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the HIV Stigma Scale in a Swedish Context

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Maria H.; Wettergren, Lena; Wiklander, Maria; Svedhem-Johansson, Veronica; Eriksson, Lars E.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-related stigma has negative consequences for infected people's lives and is a barrier to HIV prevention. Therefore valid and reliable instruments to measure stigma are needed to enable mapping of HIV stigma. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the HIV stigma scale in a Swedish context with regard to construct validity, data quality, and reliability. Methods The HIV stigma scale, developed by Berger, Ferrans, and Lashley (2001), was distributed to a cross-sectional sample of people living with HIV in Sweden (n = 194). The psychometric evaluation included exploratory factor analysis together with an analysis of the distribution of scores, convergent validity by correlations between the HIV stigma scale and measures of emotional well-being, and an analysis of missing items and floor and ceiling effects. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α. Results The exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor solution, similar to the original scale, with the dimensions personalised stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes. One item had unacceptably low loadings and was excluded. Correlations between stigma dimensions and emotional well-being were all in the expected direction and ranged between −0.494 and −0.210. The instrument generated data of acceptable quality except for participants who had not disclosed their HIV status to anybody. In line with the original scale, all subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's α 0.87–0.96. Conclusion A 39-item version of the HIV stigma scale used in a Swedish context showed satisfactory construct validity and reliability. Response alternatives are suggested to be slightly revised for items assuming the disclosure of diagnosis to another person. We recommend that people that have not disclosed should skip all questions belonging to the dimension personalised stigma. Our analysis confirmed construct validity of the instrument even without this dimension. PMID:25522127

  9. NMAC opposes H.R. 1289: Newborn Infant HIV Notification act.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    H.R. 1289, the Newborn Infant HIV Notification Act in Congress, will require states to disclose the results of HIV testing of a newborn infant to the biological mother, if she is the legal guardian of the infant. It also requires that in disclosing the HIV test results, the state shall bear the responsibility to ensure that appropriate counseling is provided to the individual about HIV. While NMAC recognizes the importance of identifying HIV infected newborns and providing them with early medical care and treatment, it opposes the means by which H.R. 1289 tries to achieve this goal. The proposed legislation violates the mother's right to written informed consent and pre- and post-test counseling. The proposed law may deter women from seeking prenatal care. A viable alternative would be to provide all pregnant and post-partum women with counseling and voluntary testing. No adequate provision is made for the delivery of medical and social services for women and infants who have a positive HIV-antibody test. The tests do not accurately reflect the HIV status of most newborns as 75 percent of those that test positive at birth will shed the HIV antibodies after 15-18 months. Finally, the cooperation of women is essential to the treatment of their infants. The threat of mandatory testing will intimidate and alienate mothers, possibly causing them to avoid the health care system and treatment. As a result of this proposed legislation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suspended the HIV survey in childbearing women. PMID:11362454

  10. Nondisclosure of HIV Infection to Sex Partners and Alcohol’s Role: A Russian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Raj, Anita; Walley, Alexander Y.; Bridden, Carly; Chaisson, Christine; Lioznov, Dmitry; Blokhina, Elena; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Nondisclosure of one’s HIV infection to sexual partners obviates safer sex negotiations and thus jeopardizes HIV transmission prevention. The role of alcohol use in the disclosure decision process is largely unexplored. This study assessed the association between alcohol use and recent nondisclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners by HIV-infected risky drinkers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Approximately half (317/605; 52.4 %) reported not having disclosed their HIV serostatus to all partners since awareness of infection. Using three separate GEE logistic regression models, we found no significant association between alcohol dependence, risky alcohol use (past 30 days), or alcohol use at time of sex (past 30 days) with recent (past 3 months) nondisclosure (AOR [95 %CI] 0.81 [0.55, 1.20], 1.31 [0.79, 2.17], 0.75 [0.54, 1.05], respectively). Alcohol use at time of sex was associated with decreased odds of recent nondisclosure among seroconcordant partners and among casual partners. Factors associated with nondisclosure were relationship with a casual partner, a serodiscordant partner, multiple sex partners, awareness of HIV diagnosis less than 1 year, and a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Nondisclosure of HIV status to sex partners is common among HIV-infected Russians, however alcohol does not appear to be a predictor of recent disclosure. PMID:22677972

  11. Mediation and moderation: Testing relationships between symptom status, functional health, and quality of life in HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptoms status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is partially mediated by Disability. Common and unique ideas from three approaches to examining moderation of effects in mediational models (Edwards & Lambert, 2007; Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007; MacKinnon, 2008) were used to test whether (a) the direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL and (b) the relationship of Disability to QOL are moderated by age. In the mediation model, both the direct and the indirect (mediated) effects were significant. The direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL was significantly moderated by age, but the relationship of Disability to QOL was not. High Symptoms were associated with lower QOL at all ages, but that this relationship became stronger at older ages. We compare the three approaches and consider their advantages over traditional approaches to combining mediation and moderation. PMID:20706561

  12. Anal Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men by Geographical Origin, Age, and Cytological Status in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

  13. Anal human papillomavirus genotype distribution in HIV-infected men who have sex with men by geographical origin, age, and cytological status in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia; Ortiz, Marta

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    PubMed Central

    Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians, a group with low participation in cancer screening. Method The targeted education included behavioral modeling and barriers counseling in a culturally safe environment. Using a 2-group, pre/posttest design, AIDS service organizations were randomized to culturally responsive or standard education. AIDS service organizations consumers recruited through venue-based promotions were the unit of analysis. Knowledge–attitudes–practices, fecal occult blood test screening completion, and intervention feasibility were measured. Results Treatment arm participants, regardless of ethnicity, adhered to fecal occult blood test instructions and achieved increases in screening knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Relevance and acceptability of the educational intervention were endorsed. Discussion The culturally responsive intervention was successful in this group of PLHIV. Additional tailoring may be needed to reach PLHIV who do not participate in organizational activities. Conclusion/Translation to Health Education Practice This culturally responsive intervention shows promise for efficacy testing in a broader PLHIV population. Constituent-involving strategies were central to its development and delivery. PMID:24653993

  15. A Biological Perspective of CSF Lipids as Surrogate Markers for Cognitive Status in HIV

    PubMed Central

    Haughey, Norman J.; Xiaomao, Zhu; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam

    2013-01-01

    The development and application of biomarkers to neurodegenerative diseases has become increasingly important in clinical practice and therapeutic trials. While substantial progress has been made at the basic science level in understanding the pathophysiology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), there are significant limitations in our current ability to predict the onset or trajectory of disease, and to accurately determine the effects of therapeutic interventions. Thus, the development of objective biomarkers is critical to further our understanding and treatment of HAND. In recent years, biomarker discovery efforts have largely been driven forward through the implementation of multiple omics approaches that include (but are not restricted to): Lipidomics, proteomics, metabolomics, genomics, transcriptomics, and advances in brain imaging approaches such as functional connectomics. In this paper we summarize our progress to date on lipidomic approaches to biomarker discovery, discuss how these data have influenced basic research on the neuropathology of HAND, and implications for the development of therapeutics that target metabolic pathways involved in lipid handling. PMID:24203462

  16. Barriers to Participate in Support Groups for People Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study with Men Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in a HIV Clinic in Mthatha, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Canti-Sigaqa, Vuyokazi

    2012-01-01

    Support groups are the most common and popular way of providing social support for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHI). Nevertheless, HIV positive men are reluctant to attend support groups, and in most mixed gender support groups, women outnumber men. The study used a sample of men accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) from a HIV clinic in South Africa, to examine their perceptions of support groups and explore their reasons for nonparticipation in such groups. Five focus groups interviews were conducted with 50 HIV positive men. Their age ranged from 28-70 years, all had disclosed their HIV status to partners and family members and were receiving ART for more than a year. The main barriers for nonparticipation related to issues on support groups were; Unavailability of support groups in local communities including; no access, the timing of meetings and lack of transport money. Fear of unintended disclosure of HIV status due to breach of confidentiality with resulting stigma and social rejection. On a personal level, participants felt that they had adequate support at home. Participants would consider participating if men only support groups are initiated, support groups are held on weekends, and they are provided with more information on support groups. Health care providers have a critical role to play in creating awareness of and education on the role of support groups for PLWHI. Support group planners should consider men only support groups which has been shown to have positive outcomes and facilitates member participation. PMID:23121748

  17. IV drug users: changes in risk behaviour according to HIV status in a national survey in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Rodríguez, M; dé lá Fuente, L; Bravo, M J; Lardelli, P; Barrio, G

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine whether HIV positive intravenous drug users (IVDUs) who were receiving outpatient treatment for opiate and cocaine abuse or dependence used practices aimed at reducing the spread of HIV. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of behaviour and HIV serostatus in IVDUs. SETTING--A nationwide sample, from 83 health centres for outpatient treatment, stratified by autonomous regions. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 1074 IVDUs were recruited. HIV serostatus could be verified in 738 (68.7%) of these. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Crude and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated to assess the association between HIV serostatus and behavioural changes. In their daily interactions with other members of the same household, seropositive subjects more frequently used preventive methods aimed at avoiding transmission than seronegative patients. Treatment for abuse or dependency before the current regimen had a greater impact in HIV positive than HIV negative subjects in terms of abstaining from risk behaviours. There was a significant trend toward lower drug consumption in HIV positive subjects, and the number of seropositive and seronegative IVDUs who stopped injecting their drugs was significantly higher among the former. Seropositive subjects were also more likely to stop sharing drug injecting equipment and to change their sexual habits; they reported an increased consistent use of condoms. CONCLUSIONS--HIV positive IVDUs were more likely to change their risk behaviours than their HIV negative counterparts. PMID:7964355

  18. HIV-associated dementia in the Dominican Republic: a consequence of stigma, domestic abuse and limited health literacy.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Laura Frances; Erkkinen, Emily E; Deb, Anindita; Adon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old Dominican woman presented at an infectious disease clinic in Santo Domingo, with subacute dementia and psychomotor slowing. Based on physical findings and laboratory results, she was diagnosed with AIDS and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). She subsequently began combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Psychiatric complications later emerged: the patient developed suicidal ideation and her partner expressed homicidal thoughts. After extensive interviewing, it was revealed that the patient had known her HIV-positive serostatus for years. However, several factors, including HIV stigma, mental illness stigma, domestic abuse and limited health literacy, had prevented her from seeking treatment and from disclosing her status to her partner. This patient's HIV was unmanaged as a consequence of social and educational circumstance, which resulted in severe sequelae, namely HAD. Compounded barriers to care can lead to the presentation of disease complications that are rarely seen today in countries with widespread access to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:27097891

  19. Acceptability, feasibility and challenges of implementing an HIV prevention intervention for people living with HIV/AIDS among healthcare providers in Mozambique: results of a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jaiantilal, Prafulta; Gutin, Sarah A; Cummings, Beverley; Mbofana, Francisco; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2015-01-01

    Despite the Mozambique government's efforts to curb human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), national prevalence is 11.5% and support is needed to expand HIV-related services and improve program quality. Positive prevention (PP) programs, which prioritize HIV prevention with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV), have been recognized as an important intervention for preventing new HIV infections. To address this, an evidence-based PP training intervention was implemented with HIV healthcare providers in Mozambique. This study focuses on the acceptability and feasibility of a PP intervention in HIV clinics from the healthcare provider perspective. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 healthcare providers from three provinces who participated in PP trainings in Mozambique. Interview data were coded using content analysis. Study data suggest that healthcare providers found PP acceptable, feasible to implement in their HIV work in clinic settings, and valued this strategy to improve HIV prevention. The PP training also led providers to feel more comfortable counseling their patients about prevention, with a more holistic approach that included HIV testing, treatment and encouraging PLHIV to live positively. While overall acceptance of the PP training was positive, several barriers to feasibility surfaced in the data. Patient-level barriers included resistance to disclosing HIV status due to fear of stigma and discrimination, difficulty negotiating for condom use, difficulty engaging men in testing and treatment, and the effects of poverty on accessing care. Providers also identified work environment barriers including high patient load, time constraints, and frequent staff turnover. Recognizing PP as an important intervention, healthcare providers should be trained to provide comprehensive prevention, care and treatment for PLHIV. Further work is needed to explore the complex social dynamics and cultural challenges such as gender inequalities, stigma and discrimination which hinder the full impact of PP interventions in this context. PMID:25778860

  20. Acceptability, feasibility and challenges of implementing an HIV prevention intervention for people living with HIV/AIDS among healthcare providers in Mozambique: Results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jaiantilal, Prafulta; Gutin, Sarah A.; Cummings, Beverley; Mbofana, Francisco; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the Mozambique government's efforts to curb human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), national prevalence is 11.5% and support is needed to expand HIV-related services and improve program quality. Positive prevention (PP) programs, which prioritize HIV prevention with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV), have been recognized as an important intervention for preventing new HIV infections. To address this, an evidence-based PP training intervention was implemented with HIV healthcare providers in Mozambique. This study focuses on the acceptability and feasibility of a PP intervention in HIV clinics from the healthcare provider perspective. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 healthcare providers from three provinces who participated in PP trainings in Mozambique. Interview data were coded using content analysis. Study data suggest that healthcare providers found PP acceptable, feasible to implement in their HIV work in clinic settings, and valued this strategy to improve HIV prevention. The PP training also led providers to feel more comfortable counseling their patients about prevention, with a more holistic approach that included HIV testing, treatment and encouraging PLHIV to live positively. While overall acceptance of the PP training was positive, several barriers to feasibility surfaced in the data. Patient-level barriers included resistance to disclosing HIV status due to fear of stigma and discrimination, difficulty negotiating for condom use, difficulty engaging men in testing and treatment, and the effects of poverty on accessing care. Providers also identified work environment barriers including high patient load, time constraints, and frequent staff turnover. Recognizing PP as an important intervention, healthcare providers should be trained to provide comprehensive prevention, care and treatment for PLHIV. Further work is needed to explore the complex social dynamics and cultural challenges such as gender inequalities, stigma and discrimination which hinder the full impact of PP interventions in this context. PMID:25778860

  1. HIV serostatus disclosure is not associated with safer sexual behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and their partners at risk for infection in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between HIV serostatus disclosure and sexual risk behavior is inconsistent across studies. As men who have sex with men (MSM) are emerging as the key affected population in Bangkok, Thailand with reported HIV prevalence of 30%, we assessed whether HIV disclosure is associated with protected sex in this population. Methods A risk behavior questionnaire was administered using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI) to determine whether HIV serostatus disclosure was associated with protected sex in 200 HIV-positive MSM in Bangkok. HIV serostatus disclosure to the most recent sexual partner prior to or at the time of the sexual encounter was assessed. Protected sex was defined as insertive or receptive anal intercourse with a condom at the most recent sexual encounter. Results The mean age was 30.2 years, CD4 was 353 cells/mm3, and one-third was on antiretroviral therapy. At the most recent sexual encounter, HIV serostatus disclosure rate was low (26%); 60.5% of subjects had not discussed their serostatus at all, while 5.5% had not revealed their true serostatus. Seventeen percent reported unprotected anal intercourse and about half had sex with their primary partners. The serostatus of the most recent sexual partner was HIV-positive in 19.2%, HIV-negative in 26.4%, and unknown in 54.4% of subjects. There was no association between disclosure and protected sex, with 41 of 48 (85.4%) disclosers and 104 of 126 (82.5%) of non-disclosers reported protected sex (p = .65). Subjects with HIV-positive partners were less likely to report protected sex overall (20 of 33, 60.6%) compared to those with HIV negative (82 of 96, 85.4%) or unknown (41 of 45, 91.1%) partners (p = .001). Age (27-32 years vs. ≤26 years, p = .008), primary partner status (p < .001), and HIV-positive serostatus of sexual partner (p < .001) were significantly associated with disclosure in the multivariate analyses. Conclusion Rates of HIV disclosure to sexual partners by HIV-positive MSM in Bangkok are low. Despite low rates of HIV serostatus disclosure, most HIV-positive MSM reported protected sex with their partners at risk for infection. Future studies should focus on understanding barriers to disclosure and factors driving risk behavior amongst MSM in Thailand. PMID:23259683

  2. Sexual risk behaviour, marriage and ART: a study of HIV-positive people in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of intimate partner transmission of HIV remains an important component of comprehensive HIV prevention strategies. In this paper we examine the sexual practices of people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Method In 2008, a total of 374 HIV-positive people over the age of 16 and on ART for more than two weeks were recruited using a non-probability, convenience sampling methodology. This accounted for around 18% of adults on ART at the time. A further 36 people participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were thematically analysed using NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Results Less than forty per cent (38%) of participants reported having had sexual intercourse in the six months prior to the survey. Marital status was by far the most important factor in determining sexual activity, but consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse with a regular partner was low. Only 46% reported consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse with a regular partner in the last six months, despite 77% of all participants reporting that consistent condom use can prevent HIV transmission. Consistent condom use was lowest amongst married couples and those in seroconcordant relationships. The vast majority (91.8%) of all participants with a regular heterosexual partner had disclosed their status to their partner. Qualitative data reinforced low rates of sexual activity and provided important insights into sexual abstinence and condom use. Conclusions Considering the importance of intimate partner transmission of HIV, these results on the sexual practices of people with HIV on ART in PNG suggest that one-dimensional HIV prevention messages focussing solely on condom use fail to account for the current practices and needs of HIV-positive people, especially those who are married and know their partners’ HIV status. PMID:23805823

  3. 32 CFR 806b.46 - Disclosing other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the public interest against the individual's probable loss of privacy. Do not consider the requester's... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.46 Disclosing other information. Use these... privacy in the information requested? (b) Would disclosing the information benefit the general public?...

