The Quebec human rights tribunal held that an employer who disclosed the HIV-positive status of an employee to his staff violated the employee's right to the safeguard of his dignity, without distinction or exclusion based on disability, contrary to Sections 4 and 10 of the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (the Quebec Charter). PMID:21688709
Since informed consent became legally required in the therapeutic setting, the risks physicians were to disclose have been limited to the risks of particular procedures. Two recent court decisions in which disclosure of surgeons' alcoholism and positive human immunodeficiency virus status was required may begin to erode that limit. The grounds for this expansion of disclosure requirements were inherent in the 20-year-old "materiality" standard for disclosure; nevertheless, the change they signal is profound. These cases may signal a trend that, in the long term, could result in a shift in physician-patient communication and a significant loss of privacy for physicians. PMID:1497019
When children know their HIV serostatus, they are more likely to cooperate with steps to manage their health and the risk of transmitting HIV to others. Mounting evidence indicates that caregivers often do not disclose to HIV-positive children that the children are living with HIV, but little is known about the modifiable determinants of pediatric HIV disclosure. The present study examined theory-of-planned-behavior predictors of the intention to disclose to children their HIV diagnosis. The participants were 100 caregivers of HIV-positive children in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Proportional-odds logistic regression analysis revealed that normative support for disclosure and caregiver-child communication predicted the intention to disclose, whereas behavioral beliefs regarding the consequences of disclosing and self-efficacy to disclose did not. The results suggest that interventions to increase pediatric HIV disclosure in South Africa should help caregivers enlist support for disclosure among important referents and improve communication with their HIV-infected children. PMID:24310931
Jemmott Iii, John B; Heeren, G Anita; Sidloyi, Lulama; Marange, C Show; Tyler, Joanne C; Ngwane, Zolani
This study examined the association of key variables with the intention to disclose and actual disclosure to an additional significant other of being HIV-infected. Sixty-five participants were recruited from five AIDS/HIV centers in Israeli hospitals. Participants completed questionnaires at entry to the study. They were asked about the extent to…
Landau, Gila; York, Alan S.
Objective To determine if women with undocumented HIV status in late pregnancy or at labor and delivery who are rapidly tested and\\u000a identified as HIV infected have high-risk behaviors and psychosocial obstacles hindering postpartum follow-up. Methods Consenting participants (women with undocumented HIV status and ?24 weeks gestational age (GA) and imminent delivery or ?34 weeks\\u000a GA) in 6 cities were rapidly
Mardge H. Cohen; Yolanda Olszewski; Mayris P. Webber; Nancy Blaney; Patricia Garcia; Robert Maupin; Steven Nesheim; Denis Agniel; Susan P. Danner; Margaret A. Lampe; Marc Bulterys
The Montgomery (MD) County Board of Education settled a suit with a 17-year-old student whose HIV status was disclosed by a substitute teacher. Terms of the settlement are confidential. The teacher commented on the boy's status to other students, and the suit charged the teacher and the school board with negligence and invasion of privacy. The student was asymptomatic and there was no legitimate reason for the substitute teacher to know his HIV status. The student has not returned to school. PMID:11365071
Through a national survey of marriage and family therapists, this study examines what therapists do when their HIV-positive clients disclose that they are engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. Participants (N=309) were more likely to break confidence when their clients were male, young, gay, or African American. Describes characteristic of…
Pais, Shobha; Piercy, Fred; Miller, JoAnn
Background Recent efforts to curtail the HIV epidemic in Africa have emphasised preventing sexual transmission to partners through antiretroviral therapy. A component of current strategies is disclosure to partners, thus understanding its motivations will help maximise results. This study examines the rates, dynamics and consequences of partner disclosure in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, with special attention to the role of support groups and stigma in disclosure. Methods The study employs mixed methods, including a cross-sectional client survey of counselling and testing services, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with HIV-positive individuals in stable partnerships in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, recruited at healthcare facilities offering HIV testing. Results Rates of disclosure to partners varied between countries (32.7% – 92.7%). The lowest rate was reported in Malawi. Reasons for disclosure included preventing the transmission of HIV, the need for care, and upholding the integrity of the relationship. Fear of stigma was an important reason for non-disclosure. Women reported experiencing more negative reactions when disclosing to partners. Disclosure was positively associated with living in urban areas, higher education levels, and being male, while being negatively associated with membership to support groups. Conclusions Understanding of reasons for disclosure and recognition of the role of support groups in the process can help improve current prevention efforts, that increasingly focus on treatment as prevention as a way to halt new infections. Support groups can help spread secondary prevention messages, by explaining to their members that antiretroviral treatment has benefits for HIV positive individuals and their partners. Home-based testing can further facilitate partner disclosure, as couples can test together and be counselled jointly.
Abstract For children affected by AIDS, one psychological challenge is whether or how to disclose their parents' HIV status to others (secondary disclosure). The current study, utilizing data from 962 rural children affected by AIDS in central China, examines children's perceptions regarding secondary disclosure (intention of disclosure, openness, and negative feelings) and their association with children's demographic and psychosocial factors. The findings indicated that a high proportion of children preferred not to disclose parental HIV status to others, would not like to tell the truth to others in the situations of having to talk about parental HIV, and also had strong negative feelings about the disclosure. The study findings confirmed that keeping secrecy of parental HIV infection was associated with higher level of negative psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, loneliness, perceived stigma, and enacted stigma), and children's age was strongly associated with both their perceptions of secondary disclosure and psychological measures.
Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita
Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings. PMID:23596649
Clum, Gretchen A; Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L; Ellen, Jonathan M
Abstract Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings.
Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.
Literature on HIV status disclosure among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is dominated by research on the rates, barriers and consequences of disclosure to sexual partners because of the assumed preventive health benefits of partner disclosure. Disclosure of HIV status can lead to an increase in social support and other positive psychosocial outcomes for PLWHA, but disclosure can also be associated with negative social outcomes including stigma, discrimination and violence. The purpose of this article is to describe the HIV status disclosure narratives of PLWHA living in South Africa. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 PLWHA (11 women, 2 men) over a three year time period. We explored disclosure narratives of the PLWHA through questions about who they chose to disclose to, how they disclosed to these individuals, and how these individuals reacted. Narratives focused on disclosure to family members and contained relatively little discussion of disclosure to sexual partners. Participants often disclosed first to one trusted family member, and news of the diagnosis remained with this person for a long period of time, prior to sharing with others. This family member helped the PLWHA cope with the news of their diagnosis and prepared them to disclose to others. Disclosure to one’s partner was motivated primarily by a desire to encourage partners to test for HIV. Two participants described overtly negative reactions from a partner upon disclosure, and none of the PLWHA in this sample described very supportive relationships with their partners after disclosure. The critical role that family members played in the narratives of these PLWHA emphasizes the need for a greater focus on disclosure to families for social support in HIV counseling protocols.
Maman, Suzanne; van Rooyen, Heidi; Groves, Allison K.
Little is published about the disclosure of parents' own HIV status to their children in Africa. Research shows that keeping family secrets from children, including those related to a parent's HIV status, can be detrimental to their psychological well-being and to the structure of the family. Further, children with HIV-positive parents have been shown to be more vulnerable to poorer reproductive health outcomes. This qualitative study in Botswana conducted in-depth interviews among 21 HIV-positive parents on antiretroviral therapy. The data revealed that parents found discussing the issue of HIV with children difficult, including disclosing their own HIV status to them. Reasons for disclosing included: children being HIV positive, the rest of the family knowing, or the parent becoming very sick. Reasons for not disclosing included: believing the child to be too young, not knowing how to address the issue of HIV, that it would be "too painful" for the child/ren. Concern that other people might find out about their status or fear of children experiencing stigmatising behaviour. Interviews elucidated the difficulty that parents have in discussing their own HIV status and more general sexual health issues with their children. Parents and other guardians require support in managing age-appropriate disclosure to their children. This may further enable access to forums that can help children cope with their fears about the future and develop life skills in preparation for dealing with relationships of a sexual nature and sexual health as children move into adulthood. In developing such support mechanisms, changing family roles in Botswana need to be taken into consideration and the role of other family members in the upbringing of children in Tswana society need to be recognised and utilised. PMID:19280415
Nam, Sara Liane; Fielding, Katherine; Avalos, Ava; Gaolathe, Tendani; Dickinson, Diana; Geissler, Paul Wenzel
We used a grounded theory approach to explore how a sample of caregivers of children on antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience HIV disclosure to their infected children. This paper explores caregivers' barriers to disclosing HIV to infected children. Caregivers of children aged 6–13 years who were receiving ART participated in four focus-group interviews. Three main themes, caregiver readiness to tell, right time to tell, and the context of disclosure, emerged. Disclosure was delayed because caregivers had to first deal with personal fears which influenced their readiness to disclose; disclosure was also delayed because caregivers did not know how to tell. Caregivers lacked disclosure skills because they had not been trained on how to tell their children about their diagnosis, on how to talk to their children about HIV, and on how to deal with a child who reacts negatively to the disclosure. Caregivers feared that the child might tell others about the diagnosis and would be discriminated and socially rejected and that children would live in fear of death and dying. Health care providers have a critical role to play in HIV disclosure to infected children, considering the caregivers' expressed desire to be trained and prepared for the disclosure.
Madiba, Sphiwe; Mokwena, Kebogile
... Unaware of Their HIV Status Until It's Advanced ER study also finds high proportion without health insurance (* ... Researchers looked at data from nearly 22,500 ER patients who were tested for HIV. Of those, ...