  4. 32 CFR 806b.46 - Disclosing other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the public interest against the individual's probable loss of privacy. Do not consider the requester's... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.46 Disclosing other information. Use these... privacy in the information requested? (b) Would disclosing the information benefit the general public?...

  5. 32 CFR 806b.46 - Disclosing other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the public interest against the individual's probable loss of privacy. Do not consider the requester's... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.46 Disclosing other information. Use these... privacy in the information requested? (b) Would disclosing the information benefit the general public?...

  6. 32 CFR 806b.46 - Disclosing other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the public interest against the individual's probable loss of privacy. Do not consider the requester's... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.46 Disclosing other information. Use these... privacy in the information requested? (b) Would disclosing the information benefit the general public?...

  7. 32 CFR 806b.46 - Disclosing other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the public interest against the individual's probable loss of privacy. Do not consider the requester's... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.46 Disclosing other information. Use these... privacy in the information requested? (b) Would disclosing the information benefit the general public?...

  8. Experiences of HIV-positive gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men residing in relatively rural areas.

    PubMed

    Hubach, Randolph D; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Ramos, William D; Herbenick, Debby; Li, Michael J; Cola, Thea; Reece, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies of the sexual behaviour of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men living with HIV are based on samples of men recruited within relatively urban and suburban areas of the USA. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential challenges associated with HIV-related stigma and residing in a relatively rural area. We conducted a qualitative study based in south-central Indiana, a relatively rural area of the USA. Twenty-three HIV-positive gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, aged 21-48 years, were interviewed on topics regarding community engagement, perceived HIV-related stigma, relationship formation, sexual behaviour and HIV status disclosure. Findings indicate HIV-related stigma is commonly reported at the interpersonal and community levels. Because of this, men face complex situations on how and when to disclose their HIV status to members of their social and sexual networks. Although many participants reported many challenges associated with relationship formation, all expressed a desire for romantic and/or sexual connections with other men and/or women. Results suggest that new programmatic approaches are necessary to inform the work of social service and medical providers on mechanisms to intervene and combat stigma and discrimination inherent in communities, programmes and policies. PMID:25608847

  9. HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shikwane, Molatelo Elisa; Villar-Loubet, Olga M.; Weiss, Stephen M.; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Partner involvement has been deemed fundamental for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, although it remains difficult to achieve. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviours of pregnant women and their partners who participated in a behavioural risk reduction intervention in six community health centres in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Qualitative methods only were used in this study. Women and their partners took part in four gender-concordant groups that addressed HIV, PMTCT, disclosure of HIV status and safer sex practices. The results indicate that men value and understand the importance of being involved in women's reproductive health, although some components of the PMTCT programme such as condom use were still met with some resistance. Participants demonstrated high levels of HIV- and sexually transmitted infection-related knowledge. Men lacked knowledge about PMTCT but were interested in acquiring information so that they could support their partners. All groups highlighted the emotional and physical benefits of disclosing one's HIV status. The involvement of men in antenatal care has the potential to prevent women from becoming infected with HIV both during pregnancy and post-partum when they are more vulnerable to infection and have a high risk of transmission to the infant. There is a need for interventions that focus on both increasing male involvement and promoting condom use during pregnancy. PMID:24405286

  10. Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among four year medical students at the University of Zagreb Medical School--better in 2002 than in 1993 but still unfavorable.

    PubMed

    Tesić, Vanja; Kolarić, Branko; Begovac, Josip

    2006-12-01

    Fourth-year medical students at Zagreb University School of Medicine were surveyed about their knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS in 2002/03 and this was compared to a student generation studying during 1993/94. Results indicated that the 2002/03 students scored significantly higher then did 1993/94 students on knowledge, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. However, 84% of 2002/03 students believed that health care workers (HCW) have the right to know the HIV status of their patients, 50% would disclose the HIV status to another HCW against patient's wishes and only 35% believed that HIV testing should be voluntary. The following factors were independently associated with a more favorable attitude towards HIV/AIDS: less homophobia (beta = -0.37, p < 0.001), experience with HIV/AIDS patients (beta = 1.02, p < 0.001), better knowledge about transmission (beta = 0.18, p = 0.016), and 2002/03 academic year (beta = -1.45, p = 0.011). Despite improvements, some negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS remained prevalent in 2002/03. PMID:17508481

  11. Nutritional status and serum zinc and selenium levels in Iranian HIV infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, H; Soudbakhsh, A; Hajiabdolbaghi, M; Dashti-Khavidaki, S; Poorzare, A; Saeedi, AA; Sharififar, R

    2008-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals are prone to malnutrition due to increased energy requirements, enteropathy and increased catabolism. Trace elements such as zinc and selenium have major role in maintaining a healthy immune system. This study was designed to evaluate the nutritional status of Iranian subjects who were newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus infection and to compare serum level of zinc and selenium in these patients with those of the sex and aged match healthy subjects. Methods After an interview and physical examination, nutritional assessment was done based on clinical and anthropometric parameters. Body mass index (normal range 18.5–27 kg/m2 based on age) of less than 16, 16–16.9 and 17–18.4 kg/m2 were considered as severe, moderate and mild malnutrition respectively. Serum level of zinc and selenium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Results Severe, moderate and mild malnutrition were detected in 15%, 38% and 24% of human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals respectively. Compared with the healthy control group, serum level of zinc and selenium in the human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects were significantly lower (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02 respectively). Conclusion Malnutrition found to be prevalent in Iranian human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals and low serum zinc and selenium levels are common in this population. PMID:19068104

  12. The current status and challenges in the development of fusion inhibitors as therapeutics for HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jian Jun; Ma, Xue Ting; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiao Yi; Wang, Cun Xin

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 membrane fusion as a part of the process of viral entry in the target cells is facilitated by gp41 and gp120, which are encoded by Env gene of HIV-1. Based on the structure and the mechanism researches, new treatment options targeting HIV-1 entry process have been proposed. Enfuvirtide, which mimics amino acid sequences of viral envelope glycoprotein gp41, is the first HIV-1 fusion inhibitor approved by FDA. Although it fulfills vital functions by binding to gp41 and abolishing the membrane fusion reaction when used in combination, it could induce drug resistant virus variants. Currently, a number of design and modification schemes have been presented, a large number of prospective fusion peptides have emerged. For these fusion inhibitors, multiple mutations in gp41 have been associated with the loss of susceptibility to agents. This review reported the current developments and innovative designs of HIV-1 membrane fusion inhibitors. PMID:23092283

  13. Poor Nutrition Status and Associated Feeding Practices among HIV-Positive Children in a Food Secure Region in Tanzania: A Call for Tailored Nutrition Training

    PubMed Central

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among HIV-positive children can be ameliorated if they are given adequate foods in the right frequency and diversity. Food insecurity is known to undermine such efforts, but even in food rich areas, people have undernutrition. As yet no study has examined feeding practices and their associations with nutrition status among as HIV-positive children in regions with high food production. We therefore examined the magnitude of undernutrition and its association with feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a high food production region in Tanzania. Methods We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs). Results HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (β = 0.11, p = 0.016); underweight (β = 0.12, p = 0.029); and thinness (β = 0.11, p = 0.026). Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (β = 0.06, p<0.001), food insecurity (β = −0.05, p<0.001), and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. Conclusion Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate undernutrition. To improve it, tailored interventions should target children of poor households, the food insecure, and caregivers who have received only a low level of education. PMID:24846016

  14. Missed Opportunities for Religious Organizations to Support People Living with HIV/AIDS: Findings from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Jacobson, Mark; Laiser, John; John, Muze

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Religious beliefs play an important role in the lives of Tanzanians, but little is known about the influence of religion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study shares perspectives of PLWHA and identifies opportunities for religious organizations to support the psychological well-being of this group. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 through semistructured interviews with 36 clients (8 Muslims and 28 Christians) receiving free antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Arusha, Tanzania. Swahili-speaking interviewers asked about participation in religion, change in religious engagement since HIV diagnosis, and what role faith plays in living with HIV and taking ARVs. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Atlas t.i. The findings revealed that patients' personal faith positively influenced their experiences living with HIV, but that religious organizations had neutral or negative influences. On the positive side, prayer gave hope to live with HIV, and religious faith increased after diagnosis. Some respondents said that prayer supported their adherence to medications. On the other hand, few disclosed their HIV status in their religious communities, expressing fear of stigma. Most had heard that prayer can cure HIV, and two expected to be cured. While it was common to hear messages about HIV prevention from churches or mosques, few had heard messages about living with HIV. The findings point to missed opportunities by religious organizations to support PLWHA, particularly the need to ensure that messages about HIV are not stigmatizing; share information about HIV treatment; introduce role models of PLWHA; and emphasize that prayers and medical care go hand-in-hand. PMID:19335171

  15. Overestimating HIV infection: The construction and accuracy of subjective probabilities of HIV infection in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Anglewicz, Philip; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of HIV testing, how do rural Malawians assess their HIV status? In this paper, we use a unique dataset that includes respondents' HIV status as well as their subjective likelihood of HIV infection. These data show that many rural Malawians overestimate their likelihood of current HIV infection. The discrepancy between actual and perceived status raises an important question: Why are so many wrong? We begin by identifying determinants of self-assessed HIV status, and then compare these assessments with HIV biomarker results. Finally, we ask what characteristics of individuals are associated with errors in self-assessments. PMID:19672478

  16. Sex position, marital status, and HIV risk among Indian men who have sex with men: clues to optimizing prevention approaches.

    PubMed

    Hemmige, Vagish; Snyder, Hannah; Liao, Chuanhong; Mayer, Kenneth; Lakshmi, Vemu; Gandham, Sabitha R; Orunganti, Ganesh; Schneider, John

    2011-12-01

    A divide exists between categories of men who have sex with men (MSM) in India based on their sex position, which has consequences for the design of novel HIV prevention interventions. We examine the interaction between sex position and other attributes on existing HIV risk including previous HIV testing, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and HIV serostatus among MSM recruited from drop-in centers and public cruising areas in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. A survey was administered by trained research assistants and minimally invasive HIV testing was performed by finger-stick or oral testing. HIV seropositive MSM underwent CD4+ lymphocyte count measurement. In our sample (n = 676), 32.6% of men were married to women, 22.2% of receptive only participants were married, and 21.9% of men were HIV seropositive. In bivariate analysis, sex position was associated with previous HIV testing, UAI, HIV serostatus, and CD4+ lymphocyte count at diagnosis. In multivariate analysis with interaction terms, dual unmarried men were more likely to have undergone an HIV test than insertive unmarried men (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-6.5), a relationship that did not hold among married men. Conversely, dual married men were less likely than insertive married men to engage in UAI (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6), a relationship that did not hold among unmarried men. Further implementation research is warranted in order to best direct novel biologic and behavioral prevention interventions towards specific risk behaviors in this and other similar contexts. PMID:21682588

  17. Becoming a person with HIV: experiences of Cambodian women infected by their spouses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youngran; Wojnar, Danuta; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an interpretive phenomenological investigation in order to understand, within a Cambodian sociocultural context, the lived experiences of women infected with HIV by their husbands as they navigated the tasks of discovering, disclosing and dealing with the diagnosis. Using an open-ended interview protocol and an interpretive phenomenological approach, data were analysed from 15 women (aged 28-42 years) who self-identified the HIV transmission as coming from their spouses. Using qualitative inductive analysis, we were able to identify three main themes: (1) finding oneself to be HIV-positive, (2) encountering HIV--accepting an unwelcomed guest and (3) going public--dealing with the fear of discrimination. Participants consistently delayed testing for HIV and, after receiving an HIV-positive diagnosis, had to deal with painful emotions and discrimination within their social network. The complexity of gender roles and the sociocultural status of the women acted as behavioural determinants of their responses to HIV transmission from their spouses. PMID:26281855

  18. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05). For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma. PMID:24242257

  19. One year after ART initiation: psychosocial factors associated with stigma among HIV-positive Mozambicans.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C R; Micek, M A; Pfeiffer, J; Montoya, P; Matediane, E; Jonasse, T; Cunguara, A; Rao, D; Gloyd, S S

    2009-12-01

    The pathways through which stigma is associated with psychological distress remains understudied in Africa. This study evaluates stigma among 277 Mozambicans who were on an antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for a full year. Using bivariate and multiple regression analyses, we examine psychosocial factors (disclosure decisions, perceived social support, and depression) associated with stigma, at ART initiation and 1 year later. We found 1 year after initiating ART, participants reported no change in stigma, a decrease in perceived social support, and an increase in depressive symptomology. Disclosing HIV status to friends (versus family or partner) was associated with lower levels of stigma. These findings suggest that HIV care in comparable settings should include counselling, support groups, and peer support, that includes stigma and disclosure concerns prior to and during the first year following diagnosis. Most importantly, assessment and treatment of depression should be incorporated into ongoing HIV care. PMID:19639405

  20. Terms Used for People Living With HIV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mupenda, Bavon; Duvall, Sandra; Maman, Suzanne; Pettifor, Audrey; Holub, Christina; Taylor, Eboni; Rennie, Stuart; Kashosi, Mujalambo; Lema, Mamie; Behets, Frieda

    2015-01-01

    For this study we conducted in-depth interviews with 29 youth living with HIV (YLWH) and key informant interviews with 8 HIV care/support providers. We describe terms used to portray people living with HIV (PLWH) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Labels commonly used, mostly derogatory, described PLWH as walking corpses, dangers to others, or people deserving to die before others get infected. Blame and other accusations were directed at PLWH through anchoring or objectification. Being labeled sometimes made these youth suffer in silence, afraid to disclose their status, or avoid performing actions in public, preferring to let others do them. YLWH need psychosocial support to mitigate the harmful effects of these labels and strengthen their coping skills, whereas community, institutional, and national efforts are needed for stigma reduction. PMID:24463633

  1. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... interest. For more information, see the Guttmacher Institute’s State Policies in Brief: Minors’ Access to STI Services . Employers In most cases, your employer will not know your HIV status unless you tell them. But your employer does have a right to ask if you have any health conditions ...

  2. "It is not an easy decision on HIV, especially in Zambia": opting for silence, limited disclosure and implicit understanding to retain a wider identity.

    PubMed

    Bond, Virginia Anne

    2010-01-01

    As universal testing moves onto the HIV agenda, there is a need for more understanding of the relatively low uptake of HIV testing and the dynamics of disclosure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the expanding provision of anti-retroviral therapy in Zambia since 2004, disclosure of HIV status - beyond a closed network - remains limited. Drawing on 20 years of living and working in a high HIV prevalence country, research on HIV-related stigma and existing literature on disclosure, this paper explores the reasons that lie behind limited disclosure. Unravelling why HIV disclosure remains "a navigation in a moral field", the pattern of silence around HIV and the routine and often subtle presence of HIV in daily life reveals two key dynamics. The first dynamic is shifting public/private boundaries and retaining a wider identity. People living with HIV juggle the pragmatic advantages of disclosing to a limited circle with the importance of maintaining not only their moral integrity, status and (for some) professional and group identity but also of maintaining their privacy. A more public disclosure ("speaking it" more widely) shifts private-public boundaries and can be threatening, dangerous and can fix identity. Furthermore, disclosure carries obligations which, given high levels of poverty, can be hard to meet. The second dynamic is a pattern of implicit understanding. It can be easier in a context of high HIV prevalence to opt for silence, in its various forms, with the presence of HIV implicitly understood but not often explicitly spoken about. Although this gives more room for manoeuvre and for respect, silence too can be dangerous and certain situations dictate that it is better to breach the silence. More aggressive promotion of HIV testing needs to both respect and consider how to work within these existing dynamics to facilitate safe disclosure. PMID:20680855

  3. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330

  4. Measuring HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Nicaragua: results from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette C; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    Psychometric properties of external HIV-related stigma and discrimination scales and their predictors were investigated. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 520 participants using an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua. Participants completed an 18-item HIV stigma scale and 19 HIV and AIDS discrimination-related statements. A factor analysis found that 15 of the 18 items in the stigma scale and 18 of the 19 items in the discrimination scale loaded clearly into five- and four-factor structures, respectively. Overall Cronbach's alpha of .81 for the HIV stigma scale and .91 for the HIV discrimination scale provided evidence of internal consistency. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis identified that females, rural residents, people with insufficient HIV-related transmission knowledge, those not tested for HIV, those reporting an elevated self-perception of HIV risk, and those unwilling to disclose their HIV status were associated with higher stigmatizing attitudes and higher discriminatory actions towards HIV-positive people. This is the first community-based study in Nicaragua that demonstrates that overall HIV stigma and discrimination scales were reliable and valid in a community-based sample comprised of men and women of reproductive age. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population, especially among sub-groups. The findings in the current study suggest community-based strategies, including the monitoring of stigma and discrimination, and designing and implementing stigma reduction interventions, are greatly needed to reduce inequities and increase acceptance of persons with HIV. PMID:23514083

  5. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Mungara; Shilpapriya, Mangalampally; Reddy, Venumbaka Nilaya; Elangovan, Arun; Sakthivel, Rajendran; Vijayakumar, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6–13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05). The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment. PMID:26321835

  6. The impact of gender norms on condom use among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870

  7. The Impact of Gender Norms on Condom Use among HIV-Positive Adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner’s HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95–26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870

  8. An expressive therapy group disclosure intervention for women living with HIV improves social support, self-efficacy, and the safety and quality of relationships: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, Edward L; Lavin, Sonja M; Hilliard, Starr; Jones, Rhodessa; Haberer, Jessica E; Capito, Kristen; Dawson-Rose, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) face high rates of morbidity and mortality. HIV disclosure interventions have been identified as a promising but under-evaluated approach for WLHIV to improve their health and well-being. The Medea Project is an expressive therapy group intervention that was first developed to help incarcerated women develop the confidence and skills to tell their stories publicly in theatrical performances. The intervention was subsequently adapted as a community-based disclosure intervention for WLHIV. Our study describes an analysis of the impact of the Medea Project on the lives of the WLHIV who participated. All participating WLHIV publicly disclosed their HIV status during the performances. Five impact themes emerged from the data: sisterhood, catharsis, self-acceptance, safer and healthier relationships, and gaining a voice. Our study identifies a voluntary, effective, and broadly beneficial disclosure intervention for women living with HIV. PMID:25027284

  9. Perceived medical risks of drinking, alcohol consumption, and hepatitis C status among heavily drinking HIV primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O'Leary, Ann; Johnston, Barbara; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Heavy drinking poses significant risks to the health and survival of individuals infected with HIV, particularly those co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, little is known about patients’ perceptions of these risks, and whether these perceptions relate to their alcohol consumption. METHODS A sample of 254 heavily drinking HIV primary care patients (78% male; 94.5% minority; 31.8% with HCV) reported on their perceptions of the medical risks of drinking and on their alcohol consumption prior to participation in a drinking-reduction intervention trial. RESULTS In the HIV-infected sample as a whole, 62.9% reported that they had a medical problem made worse by drinking, and 64.3% reported restricting drinking to avoid future medical problems. Although patients co-infected with HIV/HCV reported greater efforts to restrict drinking to avoid future medical problems (AOR=1.94), their reported drinking quantity and frequency did not differ from that of HIV mono-infected patients. Awareness of medical risk was not associated with drinking level. Effort to restrict drinking to avoid medical risk was associated with lower drinking quantity, frequency, and binge frequency (ps<0.05), but the association with binge frequency was specific to patients without HCV. CONCLUSIONS Over one-third of HIV patients are unaware of the medical risks of drinking, and do not restrict use, suggesting the need for intervention in this group. Patients co-infected with HIV/HCV may report more effort to restrict drinking, but their reported drinking quantity and frequency suggest that they are actually drinking just as heavily as HIV mono-infected patients. Awareness of medical risk was unrelated to drinking, which suggests the need for interventions consisting of more than simple education. However, reported effort to restrict drinking did predict less drinking, suggesting the importance of patient commitment and initiative in change. PMID:25581660

  10. Status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and methods to monitor it in the Latin America and Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Jesus M Garcia; Walker, Neff; Cuchi, Paloma; Lazzari, Stefano; Ghys, Peter D; Zacarias, Fernando

    2002-12-01

    The paper presented is a review of the available epidemiological data on the situation in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, and looks at HIV prevalence in specific population groups. At the end of 2001, HIV remains an important health issue in the LAC region. Twelve countries in the region have an estimated prevalence of 1% or higher among pregnant women. Most of the LAC countries with generalized epidemics are located in the Caribbean basin. In the past decade there has been a slow but continuous increase in HIV prevalence rates among the general population and vulnerable groups, although information in some countries is limited. In many countries, the highest HIV prevalence among vulnerable groups is found among men who have sex with men. HIV infections related to injecting drug use are concentrated in the countries of the Southern Cone and Brazil. HIV is well anchored in the region, concentrated in vulnerable groups in most countries, but with an increasing presence in some countries in the general population. There is a need to improve data collection and introduce new tools to monitor behavior trends and the impact of interventions. PMID:12685919

  11. HIV status, breastfeeding modality at 5 months and postpartum maternal weight changes over 24 months in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Terusha; Carter, Rosalind J; Bland, Ruth M; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of infant feeding practices on postpartum weight change among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in South Africa. Methods In a non-randomised intervention cohort study of antiretroviral therapy-naïve women in South Africa, infants were classified as exclusive (EBF), mixed (MF) or non-breastfed (NBF) at each visit. We analysed infant feeding cumulatively from birth to 5 months using 24-hour feeding history (collected weekly for each of the preceding 7 days). Using generalised estimating equation mixed models, allowing for repeated measures, we compared postpartum weight change (kg) from the first maternal postpartum weight within the first 6 weeks (baseline weight) to each subsequent visit through 24 months among 2340 HIV-infected and -uninfected women with live births and at least two postpartum weight measurements. Results HIV-infected (−0.2 kg CI: −1.7 to 1.3 kg; P = 0.81) and -uninfected women (−0.5 kg; 95% CI: −2.1 to 1.2 kg; P = 0.58) had marginal non-significant weight loss from baseline to 24 months postpartum. Adjusting for HIV status, socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and infant factors, 5-month feeding modality was not significantly associated with postpartum weight change: weight change by 24 months postpartum, compared to the change in the reference EBF group, was 0.03 kg in NBF (95% CI: −2.5 to +2.5 kg; P = 0.90) and 0.1 kg in MF (95% CI: −3.0 to +3.2 kg; P = 0.78). Conclusion HIV-infected and -uninfected women experienced similar weight loss over 24 months. Weight change postpartum was not associated with 5-month breastfeeding modality among HIV-infected and -uninfected women. PMID:24720779

  12. Lung and Heart Diseases Are Better Predicted by Pack-Years than by Smoking Status or Duration of Smoking Cessation in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo; Gomes, André; Zona, Stefano; Marchi, Enrico; Santoro, Antonella; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Ligabue, Guido; Leipsic, Jonathon; Man, Paul; Sin, Don

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of pack-years smoking and time since smoking cessation with risk of lung and heart disease. Methods We investigated the history of lung and heart disease in 903 HIV-infected patients who had undergone thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging stratified by smoking history. Multimorbidity lung and heart disease (MLHD) was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 clinical or subclinical lung abnormalities and at least one heart abnormality. Results Among 903 patients, 23.7% had never smoked, 28.7% were former smokers and 47.6% were current smokers. Spirometry indicated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 11.4% of patients and MLHD was present in 53.6%. Age, male sex, greater pack-years smoking history and smoking cessation less than 5 years earlier vs. more than 10 years earlier (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27–5.29, p = 0.009) were independently associated with CT detected subclinical lung and heart disease. Pack-years smoking history was more strongly associated with MLHD than smoking status (p<0.001). Conclusions MLHD is common even among HIV-infected patients who never smoked and pack- years smoking history is a stronger predictor than current smoking status of MLHD. A detailed pack-years smoking history should be routinely obtained and smoking cessation strategies implemented. PMID:26650682

  13. Experiences of HIV Positive Mothers From Rural South India during Intra-Natal Period

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyan, Anbarasi; Sarkar, Sonali; Roy, Gautam; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha

    2013-01-01

    Context: Tamil Nadu comes under group I high prevalence state, with less than 1% prevalence of HIV infection in antenatal women but above 5% prevalence in high risk group. One of the ways to control HIV/AIDS in India is through Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT), the success of which lies in identifying pregnant women with HIV infection. But due to the stigma against HIV/AIDS among health care providers, HIV positive patients face discrimination in the health sector. Aims: To explore the difficulties faced by rural HIV positive mothers during the intra-natal period. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among HIV positive mothers, in Gingee block of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. All the mothers who tested positive between June 2006 and May 2010 were interviewed in-depth using an interview guide. Results: There were 21 HIV positive mothers during this period, 19 of whom gave consent. Majority of the mothers were <30 years of age from families belonging to lower socio-economic class. The discriminations faced from the health staff was avoidance of physical examination, rude behaviour like throwing of records on the face, discriminatory comments, unnecessary referrals and even refusal to provide intra-partum services. The negative attitude of the staff made a few mothers to deliver in some other institution without disclosing their HIV status. Conclusion: Stigma among health care providers towards HIV positive pregnant women acts as a barrier for improving access to PPTCT services in India and it poses high risk to the mothers, babies and also the health care providers. There is a pressing need to improve access to quality PPTCT services especially during the intranatal period. PMID:24298476

  14. Evaluation of the nutritional status of infants from mothers tested positive to HIV/AIDS in the health district of Dschang, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sobze, Martin Sanou; Wadoum, Raoul Guetiya; Temgoua, Edith; Donfack, Jean-Hubert; Ercoli, Lucia; Buonomo, Ersilia; Fokam, Joseph; Dongho, Bruna Djeunang; Onohiol, James-Francis; Zefack, Yannick; Zambou, François Ngoufack; Cresci, Alberto; Russo, Gianluca; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Poor infant feeding practices are common in Africa, resulting in physical and intellectual developmental impairments. Good feeding practices are crucial, especially in the first year of growth. HIV/AIDS has worsened the clinical and nutritional status of both mothers and their children, exacerbating high rates of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to assess by participative approach, the nutritional status of infants from mothers tested positive to HIV in the health district of Dschang. Methods This is a cross sectional study with a period of recruitment of 2 years (2010-2012). Data Collection was done by the aim of a personal slip followed by training to strengthen the nutritional and hygienic capacity of targeted parents. Height and weight of infants were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Results Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was noticed in height-for-age z-score (HAZ) of girls aged between 1 to 2 years compared to 1-year old girls as well as to boys of all ages, defining them as stunted. Furthermore, the weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) results indicate that both girls and boys of all age are in moderate state of malnutrition. The results of BMI thinness classified according to gender and age groups, indicates that most infants (68/130, 52.3%) showed grade 2 thinness predominantly in 2-years old both boys and girls. However, no participants fall within the normal category for age and sex, as well as overweight and obesity categories. Conclusion Undernutrition exists among infants from mothers tested positive to HIV residing in Dschang, as most of the infants are underweight, and malnourished. PMID:25400858

  15. "I have grown up controlling myself a lot." Fear and misconceptions about sex among adolescents vertically-infected with HIV in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Busza, Joanna; Besana, Giulia V R; Mapunda, Pasiens; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    With increased access to HIV treatment throughout Africa, a generation of HIV positive children is now transitioning to adulthood while living with a chronic condition requiring lifelong medication, which can amplify the anxieties of adolescence. This qualitative study explored how adolescents in Tanzania with HIV experience their nascent sexuality, as part of an evaluation of a home-based care programme. We interviewed 14 adolescents aged 15-19 who had acquired HIV perinatally, 10 of their parents or other primary caregivers, and 12 volunteer home-based care providers who provided support, practical advice, and referrals to clinical services. Adolescents expressed unease about their sexuality, fearing that sex and relationships were inappropriate and hazardous, given their HIV status. They worried about having to disclose their status to partners, the risks of infecting others and for their own health. Thus, many anticipated postponing or avoiding sex indefinitely. Caregivers and home-based care providers reinforced negative views of sexual activity, partly due to prevailing misconceptions about the harmful effects of sex with HIV. The adolescents had restricted access to accurate information, appropriate guidance, or comprehensive reproductive health services and were likely to experience significant unmet need as they initiated sexual relationships. Care programmes could help to reduce this gap by facilitating open communication about sexuality between adolescents and their caregivers, providers, and HIV-positive peers. PMID:23684191

  16. Restaurant to pay $25,000 to settle bartender's HIV firing.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    [Name removed], an HIV-positive bartender, will receive $25,000 in damages from his former employer, The Pub, in Evansville, IL. The Federal Court ruled that [name removed] was terminated because he disclosed his HIV status to an emergency room nurse following a workplace-based accident. Upon hearing the news, restaurant owner [name removed] relieved [name removed] of his position. [Name removed]'s attorneys claimed that The Pub violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which prohibits disability-based employment discrimination. The suit was filed on behalf of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which also charged that [name removed]'s privacy had been violated. During pretrial discovery proceedings, the key issue was whether [name removed]'s case could be heard because of the small size of The Pub's operation. Before the issue could be resolved, The Pub offered to settle out of court. Under the terms of the settlement, The Pub will institute a confidentiality policy for all employees' medical information. [Name removed] has filed suit against St. Mary's Hospital for disclosing his HIV status to his employer. That case is in the discovery phase. PMID:11362947

  17. The mouth in HIV/AIDS: markers of disease status and management challenges for the dental profession.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N W

    2010-06-01

    There are over 30 million people in the world with HIV infection and, whilst the rate of new infections is slowing, this number continues to grow. Although in Australia the overall prevalence of HIV infection in adults aged 15-49 is officially estimated at only 0.2%, representing less than 20,000 people living with HIV and AIDS, our geographical area contains populations with prevalences exceeding 10 times this. Oral health professionals must therefore practise safe, standard infection control at all times and be aware of the oral manifestations of HIV disease. These are predominantly opportunistic infections with fungi such as Candida albicans or with viruses of the herpes family, particularly herpes simplex, herpes zoster and Epstein-Barr virus infections. Warts or papillomas may arise due to human papilloma viruses--even in individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy. Rare types of fungal infection can occur, and severe bacterial infections, notably tuberculosis, are an ever-present risk. Susceptibility to periodontal breakdown is somewhat enhanced by the effects of HIV disease itself, and caries activity may increase because the patient neglects attention to diet and oral hygiene. Restorative and periodontal care need, therefore, to be maintained at a high level. Oral opportunistic infections cause much distress and the diagnosis and management of these is the responsibility of our profession. PMID:20553249

  18. 49 CFR 15.15 - SSI disclosed by DOT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false SSI disclosed by DOT. 15.15 Section 15.15... disclosed by DOT. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, and notwithstanding the... containing SSI are not available for public inspection or copying, nor does DOT release such records...