Five hundred men who have sex with men were recruited in Buenos Aires using respondent driven sampling. Of them, 46 respondents (24 of them not gay identified) who were HIV infected were asked questions on serodisclosure. The sample was characterized by indicators of low socioeconomic status. Most of the respondents reported being in good to excellent health despite 42% of them having been diagnosed with AIDS. Only 10% of respondents had not disclosed their serostatus to at least one person. Coworkers and lovers or main sexual partners were those most likely to know the respondents' serostatus. Reactions to disclosure were for the most part supportive. Those who had not disclosed anticipated less favorable reactions than those who had disclosed. No significant differences were observed between gay and non-gay identified respondents. The progressive social environment of Argentina that includes federal laws recognizing gay marriage may contribute to create a climate favorable for serostatus disclosure. PMID:24245593
Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Dolezal, Curtis; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María Mercedes
Background Disclosure of HIV status supports risk reduction and facilitates access to prevention and care services, but can be inhibited by the fear of negative repercussions. We explored the short and long-term outcomes of disclosure among clients attending an urban HIV clinic in Uganda. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews were administered to a purposeful sample of 40 adult HIV clients that was stratified by gender. The information elicited included their lived experiences and outcomes of disclosure in the short and long term. A text data management software (ATLAS.ti) was used for data analysis. Codes were exported to MS Excel and pivot tables, and code counts made to generate statistical data. Results Of the 134 short-term responses elicited during the interview regarding disclosure events, most responses were supportive including encouragement, advice and support regarding HIV care and treatment. The results show on-disclosing to spouse, there was more trust, and use of condoms for HIV prevention. Only one third were negative responses, like emotional shock and feeling of distress. The negative reactions to the spouses included rejection, shock and distress in the short term. Even then, none of these events led to drastic change such as divorce. Other responses reflected HIV prevention and call for behavioural change and advice to change sexual behaviour, recipient seeking HIV testing or care. Women reported more responses of encouragement compared to men. Men reported more preventive behaviour compared to women. Of the 137 long-term outcomes elicited during disclosure, three quarters were positive followed by behavioral change and prevention, and then negative responses. Men reported increased care and support when they disclosed to fellow men compared to when women disclosed to women. There was better or not change in relationship when women disclosed to women than when women disclosed to men. Conclusions There is overwhelming support to individuals that disclose their HIV status, especially in the long term. Besides, gender appears to influence responses to HIV disclosure, highlighting the need for gender specific disclosure support strategies.
Disclosure of HIV infection status is a difficult process that involves communication of information about a potentially stigmatizing and transmissible illness. Despite this it is important for preventing HIV infection and mitigating its impacts. This study aims to describe disclosure of HIV diagnosis and factors associated with it among a cohort of patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in eastern Ethiopia. A descriptive study was conducted among a random sample of patients that started antiretroviral treatment in three hospitals located in eastern Ethiopia. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine association and derive odds ratios (OR) as well as 95% confidence intervals. A total of 1540 study participants were included in the study, where 963 (62.5%) were females and 574 (37.3%) males. Most of the married participants have disclosed to their wife or husband (402, 66.3%), but the overall sample had much lower rates of disclosure to brothers or sisters (262, 17.0%), and relatives (259, 16.8%). A small number of patients (11.6%, 179) did not disclose their infection status at all and none of the patients (0, 0%) had disclosed to all of their family members. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis patients who were not married (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.01-2.35) and illiterate (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.03-3.20) had higher odds of nondisclosure. The findings of the study revealed a lower level of HIV disclosure status compared to similar settings. Therefore, more focus should be given to unmarried and illiterate persons during counseling sessions. PMID:23244574
Reda, Ayalu A; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare
Literature on HIV status disclosure among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is dominated by research on the rates, barriers and consequences of disclosure to sexual partners, because of the assumed preventive health benefits of partner disclosure. Disclosure of HIV status can lead to an increase in social support and other positive psychosocial outcomes for PLWHA, but disclosure can also be associated with negative social outcomes including stigma, discrimination, and violence. The purpose of this article is to describe the HIV status disclosure narratives of PLWHA living in South Africa. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 PLWHA (11 women, 2 men) over a three-year period. We explored disclosure narratives of the PLWHA through questions about who they chose to disclose to, how they disclosed to these individuals, and how these individuals reacted. Narratives focused on disclosure to family members and contained relatively little discussion of disclosure to sexual partners. Participants often disclosed first to one trusted family member, and news of the diagnosis remained with this person for a long period of time, prior to sharing with others. This family member helped the PLWHA cope with the news of their diagnosis and prepared them to disclose to others. Disclosure to one's partner was motivated primarily by a desire to encourage partners to test for HIV. Two participants described overtly negative reactions from a partner upon disclosure, and none of the PLWHA in this sample described very supportive relationships with their partners after disclosure. The critical role that family members played in the narratives of these PLWHA emphasizes the need for a greater focus on disclosure to families for social support in HIV counseling protocols. PMID:23875539
Maman, Suzanne; van Rooyen, Heidi; Groves, Allison K
This paper evaluates an experiment in which individuals in rural Malawi were randomly assigned monetary incentives to learn their HIV results after being tested. Distance to the HIV results centers was also randomly assigned. Without any incentive, 34 percent of the participants learned their HIV results. However, even the smallest incentive doubled that share. Using the randomly assigned incentives and distance from results centers as instruments for the knowledge of HIV status, sexually active HIV-positive individuals who learned their results are three times more likely to purchase condoms two months later than sexually active HIV-positive individuals who did not learn their results; however, HIV-positive individuals who learned their results purchase only two additional condoms than those who did not. There is no significant effect of learning HIV-negative status on the purchase of condoms.
Thornton, Rebecca L.
We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-disclosure among treatment-experienced individuals in British Columbia, Canada. Study participants completed an interviewer-administered survey between July 2007 and January 2010. The primary outcome of interest was disclosing one's HIV-positive status to all new sexual partners within the last 6 months. An exploratory logistic regression model was developed to identify variables independently associated with disclosure. Of the 657 participants included in this analysis, 73.4 % disclosed their HIV-positive status to all of their sexual partners. Factors independently associated with non-disclosure included identifying as a woman (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.92; 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] 1.13-3.27) or as a gay or bisexual man (AOR 2.45; 95 % CI 1.47-4.10). Behaviours that were independently associated with non-disclosure were having sex with a stranger (AOR 2.74; 95 % CI 1.46-5.17), not being on treatment at the time of interview (AOR 2.67; 95 % CI 1.40-5.11), and not always using a condom (AOR 1.78; 95 % CI 1.09-2.90). Future preventative strategies should focus on environmental and social factors that may inhibit vulnerable HIV-positive populations, such as women and gay or bisexual men, from safely disclosing their positive status. PMID:24114265
Hirsch Allen, A J; Forrest, Jamie I; Kanters, Steve; O'Brien, Nadia; Salters, Kate A; McCandless, Lawrence; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S
Disclosing HIV status and seeking sexual partners with the same serostatus (serosorting) are strategies used by some gay and bisexual men to have unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This study aims to gain an understanding of the occurrence of disclosure and serosorting with casual sexual partners. A grounded approach was used to analyze 22 interviews with gay men from Barcelona. The
Percy Fernández-Dávila; Cinta Folch; Kati Zaragoza Lorca; Jordi Casabona
Background:LittleinformationonthemicronutrientstatusofHIV- infected (HIV-positive) breastfeeding women is available. Objective: The objective was to compare the protein and micronu- trient status of South African breastfeeding women by HIV status. Design: Serum albumin, prealbumin, vitamin B-12, folate, retinol, -tocopherol, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc concentrations were compared between 92 HIV-positive and 52 HIV-uninfected (HIV- negative)mothers6,14,and24wkafterdelivery.C-reactiveprotein and 1-acid glycoprotein were used as proxy indicators of
Peggy C Papathakis; Nigel C Rollins; Caroline J Chantry; Michael L Bennish; Kenneth H Brown
The assessment of a person’s quality of life as it relates to health, HIV status and intimate partner violence (IPV) among women has been limited in its scope of investigation. Consequently, little is known about the adjusted and combined effects of IPV and HIV on women’s health status and QOL. 445 women (188 HIV + 257 HIV -) residing in
Karen A. McDonnell; Andrea C. Gielen; Patricia O’Campo; Jessica G. Burke
HIV-related stigma and discrimination (S&D) have been shown to impede prevention, care and treatment. Yet, few quantitative studies have tested the associations between stigma, service utilization and status disclosure, especially in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics. Surveys, administered to a random sample of 1,775 truck drivers crossing Southern borders in Brazil, included items on multiple conceptual domains of S&D, such as fear of casual contact and blame towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Pearson's chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to examine correlations. Less stigma (both individual items and grouped as a scale) was significantly correlated with VCT use (p
Pulerwitz, J; Michaelis, A P; Lippman, S A; Chinaglia, M; Díaz, J
This study examined disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus by 301 Latino gay and bisexual men to members of their social networks and the mental health consequences of such disclosure. The sample was recruited from clinics, hospitals, and community agencies in New York City, Washington, DC, and Boston. Proportions disclosing differed depending on the target, with 85% having disclosed to closest friend,
María Cecilia Zea; Carol A. Reisen; Paul J. Poppen; Fernanda T. Bianchi; John J. Echeverry
The brain is assumed to be a sterile organ in the absence of disease although the impact of immune disruption is uncertain in terms of brain microbial diversity or quantity. To investigate microbial diversity and quantity in the brain, the profile of infectious agents was examined in pathologically normal and abnormal brains from persons with HIV/AIDS [HIV] (n?=?12), other disease controls [ODC] (n?=?14) and in cerebral surgical resections for epilepsy [SURG] (n?=?6). Deep sequencing of cerebral white matter-derived RNA from the HIV (n?=?4) and ODC (n?=?4) patients and SURG (n?=?2) groups revealed bacterially-encoded 16 s RNA sequences in all brain specimens with ?-proteobacteria representing over 70% of bacterial sequences while the other 30% of bacterial classes varied widely. Bacterial rRNA was detected in white matter glial cells by in situ hybridization and peptidoglycan immunoreactivity was also localized principally in glia in human brains. Analyses of amplified bacterial 16 s rRNA sequences disclosed that Proteobacteria was the principal bacterial phylum in all human brain samples with similar bacterial rRNA quantities in HIV and ODC groups despite increased host neuroimmune responses in the HIV group. Exogenous viruses including bacteriophage and human herpes viruses-4, -5 and -6 were detected variably in autopsied brains from both clinical groups. Brains from SIV- and SHIV-infected macaques displayed a profile of bacterial phyla also dominated by Proteobacteria but bacterial sequences were not detected in experimentally FIV-infected cat or RAG1?/? mouse brains. Intracerebral implantation of human brain homogenates into RAG1?/? mice revealed a preponderance of ?-proteobacteria 16 s RNA sequences in the brains of recipient mice at 7 weeks post-implantation, which was abrogated by prior heat-treatment of the brain homogenate. Thus, ?-proteobacteria represented the major bacterial component of the primate brain's microbiome regardless of underlying immune status, which could be transferred into naïve hosts leading to microbial persistence in the brain. PMID:23355888
Branton, William G; Ellestad, Kristofor K; Maingat, Ferdinand; Wheatley, B Matt; Rud, Erling; Warren, René L; Holt, Robert A; Surette, Michael G; Power, Christopher
The brain is assumed to be a sterile organ in the absence of disease although the impact of immune disruption is uncertain in terms of brain microbial diversity or quantity. To investigate microbial diversity and quantity in the brain, the profile of infectious agents was examined in pathologically normal and abnormal brains from persons with HIV/AIDS [HIV] (n?=?12), other disease controls [ODC] (n?=?14) and in cerebral surgical resections for epilepsy [SURG] (n?=?6). Deep sequencing of cerebral white matter-derived RNA from the HIV (n?=?4) and ODC (n?=?4) patients and SURG (n?=?2) groups revealed bacterially-encoded 16 s RNA sequences in all brain specimens with ?-proteobacteria representing over 70% of bacterial sequences while the other 30% of bacterial classes varied widely. Bacterial rRNA was detected in white matter glial cells by in situ hybridization and peptidoglycan immunoreactivity was also localized principally in glia in human brains. Analyses of amplified bacterial 16 s rRNA sequences disclosed that Proteobacteria was the principal bacterial phylum in all human brain samples with similar bacterial rRNA quantities in HIV and ODC groups despite increased host neuroimmune responses in the HIV group. Exogenous viruses including bacteriophage and human herpes viruses-4, -5 and -6 were detected variably in autopsied brains from both clinical groups. Brains from SIV- and SHIV-infected macaques displayed a profile of bacterial phyla also dominated by Proteobacteria but bacterial sequences were not detected in experimentally FIV-infected cat or RAG1?/? mouse brains. Intracerebral implantation of human brain homogenates into RAG1?/? mice revealed a preponderance of ?-proteobacteria 16 s RNA sequences in the brains of recipient mice at 7 weeks post-implantation, which was abrogated by prior heat-treatment of the brain homogenate. Thus, ?-proteobacteria represented the major bacterial component of the primate brain’s microbiome regardless of underlying immune status, which could be transferred into naïve hosts leading to microbial persistence in the brain.
Branton, William G.; Ellestad, Kristofor K.; Maingat, Ferdinand; Wheatley, B. Matt; Rud, Erling; Warren, Rene L.; Holt, Robert A.; Surette, Michael G.; Power, Christopher
Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infants were tested for HIV by PCR at birth, 1 week and 5 weeks. Obstetric and neonatal data were collected after delivery and the rates of neonatal (<28 days) and early mortality (<70 days) were described using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results The ratio of miscarriage and stillbirth per 100 live-births were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Higher maternal plasma viral load (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each log10 increase in HIV RNA copies/ml?=?1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–3.27) and being symptomatic were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (AOR?=?3.19; 95% CI 1.46–6.97), and decreasing maternal CD4 count by 100 cells/mm3 with an increased risk of miscarriage (OR?=?1.25; 95% CI 1.02–1.54). The neonatal mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 increasing to 6.3 by 70 days. Intrauterine HIV infection was not associated with neonatal morality but became associated with mortality through 70 days (adjusted hazard ratio?=?2.76; 95% CI 1.25–6.08). Low birth weight and cessation of breastfeeding were significant risk factors for both neonatal and early mortality independent of infant HIV infection. Conclusions More advanced maternal HIV disease was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Excess neonatal mortality in HIV-infected women was not primarily explained by infant HIV infection but was strongly associated with low birth weight and prematurity. Intrauterine HIV infection contributed to mortality as early as 70 days of infant age. Interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes for HIV-infected women are needed to complement necessary therapeutic and prophylactic antiretroviral interventions.
Background: According to the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS, 33.2 million adults and children are living with the infection worldwide. Of these, two to three million are estimated to be in South Asia. All countries of the region have a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, it is important to review the current epidemiological data to identify the trends of infection as it would have implications on prevention. Materials and Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search using phrases ‘South Asia’ plus ‘HIV’, ‘AIDS’, and names of individual countries in South Asia (limits: articles published in last 10 years, in English language). Clinical trials, reviews, meta-analyses, letters, editorials, and practice guidelines were all considered. The following countries were included as belonging to South Asia; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Recent estimates and data on country status, and details of national control programs were obtained from websites of international agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results and Discussion: This review looks into many aspects of HIV infection in South Asia including country profiles with regard to infection, economic and psychological burden of illness and treatment issues in the South Asian context.
Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka
Disclosing an HIV diagnosis to his mother may be the first step in a man's successful management of his illness, but it may also lead to added stress due to stigmatization. Analyzing data provided by 166 HIV-positive men who lived in the southeastern United States, we found that the most powerful correlate of disclosure was exposure to HIV through…
Shehan, Constance L.; Uphold, Constance R.; Bradshaw, Patrick; Bender, Joyce; Arce, Natalie; Bender, Bradley
Objective To determine if significant differences exist in substance use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) before and after establishing their HIV infection status. Method The study participants are HIV positive clients of a community based HIV/AIDS outreach facility located in Montgomery, Alabama. The questionnaire includes demographics, substance use and risky sexual behaviors pertaining to HIV transmission. Each participant completed an anonymous questionnaire. A total of 341 questionnaires were distributed and 326 were fully completed and returned, representing a response rate of 96%. Results Findings revealed a statistically significant difference in alcohol consumption before sex among PLWHA before and after establishing their HIV infection status (p = .001). No significant differences were observed among participants who reported as having used drugs intravenously (p = .89), and among those sharing the same syringe/needle with another person (p = .87) before and after establishing their HIV infection status. Conclusion There is continued substance use and alcohol consumption before sex among PLWHA after establishing their HIV status despite clear evidence of such risky behaviors that could lead to an increase in exposure to HIV.
Gerbi, Gemechu B.; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Tameru, Berhanu; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida
Individuals with unknown HIV status are at risk for undiagnosed HIV, but practical and reliable methods for identifying these individuals have not been described. We developed an algorithm to identify patients with unknown HIV status using data from the electronic medical record (EMR) of a large health care system. We developed EMR-based criteria to classify patients as having known status (HIV-positive or HIV-negative) or unknown status and applied these criteria to all patients seen in the affiliated health care system from 2008 to 2012. Performance characteristics of the algorithm for identifying patients with unknown HIV status were calculated by comparing a random sample of the algorithm's results to a reference standard medical record review. The algorithm classifies all patients as having either known or unknown HIV status. Its sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients with unknown status are 99.4% (95% CI: 96.5-100%) and 95.2% (95% CI: 83.8-99.4%), respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 98.7% (95% CI: 95.5-99.8%) and 97.6% (95% CI: 87.1-99.1%), respectively. Using commonly available data from an EMR, our algorithm has high sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients with unknown HIV status. This algorithm may inform expanded HIV testing strategies aiming to test the untested. PMID:24779521
Felsen, Uriel R; Bellin, Eran Y; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Zingman, Barry S
Objective. To evaluate HIV risk perception and its associated factors among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM with an HIV negative or unknown status in Beijing, China, between 2011 and 2012. A questionnaire interview was conducted and a blood sample was collected for HIV and syphilis testing. Results. Of 887 MSM who reported they were HIV negative or did not know their HIV status before recruitment, only 7.3% reported a high risk of HIV infection, 28.0% medium risk, 52.2% low risk, and 12.5% no risk. In multivariate logistic regression models using those who reported a medium self-perceived risk as a reference group, self-reported high risk of HIV perception was associated with minority ethnicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–8.19), self-reported history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.25–4.10), and HIV testing times since the last HIV testing (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.26–0.84); low self-perceived risk of HIV infection was related to full-time employment (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.15–2.18) and illicit drug use (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10–0.75). Conclusions. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is rapidly rising among Beijing MSM, but more than half MSM did not perceive this risk.
Fan, Wensheng; Yin, Lu; Li, Dongliang; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H.; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhang, Zheng
Objective. To evaluate HIV risk perception and its associated factors among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM with an HIV negative or unknown status in Beijing, China, between 2011 and 2012. A questionnaire interview was conducted and a blood sample was collected for HIV and syphilis testing. Results. Of 887 MSM who reported they were HIV negative or did not know their HIV status before recruitment, only 7.3% reported a high risk of HIV infection, 28.0% medium risk, 52.2% low risk, and 12.5% no risk. In multivariate logistic regression models using those who reported a medium self-perceived risk as a reference group, self-reported high risk of HIV perception was associated with minority ethnicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-8.19), self-reported history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.25-4.10), and HIV testing times since the last HIV testing (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.26-0.84); low self-perceived risk of HIV infection was related to full-time employment (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.15-2.18) and illicit drug use (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10-0.75). Conclusions. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is rapidly rising among Beijing MSM, but more than half MSM did not perceive this risk. PMID:24795880
Fan, Wensheng; Yin, Lu; Qian, Han-Zhu; Li, Dongliang; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhang, Zheng
ObjectiveWe assessed the effect of HIV status disclosure on retention in care from initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected children aged 10 years or more in Cote d'Ivoire, Mali and Sénégal.MethodsMulti-centre cohort study within five paediatric clinics participating in the IeDEA West Africa collaboration. HIV-infected patients were included in this study if they met the following inclusion criteria: aged
Elise Arrivé; Fatoumata Dicko; Hind Amghar; Addi Edmond Aka; Hélène Dior; Belinda Bouah; Mariam Traoré; Patricia Ogbo; Hortense Aka Dago-Akribi; Tanoh Kassi F. Eboua; Kouadio Kouakou; Haby Signate Sy; Ahmadou Alioum; François Dabis; Didier Koumavi Ekouévi; Valériane Leroy
Our objective was to study relations between non-disclosure of HIV to partner, socio demographics and prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in the French Perinatal Cohort (ANRS-EPF-CO1) from 2005 to 2009 (N = 2,952). Fifteen percent of the women did not disclose their HIV status to their partner. Non-disclosure was more frequent in women diagnosed with HIV infection late in pregnancy, originating from Sub-Saharan Africa or living alone, as well as when the partner was not tested for HIV. Non-disclosure was independently associated with non optimal PMTCT: late initiation of antiretroviral therapy, detectable viral load at delivery and lack of neonatal prophylaxis. Nonetheless, the rate of transmission did not differ according to disclosure status. Factors associated with non-disclosure reflect vulnerability and its association with non optimal PMTCT is a cause for concern although the impact on transmission was limited in this context of universal free access to care. PMID:22130651
Jasseron, C; Mandelbrot, L; Dollfus, C; Trocmé, N; Tubiana, R; Teglas, J P; Faye, A; Rouzioux, C; Blanche, S; Warszawski, J
Purpose HIV/AIDS is a worldwide epidemic. Limited evidence suggests that men infected with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk for lower urinary tract symptoms. We determined whether HIV/AIDS status is an independent risk factor for self-reported bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms in a large contemporary cohort. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional, Internet based survey of urinary quality of life outcomes in adult HIV infected and HIV uninfected men who have sex with men. The main outcome measure was International Prostate Symptom Score. Results Of respondents with complete data 1,507 were HIV uninfected (median age 42 years, mean 43) and 323 HIV infected (median age 45 years, mean 45.1). Of the HIV infected respondents 148 were nonAIDS defining HIV infected and 175 were AIDS defining HIV infected. After adjusting for age and other comorbid conditions, nonAIDS defining HIV infected and AIDS defining HIV infected status increased the odds of severe lower urinary tract symptoms by 2.07 (95% CI 1.04–3.79) and 2.49 (95% CI 1.43–4.33), respectively. HIV infected men had a worse total International Prostate Symptom Score for all domains including quality of life compared to HIV uninfected men. Within the population of men with HIV, those with AIDS had worse mean total International Prostate Symptom Score and all individual International Prostate Symptom Score components relative to nonAIDS defining HIV infected men. Conclusions HIV status is an independent risk factor for bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. The odds of severe lower urinary tract symptoms are greater in HIV infected men with a history of AIDS.