  19. 49 CFR 15.15 - SSI disclosed by DOT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SSI disclosed by DOT. 15.15 Section 15.15... disclosed by DOT. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, and notwithstanding the... containing SSI are not available for public inspection or copying, nor does DOT release such records...

  20. 49 CFR 15.15 - SSI disclosed by DOT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false SSI disclosed by DOT. 15.15 Section 15.15... disclosed by DOT. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, and notwithstanding the... containing SSI are not available for public inspection or copying, nor does DOT release such records...

  1. 5 CFR 1631.15 - Information to be disclosed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  2. 12 CFR 390.183 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  3. 12 CFR 343.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  4. 12 CFR 536.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What you must disclose. 536.40 Section 536.40 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE § 536.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of an insurance product or...

  5. 12 CFR 536.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true What you must disclose. 536.40 Section 536.40 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE 536.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of an insurance product or...

  6. 12 CFR 136.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What you must disclose. 136.40 Section 136.40 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE 136.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of an insurance product or...

  7. 12 CFR 136.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What you must disclose. 136.40 Section 136.40 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE 136.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of an insurance product or...

  8. 12 CFR 390.183 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What you must disclose. 390.183 Section 390.183 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Consumer Protection in Sales of Insurance 390.183 What you must disclose....

  9. 12 CFR 343.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What you must disclose. 343.40 Section 343.40 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE 343.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of...

  10. 12 CFR 343.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What you must disclose. 343.40 Section 343.40 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE 343.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of...

  11. 12 CFR 536.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What you must disclose. 536.40 Section 536.40 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE 536.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of an insurance product or...

  12. 12 CFR 136.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What you must disclose. 136.40 Section 136.40 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE 136.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of an insurance product or...

  13. 12 CFR 536.40 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true What you must disclose. 536.40 Section 536.40 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE 536.40 What you must disclose. (a) Insurance disclosures. In connection with the initial purchase of an insurance product or...

  14. Risk Behaviors and STI Prevalence Among People with HIV in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Bailey, G; Shah, N; Creswell, J; Guardado, ME; Nieto, AI; Estrada, MC; Cedillos, R; Pascale, JM; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ≥1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (≤1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%), syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, p<0.001), participation in HIV support groups (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p=0.01), easy access to condoms (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p=0.04) were protective factors for unprotected sex. Reporting a casual partner in the last 12 months (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.5, p=0.004). and having an STI (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.3-5.5, p=0.02) were associated with an increased odds of unprotected sex. Prevention interventions among HIV-positives in El Salvador should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change. PMID:23049671

  15. Residential Status as a Risk Factor for Drug Use and HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kipke, Michele D.; Weiss, George; Wong, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing behavioral and epidemiological evidence to suggest that young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at high risk for becoming HIV-infected. Unfortunately, relatively little research has been conducted to examine the range of individual, social, and community-level factors that put these young men at increased risk. To address existing gaps in the literature, the Healthy Young Men’s (HYM) Study was launched in Los Angeles to examine the range of factors associated with HIV risk and protective behaviors within an ethnically diverse sample of 526 YMSM recruited using a venue-based stratified probability sampling design. In this paper we present findings that demonstrate that YMSM who experience residential instability, who have been forced to leave their home because of their sexuality, and/or who are precariously housed are at significantly greater risk for drug use and involvement in HIV risk-related behaviors. PMID:17265143

  16. Aging with HIV: Responding to an Emerging Challenge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us FAQs Stay Connected You are here Home Aging with HIV: Responding to an emerging challenge September ... immune status in people infected with HIV. Cognitive aging HIV and its treatment can have profound effects ...

  17. HIV-Testing Behavior and Associated Factors Among MSM in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuefeng; Wu, Guohui; Lu, Rongrong; Feng, Liangui; Fan, Wensheng; Xiao, Yan; Sun, Zheya; Zhang, Heng; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The high and climbing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) bring huge pressure and challenge to acquired immune deficiency syndrome response work in China. This study examined HIV-testing behavior and describes the characteristics of recently tested MSM in Chongqing to address targeting HIV prevention interventions. Two consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among Chongqing MSM using respondent-driven sampling in 2009 and 2010. Information was collected regarding details on demographic characteristics, sexual practices with male and female partners, and HIV-testing experiences. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with recent HIV testing. The final sample size included in our analyses was 992. The overall HIV prevalence was 13.4%, and HIV prevalence increased significantly from 11.6% in 2009 to 15.4% in 2010 (P = 0.08). The overall rate of HIV testing in the past 12 months was 44.6%, and the self-reported rates decreased significantly from 47.8% in 2009 to 41.1% in 2010 (P = 0.03). Factors independently associated with recent HIV testing included living in Chongqing >1 year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.9), the age of most recent male partner ≤25 (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), not having unprotected insertive anal sex with most recent male partner in the past 6 months (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.0), disclosing HIV status to most recent male partner (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0–3.8), and holding lower level of HIV-related stigma (AOR 1.1 per scale point, 95% CI 1.0–1.1). The extremely high HIV prevalence and low annual testing level put MSM at high risk of HIV infection and transmission, and it is a priority to promote regular HIV testing among this group in order to control the spread of HIV in Chongqing, China. PMID:25501047

  18. Uptake of family planning methods and unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals: a cross-sectional survey among clients at HIV clinics in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prevention of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals is critical to the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT), but its potential has not been fully utilized by PMTCT programmes. The uptake of family planning methods among women in Uganda is low, with current use of family planning methods estimated at 24%, but available data has not been disaggregated by HIV status. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of family planning and unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected people in Uganda. Methods We conducted exit interviews with 1100 HIV-infected individuals, including 441 men and 659 women, from 12 HIV clinics in three districts in Uganda to assess the uptake of family planning services, and unplanned pregnancies, among HIV-infected people. We conducted multivariate analysis for predictors of current use of family planning among women who were married or in consensual union and were not pregnant at the time of the interview. Results One-third (33%, 216) of the women reported being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses and 28% (123) of the men reported their partner being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses. Of these, 43% (105) said these pregnancies were not planned: 53% (80) among women compared with 26% (25) among men. Most respondents (58%; 640) reported that they were currently using family planning methods. Among women who were married or in consensual union and not pregnant, 80% (242) were currently using any family planning method and 68% were currently using modern family planning methods (excluding withdrawal, lactational amenorrhoea and rhythm). At multivariate analysis, women who did not discuss the number of children they wanted with their partners and those who did not disclose their HIV status to sexual partners were less likely to use modern family planning methods (adjusted OR 0.40, range 0.20-0.81, and 0.30, range 0.10-0.85, respectively). Conclusions The uptake of family planning among HIV-infected individuals is fairly high. However, there are a large number of unplanned pregnancies. These findings highlight the need for strengthening of family planning services for HIV-infected people. PMID:21718524

  19. Health Status of HIV-Infected Women Entering Care: Baseline Medical Findings from the Women of Color Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason; Eastwood, Elizabeth A.; Verdecias, Niko; Roytburd, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The WOC Initiative is a prospective study of 921 women of color (WOC) entering HIV care at nine (three rural, six urban) sites across the US. A baseline interview was performed that included self-reported limitation(s) in activity, health conditions, and the CDC's health-related quality of life measures (Healthy Days). One-third of the WOC reported limiting an activity because of illness or a health condition and those with an activity limitation reported 13 physically and 14 mentally unhealthy days/month, compared with 5 physically and 9 mentally unhealthy days/month in the absence of an activity limitation. Age was associated with a three- to fourfold increased risk of an activity limitation but only for WOC in the urban sites. Diabetes was associated with a threefold increased risk of a limitation among women at rural sites. Cardiac disease was associated with a six- to sevenfold increased risk of an activity limitation for both urban and rural WOC. HIV+ WOC reported more physically and mentally unhealthy days than the general US female population even without an activity limitation. Prevention and treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease will need to be a standard part of HIV care to promote the long-term health and HRQOL for HIV-infected WOC. PMID:25561306

  20. Alcohol Use, Outcome Expectancies, and HIV Risk Status among American Indian Youth: A Latent Growth Curve Model with Parallel Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol use is cited as a risk factor for exposure to HIV infection through risky sexual behavior, especially among adolescents. From Social Cognitive Theory, positive outcome expectancies about the use of alcohol have often been presented as a critical aspect of alcohol use. Yet little is known about how they might be related to different aspects…

  1. CBERS - Disclosing a Successful International Space Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, G.

    2002-01-01

    On 14th October, 1999 the first satellite developed, assembled, integrated and tested by two emergent countries, Brazil and China, was successfully launched by a Long March series type rocket, from the Chinese launch base of Taiyuan, and its designed 2 years long life has already been extended by one year more. Since then, the China Brazil Earth Resources Satellite - Flight Model # 1 (CBERS-FM1) satellite is providing imaging services for both countries and also offering a competitive commercial products in the international market. Following the cooperation, FM1 orbit control has been conducted by both countries during different periods. For the orbit operation, both countries conduct the control once the satellite is passing inside each ground station window. The experience accumulated during the FM1 Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT), at Chinese laboratories, and its flight operation, provided important clues to implement some modification in the second satellite in order to enhance its operational performance. Succeeding these significant marks, the second satellite has already accomplished its AIT sequence at Brazilian Integration and Test Laboratory (LIT). In order to get the FM2 satellite ready to replace FM1 on time, the AIT schedule became critical, taking into account the several effects of the aspects intrinsic to this joint cooperation program. Since the AIT should be conducted in Brazil, and the later launching in China, the satellite preparation gained additional constraints for its logistic, management, follow up, technical progression, product assurance, and so on. The substantial feedback gained by both countries from their own CBERS FM1 remote sensing imagery capability, and now from the FM2 maturation, are leading the expansion of the program toward its second generation. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the program progresses, the FM1satellite flight operational status, the conduction and realization of the FM2 satellite AIT at LIT, and compare the AIT approaches used during FM1/China and FM2/Brazil. The significance of the ongoing success and the program continuing certainly represent a new experience for the international space community.

  2. Sexual Behavior and STI/HIV Status Among Adolescents in Rural Malawi: An Evaluation of the Effect of Interview Mode on Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Mensch, Barbara S.; Hewett, Paul C.; Gregory, Richard; Helleringer, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the reporting of premarital sex in rural southern Malawi. It summarizes the results of an interview-mode experiment conducted with unmarried young women aged 15–21 in which respondents were randomly assigned to either an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) or a conventional face-to-face (FTF) interview. In addition, biomarkers were collected for HIV and three STIs: gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. Prior to collecting the biomarkers, nurses conducted a short face-to-face interview in which they repeated questions about sexual behavior. The study builds on earlier research among adolescents in Kenya where we first investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of ACASI. In both Malawi and Kenya, the mode of interviewing and questions about types of sexual partners affect the reporting of sexual activity. Yet the results are not always in accordance with expectations. Reporting for “ever had sex” and “sex with a boyfriend” is higher in the FTF mode. When we ask about other partners as well as multiple lifetime partners, however, the reporting is consistently higher with ACASI, in many cases significantly so. The FTF mode produced more consistent reporting of sexual activity between the main interview and a subsequent interview. The association between infection status and reporting of sexual behavior is stronger in the FTF mode, although in both modes a number of young women who denied ever having sex test positive for STIs/HIV. PMID:19248718

  3. Estimating and disclosing the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease: challenges, controversies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J Scott; Tersegno, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    With Alzheimer’s disease increasing in prevalence and public awareness, more people are becoming interested in learning their chances of developing this condition. Disclosing Alzheimer’s disease risk has been discouraged because of the limited predictive value of available tests, lack of prevention and treatment options, and concerns regarding potential psychological and social harms. However, challenges to this status quo include the availability of direct-to-consumer health risk information (e.g., genetic susceptibility tests), as well as a growing literature suggesting that people seeking risk information for Alzheimer’s disease through formal education and counseling protocols generally find it useful and do not experience adverse effects. This paper reviews current and potential methods of risk assessment for Alzheimer’s disease, discusses the process and impact of disclosing risk to interested patients and consumers, and considers the practical and ethical challenges in this emerging area. Anticipated future directions are addressed. PMID:20856693

  4. On the Road to HIV/AIDS Competence in the Household: Building a Health-Enabling Environment for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian

    2015-01-01

    When aiming to provide chronic disease care within the context of human resource shortages, we should not only consider the responsibility of the individual person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) but also the capacity of the social environment to actively encourage a lifestyle that fosters health. In this social environment, extensive efforts are thus required to increase HIV/AIDS knowledge, reduce stigma, stimulate HIV testing, improve health care-seeking behavior, and encourage safe sexual practices—described in the literature as the need for AIDS competence. In accordance with socio-ecological theory, one cannot restrict the research focus to communities, as AIDS competence studies should also incorporate the intermediate household level. In responding to this research need, the aim of this article is to conceptualize an “HIV/AIDS competent household” based on qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted in a township on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. Our results show that a household’s supportive response to disclosure allows a patient to live openly as HIV positive in the household concerned. This may mark the start of the road to HIV/AIDS competence in the household, meaning the PLWHA receives sustainable support throughout the care continuum and positive living becomes the norm for the PLWHA and his or her household. A feedback loop might also be created in which other household members are encouraged to be tested and to disclose their status, which is an important step towards a sustainable response to HIV/AIDS-related challenges. Despite the fact that this road to HIV/AIDS competence at the household level is fragile and prone to various barriers, this article shows that the household has the potential to be a health-enabling environment for PLWHA. PMID:25794189

  5. People like virtual counselors that highly-disclose about themselves.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sin-Hwa; Gratch, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our findings from research designed to explore the effect of self-disclosure between virtual human counselors (interviewers) and human users (interviewees) on users' social responses in counseling sessions. To investigate this subject, we designed an experiment involving three conditions of self-disclosure: high-disclosure, low-disclosure, and non-disclosure. We measured users' sense of co-presence and social attraction to virtual counselors. The results demonstrated that users reported more co-presence and social attraction to virtual humans who disclosed highly intimate information about themselves than when compared to other virtual humans who disclosed less intimate or no information about themselves. In addition, a further analysis of users' verbal self-disclosure showed that users revealed a medium level of personal information more often when interacting with virtual humans that highly-disclosed about themselves, than when interacting with virtual humans disclosing less intimate or no information about themselves. PMID:21685657

  6. 5 CFR 2502.16 - Information to be disclosed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Charges for Search and Reproduction § 2502.16 Information to be disclosed. (a) In general, all records of... employees would assist competitors in raiding and hiring them away. In this regard, names and...