Breyer, Benjamin N.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Horberg, Michael A.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Deng, Donna Y.; Smith, James F.; Shindel, Alan W.
The present study examines psychiatric symptomatology and syndromal depression among 174 HIV+ and 760 HIV? homosexual men\\u000a enrolled in the Pittsburgh site of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). A central study goal was to determine whether\\u000a men's psychosocial status in the areas of demographics, social supports, and coping, in combination with their HIV-infection\\u000a status, was associated with mental health.
W. C. Dickey; M. A. Dew; J. T. Becker; L. Kingsley
Abstract Disclosure of the HIV status to infected children is often delayed due to psychosocial problems in their families. We aimed at improving the quality of life in families of HIV-infected children, thus promoting disclosure of the HIV status to children by parents. Parents of 17 HIV-infected children (4.2–18 years) followed at our Center for pediatric HIV, unaware of their HIV status, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (8 monthly sessions of family group psychotherapy, FGP) or to the control group not receiving psychotherapy. Changes in the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB-I) and in the Short-Form State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Sf-STAI), as well as the HIV status disclosure to children by parents, were measured. Ten parents were assigned to the FGP group, while 7 parents to the controls. Psychological well-being increased in 70% of the FGP parents and none of the control group (p=0.017), while anxiety decreased in the FGP group but not in controls (60% vs. 0%, p=0.03). HIV disclosure took place for 6/10 children of the intervention group and for 1/7 of controls. Family group psychotherapy had a positive impact on the environment of HIV-infected children, promoting psychological well-being and the disclosure of the HIV status to children.
Nicastro, Emanuele; Continisio, Grazia Isabella; Storace, Cinzia; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Mango, Carmela; Liguoro, Ilaria; Officioso, Annunziata
We report the solution structure of T140, a truncated polyphemusin peptide analogue that efficiently inhibits infection of target cells by T-cell line-tropic strains of HIV-1 through its specific binding to a chemokine receptor, CXCR4. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and molecular dynamic calculations revealed that T140 has a rigidly structured conformation constituted by an antiparallel ?-sheet and a type II? ?-turn.
Hirokazu Tamamura; Makiko Sugioka; Yoshihiko Odagaki; Akane Omagari; Yukiko Kan; Shinya Oishi; Hideki Nakashima; Naoki Yamamoto; Stephen C Peiper; Nobuyuki Hamanaka; Akira Otaka; Nobutaka Fujii
Few spatial studies explore relationships between people and place in sub-Saharan Africa or in the context of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This paper uses individual-level demographic and behavioral data linked to area-level, spatially-referenced socio-economic and access data to examine how the relationships between area- and individual-level risks and individual HIV status vary in rural Malawi. The Political Economy of Health framework guides interpretation. Geographically weighted regression models show significant, local-level variation indicating that area-level factors drive patterns of HIV above individual-level contributions. In distinct locations, women who live further from health clinics, major roads, and major cities are less likely to be infected. For men, HIV status is strongly associated with migration patterns in specific areas. Local-level, gender-specific approaches to HIV prevention are necessary in high risk areas.
Feldacker, Caryl; Emch, Michael; Ennett, Susan
In efficacy trials male circumcision (MC) protected men against HIV infection. Planners need information relevant to MC programmes in practice. In 2008, we interviewed 2915 men and 4549 women aged 15-29 years in representative cluster samples in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, asking about socio-economic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about HIV and MC and MC history. We tested finger prick blood samples for HIV. We calculated weighted frequencies of MC knowledge and attitudes, and MC history and HIV status. Multivariate analysis examined associations between MC and other variables and HIV status. In Botswana, 11% of young men reported MC, 28% in Namibia and 8% in Swaziland; mostly (75% in Botswana, 94% - mostly Herero - in Namibia and 68% in Swaziland) as infants or children. Overall, 6.5% were HIV positive (8.3% Botswana, 2.6% Namibia and 9.1% Swaziland). Taking other variables into account, circumcised men were as likely as uncircumcised men to be HIV positive. Nearly half of the uncircumcised young men planned to be circumcised; two-thirds of young men and women planned to have their sons circumcised. Some respondents had inaccurate beliefs and unhelpful views about MC and HIV, with variation between countries. Between 9 and 15% believed a circumcised man is fully protected against HIV; 20-26% believed men need not be tested for HIV before MC; 14-26% believed HIV-positive men who are circumcised cannot transmit the virus; and 8-34% thought it was "okay for a circumcised man to expect sex without a condom". Inaccurate perceptions about protection from MC could lead to risk compensation and reduce women's ability to negotiate safer sex. More efforts are needed to raise awareness about the limitations of MC protection, especially for women, and to study the interactions between MC roll out programmes and primary HIV prevention programmes. PMID:21933035
Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne
To know the status of HIV infection and the correlates for HIV infection among MSMW in China. This research examined the risks for HIV in 600 MSMW in Chengdu and Guangzhou, China. Participants completed a structured behavioral risk survey and were tested for HIV status. Overall, 26.2 % (n = 157) of the sample were HIV-positive, and 7 % (n = 41) were newly diagnosed and previously unaware of their HIV-positive status. Independent correlates of new HIV infection were Chengdu residence, being currently married, and sometimes using condoms during anal intercourse. Compared with previously diagnosed participants, newly diagnosed participants were more likely to have unprotected sex in the anal and vaginal sexes. Given the high risk for HIV in MSMW in these Chinese cities, public health interventions are needed to promote frequent HIV testing and to address sexual risk behaviors with both male and female partners. PMID:23073644
Song, Dandan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Wang, Xiaodong; Operario, Don; She, Min; Wang, Min; Zaller, Nickolas
Theorists posit that personal decisions to disclose being HIV positive are made based on the perceived consequences of that disclosure. This study examines the perceived costs and benefits of self-disclosure among African American injection drug users (IDUs). A total of 80 African American IDUs were interviewed in-depth subsequent to testing HIV…
Valle, Maribel; Levy, Judith
Introduction African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs.
Perkins, Emory L; Voisin, Dexter R; Stennis, Kesslyn A Brade
Background There is a scarcity of data in rural health centers in Nigeria regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection. We investigated this relationship using indicators of SES. Methods An analytical case-control study was conducted in the HIV clinic of a rural tertiary health center. Data collection included demographic variables, educational attainment, employment status, monthly income, marital status, and religion. HIV was diagnosed by conventional methods. Data were analyzed with the SPSS version 16 software. Results A total of 115 (48.5%) HIV-negative subjects with a mean age of 35.49±7.63 years (range: 15–54 years), and 122 (51.5%) HIV-positive subjects with a mean age of 36.35±8.31 years (range: 15–53 years) were involved in the study. Participants consisted of 47 (40.9%) men and 68 (59.1%) women who were HIV negative. Those who were HIV positive consisted of 35 (28.7%) men and 87 (71.3%) women. Attainment of secondary school levels of education, and all categories of monthly income showed statistically significant relationships with HIV infection (P=0.018 and P<0.05, respectively) after analysis using a logistic regression model. Employment status did not show any significant relationship with HIV infection. Conclusion Our findings suggested that some indicators of SES are differently related to HIV infection. Prevalent HIV infections are now concentrated among those with low incomes. Urgent measures to improve HIV prevention among low income earners are necessary. Further research in this area requires multiple measures in relation to partners’ SES (measured by education, employment, and income) to further define this relationship.
Ogunmola, Olarinde Jeffrey; Oladosu, Yusuf Olatunji; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi
Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) remains low among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The factors associated with previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner's HIV status are described for 9,107 men who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences' VCT site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 1997 and 2008. Data are from intake forms administered to clients seeking VCT services. Most of the men (64.5%) had not previously been tested and 75% were unaware of their partner's HIV status. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, education, condom use, and knowledge of partner's HIV status were significant predictors of previous HIV testing. Education, number of sexual partners, and condom use were also associated with knowledge of partner's HIV status. The low rate of VCT use among men underscores the need for more intensive initiatives to target men and remove the barriers that prevent HIV disclosure. PMID:23221684
Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary
Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) remains low among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The factors associated with previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner’s HIV status are described for 9,107 men who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences’ VCT site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 1997 and 2008. Data are from intake forms administered to clients seeking VCT services. Most of the men (64.5%) had not previously been tested and 75% were unaware of their partner’s HIV status. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, education, condom use, and knowledge of partner’s HIV status were significant predictors of previous HIV testing. Education, number of sexual partners, and condom use were also associated with knowledge of partner’s HIV status. The low rate of VCT use among men underscores the need for more intensive initiatives to target men and remove the barriers that prevent HIV disclosure.
Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary
Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort, dopamine (DA)-related genetic differences do not appear to impact the longitudinal neurocognitive functioning of HIV+ individuals. PMID:24737013
Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned
This cross-sectional pilot project measured differences by HIV status in chronic health conditions, primary care and emergency department use, and high-risk behaviors of homeless persons through self-report. Using selective random sampling, 244 individuals were recruited from a homeless shelter. The reported HIV prevalence was 6.56% (n = 16), with the odds of HIV higher in persons reporting crack cocaine use. HIV-infected persons were more likely to report a source of regular medical care and less likely to use the emergency department than uninfected persons. Validation of findings through exploration of HIV and health care access in homeless persons is needed to confirm that HIV-infected homeless persons are more likely to have primary care. Distinctions between primary care and specialty HIV care also need to be explored in this context. If findings are consistent, providers who care for the homeless could learn more effective ways to engage homeless patients. PMID:24070642
Parker, R David; Dykema, Shana
The nation's HIV prevention efforts are guided by a single, ambitious strategy for combating the epidemic: the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Recent scientific breakthroughs have equipped us with an unprecedented number of effective tools to prevent i...
HIV infection may result in stressful situations such as disclosure to others and could be a mediator between seropositivity status and psychiatric illness, depression, or anxiety. Several results have shown that anxiolytic use (mainly benzodiazepines [BDZ]) is highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals, but few studies have highlighted to what extent this use could be associated with HIV disclosure. A national
Perrine Roux; Lionel Fugon; Laurent Michel; France Lert; Yolande Obadia; Bruno Spire; Maria Patrizia Carrieri
We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in…
Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill
Background HIV infection occurs in 30% of children with severe acute malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Effects of HIV on the pathophysiology and recovery from malnutrition are poorly understood. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 75 severely malnourished Ugandan children. HIV status/CD4 counts were assessed at baseline; auxologic data and blood samples were obtained at admission and after 14 days of inpatient treatment. We utilized metabolomic profiling to characterize effects of HIV infection on metabolic status and subsequent responses to nutritional therapy. Findings At admission, patients (mean age 16.3 mo) had growth failure (mean W/H z-score ?4.27 in non-edematous patients) that improved with formula feeding (mean increase 1.00). 24% (18/75) were HIV-infected. Nine children died within the first 14 days of hospitalization; mortality was higher for HIV-infected patients (33% v. 5%, OR?=?8.83). HIV-infected and HIV-negative children presented with elevated NEFA, ketones, and even-numbered acylcarnitines and reductions in albumin and amino acids. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and IGF-1 levels were low while growth hormone, cortisol, and ghrelin levels were high. At baseline, HIV-infected patients had higher triglycerides, ketones, and even-chain acylcarnitines and lower leptin and adiponectin levels than HIV-negative patients. Leptin levels rose in all patients following nutritional intervention, but adiponectin levels remained depressed in HIV-infected children. Baseline hypoleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions Our findings suggest a critical interplay between HIV infection and adipose tissue storage and function in the adaptation to malnutrition. Hypoleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia may contribute to high mortality rates among malnourished, HIV-infected children.
Hornik, Christoph P.; Kiyimba, Tonny; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Kiboneka, Elizabeth; Stevens, Robert; St. Peter, John V.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Bartlett, John; Freemark, Michael
From July 1992 to May 1993 a study was performed of the relationship between bacteraemia, nutritional status and HIV status in 212 out of 334 consecutive infants and children aged 0–5 years, who had died at home in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. The remainding 122 children were excluded because the time period between death and arrival at the hospital was over 3
B. H. M. Wolf; M. O. Ikeogu; E. T. Vos
Objectives To assess the association of inflammatory and endothelial activation biomarkers with the presence of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected subjects and to examine the role of HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and metabolic parameters in endothelial activation and inflammation. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study including 4 groups: HIV+ on ART with HIV-1 RNA <1000 copies/mL with and without clinical lipoatrophy, HIV+ ART naive, and healthy controls. Methods We measured plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and myeloperoxidase) and endothelial activation markers (soluble intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules and von Willebrand factor). Results We enrolled 182 subjects. Limb fat and lipoatrophy status were not correlated with endothelial markers. Endothelial markers were higher in HIV+ ART naive when compared with healthy controls and with HIV+ on ART but were similar between HIV+ on ART and healthy controls. Neither endothelial nor inflammatory markers were correlated with HIV duration, CD4 count, lipids, glucose, or specific ART. Strong correlations were found between some inflammatory cytokines and endothelial markers. Conclusions There is enhanced endothelial activation in ART naive, whereas HIV+ on ART has similar values to healthy controls. Lipoatrophy did not seem to affect endothelial activation. Results highlight a potential association between heightened inflammation and endothelial activation.
Ross, Allison C.; Armentrout, Rachel; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Storer, Norma; Rizk, Nesrine; Harrill, Danielle; El Bejjani, Dalia; McComsey, Grace A.
The World Health Organization guideline recommends informing children of their HIV status between the ages of 6-12 years. Primary caregivers of perinatal HIV-infected Thai children ?6 years were interviewed in order to assess the HIV status disclosure rate. In addition, pill counts of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were performed every three months. CD4 and HIV-RNA were performed every six months. Of the 260 children/adolescents included, the median age of disclosure was 14.8 years. The disclosure rate among those from 6 to 12 years was 21% and for those greater than 12 years of age was 84%. When comparing children aged 6-12 years whose HIV status had been disclosed to them, to children whose HIV had yet to be disclosed, no difference was noted in median ART adherence by pill count, CD4 count, or proportion of HIV-RNA <50 copies/ml (p > 0.05). Factors associated with HIV disclosure were an age of ?12 years (OR 17.8, 95% CI 8.86-35.79) and a current CD4 ? 30% (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.20-3.62). In conclusion, although the majority of adolescents ?12 years were aware of their HIV status only one-fifth of children aged 6-12 years were aware. Moreover, the child's/adolescent's disclosure status had no bearing on ART adherence by pill count or immunological and virological outcomes. PMID:24625136
Sirikum, Chompoonoot; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Chuanjaroen, Thongsuai; Lakonphon, Sudrak; Srimuan, Amornrat; Chusut, Patcharaporn; Do, Tanya C; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Bunupuradah, Torsak
This qualitative study explored whether motherhood plays a role in influencing decisions to conceal or reveal knowledge of seropositive status among women living with HIV/AIDS in 2 South African communities: Gugulethu and Mitchell's Plain. Using the PEN-3 cultural model, we explored how HIV-positive women disclose their status to their mothers and how HIV-positive mothers make decisions about disclosure of their seropositive status. Our findings revealed 3 themes: the positive consequences of disclosing to mothers, how being a mother influences disclosure (existential role of motherhood), and the cost of disclosing to mothers (negative consequences). The findings highlight the importance of motherhood in shaping decisions to reveal or conceal knowledge of seropositive status. Implications for interventions on HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support are discussed.
Zungu, Nompumelelo; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.
BACKGROUND: Most estimates of HIV prevalence have been based on sentinel surveillance of pregnant women which may either under-estimate or over-estimate the actual prevalence in adult female population. One situation which can lead to either an underestimate or an overestimate of the actual HIV prevalence is where there is a significant difference in fertility rates between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.
Eugene J Kongnyuy; Charles S Wiysonge
Detection of recent HIV infections is a prerequisite for reliable estimations of transmitted HIV drug resistance (t-HIVDR) and incidence. However, accurately identifying recent HIV infection is challenging due partially to the limitations of current serological tests. Ambiguous nucleotides are newly emerged mutations in quasispecies, and accumulate by time of viral infection. We utilized ambiguous mutations to establish a measurement for detecting recent HIV infection and monitoring early HIVDR development. Ambiguous nucleotides were extracted from HIV-1 pol-gene sequences in the datasets of recent (HIVDR threshold surveys [HIVDR-TS] in 7 countries; n=416) and established infections (1 HIVDR monitoring survey at baseline; n=271). An ambiguous mutation index of 2.04×10-3 nts/site was detected in HIV-1 recent infections which is equivalent to the HIV-1 substitution rate (2×10-3 nts/site/year) reported before. However, significantly higher index (14.41×10-3 nts/site) was revealed with established infections. Using this substitution rate, 75.2% subjects in HIVDR-TS with the exception of the Vietnam dataset and 3.3% those in HIVDR-baseline were classified as recent infection within one year. We also calculated mutation scores at amino acid level at HIVDR sites based on ambiguous or fitted mutations. The overall mutation scores caused by ambiguous mutations increased (0.54×10-23.48×10-2/DR-site) whereas those caused by fitted mutations remained stable (7.50-7.89×10-2/DR-site) in both recent and established infections, indicating that t-HIVDR exists in drug-naïve populations regardless of infection status in which new HIVDR continues to emerge. Our findings suggest that characterization of ambiguous mutations in HIV may serve as an additional tool to differentiate recent from established infections and to monitor HIVDR emergence.
Zheng, Du-Ping; Rodrigues, Margarida; Bile, Ebi; Nguyen, Duc B.; Diallo, Karidia; DeVos, Joshua R.; Nkengasong, John N.; Yang, Chunfu
This study assessed whether social cognitive constructs, situational factors, and individual characteristics were associated with communicating HIV status and whether communication was related to sexual risk behavior. A quota-sampling method stratified by age, race, and township was used to recruit 300 men who have sex with men to participate in a community-based survey in Pretoria in 2008. Participants reported characteristics of their last sexual encounter involving anal sex, including whether they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. Fifty-nine percent of participants reported that they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. HIV communication self-efficacy (aOR = 1.2, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.68), being with a steady partner (aOR = 0.36, 95 % CI: 0.19–0.67), and being Black (versus White; aOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.03–0.27) were independently associated with communicating HIV status. Communicating HIV status was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse. HIV communication self-efficacy increases men’s likelihood of communicating HIV status. Being with a steady partner and being Black reduces that likelihood. Communication about HIV status did not lead to safer sex.
Reddy, Vasu; Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Nel, Dawie; Sandfort, Theo
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1) HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 1 year; 2) HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3) older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4) older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5) older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and objective health indicators, showed that basic health problems are very common at older ages and poorly addressed by existing health services. HIV-infected older people, however, whether on ART or not yet on ART, had a similar health and functional status as other older people.
Individuals who are homeless or living in marginal conditions have an elevated burden of infection with HIV. Existing research suggests the HIV/AIDS pandemic in resource-rich settings is increasingly concentrated among members of vulnerable and marginalized populations, including homeless/marginally-housed individuals, who have yet to benefit fully from recent advances in highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We reviewed the scientific evidence investigating the relationships between inferior housing and the health status, HAART access and adherence and HIV treatment outcomes of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA.) Studies indicate being homeless/marginally-housed is common among PLWHA and associated with poorer levels of HAART access and sub-optimal treatment outcomes. Among homeless/marginally-housed PLWHA, determinants of poorer HAART access/adherence or treatment outcomes include depression, illicit drug use and medication insurance status. Future research should consider possible social- and structural-level determinants of HAART access and HV treatment outcomes that have been shown to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among homeless/marginally-housed individuals. As evidence indicates homeless/marginally-housed PLWHA with adequate levels of adherence can benefit from HAART at similar rates to housed PLWHA, and given the individual and community benefits of expanding HAART use, interventions to identify HIV-seropositive homeless/marginally-housed individuals and engage them in HIV care including comprehensive support for HAART adherence are urgently needed.
Milloy, M-J; Marshall, Brandon DL; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurological injury; however, this relationship has not been studied early in infection. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-10 measured using Luminex technology (Austin, TX, USA) were compared in 52 HIV and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection study. MMP levels were also examined in HIV subgroups defined by antibody reactivity, viremia, and antiretroviral status, as well as in available cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (n?=?9). MMPs were evaluated for patterns of relationship to cognitive function and to quantitative magnetic resonance measurements of the brain derived in vivo. Plasma MMP-2 levels were significantly reduced in early HIV infection and correlated with altered white matter integrity and atrophic brain changes. MMP-9 levels were higher in the treated subgroup than in the naïve HIV subgroup. Only MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected in the CSF; CSF MMP-2 correlated with white matter integrity and with volumetric changes in basal ganglia. Relationships with cognitive function were also identified. MMP-2 levels in plasma and in CSF correspond to early changes in brain structure and function. These findings establish a link between MMPs and neurological status previously unidentified in early HIV infection. PMID:23979706
Li, Suyang; Wu, Ying; Keating, Sheila M; Du, Hongyan; Sammet, Christina L; Zadikoff, Cindy; Mahadevia, Riti; Epstein, Leon G; Ragin, Ann B
To evaluate the relationship between employment status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in HIV\\/AIDS. A total of 361 participants provided baseline data in the context of an ongoing cohort study examining the natural history of neurobehavioral functioning and its effects on HRQOL. We administered tests and collected laboratory data to determine demographic status, HIV disease markers, psychosocial symptom burden,
Sergio Rueda; Janet Raboud; Cameron Mustard; Ahmed Bayoumi; John N. Lavis; Sean B. Rourke
People living with HIV-AIDS experience emotional distress in response to negative changes in their health status. The current study hypothesized that individuals with poorer health literacy skills would evidence greater emotional distress in response to negative changes in health status compared to persons with higher health literacy skills. HIV positive persons (N = 294) completed anonymous surveys that included measures
Seth C. Kalichman; David Rompa
A 15-year old HIV-positive student at a Catholic high school in Miami was forced to stand before her classmates and disclose that she had HIV. The lawsuit brought against the school alleges invasion of privacy, conspiracy, outrageous conduct causing severe emotional distress, negligent supervision of school officials, and violation of Florida's informed consent law. The girl did not want anyone, except the principal and church pastor, to know about her HIV status. The suit alleges that both the principal and pastor ordered her to disclose her HIV status to her classmates and teacher, threatening to disclose her status if she did not comply. It is also alleged that they threatened to take punitive actions against her. PMID:11365743
Objective Anal cancer and other diseases caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are more common among people who are HIV-positive. To understand the potential role of HIV status in HPV prevention efforts, we examined HPV-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men. Materials and Methods In January 2009, we interviewed a national sample of 247 adult gay men from the United States that included an oversample of HIV-positive men. Results Status of HIV was not associated with most beliefs about HPV-related diseases (i.e., genital warts, oral cancer, and anal cancer); however, HIV-positive men had higher worry about and perceived likelihood of these diseases. Most men correctly believed that HIV increases risk of HPV-related diseases, yet 29% to 42% still did not. Relatively few men believed that HPV vaccine works in males or that physicians are allowed to give it to men. Acceptability of the HPV vaccine was high and not associated with HIV status (78% of HIV-positive men vs 74% of HIV-negative men; adjusted odds ratio = 1.48; 95% confidence interval = 0.67–3.27). Conclusions The high acceptability of HPV vaccine, relatively low knowledge of how HIV increases risk for HPV-related diseases, and misperceptions about HPV vaccine can inform HPV prevention efforts for gay men. The few differences by HIV status suggest that HPV prevention programs may be able to use similar approaches with both HIV-negative and HIV-positive gay men.
Gilbert, Paul A.; Brewer, Noel T.; Reiter, Paul L.
Recent research has highlighted the risk of HIV infection for married teenage women compared with their unmarried counterparts (Clark, 2004). This study assesses whether a relationship exists, for women who have completed their adolescence (age 20-29 years), between HIV status with age at first marriage and the length of time between first sex and first marriage. Multivariate analysis utilizing the nationally representative 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that late-marrying women and those with a longer period of pre-marital sex have the highest risk of HIV. Although women in urban areas overall marry later than their rural counterparts, the positive relationship between age at marriage and HIV risk is stronger in rural areas. The higher wealth status and greater number of lifetime sexual partners of late-marrying women contribute to their higher HIV risk. Given that the age at first marriage and the gap between first marriage and first sex have increased in recent years, focusing preventive efforts on late-marrying women will be of much importance in reducing HIV prevalence among females. PMID:17988430
The objective of the present study was to determine the factors independently associated with disclosure of seropositivity to one's steady sexual partner in people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are recipients of services provided by Association de Lutte Contre le Sida, a Moroccan community-based organization (CBO) working on AIDS response. Between May and October 2011, 300 PLHIV were interviewed about their sociodemographic and economic characteristics, their sexual life and disclosure of their serostatus to their friends, family and to their steady sexual partner. A weighted logistic regression was used to study factors associated with serostatus disclosure to one's steady sexual partner. We restricted the analysis to people who declared they had a steady sexual partner (n = 124). Median age was 36 years old, 56 % were men and 62 % declared that they had disclosed their serostatus to their steady sexual partner. The following factors were independently associated with disclosure: living with one's steady sexual partner [OR 95 % CI: 9.85 (2.86-33.98)], having a higher living-standard index [2.06 (1.14-3.72)], regularly discussing HIV with friends [6.54 (1.07-39.77)] and CBO members [4.44 (1.27-15.53)], and having a higher social exclusion score [1.24 (1.07-1.44)]. Unemployment (as opposed to being a housewife) was negatively associated with disclosure [0.12 (0.02-0.87)]. Despite the potential positive effects for the prevention of HIV transmission and for adherence to HIV treatment, many PLHIV had not disclosed their serostatus to their steady sexual partner. Some factors shown here to be significantly associated with such disclosure will help in the development of future support interventions. PMID:23913104
Loukid, Mohamed; Abadie, Alise; Henry, Emilie; Hilali, Mohamed Kamal; Fugon, Lionel; Rafif, Nadia; Mellouk, Othoman; Lahoucine, Ouarsas; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie
The prevalence of HIV infection among male prison inmates is significantly higher than in the U.S. population. Adequate planning to ensure continued medication adherence and continuity of care after release is important for this population. This study describes the prerelease characteristics of 162 incarcerated HIV-positive men (40 from jails and 122 from prisons). The results include a demographic description of the sample and the participants' sexual risk behaviors, substance use, health status and HIV medication adherence, health care utilization, mental health, and family and social support. The results highlight a potentially high level of need for services and low levels of support and social connectedness. Postrelease planning should include support for improving HIV medication adherence as well as reducing both sexual and injection drug-related transmission risk for these individuals. PMID:24078623
Feaster, Daniel J; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Zack, Barry; McCartney, Kathleen; Gregorich, Steven E; Brincks, Ahnalee M
Methamphetamine abuse, which surged in the early 1990s, remains a major social and health issue in recent years in Taiwan. The danger of the spread of HIV among heroin injecting drug users (IDUs) gradually increased because of needle/syringe sharing in the early 2000s. The percentage of IDUs among all addiction treatment admissions increased from 34.7% in 2000 to 63.9% in 2004, and the percentage of IDUs sharing needles increased from 4.0% in 2000 to 15% in 2004. Alerted by the escalating IDU-associated HIV situation, the Department of Health launched the national pilot harm reduction program (PHRP) in 4 of 25 cities/counties in 2005. In 2006, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control reported a 10% decrease in all new HIV seropositive cases and a nationwide harm reduction program was implemented. Besides the implementation of PHRP, HIV testing executed in 2004 and the HIV education program were essential for the effective control of HIV. Abuse of club drugs, such as MDMA, ketamine, flunitrazepam, and zolpidem have also been a new phenomenon since the early 2000s. It is noteworthy that the ketamine-positive cases in urine samples increased sharply from 47 in 2002 to 11,616 in 2011. Although ketamine has not been scheduled by the United Nations, the epidemic level of its use and harms may have been underestimated. In summary, heroin, methamphetamine, and certain club drugs are the current major drugs of abuse in Taiwan. The risk factors of drug abuse-associated infectious diseases, such as needle/syringe sharing among heroin IDUs and unprotected sex among club drug users, deserve further scrutiny.