  7. Drug Use and HIV Infection Status of Detainees in Re-Education through Labour Camps in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Yap, Lorraine; Reekie, Joanne; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou; Wand, Handan; Butler, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This study describes HIV disease burden and patterns of drug use before and during incarceration among detainees in Re-education-Through-Labour-Camps (RTLCs) in China. A cross-sectional survey of 576 men and 179 women from three RTLCs was conducted in Guangxi Province, China. Over three-quarters of study participants were detained due to drug-related offences. Over half of the women (n = 313, 54.3%) and two-thirds of men (n = 119, 66.5%) had been previously been incarcerated in a compulsory detoxification treatment centre (CDTC), and around one-third (men n = 159, 27.6%; women n = 50, 27.9%) in a RTLC. Of those surveyed, 49 men (8.5%) and one (0.6%) woman reported ever using drugs while in a CDTC and/or RTLC. Previous incarceration in CDTCs and RTLCs were associated with HIV infection among both male (OR = 2.15 [1.11–4.15]) and female (OR = 3.87 [1.86–9.04]) detainees. Being married/cohabiting with a partner (OR = 0.53, [0.30–0.93]) and being employed (OR = 0.46, [0.22–0.95]) were associated with a reduced odds of HIV infection among male detainees. A significant proportion of RTLC detainees had a history of drug use and a limited number of inmates had used illegal substances whilst in custody. Repeat incarcerations in CDTCs/RTLCs were associated with higher risks of HIV infection. PMID:25915836

  8. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Status: The Delicate Balance Among People Living with HIV, with and without Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Espinoza, Luis; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Bryant, Vaughn E.; Vargas, Mayra; Cook, Robert L.; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E.; Deshratan, Asthana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The advent of combination antiretroviral therapy(cART) has lead to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV(PLWH). However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still remain a significant problem. One possible mechanism for the persistence of these disorders is through the effect of HIV on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is influenced by various factors including hazardous alcohol use (HAU), which is prevalent among PLWH. This study attempts to elucidate the relationships between HAU, BDNF and HAND. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a sample of 199 hazardous alcohol users and 198 non-HAU living with HIV. Members of each group were matched according to sociodemographic characteristics and CD4 count. Research procedures included validated questionnaires, neuropsychological assessments and a blood sample to obtain BDNF and immune measurements. Results Hazardous alcohol users showed either significantly lower or significantly higher BDNF levels compared to the Non-hazardous (OR=1,4; 95% CI: 1–2.1, p = 0.003). Therefore, for additional analyses, subjects were categorized based on BDNF values in: Group 1 < 4000, Group 2: 4001–7,999 (reference group), and Group 3 for those >8,000 pg/mL. Groups 1 and 3 performed significantly worse than those in Group 2 in the domains of processing speed, auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory. Multivariate analyses confirmed that HAU and BDNF are significant contributors of HAND. Conclusion Our findings offer novel insights into the relationships between BDNF, and alcohol use among PLWH. Our results also lend support to expanding clinical movement to use BDNF as an intervention target for PLWH, in those with evidence of deficiencies, and highlight the importance of including HAU at the inception of clinical trials. PMID:25053366

  9. HIV/AIDS treatment adherence in economically better off women in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Springer, Andrew E; Lopera, Monica; Correa, Diego; Useche, Bernardo; Ross, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Studies on HIV/AIDS treatment adherence have been carried out in a limited number of geographic settings, but few studies have explored it in people of higher socioeconomic status in Latin America. This qualitative study explored and compared determinants of adherence behaviors among 52 HIV-positive Colombian women in medium and high socioeconomic positions (SPs). Findings indicated that the two SP groups reported high adherence behaviors related to taking medication, following a diet, and executing lifestyle changes in line with healthcare providers' recommendations. Nevertheless, differences were observed between the two groups. While women with a medium SP disclosed their diagnosis, were empowered, and had acceptable access to economic resources that resulted in favorable adherence, their better off counterparts tended to hide their status and made a conscious effort to keep their adherence behaviors in secret due to HIV-related stigma. More studies on adherence of people living with HIV/AIDS from high SPs should be conducted to better understand how psychosocial support can be provided and to advance the knowledge of how and why adherence practices in these groups are undertaken. PMID:22273077

  10. Variations in the Role of Social Support on Disclosure Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected People Who Inject Drugs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Go, Vivian F; Latkin, Carl; Le Minh, Nguyen; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Sripaipan, Teerada; Mo, Tran Thi; Davis, Wendy W; Vu, Pham The; Quan, Vu Minh

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and perceived social support can influence the decision to disclose HIV positive status, especially for people who inject drugs (PWID). In this analysis, the association between social support and HIV disclosure among 336 newly diagnosed HIV-infected PWID in Northern Vietnam was assessed. One month after diagnosis, 34.8 % of participants had not disclosed to anyone. Disclosure to anyone and to a family member specifically, was associated with baseline social support in the form of positive interactions and a history of incarceration. Disclosing to a family member was less likely among those who had unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Disclosure to an injecting partner was more likely among those with a history of being in a drug treatment program, knowing someone on ART and believing that ART is safe. These data suggest that social support may facilitate disclosure among family members, including spouses, while disclosure to injecting partners is greater when PWID know that ART is a safe and viable option. PMID:25972071

  11. Strategic information is everyone's business: perspectives from an international stakeholder meeting to enhance strategic information data along the HIV Cascade for people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Richard D; Hegle, Jennifer; Sabin, Keith; Agustian, Edo; Johnston, Lisa G; Mills, Stephen; Todd, Catherine S

    2015-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased HIV transmission risk because of unsafe injecting practices and a host of other individual, network, and structural factors. Thus, PWID have a great need for services within the Cascade of HIV prevention, diagnosis, care, and treatment (HIV Cascade). Yet the systems that monitor their progress through the Cascade are often lacking. Subsequently, fewer reliable data are available to guide programs targeting this key population (KP). Programmatic data, which are helpful in tracking PWID through the Cascade, also are limited because not all countries have harm reduction programming from which to estimate Cascade indicators. Also, due to stigma and the illegal nature of drug use, PWID may not disclose their drug use behavior or HIV status when accessing services. Consequently, PWID appear to have low HIV testing rates and, for those living with HIV, lower access to health services and lower viral suppression rates than do other KP groups. This commentary, based on outcomes from an international stakeholder meeting, identifies data gaps and proposes solutions to strengthen strategic information (SI), the systematic collection, analysis, and dissemination of information, to optimize HIV prevention, care, and treatment programming for PWID. PMID:26471018

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Guidance from an opinion provided for the British Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Sherrard, M; Gatt, I

    1987-10-10

    Presented here is advice for British physicians concerning the current legal status of testing for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Physicians are cautioned that they may be both civilly and criminally liable if they take a blood sample for HIV testing without disclosing to the patient the nature of the test and the possible consequences of a positive result, and without obtaining informed consent. Passive or active misrepresentation, even for the best of motives, could vitiate the consent and constitute fraud or deceit. Where the safety of the patient, physician, other health personnel, or the public is involved, the physician should explain the situation to the patient, record any refusal of testing, and treat the patient as if infected PMID:3119097

  13. Stigma is Associated with Delays in Seeking Care Among HIV-Infected People in India

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Wayne T.; Bharat, Shalini; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Heylen, Elsa; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stigma shapes the lives of people living with HIV and may affect their willingness to seek medical care. But treatment delays can compromise health and increase the risk of transmission to others. Purpose To examine whether four stigma manifestations—enacted (discrimination), vicarious (hearing stories of discrimination), felt normative (perceptions of stigma’s prevalence) and internalized (personal endorsement of stigma beliefs)—were linked with delays in seeking care among HIV-infected people in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 961 HIV-positive men and women in Mumbai and Bengaluru. Results Enacted and internalized stigmas were correlated with delays in seeking care after testing HIV-positive. Depression symptoms mediated the associations of enacted and internalized stigmas with care seeking delays, whereas efforts to avoiding disclosing HIV status mediated only the association between internalized stigma and care seeking delays. Conclusions It is vital to develop stigma reduction interventions to ensure timely receipt of care. PMID:22282878

  14. Lowest ever CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4 nadir) as a predictor of current cognitive and neurological status in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection--The Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort.

    PubMed

    Valcour, Victor; Yee, Priscilla; Williams, Andrew E; Shiramizu, Bruce; Watters, Michael; Selnes, Ola; Paul, Robert; Shikuma, Cecilia; Sacktor, Ned

    2006-10-01

    Low CD4 lymphocyte count was a marker for neurological disease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); but is now less common among patients with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this study, the authors determine the reliability of self-reported CD4 nadir and its predictive value for neurological status. The authors identify a high degree of reliability (r = .90). After adjusting for age, current CD4 count, and duration of HIV-1, CD4 nadir relates to a current diagnosis of HIV-associated dimentia (HAD) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.395 (1.106-1.761), P = .005) and distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) (OR: 1.479 (1.221-1.769, P < .001). PMID:17065131

  15. Relationship between Housing Status and Retention Rates among HIV-Positive African Americans Enrolled in a Comprehensive Care Program.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong; Mains, William

    2016-01-01

    Service provision using "one-stop shopping" of medical, psychiatric, and case management services at the same location has been associated with superior client retention. The Yadumu project tested this premise, with attention to HIV-infected African Americans. Each client was assigned a case manager, who arranged meetings with mental health, substance abuse, and medical care professionals. The Center for Mental Health Services, National Outcome Measures (CMHS NOMs) questionnaire was used to evaluate client progress. Data were collected longitudinally and the program evaluation was performed by an outside center. Among 129 clients, 47% were male, 30% were female, and 22% were transgender. The majority (72%) were African American. Clients who lived in detox/drug treatment programs had higher completion rates (48%) than those who were homeless or otherwise housed (28%) (p = 0.04). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between independent factors and retention. Clients satisfied with their housing situation were less likely to retain in the program than those who were not satisfied with their housing situation (OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.78). High discharge rates among HIV-infected people were observed and may reflect the unstable circumstances of the population studied, but structured residential programs could be advantageous for improving retention. PMID:26960017

  16. Enteric pathogens, immune status and therapeutic response in diarrhea in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from north India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Arun Kumar; Uppal, Beena; Chadha, Sanjim; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Ghosh, Roumi; Dewan, Richa

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal infection causing diarrheal disease is a dominant contributor to high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This intervention study aimed to assess the response of specific anti-microbial and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on enteropathogens identified in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from northern India. Seventy five ART naive (group 1) and seventy five ART adherent (group 2) HIV/AIDS adult subjects with diarrhea were enrolled. Stool samples from all subjects were examined for enteropathogens by wet mount, staining methods, culture and ELISA. Subjects with enteropathogens were started on specific therapy as per National AIDS Control Organisation, Government of India's guidelines. Follow-up stool samples were examined after 2-4 weeks of completion of therapy for persistence/clearing of enteropathogens. CD4+ T lymphocyte count was done for all subjects. At enrollment, group 1 had 26.13% bacterial, 57.66% parasitic & 16.22% fungal pathogens while group 2 had 11.9%, 69.05% & 19.05% pathogens, respectively. Parasitic diarrhea was more common than bacterial diarrhea. The coccidian parasites (Cryptosporidium spp. & Isospora belli) were the common parasites identified. Clearance of enteric pathogens was significant after specific anti-microbial therapy (p = 0.0001). Persistence of enteropathogens was seen primarily for coccidian parasites. Clearance of enteropathogens after specific therapy and the diagnostic yield of stool specimens were influenced by the CD4+ counts. Immune competence coupled with specific anti-microbial therapy displays the best response against enteric pathogens. PMID:23968293

  17. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some unresolved ethical dilemmas related to confidentiality and non-disclosure, and translate those discussions into better guidance for health workers. PMID:25237134

  18. Vitamin D Status and Incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Opportunistic Infections, and Wasting Among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Isanaka, Sheila; Aboud, Said; Mugusi, Ferdinand M.; Wang, Molin; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Maintaining vitamin D sufficiency may decrease the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. We present the first prospective study of vitamin D among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults receiving antiretrovirals in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was assessed at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for 1103 HIV-infected adults enrolled in a trial of multivitamins (not including vitamin D) in Tanzania. Participants were prospectively followed at monthly visits at which trained physicians performed a clinical examination and nurses took anthropometric measurements and assessed self-reported symptoms. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of morbidity outcomes. Results. After multivariate adjustment, vitamin D deficiency (defined as a concentration of <20 ng/mL) had a significantly greater association with incident pulmonary tuberculosis, compared with vitamin D sufficiency (HR, 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–7.41; P = .027), but no association was found for vitamin D insufficiency (defined as a concentration of 20–30 ng/mL; P = .687). Deficiency was also significantly associated with incident oral thrush (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.01–3.81; P = .046), wasting (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.33–7.24; P = .009), and >10% weight loss (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.13–3.91; P = .019). Wasting results were robust to exclusion of individuals experiencing pulmonary tuberculosis. Vitamin D status was not associated with incident malaria, pneumonia, or anemia. Conclusions. Vitamin D supplementation trials for adults receiving ART appear to be warranted. PMID:23162137

  19. Immunogenetics of HIV and HIV associated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, S; Alagarasu, K; Selvaraj, P

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the frequent major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients, and is the leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients. Genetic susceptibility to TB in HIV negative subjects is well documented. Since coinfections can influence the way in which immune system respond to different pathogens, genetic susceptibility to TB in HIV patients might also change. Studies from India and other parts of the world have shown that genetic susceptibility to TB is influenced by HIV infection. In the present review, we emphasize the role of genetic factors in determining susceptibility to HIV infection, disease progression and development of TB in HIV-infected patients. Polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen (HLA), MBL2, CD209, vitamin D receptor, cytokine, chemokine and chemokine receptor genes have been shown to be associated with development of TB in HIV patients. However, the results are inconclusive and larger well-defined studies with precise clinical data are required to validate these associations. Apart from candidate gene approach, genome-wide association studies are also needed to unravel the unknown or to establish the previously reported genetic associations with HIV associated TB. Despite the preliminary status of the reported associations, it is becoming clear that susceptibility to development of TB in HIV patients is influenced by both environmental and genetic components. Understanding the genetic and immunologic factors that influence susceptibility to TB in HIV patients could lead to novel insights for vaccine development as well as diagnostic advances to target treatment to those who are at risk for developing active disease. PMID:21943869

  20. How are important life events disclosed on facebook? Relationships with likelihood of sharing and privacy.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Jennifer L; Cummings, Megan B; Kubiniec, Ashley; Mogannam, Megan; Price, Madison; Todd, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined an aspect of Facebook disclosure that has as yet gone unexplored: whether a user prefers to share information directly, for example, through status updates, or indirectly, via photos with no caption or relationship status changes without context or explanation. The focus was on the sharing of important positive and negative life events related to romantic relationships, health, and work/school in relation to likelihood of sharing this type of information on Facebook and general attitudes toward privacy. An online survey of 599 adult Facebook users found that when positive life events were shared, users preferred to do so indirectly, whereas negative life events were more likely to be disclosed directly. Privacy shared little association with how information was shared. Implications for understanding the finer nuances of how news is shared on Facebook are discussed. PMID:25584725

  1. 49 CFR 15.15 - SSI disclosed by DOT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SSI disclosed by DOT. 15.15 Section 15.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.15 SSI... containing SSI are not available for public inspection or copying, nor does DOT release such records...

  2. 22 CFR 1304.6 - Records not disclosed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records not disclosed. 1304.6 Section 1304.6 Foreign Relations MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROCEDURES § 1304.6 Records...) Would deprive a person of a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication; (iii) Could...

  3. 5 CFR 2502.16 - Information to be disclosed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information to be disclosed. 2502.16 Section 2502.16 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS Production or Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552 Charges for Search and Reproduction ...

  4. 47 CFR 1.1206 - Permit-but-disclose proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permit-but-disclose proceedings. 1.1206 Section 1.1206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Ex Parte Communications Non-Restricted Proceedings § 1.1206...

  5. Disclosing harmful medical errors to patients: tackling three tough cases.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Thomas H; Bell, Sigall K; Smith, Kelly M; Mello, Michelle M; McDonald, Timothy B

    2009-09-01

    A gap exists between recommendations to disclose errors to patients and current practice. This gap may reflect important, yet unanswered questions about implementing disclosure principles. We explore some of these unanswered questions by presenting three real cases that pose challenging disclosure dilemmas. The first case involves a pancreas transplant that failed due to the pancreas graft being discarded, an error that was not disclosed partly because the family did not ask clarifying questions. Relying on patient or family questions to determine the content of disclosure is problematic. We propose a standard of materiality that can help clinicians to decide what information to disclose. The second case involves a fatal diagnostic error that the patient's widower was unaware had happened. The error was not disclosed out of concern that disclosure would cause the widower more harm than good. This case highlights how institutions can overlook patients' and families' needs following errors and emphasizes that benevolent deception has little role in disclosure. Institutions should consider whether involving neutral third parties could make disclosures more patient centered. The third case presents an intraoperative cardiac arrest due to a large air embolism where uncertainty around the clinical event was high and complicated the disclosure. Uncertainty is common to many medical errors but should not deter open conversations with patients and families about what is and is not known about the event. Continued discussion within the medical profession about applying disclosure principles to real-world cases can help to better meet patients' and families' needs following medical errors. PMID:19736193

  6. IRS Releases Tax Questionnaire that Asks Colleges to Disclose More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 400 colleges across the United States are about to be asked to disclose intimate financial details of their operations to the Internal Revenue Service. This article reports on a highly detailed financial questionnaire designed by the IRS for the first phase of its Colleges and Universities Compliance Project, which is part of a continuing…

  7. IRS Releases Tax Questionnaire that Asks Colleges to Disclose More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 400 colleges across the United States are about to be asked to disclose intimate financial details of their operations to the Internal Revenue Service. This article reports on a highly detailed financial questionnaire designed by the IRS for the first phase of its Colleges and Universities Compliance Project, which is part of a continuing

  8. 12 CFR 208.84 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What you must disclose. 208.84 Section 208.84 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Consumer Protection in Sales of Insurance 208.84 What you must...

  9. 12 CFR 208.84 - What you must disclose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What you must disclose. 208.84 Section 208.84 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Consumer Protection in Sales of Insurance 208.84 What you must...

  10. Appeals panel vacates sentence of HIV-positive sex offender.

    PubMed

    1998-02-20

    The Ohio Court of Appeals rejected [name removed]'s arguments for a lighter sentence, but remanded the case for resentencing on other grounds. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to one count of corrupting a minor, a plea bargain with prosecutors in which they dropped rape and kidnapping charges. The case involved oral sex with a 13-year-old boy in which [name removed] did not disclose his HIV-positive status. The lower court erred in neglecting to explain its reason for giving [name removed] the maximum allowable sentence, and should not have raised Megan's Law concerns, as the crime took place before that statute was enacted. This was [name removed]'s first offense for a sex crime. PMID:11365098

  11. Risk Factors for HIV Transmission and Barriers to HIV Disclosure: Metropolitan Atlanta Youth Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F; Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18-24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses on HIV education, contributors to HIV transmission, and pre-sex HIV status disclosure. The 68 participants had the following characteristics: mean age 21.5 years (standard deviation: 1.8 years), 85% male, 90% black, 68% HIV-infected. HIV risk behaviors included the perception of condomless sex (Likert scale mean: 8.0) and transactional sex (88% of participants); no differences were noted by HIV status. Qualitative analyses revealed two main themes: (1) HIV risk factors among AYAs, and (2) barriers to discussing HIV status before sex. Participants felt the use of social media, need for immediate gratification, and lack of concern about HIV disease were risk factors for AYAs. Discussing HIV status with sex partners was uncommon. Key reasons included: fear of rejection, lack of confidentiality, discussion was unnecessary in temporary relationships, and disclosure negatively affecting the mood. HIV prevention strategies for AYAs should include improving condom use frequency and HIV disclosure skills, responsible utilization of social media, and education addressing HIV prevention including the risks of transactional sex. PMID:26588663

  12. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify

  13. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

  14. Surrogacy commissioning fathers and HIV.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2014-01-01

    Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have been tested for HIV; that he has consented to his HIV status being made available to the surrogate mother, and if he is HIV-positive, that sperm washing will be used to minimise the risk of infection and that the surrogate mother has been informed of his HIV status, and given her informed consent.  PMID:24388075

  15. Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in South African pregnant women under Option B+: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Nachega, Jean B; Skinner, Donald; Jennings, Larissa; Magidson, Jessica F; Altice, Frederick L; Burke, Jessica G; Lester, Richard T; Uthman, Olalekan A; Knowlton, Amy R; Cotton, Mark F; Anderson, Jean R; Theron, Gerhard B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the acceptability and feasibility of mobile health (mHealth)/short message service (SMS) and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy (cDOT) as interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for preventing mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (PMTCT). Design and methods A mixed-method approach was used. Two qualitative focus group discussions with HIV-infected pregnant women (n=20) examined the acceptability and feasibility of two ART adherence interventions for PMTCT: 1) SMS text messaging and 2) patient-nominated cDOT supporters. Additionally, 109 HIV-infected, pregnant South African women (18–30 years old) receiving PMTCT services under single-tablet antiretroviral therapy regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding and continuing for life (“Option B+”) were interviewed about mobile phone access, SMS use, and potential treatment supporters. Setting A community primary care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants HIV-infected pregnant women. Main outcomes Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and cDOT interventions. Results Among the 109 women interviewed, individual mobile phone access and SMS use were high (>90%), and 88.1% of women were interested in receiving SMS ART adherence support messages such as reminders, motivation, and medication updates. Nearly all women (95%) identified at least one person close to them to whom they had disclosed their HIV status and would nominate as a cDOT supporter. Focus group discussions revealed that cDOT supporters and adherence text messages were valued, but some concerns regarding supporter time availability and risk of unintended HIV status disclosure were expressed. Conclusion mHealth and/or cDOT supporter as interventions to improve ART adherence are feasible in this setting. However, safe HIV status disclosure to treatment supporters and confidentiality of text messaging content about HIV and ART were deemed crucial. PMID:27175068

  16. HIV-testing behavior and associated factors among MSM in Chongqing, China: results of 2 consecutive cross-sectional surveys from 2009 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefeng; Wu, Guohui; Lu, Rongrong; Feng, Liangui; Fan, Wensheng; Xiao, Yan; Sun, Zheya; Zhang, Heng; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2014-12-01

    The high and climbing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) bring huge pressure and challenge to acquired immune deficiency syndrome response work in China. This study examined HIV-testing behavior and describes the characteristics of recently tested MSM in Chongqing to address targeting HIV prevention interventions. Two consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among Chongqing MSM using respondent-driven sampling in 2009 and 2010. Information was collected regarding details on demographic characteristics, sexual practices with male and female partners, and HIV-testing experiences. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with recent HIV testing.The final sample size included in our analyses was 992. The overall HIV prevalence was 13.4%, and HIV prevalence increased significantly from 11.6% in 2009 to 15.4% in 2010 (P = 0.08). The overall rate of HIV testing in the past 12 months was 44.6%, and the self-reported rates decreased significantly from 47.8% in 2009 to 41.1% in 2010 (P = 0.03). Factors independently associated with recent HIV testing included living in Chongqing >1 year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.9), the age of most recent male partner ≤ 25 (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1), not having unprotected insertive anal sex with most recent male partner in the past 6 months (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0), disclosing HIV status to most recent male partner (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0-3.8), and holding lower level of HIV-related stigma (AOR 1.1 per scale point, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). The extremely high HIV prevalence and low annual testing level put MSM at high risk of HIV infection and transmission, and it is a priority to promote regular HIV testing among this group in order to control the spread of HIV in Chongqing, China. PMID:25501047

  17. [Alcohol abuse in HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Ruchkina, E V; Beliaeva, V V; Pokrovskiĭ, V V

    1996-01-01

    249 cases of HIV infection (170 males, mean age 30.2 +/- 0.8 years; 79 females, mean age 28.7 +/- 0.9 years) have been analyzed for prevalence of alcoholization. 6 months after the establishment of HIV diagnosis the number of alcoholics in the studied group was greater than in this group before the diagnosis. 22% developed further alcohol addiction. Detrimental effects of alcoholization on mentality, memory and social status of HIV-infected subjects are described. PMID:9045381

  18. Using Health Provider Insights to Inform Pediatric HIV Disclosure: A Qualitative Study and Practice Framework from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    John-Stewart, Grace; Shah, Brandi; Wamalwa, Dalton; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Kelley, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Optimal pediatric HIV disclosure impacts illness and developmental experiences while improving access to timely treatment. However, disclosure rates in high HIV prevalence countries remain low and there are limited data on best practices. We conducted a qualitative study of disclosure practices and interviewed healthcare providers from five pediatric HIV clinics in Kenya. We identified themes central to disclosure practices, rationale for approaches, barriers to implementing disclosure, and creative strategies to overcome challenges. We used these insights to develop a practice-based framework for disclosure that is sensitive to practical challenges. Overall, providers had limited training but extensive experience in disclosure, endorsed individualized disclosure practices, invested substantial time on disclosure despite clinical burden, and noted adverse outcomes associated with unplanned or abrupt disclosure. Providers advocated for an approach to disclosure that is child-centered but respects caregiver fears and values. Caregiver support was provided to enable caregivers to be the person who ultimately disclosed HIV status to children. Unplanned or abrupt disclosure to children was reported to have severe and persistent adverse impact and was a stimulus to accelerate disclosure in scenarios when providers believed children may be suspecting their diagnosis. Based on these expert insights, the framework we developed incorporates concurrent evaluation of child and caregiver readiness, identifies cues to prompt disclosure discussions, includes caregiver education and support, and utilizes a gradual approach of unveiling HIV diagnosis to the child. PMID:25216105

  19. Disclosing a Cancer Diagnosis to Friends and Family

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Chapple, Alison; Ziebland, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how young adults disclose their cancer diagnosis to family and friends, and whether there are similarities or differences between men and women. This article compares young adults experiences of disclosing a cancer diagnosis, drawing on narrative interviews with 37 respondents aged 18 to 34 years. Most respondents were open about their diagnosis, and there were striking similarities in the difficulties that men and women described and in their desire to protect relatives. However, men made up most of the minority of respondents who were more secretive about their diagnosis. Men also made more explicit connections between their gendered identity and disclosure; worries about being perceived differently by peers resulted in some men hiding their diagnosis and others using humor to pre-empt sympathy. These findings are discussed in the context of gender stereotypes of expressive women and stoical men. PMID:19342703

  20. Wounds in patients with HIV.

    PubMed

    McMeeking, Alexander; Kim, In; Ross, Frank; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Brem, Harold; Linton, Patrick; O'Neill, Daniel K

    2014-09-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has dramatically reduced morbidity and mortality among patients who are HIV-positive. A retrospective review of the authors' data separated subjects into cohorts based on HIV status and matched them for age and gender. The authors' data reveal a higher fraction of venous ulcers compared with a lower fraction of pressure ulcers in the seropositive population. PMID:25133341

  1. Heterosexual Partnerships and the Need for HIV Prevention and Testing for Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women in China: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijia; Song, Dandan; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Wang, Min; Manning, David; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that approximately 30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China have concurrent female partners. Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) might "bridge" HIV transmission to their female sex partners. This study aimed to explore (a) motivations for why MSMW in China engage in relationships and sexual behaviors with female partners; (b) patterns of sexual behaviors and condom use between MSMW and their female partners; and (c) barriers to and strategies for encouraging MSMW and their female partners to undergo HIV testing. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 30 MSMW in two urban cities in China, Guangzhou and Chengdu, and used thematic analysis methods to code and interpret the data. MSMW described family, social, and workplace pressures to have a female partner, and expressed futility about their ability to form stable same-sex relationships. Although participants reported concern about the risk of personally acquiring and transmitting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to their female partners, they described the challenges to using condoms with female partners. HIV-positive participants described how stigma restricted their ability to disclose their HIV status to female partners, and HIV-negative participants displayed less immediate concern about the need for female partners to undergo HIV testing. Participants described a range of possible strategies to encourage HIV testing among female partners. These findings highlight the urgent need for HIV risk reduction and testing interventions for Chinese MSMW in the context of heterosexual partnerships, and they also underscore the additional need for privacy and cultural sensitivity when designing future studies. PMID:25915698