Yu, Wen-Jing; Tsay, Wen-Ing; Li, Jih-Heng
An assay based on inhibition of cytopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains in Molt 4 cells was developed to quantitate neutralizing antibodies (NA) in sera of HIV-infected individuals. The assay was specific and gave results comparable to those obtained by the inhibition of immunofluorescence (IFI) and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Attempts were made to correlate the presence and the antibody titres with the clinical status of HIV-infected individuals classified according to Walter Reed staging classification scheme. NA titres correlated inversely with the stage of HIV infection: Compared with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, HIV-infected subjects at stage WR1 had significantly higher NA titres. Moreover, a decrease in NA titre in relation to clinical deterioration was noted in sequential sera of eight of 11 AIDS patients, retrospectively examined, for NA. The symptomless subjects showed either the same level of NA or a trend towards an increasing antibody titre with time. Different isolates of HIV strains showed a variability in the extent of sensitivity to neutralization by sera obtained from different HIV-infected individuals. PMID:2784162
Alesi, D R; Ajello, F; Lupo, G; Vitale, F; Portera, M; Spadaro, F; Romano, N
Abstract Objective To assess the diagnostic value of provider-initiated symptom screening for tuberculosis (TB) and how HIV status affects it. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of randomly selected participants in a community-based TB–HIV prevalence survey in Harare, Zimbabwe. All completed a five-symptom questionnaire and underwent sputum TB culture and HIV testing. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of various symptoms and used regression analysis to investigate the relationship between symptoms and TB disease. Findings We found one or more symptoms of TB in 21.2% of 1858 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 9.9% of 7121 HIV-negative (HIV?) participants (P < 0.001). TB was subsequently diagnosed in 48 HIV+ and 31 HIV? participants. TB was asymptomatic in 18 culture-positive individuals, 8 of whom (4 in each HIV status group) had positive sputum smears. Cough of any duration, weight loss and, for HIV+ participants only, drenching night sweats were independent predictors of TB. In HIV+ participants, cough of ? 2 weeks’ duration, any symptom and a positive sputum culture had sensitivities of 48%, 81% and 65%, respectively; in HIV? participants, the sensitivities were 45%, 71% and 74%, respectively. Symptoms had a similar sensitivity and specificity in HIV+ and HIV? participants, but in HIV+ participants they had a higher positive and a lower negative predictive value. Conclusion Even smear-positive TB may be missed by provider-initiated symptom screening, especially in HIV+ individuals. Symptom screening is useful for ruling out TB, but better TB diagnostics are urgently needed for resource-poor settings.
Zezai, Abbas; Cheung, Yin Bun; Bandason, Tsitsi; Dauya, Ethel; Munyati, Shungu S; Butterworth, Anthony E; Rusikaniko, Simba; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mungofa, Stanley; Hayes, Richard J; Mason, Peter R
There are students and staff in many schools with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV infections. Should parents or guardians be expected to disclose students' bloodborne infections to school officials? Can infected students play contact sports given the increased risk of blood spills? What type of response plan should schools develop in the event of…
In the third decade of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, empirically based HIV transmission risk reduction interventions for HIV infected persons are still needed. As part of a Health Resources Services Administration/Special Projects of National Significance initiative to increase prevention services among HIV infected persons, we implemented SHAPE (Supporting Healthy Alternatives through Patient Education). SHAPE is a behavioral HIV prevention intervention delivered to HIV infected persons receiving primary medical care at El Rio Health Center in Tucson, Arizona. The SHAPE intervention is based on Kalichman's "Healthy Relationships for Men and Women Living with HIV-AIDS." The intervention is interactive and uses a video discussion intervention format where educational activities, movie clips, and discussions are used to provide participants with information and skills to increase their comfort in disclosing their HIV status and in reducing HIV transmission. This paper describes the intervention in sufficient detail to replicate it in other settings. PMID:17265144
Estrada, Barbara D; Trujillo, Stephen; Estrada, Antonio L
This study examined the relationship between antiretroviral therapy use, participants' knowledge of partner's HIV serostatus, number of sex partners, perceived infectivity and HIV disclosure to a main sexual partner among 258 HIV-positive Haitian alcohol users. Only 38.6 % had disclosed their HIV serostatus to sexual partners. Logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who self-reported having an HIV-negative partner (OR = 0.36, 95 % CI 0.13-0.97) or a partner of unknown HIV status (OR = 0.09, 95 % CI 0.04-0.22) were less likely to disclose their HIV serostatus than participants who self-reported having an HIV-positive partner. Participants who had more than one sexual partner in the past 3 months (OR = 0.41, 95 % CI 0.19-0.90) were also less likely to disclose than participants who had one partner. These findings suggest the need for couples-based programs to assist people living with HIV (PLWH) with the disclosure process, especially among PLWH who have more than one sexual partner and/or are in serodiscordant relationships. PMID:24385230
Conserve, Donaldson F; King, Gary; Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Malow, Robert
This secondary analysis used Goffman’s (1963) model of stigma to examine how social support and health status are related to HIV stigma, after controlling for specific socio-demographic factors, and how these relationships differed between men and women living with HIV. Baseline data from 183 subjects in a behavioral randomized clinical trial were analyzed using multi-group structural equation modeling. Women reported significantly higher levels of stigma than men after controlling for race, history of injecting drug use, and exposure category. HIV-related stigma was negatively predicted by social support regardless of gender. The theorized model explained a significant amount of the variance in stigma for men and women (24.4% and 44%, respectively) and may provide novel and individualized intervention points for health care providers to affect positive change on perceived stigma for the person living with HIV. The study offers insight into understanding the relationships among gender, health status, social support, and HIV-related stigma.
Colbert, Alison M.; Kim, Kevin H.; Sereika, Susan M.; Erlen, Judith A.
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on infant feeding patterns. Two hundred eighty mothers (205 HIV uninfected, 75 infected) and their infants were recruited from the Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru, Kenya, from delivery and were followed for 14 weeks. From the feeding patterns, HIV-infected mothers were more likely to exclusively breastfeed in week 1 than HIV-uninfected mothers (71.7% vs 56.3%, P = .001), but there were no differences by week 14 (9.8% vs 4.8% P = .212). Mixed feeding increased for both groups from weeks 1 to 14. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal age (younger mothers, P < .05) was associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the 6th week and infant birth weight (> mean birth weight, P < .05) in the 10th week. The results indicate a need to reassess adherence to infant feeding recommendations irrespective of maternal HIV status and also the infant feeding counseling process in the hospital. J Hum Lact . 24(1):34-41. PMID:18281354
Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Mwonya, Rose
Background Whether having a stable and predictable lifestyle is associated with health care use and health status among HIV patients is unknown. Objective To develop and test the reliability and validity of a measure of life chaos for adults with HIV and examine its association with health care use and health status. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Two hundred twenty HIV-infected persons recruited from those who tested positive in a mobile testing van and from HIV clinics serving low-income populations. Measurements Participants completed a survey every 6 months, assessing their health care use, SF-12 mental and physical health status and life chaos. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the six-item measure of chaos was .67. Those without a spouse or partner and those with one or more unmet social service needs, such as housing or transportation, had higher chaos scores. Compared to those with less chaos, those with more chaos were less likely to have two or more outpatient visits (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24–0.98), more likely to have two or more missed visits (adjusted OR 2.30, 95%CI: 1.20–4.41) in the 6 months before study enrollment and had lower mental health status at enrollment and at follow-up. Life chaos was not associated with emergency department visits or physical health status. Conclusions We created a new measure of life chaos, which was associated with outpatient visits and mental health status. Chaos may be an important barrier to regular medical care. Future studies need to test this measure in more diverse populations and those with other diseases.
Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Davis, Cynthia; Kinsler, Janni; Cunningham, William E.
This review summarizes the available data on the molecular epidemiology of HIV and the transmission of HIV drug resistance in the former USSR (FSU) in recent decades. The data presented here were obtained from publications or personal communication with colleagues in these countries as well as from studies the author was involved in. The molecular epidemiology data demonstrate the preservation of a relatively low diversity of HIV-1 in FSU countries, where infections are predominantly caused by subtype A, IDU-A variant. Subtype B was the second most common variant, followed by CRF03_AB and CRF02_AG, with CRF02_AG spreading rapidly in Central Asian countries and the Asian part of Russia. Mosaic variants formed from CRF02_AG and IDU-A were found elsewhere, as were subtypes C, G, and CRF01_AE. The status of HIV drug resistance monitoring in FSU countries is cause for serious concern because, so far, no regular action has been undertaken. HIV genotyping has been available in Russia for several years and is becoming accessible to patients in Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, this subject has not been systematically studied, and no data have been presented to the scientific community. Several recent studies suggest a low level of HIV drug resistance transmission in the FSU (3-7%); however, problems with irregular drug supply and possible low adherence may lead to the rapid growth of these figures. These findings support the urgent need to develop a shared HIV drug resistance monitoring system for FSU countries to better control the HIV epidemic in the region. PMID:24192601
Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…
Lewis, Ione R.
This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision (MC), pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PREP and PEP), vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral treatment options, their impact in the western world, and difficulties faced by emerging and resource-limited nations in providing and maintaining appropriate treatment regimens. Current clinical and pre-clinical approaches toward a cure for HIV are described, including new drug compounds that target viral reservoirs and gene therapy approaches aimed at altering susceptibility to HIV infection. Recent progress in vaccine development is summarized, including novel approaches and new discoveries.
Demberg, Thorsten; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie
Introduction Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56–0.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.79–1.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy.
Liu, Enju; Duggan, Christopher; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Bosch, Ronald J; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Okuma, James; Fawzi, Wafaie W
Objective?To examine orphan status, mental health, social support, and HIV risk among adolescents in rural Kenya.?Methods?Randomly selected adolescents aged 10–18 years completed surveys assessing sexual activity, sex-related beliefs and self-efficacy, mental health, social support, caregiver–child communication, time since parental death, and economic resources. Analysis of covariance and regression analyses compared orphans and nonorphans; orphan status was tested as a moderator between well-being and HIV risk.?Results?Orphans reported poorer mental health, less social support, and fewer material resources. They did not differ from nonorphans on HIV risk indicators. Longer time since parental death was associated with poorer outcomes. In moderator analyses, emotional problems and poorer caregiver–youth communication were more strongly associated with lower sex-related self-efficacy for orphans.?Conclusions?Orphans are at higher risk for psychosocial problems. These problems may affect orphans’ self-efficacy for safer sex practices more than nonorphans. Decreased HIV risk could be one benefit of psychosocial interventions for orphans.
Drabkin, Anya S.; Stashko, Allison L.; Broverman, Sherryl A.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.