  2. Alcohol and drug use disorders, HIV status and drug resistance in a sample of Russian TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, M. F.; Krupitsky, E.; Tsoy, M.; Zvartau, E.; Brazhenko, N.; Jakubowiak, W.; E. McCaul, M.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING: Alcohol use, tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior are of increasing concern in Russian TB patients. DESIGN: A prevalence study of alcohol use and HIV risk behavior was conducted in a sample of 200 adult men and women admitted to TB hospitals in St Petersburg and Ivanovo, Russia. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 72% were men. The mean age was 41. Active TB was diagnosed using a combination of chest X-ray, sputum smears and sputum cultures. Sixty-two per cent met DSM-IV criteria for current alcohol abuse or dependence. Drug use was uncommon, with only two patients reporting recent intravenous heroin use. There was one case of HIV infection. The mean total risk assessment battery score was 3.4. Depression was present in 60% of the sample, with 17% severely depressed. Alcohol abuse/dependence was associated with an eight-fold increase in drug resistance (OR 8.58; 95% CI 2.09-35.32). Patients with relapsing or chronic TB were more likely to meet the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.0-6.54). CONCLUSION: Alcohol use disorders are common in patients being treated for active TB, and are associated with significant morbidity. Additional surveys are needed to examine the relationship between alcohol use disorders and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. CONTEXTE: Chezles patients tuberculeux russes, l’utilisation d’alcool, la résistance aux médicaments antituberculeux et un comportement à risque pour le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) sont des sujets croissants d’inquiétude. SCHÉMA: Une étude: de prévalence de l’utilisation d’alcool et du comportement à risque pour le VIH a été menée sur un échantillon de 200 hommes et femmes adultes, admis dans des hôpitaux pour la tuberculose (TB) de Saint-Pétersbourg et d’Ivanovo en Russie. RÉSULTATS: Il y avait 72% d’hommes dans l’échantillon. L’âge moyen est de 41 ans. On a diagnostiqué la TB active par l’emploi d’une combinaison du cliché thoracique, de la bacilloscopie et des cultures d’expectoration. Chez 62% des patients, les critères DSM-IV pour utilisation courante d’alcool ou pour dépendance étaient présents. L’utilisation de drogues est inhabituelle: deux patients seulement ont signalé une utilisation récente de l’héroïne par voie intraveineuse. Il n’y avait qu’un seul cas d’infection VIH. Le score total moyen de la batterie d’évaluation des risques a été de 3,4. Il y avait de la dépression chez 60% de 1’échantillon, dont 17% étaient en dépression sévère. L’utilisation ou la dépendance à l’égard de l’alcool étaient associées avec une multiplication par huit de la résistance aux médicaments (OR 8,58 ; IC95% 2,09-35,32). Les patients atteints de rechute de TB ou de TB chronique sont plus susceptibles de répondre aux critérés d’abus ou de dépendance de l’alcool (OR 2,56; IC95% 1,0-6,54). CONCLUSION: Les maladies liées à l’utilisation d’alcool sont fréquentes chez les patients traités pour TB active et sont associées à une morbidité significative. Des enquêtes complémentaires sont nécessaires pour examiner les relations entre les maladies liées à l’utilisation d’alcool et la résistance à l’égard des médicaments antituberculeux. MARCO DE REFERENCIA: El consumo de alcohol, la tuberculosis (TB) farmacorresistente y los comportamientos de riesgo para la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) constituyen una preocupación creciente en los pacientes con TB en la Fedéración de Rusia. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio de prevalencia del consumo de alcohol y del comportamiento de riesgo para la infección por el VIH en una muestra de 200 adultos, hombres y mujeres, ingresados por TB en dos hospitales de San Petersburgo e Ivanovo en la Federación de Rusia. RESULTADOS: El 72% de los individuos fueron de sexo masculino. La media de la edad fue 41 años. El diagnóstico de TB activa se estableció mediante una combinación de criterios que incluyeron la radiografía de tórax y la baciloscopia y cultivo del esputo. El 62% de los individuos cumplió con los criterios diagnósticos de alcoholismo actual o dependencia al alcohol de la nomenclatura del DSM-IV. El consumo de drogas fue poco frecuente, pues sólo dos pacientes comunicaron uso intravenoso reciente de heroína. Se observó un caso de infección por el VIH. La media total obtenida con el cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluación de los comportamientos de riesgo para sida (risk assessment battery) fue 3,4. El 60% de los pacientes presentaron depresión y en 17% la depresión fue grave. El alcoholismo y la dependencia al alcohol se asociaron con una frecuencia ocho veces mayor de farmacorresistencia (OR 8,58; IC95% 2,09-35,32). Los pacientes con TB crónica o recaída tuvieron mayor probabilidad de cumplir con los criterios para alcoholismo y dependencia al alcohol (OR 2,56; IC95% 1,0–6,54). CONCLUSIÓN: Los trastornos por consumo de alcohol son frecuentes en pacientes tratados por TB activa y se asocian con una morbilidad considerable. Se precisan estudios adicionales para evaluar la relación entre estos trastornos y la resistencia a los medicamentos antituberculosos. PMID:16704041

  3. Smart HIV testing system.

    PubMed

    El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King

    2005-06-01

    The quick HIV testing method called "MiraWell Rapid HIV Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the HIV virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a simple pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This HIV test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart HIV testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick HIV testing kits. Also, the smart HIV system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the HIV kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct. PMID:16078623

  4. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  5. Effect of health education on oral hygiene and gingival status of persons living with HIV attending comprehensive care centres in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gathece, Loice W; Wang'ombe, Joseph K; Ng'ang'a, Peter M; Wanzala, Peter N

    2011-12-01

    The study aimed to describe the effect of an oral health education intervention on oral hygiene status and gingival inflammation among persons with HIV attending two comprehensive healthcare centres in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a quasi-experimental study of 195 participants (with 102 in the intervention group, and 93 serving as the control group) who were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were collected at baseline, at three months (review 1), and at six months (review 2) using an interviewer-administered World Health Organization clinical examination form. The prevalence of plaque among the participants in the intervention decreased from 70.6% to 18.6%, with a significant decrease in their mean plaque score, from 0.89 to 0.15. The prevalence of gingival inflammation in the intervention group decreased from 58.2% to 12.7%, with a significant decrease in the mean gingival score, from 0.66 to 0.11. No significant change in degree of oral hygiene and gingival inflammation was observed among the non-intervention group. There was a strong association between the change in the mean gingival score and the change in the mean plaque score between baseline and at six months for the intervention group. The regression analysis yielded a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.76; therefore, 76% of the variation in change in gingival score was explained by the variables in the equation. Only the change in mean plaque score was a significant predictor of the change in gingival score. PMID:25865381

  6. Why HIV positive patients on antiretroviral treatment and/or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis use traditional medicine: perceptions of health workers, traditional healers and patients: a study in two provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Puoane, T R; Hughes, G D; Uwimana, J; Johnson, Q; Folk, W R

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of patients, health workers and traditional healers about the use of traditional medicine and Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART). The study explored the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of patients, health workers and traditional healers about the use of traditional medicine and Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART), using an exploratory qualitative design in two provinces of South Africa: an urban township health facility in the Western Cape, and a rural district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with antennal HIV rate of 32% and 28%'respectively. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 participants: six HIV patients on ART and using Traditional Medicine(TM), two doctors, two nurses and four traditional healers. Two focus group discussions -one at each site - were held with community health workers who work with HIV-positive patients (Western Cape [5] and in KZN [4]). Patient said to have used Traditional Healing Practices (THP) before they were diagnosed with HIV, and some who have been diagnosed with HIV continue using TM in conjunction with ART and/or Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Patients preferred not to disclose THP to health professionals because of lack of support and understanding. Patients utilize THP because of family expectations, privacy and confidentiality, especially when they have not disclosed their HIV status. Healthcare professionals had strong negative opinions about THP, especially for HIV-positive patients. Traditional healers supported the patient's rationale for THP use. This study revealed a need to better understand factors involved in patients' choosing to use THP concurrently with ART. PMID:23983385

  7. ‘Are We Not Human?’ Stories of Stigma, Disability and HIV from Lusaka, Zambia and Their Implications for Access to Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Janet A.; Bond, Virginia A.; Nixon, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The advent of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Southern Africa holds the promise of shifting the experience of HIV toward that of a manageable chronic condition. However, this potential can only be realized when persons living with HIV are able to access services without barriers, which can include stigma. Our qualitative study explored experiences of persons living with disabilities (PWD) in Lusaka, Zambia who became HIV-positive (PWD/HIV+). Methods and Findings We conducted interviews with 32 participants (21 PWD/HIV+ and 11 key informants working in the fields of HIV and/or disability). Inductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts was informed by narrative theory. Participants’ accounts highlighted the central role of stigma experienced by PWD/HIV+, with stigmatizing attitudes closely linked to prevailing societal assumptions that PWD are asexual. Seeking diagnostic and treatment services for HIV was perceived as evidence of PWD being sexually active. Participants recounted that for PWD/HIV+, stigma was enacted in a variety of settings, including the queue for health services, their interactions with healthcare providers, and within their communities. Stigmatizing accounts told about PWD/HIV+ were described as having important consequences. Not only did participants recount stories of internalized stigma (with its damaging effects on self-perception), but also that negative experiences resulted in some PWD preferring to “die quietly at home” rather than being subjected to the stigmatizing gaze of others when attempting to access life-preserving ART. Participants recounted how experiences of stigma also affected their willingness to continue ART, their willingness to disclose their HIV status to others, as well as their social relations. However, participants also offered counter-stories, actively resisting stigmatizing accounts and portraying themselves as resilient and resourceful social actors. Conclusions The study highlights a significant barrier to healthcare experienced by PWD/HIV+, with important implications for the future design and equitable delivery of HIV services in Zambia. Stigma importantly affects the abilities of PWD/HIV+ to manage their health conditions. PMID:26039666

  8. Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Patassi, Akouda; Woronowski, Aurore; Kariyiare, Benjamin; Lawson-Evi, Annette K.; Leroy, Valériane; Dabis, François; Ekouevi, Didier K.

    2014-01-01

    Background A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women’s Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively). Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive attitudes. Discussion and conclusions The prevalence rates of both lifetime physical and sexual violence were very high among HIV-uninfected women and even higher among HIV-infected women recruited in health facilities in this West African country. Screening for intimate partner violence should be systematic in health-care settings, and specifically within HIV care services. At a time of increased investments in couple-oriented HIV prevention interventions, further longitudinal research to better understanding of HIV-serodiscordant couple dynamics in terms of intimate partner violence is needed. PMID:24866864

  9. "You Must Do the Test to Know Your Status": Attitudes to HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing for Adolescents among South African Youth and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Catherine Lorne; Pettifor, Audrey; Coates, Tom; Rees, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Reduced HIV risk behavior and increased use of care and support services have been demonstrated among adults accessing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). The impact of VCT on adolescents is, however, not known. Focus group discussions were held with adolescents and parents in two South African townships to establish the perceptions of and…

  10. Vitamin D status in Well-Controlled Caucasian HIV Patients in Relation to Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers – A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Missailidis, C; Höijer, J; Johansson, M; Ekström, L; Bratt, G; Hejdeman, B; Bergman, P

    2015-01-01

    To study vitamin D (25OH D3) in relation to (i) microbial translocation (ii) systemic inflammation and (iii) blood lipid markers, in Caucasian, well-controlled HIV patients and healthy controls, plasma and serum samples from n = 97 male, HIV patients on HAART with immeasurable viral load (<20 copies/ml) since median 6.5 years and no concurrent inflammatory or infectious disease and n = 30 healthy controls were analysed for (i) LPS; (ii) sCD14, hsCRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, MCP-1 and IFN-γ; as well as (iii) blood lipids. Vitamin D levels were similarly distributed and equally low in both HIV patients and controls. There was no association between vitamin D levels and markers of microbial translocation, systemic inflammation or dyslipidemia. LPS levels were similar in both groups but HIV patients expressed higher levels of sCD14 and hsCRP, with HIV as an independent risk factor. HIV patients had higher cholesterol and Apo B levels. Notably, more HIV patients smoked and smoking was associated with lower vitamin D levels. In conclusion; these well-treated Caucasian HIV patients had similar vitamin D levels as healthy controls. However, despite perfect virological control, they exhibited slightly increased inflammatory markers and disturbed blood lipids. However, neither of these parameters were associated with low vitamin D levels but appeared to be linked to the HIV-disease per se. Thus, the rationale for vitamin D substitution as a way to improve microbial translocation and systemic inflammation is not fully supported in this HIV population. PMID:25833795

  11. LL-37 concentrations and the relationship to vitamin D, immune status, and inflammation in HIV-infected children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Tangpricha, Vin; Judd, Suzanne E; Ziegler, Thomas R; Hao, Li; Alvarez, Jessica A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; McComsey, Grace A; Eckard, Allison Ross

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is produced in response to active vitamin D to exert immunomodulatory effects and inhibits HIV replication in vitro. To date, no studies have investigated LL-37 in HIV-infected patients. This study sought to investigate LL-37 and the relationship to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and HIV-related variables in this population. HIV-infected subjects and healthy controls ages 1-25 years old were prospectively enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fasting plasma LL-37 and 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in duplicate with ELISA. HIV(+) subjects (36 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced subjects; 27 ART-naïve subjects) and 31 healthy controls were enrolled. Overall, 93% were black and the median age was 20 years. There was no difference in median (interquartile range) LL-37 between the HIV-infected group and controls [58.3 (46.4,69.5) vs. 51.3 (40.8,98.2) ng/ml, respectively; p=0.57]; however, the ART-experienced group had higher concentrations than the ART-naive group [66.2 (55.4,77.0) vs. 48.9 (38.9,57.9) ng/ml, respectively; p<0.001]. LL-37 was positively correlated with 25(OH)D in controls, but not in HIV-infected groups, and was positively correlated with current CD4 and ΔCD4 (current-nadir) in the ART-experienced group. After adjustment for age, race, sex, and HIV duration, the association between LL-37 and CD4 remained significant. These findings suggest that HIV and/or HIV-related variables may alter the expected positive relationship between vitamin D and LL-37 and should be further investigated. PMID:24798231

  12. The reluctance to self-disclose: reflexive or reasoned?

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Alan

    2012-07-01

    Despite a growing body of clinical literature advocating the thoughtful and judicious use of self-disclosure in psychoanalysis, there remains a reflexive reluctance to intervene in this way by many analysts of various theoretical persuasions. Why is this the case? Four motives for this reflexive reluctance to self-disclose are discussed: (1) theoretical reasons; (2) psychoanalytic authoritarianism; (3) fears of influencing the patient through suggestion; and (4) the analyst's personality characteristics. Examining the reasons for this state of affairs should help to reduce the rigidity or orthodoxy with which clinical psychoanalysis is practiced. PMID:23038902

  13. Children's Reasoning About Disclosing Adult Transgressions: Effects of Maltreatment, Child Age, and Adult Identity

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2012-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the identity of the recipient (parent, police, or teacher), and the severity of the transgression (“something really bad” or “something just a little bad”). Children endorsed more disclosure against stranger than parent instigators and less disclosure to teacher than parent and police recipients. The youngest maltreated children endorsed less disclosure than nonmaltreated children, but the opposite was true among the oldest children. Older maltreated children distinguished less than nonmaltreated children between parents and other types of instigators and recipients. PMID:21077859

  14. Children's reasoning about disclosing adult transgressions: effects of maltreatment, child age, and adult identity.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Thomas D; Ahern, Elizabeth C; Malloy, Lindsay C; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the identity of the recipient (parent, police, or teacher), and the severity of the transgression ("something really bad" or "something just a little bad"). Children endorsed more disclosure against stranger than parent instigators and less disclosure to teacher than parent and police recipients. The youngest maltreated children endorsed less disclosure than nonmaltreated children, but the opposite was true among the oldest children. Older maltreated children distinguished less than nonmaltreated children between parents and other types of instigators and recipients. PMID:21077859

  15. Characteristics of Women Enrolled into a Randomized Clinical Trial of Dapivirine Vaginal Ring for HIV-1 Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Schwartz, Katie; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Govender, Vaneshree; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Kiweewa, Flavia Matovu; Nair, Gonasagrie; Mhlanga, Felix; Siva, Samantha; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Jeenarain, Nitesha; Gaffoor, Zakir; Martinson, Francis; Makanani, Bonus; Naidoo, Sarita; Pather, Arendevi; Phillip, Jessica; Husnik, Marla J.; van der Straten, Ariane; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Baeten, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women in sub-Saharan Africa are a priority population for evaluation of new biomedical HIV-1 prevention strategies. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis is a promising prevention approach; however, clinical trials among young women using daily or coitally-dependent products have found low adherence. Antiretroviral-containing vaginal microbicide rings, which release medication over a month or longer, may reduce these adherence challenges. Methods ASPIRE (A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use) is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing the safety and effectiveness of a vaginal ring containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine for prevention of HIV-1 infection. We describe the baseline characteristics of African women enrolled in the ASPIRE trial. Results Between August 2012 and June 2014, 5516 women were screened and 2629 HIV-1 seronegative women between 18–45 years of age were enrolled from 15 research sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. The median age was 26 years (IQR 22–31) and the majority (59%) were unmarried. Nearly 100% of participants reported having a primary sex partner in the prior three months but 43% did not know the HIV-1 status of their primary partner; 17% reported additional concurrent partners. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported having disclosed to primary partners about planned vaginal ring use in the trial. Sexually transmitted infections were prevalent: 12% had Chlamydia trachomatis, 7% Trichomonas vaginalis, 4% Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 1% syphilis. Conclusions African HIV-1 seronegative women at risk of HIV -1 infection were successfully enrolled into a phase III trial of dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention. PMID:26061040

  16. Disclosing Medical Mistakes: A Communication Management Plan for Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Petronio, Sandra; Torke, Alexia; Bosslet, Gabriel; Isenberg, Steven; Wocial, Lucia; Helft, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There is a growing consensus that disclosure of medical mistakes is ethically and legally appropriate, but such disclosures are made difficult by medical traditions of concern about medical malpractice suits and by physicians’ own emotional reactions. Because the physician may have compelling reasons both to keep the information private and to disclose it to the patient or family, these situations can be conceptualized as privacy dilemmas. These dilemmas may create barriers to effectively addressing the mistake and its consequences. Although a number of interventions exist to address privacy dilemmas that physicians face, current evidence suggests that physicians tend to be slow to adopt the practice of disclosing medical mistakes. Methods: This discussion proposes a theoretically based, streamlined, two-step plan that physicians can use as an initial guide for conversations with patients about medical mistakes. The mistake disclosure management plan uses the communication privacy management theory. Results: The steps are 1) physician preparation, such as talking about the physician’s emotions and seeking information about the mistake, and 2) use of mistake disclosure strategies that protect the physician-patient relationship. These include the optimal timing, context of disclosure delivery, content of mistake messages, sequencing, and apology. A case study highlighted the disclosure process. Conclusion: This Mistake Disclosure Management Plan may help physicians in the early stages after mistake discovery to prepare for the initial disclosure of a medical mistakes. The next step is testing implementation of the procedures suggested. PMID:23704848

  17. Preferences of Gay and Bisexual Men for Pharmacy-Based HIV Testing and Over-the-Counter HIV Tests.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Beth E; Emetu, Roberta E; Sanders, Stephanie A; Bailey, Marlon M; Ryder, Priscilla T; Armstrong, James

    2014-09-01

    A 2013 study among 169 Indiana men aged 18-45 who have sex with men assessed the acceptability of and preferences for pharmacy-based and over-the-counter (OTC) HIV testing. Rural men in general and men who did not know their HIV status were more likely to purchase an OTC HIV test. Men who did not know their HIV status also preferred an OTC HIV test to pharmacy-based testing. Pharmacies should enhance information around the sale of OTC HIV tests, particularly in rural areas. Information should include test results, opportunities for consultation, and linkage to care. PMID:26789716

  18. Neurotoxic Profiles of HIV, Psychostimulant Drugs of Abuse, and their Concerted Effect on the Brain: Current Status of Dopamine System Vulnerability in NeuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2008-01-01

    There are roughly 30 to 40 million HIV infected individuals in the world as of December 2007, and drug abuse directly contributes to one-third of all HIV-infections in the United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the lifespan of HIV-seropositives, but CNS function often remains diminished, effectively decreasing quality of life. A modest proportion may develop HIV-associated dementia, the severity and progression of which is increased with drug abuse. HIV and drugs of abuse in the CNS target subcortical brain structures and DA systems in particular. This toxicity is mediated by a number of neurotoxic mechanisms, including but not limited to, aberrant immune response and oxidative stress. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies must be developed that can address a wide variety of disparate neurotoxic mechanisms and apoptotic cascades. This paper reviews the research pertaining to the where, what, and how of HIV and cocaine/methamphetamine toxicity in the CNS. Specifically, where these toxins most affect the brain, what aspects of the virus are neurotoxic, and how these toxins mediate neurotoxicity. PMID:18430470

  19. HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals show alteration in TLR expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine production ex vivo: An innate immune quiescence status?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Juan C; St Laurent, Georges; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio

    2016-02-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in direct recognition of viruses, promoting cellular activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, despite the reduced systemic immune activation described in HIV-1-exposed seronegatives (HESNs), few studies have focused on determining the relationship between PRR expression and cytokine production. We have aimed here to evaluate the expression level of PRRs and cytokines in HESNs, HIV-1 patients and healthy donors. Basal PRR expression levels in PBMCs, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, and plasma cytokine levels as well as the PRR ligand-induced cytokine productions were determined by flow cytometry, qPCR and ELISA. Higher TLR2/4 expression in DCs and monocytes from HESNs was observed. Nevertheless, TLR4/8, NOD2 and RIG-I mRNA levels were lower in PBMCs from HESNs than HIV-1-infected patients. Comparable IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α mRNA levels were observed among the groups examined; however, at the protein level, production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 was significantly lower in plasma from HESNs than from HIV-1-infected patients. Our results suggest that exposure to HIV-1 without infection could be associated with reduced basal pro-inflammatory responses. Further studies are required to define the cell subsets responsible for these differences and the role of PRRs on protection against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26616295

  20. 78 FR 13158 - Proposed Information Collection (Authorization To Disclose Personal Beneficiary/Claimant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Authorization To Disclose Personal Beneficiary/Claimant... personal beneficiary or claims information to a third party. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Authorization to Disclose...

  1. Exclusive breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS: a crossectional survey of mothers attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinics in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aishat, Usman; David, Dairo; Olufunmilayo, Fawole

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention of Mother-To-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) guideline recommends replacement feeding where it is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. Where this is un-achievable, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended during the first six months of life. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 HIV-positive using a two-stage sampling technique. Data on socio-demographics, infant feeding choice and factors influencing these choices were collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Results Majority of the mothers (86.0%) were married and aged 31.0 ± 5.7years. Slightly above half (53.0%) had≤2 children and more than two-third had disclosed their HIV status to their spouses. About two-third (61.0%) were traders with 75.0% earning monthly income ≤N5,000.00k. Half of the mothers had ≥4 antenatal care visits and 85.0% had infant feeding counselling. Infant feeding choices among the mothers were EBF (61.0%), ERF (26.0%) and MF (13.0%). The choice of EBF was influenced by spouse influence (84.0%), family influence (81.0%) and fear of stigmatisation (53.0%). Predictors of EBF were; monthly income (AOR = 2.6, C.I. =1.4-4.5), infant feeding counselling (AOR = 2.7, C.I. = 1.6-6.9) and fear of stigmatisation (AOR = 7. 2, C.I. = 2.1-23.6). Conclusion HIV positive mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. More extensive and comprehensive approach of infant feeding counseling with emphasis on behavioural change programmes in the context of HIV/AIDS within communities is advocated. PMID:26587157

  2. Why are some HIV/AIDS patients reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible in China?

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Lu, Hongzhou

    2014-06-01

    In more than 20 years of medical practice, a surprising phenomenon has often occurred: some patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decide not to go to the hospital and they do not let others know that they are suffering from the disease unless they believe that they are dieing. Zhang Shan (a pseudonym) is one such patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS who was reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible, and this paper shares Zhang's story as he related it. Clearly, there are numerous views as to why patients in China behave as Zhang did. Presented here are several reasons, including society, history, morality and ideology, family, and education. Although all of these reasons do play a role, the patient's mindset and behavior is the most significant reason for a patient's reluctance to seek treatment or disclose his/her status. If the individual patient's mindset and behavior are not dealt with effectively, then HIV/AIDS can continue to spread and threaten additional lives and even the fabric of society. This paper analyzes the reasons why patients are hesitant to receive antiviral therapy, but this paper also suggests steps healthcare personnel can take to encourage patients to seek treatment. Such steps can save the lives of current patients with HIV/AIDS. In addition, sound public health measures and a rational approach to treatment are important to helping potential patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25030855

  3. When information does not suffice: young people living with HIV and communication about ART adherence in the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bernays, S.; Paparini, S.; Gibb, D.; Seeley, J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite mounting evidence recommending disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status to young people with perinatally acquired HIV as a central motivating factor for adherence to antiretroviral therapy, many young people continue to experience disclosure as a partial event, rather than a process. Drawing from two longitudinal, interview-based qualitative studies with young people living with HIV (aged 10–24) in five different countries in low and high income settings, we present data regarding disclosure and information about HIV in the clinic. The article highlights the limits of discussions framing disclosure and patient literacy, and young people’s reluctance to voice their adherence difficulties in the context of their relationships with clinical care teams. We suggest that a clinician-initiated, explicit acknowledgment of the social and practical hurdles of daily adherence for young people would aid a more transparent conversation and encourage young people to disclose missed doses and other problems they may be facing with their treatment. This may help to reduce health harms and poor adherence in the longer-term. PMID:27019666

  4. “I don't want financial support but verbal support.” How do caregivers manage children's access to and retention in HIV care in urban Zimbabwe?

    PubMed Central

    Busza, Joanna; Dauya, Ethel; Bandason, Tsitsi; Mujuru, Hilda; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Children living with HIV experience particular challenges in accessing HIV care. Children usually rely on adult caregivers for access to care, including timely diagnosis, initiation of treatment and sustained engagement with HIV services. The aim of this study was to inform the design of a community-based intervention to support caregivers of HIV-positive children to increase children's retention in care as part of a programme introducing decentralized HIV care in primary health facilities. Methods Using an existing conceptual framework, we conducted formative research to identify key local contextual factors affecting children's linkages to HIV care in Harare, Zimbabwe. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 primary caregivers of HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years enrolled at a hospital clinic for at least six months, followed by interviews with nine key informants from five community-based organizations providing adherence support or related services. Results We identified a range of facilitators and barriers that caregivers experience. Distance to the hospital, cost of transportation, fear of disclosing HIV status to the child or others, unstable family structure and institutional factors such as drug stock-outs, healthcare worker absenteeism and unsympathetic school environments proved the most salient limiting factors. Facilitators included openness within the family, availability of practical assistance and psychosocial support from community members. Conclusions The proposed decentralization of HIV care will mitigate concerns about distance and transport costs but is likely to be insufficient to ensure children's sustained retention. Following this study, we developed a package of structured home visits by voluntary lay workers to proactively address other determinants such as disclosure within families, access to available services and support through caregivers’ social networks. A randomized controlled trial is underway to assess impact on children's retention in care over two years. PMID:24815595

  5. HIV-positive status and preservation of privacy: a recent decision from the Italian Data Protection Authority on the procedure of gathering personal patient data in the dental office.

    PubMed

    Conti, Adelaide; Delbon, Paola; Laffranchi, Laura; Paganelli, Corrado; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The processing of sensitive information in the health field is subject to rigorous standards that guarantee the protection of information confidentiality. Recently, the Italian Data Protection Authority (Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali) stated their formal opinion on a standard procedure in dental offices involving the submission of a questionnaire that includes the patient's health status. HIV infection status is included on the form. The Authority has stated that all health data collection must be in accordance with the current Italian normative framework for personal data protection and respect the patient's freedom. This freedom allows the patient to decide, in a conscious and responsible way, whether to share health information with health personnel without experiencing any prejudice in the provision of healthcare requested. Moreover, data collection must be relevant and cannot exceed the principles of treatment goals with reference to the specific care of the concerned person. However, the need for recording information regarding HIV infection at the first appointment, regardless of the clinical intervention or therapeutic plan that needs to be conducted, should not alter the standard protection measures of the healthcare staff. In fact, these measures are adopted for every patient. PMID:22313663

  6. Minimal impact of an iron-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplement on Hb and iron status: a randomised controlled trial in malnourished HIV-positive African adults starting antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    James, Philip; Friis, Henrik; Woodd, Susannah; Rehman, Andrea M; PrayGod, George; Kelly, Paul; Koethe, John R; Filteau, Suzanne

    2015-08-14

    Anaemia, redistribution of Fe, malnutrition and heightened systemic inflammation during HIV infection confer an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in HIV patients. We analysed information on Fe status and inflammation from a randomised, double blind, controlled phase-III clinical trial in Lusaka, Zambia and Mwanza, Tanzania. Malnourished patients (n 1815) were recruited at referral to antiretroviral therapy (ART) into a two-stage nutritional rehabilitation programme, randomised to receive a lipid-based nutrient supplement with or without added micronutrients. Fe was included in the intervention arm during the second stage, given from 2 to 6 weeks post-ART. Hb, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured at recruitment and 6 weeks post-ART. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the impact of the intervention, and the effect of reducing inflammation from recruitment to week 6 on Hb and Fe status. There was no effect of the intervention on Hb, serum ferritin, sTfR or serum CRP. A one-log decrease of serum CRP from recruitment to week 6 was associated with a 1.81 g/l increase in Hb (95% CI 0.85, 2.76; P< 0.001), and a 0.11 log decrease in serum ferritin (95% CI - 0.22, 0.03; P= 0.012) from recruitment to week 6. There was no association between the change in serum CRP and the change in sTfR over the same time period (P= 0.78). In malnourished, HIV-infected adults receiving dietary Fe, a reduction in inflammation in the early ART treatment period appears to be a precondition for recovery from anaemia. PMID:26179616

  7. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui...

  8. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui...

  9. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui...

  10. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui...

  11. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased. PMID:26863859

  12. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Lingler, Jennifer H; Butters, Meryl A; Gentry, Amanda L; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Klunk, William E; Mattos, Meghan K; Parker, Lisa A; Roberts, J Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test disclosures of amyloid imaging research results in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using simulated sessions, persons with MCI and their family care partners (N = 10 dyads) received fictitious but realistic information regarding brain amyloid status, followed by an explanation of how results impact Alzheimer's disease risk. Satisfaction surveys, comprehension assessments, and focus group data were analyzed to evaluate the materials developed. The majority of persons with MCI and their care partners comprehended and were highly satisfied with the information presented. Focus group data reinforced findings of high satisfaction and included 6 recommendations for practice: 1) offer pre-test counseling, 2) use clear graphics, 3) review participants' own brain images during disclosures, 4) offer take-home materials, 5) call participants post-disclosure to address emerging questions, and 6) communicate seamlessly with primary care providers. Further analysis of focus group data revealed that participants understood the limitations of amyloid imaging, but nevertheless viewed the prospect of learning one's amyloid status as valuable and empowering. PMID:27060950

  13. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lingler, Jennifer H.; Butters, Meryl A.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Klunk, William E.; Mattos, Meghan K.; Parker, Lisa A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test disclosures of amyloid imaging research results in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using simulated sessions, persons with MCI and their family care partners (N=10 dyads) received fictitious but realistic information regarding brain amyloid status, followed by an explanation of how results impact Alzheimer’s disease risk. Satisfaction surveys, comprehension assessments, and focus group data were analyzed to evaluate the materials developed. The majority of persons with MCI and their care partners comprehended and were highly satisfied with the information presented. Focus group data reinforced findings of high satisfaction and included 6 recommendations for practice: 1) offer pre-test counseling, 2) use clear graphics, 3) review participants’ own brain images during disclosures, 4) offer take-home materials, 5) call participants post-disclosure to address emerging questions, and 6) communicate seamlessly with primary care providers. Further analysis of focus group data revealed that participants understood the limitations of amyloid imaging, but nevertheless viewed the prospect of learning one’s amyloid status as valuable and empowering. PMID:27060950

  14. JABOYA VS. JAKAMBI: STATUS, NEGOTIATION, AND HIV RISKS AMONG FEMALE MIGRANTS IN THE “SEX FOR FISH” ECONOMY IN NYANZA PROVINCE, KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Camlin, Carol S.; Kwena, Zachary A.; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    In Nyanza Province, Kenya, HIV incidence is highest (26.2%) in the beach communities along Lake Victoria. Prior research documented high mobility and HIV risks among fishermen; mobility patterns and HIV risks faced by women in fishing communities are less well researched. This study aimed to characterize forms of mobility among women in the fish trade in Nyanza; describe the spatial and social features of beaches; and assess characteristics of the “sex-for-fish” economy and its implications for HIV prevention. We used qualitative methods, including participant observation in 6 beach villages and other key destinations in the Kisumu area of Nyanza that attract female migrants, and we recruited individuals for in-depth semi-structured interviews at those destinations. We interviewed 40 women, of whom 18 were fish traders, and 15 men, of whom 7 were fishermen. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software. We found that female fish traders are often migrants to beaches; they are also highly mobile. They are at high risk of HIV acquisition and transmission via their exchange of sex for fish with jaboya fishermen. PMID:23631716

  15. HIV in Europe.

    PubMed

    Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection. PMID:24559564