South Africa ranks among the three countries with the highest prevalence of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, with an estimated 29.5% of women attending antenatal clinics being infected. Necrotizing periodontal disease is a well recognized HIV-associated oral condition. The objective of this investigation was to determine a possible correlation between the extent, severity and treatment outcome of necrotizing periodontal disease in relation to a person's HIV status and CD4+ T cell count. Data from 105 consecutive patients presenting with necrotizing periodontal disease at an academic oral health centre in South Africa were analysed. All patients were provided with an opportunity to undergo voluntary counseling and testing for HIV infection, were treated for necrotizing periodontal disease and followed over a period of nine months. The mean age of the cohort was 28 years old (range 12 - 52). Of 98 (93.3%) patients unaware of their HIV serostatus at the initial visit, 59 (56.2%) consented to testing. In total 45 (42.9%) were HIV-seropositive with a mean CD4+ T cell count of 222.7 cells/microl and 14 (13.3%) were HIV-seronegative, with a significantly higher mean CD4+ T cell count of 830 cells/microl (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.001), while the status of 46 (43.8%) remained unknown. In 101 (96.2%) patients, > or = 5 tooth sites were affected, and in 27 (26%) > or = 4 mm of gingival tissue were affected. This study, which included HIV-seropositive, HIV-seronegative and persons of unknown HIV status, revealed no statistical evidence that HIV infection was associated with the extent, severity or relapse of necrotizing periodontal disease. No statistically significant association could be demonstrated between the extent, severity and recurrence of necrotizing periodontal disease and a CD4+ T cell count < or = 200 cells/microl among HIV-seropositive patients. PMID:21128527
Phiri, Reality; Feller, Liviu; Blignaut, Elaine
OBJECTIVES: (a) To assess the impact of HIV status (HIV negative, HIV positive, AIDS) on the outcome of patients admitted to intensive care units for diseases unrelated to HIV; (b) to decide whether a positive test result for HIV should be a criterion for excluding patients from intensive care for diseases unrelated to HIV. DESIGN: A prospective double blind study of all admissions over six months. HIV status was determined in all patients by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay, western blotting, and flow cytometry. The ethics committee considered the clinical implications of the study important enough to waive patients' right to informed consent. Staff and patients were blinded to HIV results. On discharge patients could be advised of their HIV status if they wished. SETTING: A 16 bed surgical intensive care unit. SUBJECTS: All 267 men and 135 women admitted to the unit during the study period. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: APACHE II score (acute physiological, age, and chronic health evaluation), organ failure, septic shock, durations of intensive care unit and hospital stay, and intensive care unit and hospital mortality. RESULTS: No patient had AIDS. 52 patients were tested positive for HIV and 350 patients were tested negative. The two groups were similar in sex distribution but differed significantly in age, incidence of organ failure (37 (71%) v 171 (49%) patients), and incidence of septic shock (20 (38%) v 54 (15%)). After adjustment for age there were no differences in intensive care unit or hospital mortality or in the durations of stay in the intensive care unit or hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity was higher in HIV positive patients but there was no difference in mortality. In this patient population a positive HIV test result should not be a criterion for excluding a patient from intensive care.
Bhagwanjee, S.; Muckart, D. J.; Jeena, P. M.; Moodley, P.
This study investigated how dispositional optimism relates to psychological and immunologic status in 40 HIV-infected gay\\u000a men residing in areas of South Florida hard hit by Hurricane Andrew. In the months following the storm, participants’ levels\\u000a of psychological distress (hurricane-related and overall distress) and antibody titers to several herpesviruses (Herpes Simplex\\u000a Virus-2, Epstein-Barr Virus [EBV], Cytomegalovirus, and Human Herpes Virus-6
Stacy Cruess; Michael Antoni; Kristin Kilbourn; Gail Ironson; Nancy Klimas; Mary Ann Fletcher; Andy Baum; Neil Schneiderman
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) represent aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, particularly in the setting of HIV infection. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), recent studies have documented improved survival outcome in patients with AIDS-related lymphomas. This study contributes a South African perspective by correlating the HIV status and prognosis of DLBCL and PBL with differentiation profiles assessed by immunophenotyping. Analysis of the morphologic, immunophenotypic and clinicopathologic features of 52 cases of DLBCL and 9 cases of de novo PBL was performed. The overall survival of patients with PBL was poorer than that of DLBCL (logrank p value 0.002). Despite HAART, the overall survival with DLBCL and HIV infection was significantly poorer than HIV negative patients with DLBCL (p value <0.001). Profound immunosuppression was evident in the HIV positive group as the mean CD4 count was 151 cells/mm(3) in DLBCL and 61 cells/mm(3) in PBL. HIV positive patients were significantly younger at presentation with greater likelihood of extranodal lymphoma. When Hans' and Muris' algorithmic stratification of DLBCL were applied, no statistical significance was demonstrated (p values 0.188 and 0.399 respectively). However, when Bcl-2 expression occurred in germinal center-type DLBCL (Hans' defined), improved survival was conferred by the germinal center immunophenotype (p value 0.007). The study demonstrates that DLBCL and PBL have significant potential for aggressive behaviour and poor outcome in the setting of profound immunosuppression due to HIV infection. Further studies are required to assess the effect of targeted-immunotherapy (Rituximab) in combination with recent amendment of the South African national antiretroviral treatment guidelines which has created tremendous potential for improved survival in patients with AIDS-related non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas. PMID:23670212
Pather, Sugeshnee; Mohamed, Zainab; McLeod, Heather; Pillay, Komala
Objectives: As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recruited using flyers and announcements on websites. Results: A total of 54 PLHIV completed the questionnaire, among whom 50 (92·6%) males. Half of the participants did not disclose their HIV status in the workplace, mostly due to being afraid of social or professional consequences. Those who disclosed, reported no changes in the workplace or even reported receiving more empathy. A minority of participants have to take antiretroviral medication at work and they reported no particular problems related to medication intake. Conclusion: Despite improved solidarity and information campaigns, many PLHIV still do not disclose their HIV status in the workplace, most frequently due to fear for discrimination. More actions are warranted, as well as addressing possible self-stigma. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in the workplace posed little or no problems. PMID:24820918
Degroote, S; Vogelaers, D; Koeck, R; Borms, R; De Meulemeester, L; Vandijck, D
Background As access to treatment increases, large numbers of HIV-positive parents are raising HIV-negative children. Maternal HIV disclosure has been shown to have benefits for mothers and children, however, disclosure rates remain low with between 30-45% of mothers reporting HIV disclosure to their children in both observational and intervention studies. Disclosure of HIV status by parent to an HIV-uninfected child is a complex and challenging psychological and social process. No intervention studies have been designed and tested in Southern Africa to support HIV-positive parents to disclose their status, despite this region being one of the most heavily affected by the HIV epidemic. Method This paper describes the development of a family-centred, structured intervention to support mothers to disclose their HIV status to their HIV-negative school-aged children in rural South Africa, an area with high HIV prevalence. The intervention package includes printed materials, therapeutic tools and child-friendly activities and games to support age-appropriate maternal HIV disclosure, and has three main aims: (1) to benefit family relationships by increasing maternal HIV disclosure; (2) to increase children’s knowledge about HIV and health; (3) to improve the quality of custody planning for children with HIV-positive mothers. We provide the theoretical framework for the intervention design and report the results of a small pilot study undertaken to test its acceptability in the local context. Results The intervention was piloted with 24 Zulu families, all mothers were HIV-positive and had an HIV-negative child aged 6–9 years. Lay counsellors delivered the six session intervention over a six to eight week period. Qualitative data were collected on the acceptability, feasibility and the effectiveness of the intervention in increasing disclosure, health promotion and custody planning. All mothers disclosed something to their children: 11/24 disclosed fully using the words "HIV" while 13/24 disclosed partially using the word "virus". Conclusion The pilot study found the intervention was feasible and acceptable to mothers and counsellors, and provides preliminary evidence that participation in the intervention encouraged disclosure and health promotion. The pilot methodology and small sample size has limitations and further research is required to test the potential of this intervention. A larger demonstration project with 300 families is currently underway.
Tanzania has a generalised AIDS epidemic but the estimated adult HIV prevalence of 6% is much lower than in many countries in Southern Africa. HIV infection rates are reportedly higher in urban areas, among women and among those with more education. Stigma has been found to be more common in poorer, less-educated people, and those in rural areas. We examined associations between poverty and other variables and a stigmatising attitude (belief that HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning). The variables we examined in a multivariate model included: food sufficiency (as an indicator of poverty), age, sex, marital status, education, experience of intimate partner violence, condom-related choice disability, discussion about HIV/AIDS, sources of information about HIV/AIDS and urban or rural residence. Of the 1,130 men and 1,803 women interviewed, more than half (58%) did not disagree that "HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning". Taking other variables into account, people from the poorest households (without enough food in the last week) were more likely to believe HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.06-1.59). Others factors independently associated with this stigmatising attitude were: having less than primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.62); having experienced intimate partner violence in the last year (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75); being choice disabled for condom use (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71); and living in rural areas (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.06-2.90). The level of HIV and AIDS stigma in Tanzania is high with independent associations with several disadvantages: poverty, less education and living in rural areas. Other vulnerable groups, such as survivors of intimate partner violence, are also more likely to have a stigmatising attitude. HIV prevention programmes should take account of stigma, especially among the disadvantaged, and take care not to increase it. PMID:21347901
Amuri, Mbaraka; Mitchell, Steve; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil
Introduction The objectives of this study are to address if and how albumin can be used as an indication of malnutrition in HIV infected and uninfected Africans. Methods In 2005, 710 HIV-infected and 226 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in a cohort study. Clinical/demographic parameters, CD4 count, albumin, liver transaminases; anthropometric measurements and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) were performed. Malnutrition outcomes were defined as body mass index (BMI), Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and Fat mass index (FMI). Separate linear predictive models including albumin were fit to these outcomes in HIV negative and HIV positive women by CD4 strata (CD4>350,200–350 and <200 cells/µl). Results In unadjusted models for each outcome in HIV-negative and HIV positive women with CD4>350 cells/µl, serum albumin was not significantly associated with BMI, FFMI or FMI. Albumin was significantly associated with all three outcomes (p<0.05) in HIV+ women with CD4 200–350 cells/µl, and highly significant in HIV+ women with CD4<200 cells/µl (P<0.001). In multivariable linear regression, albumin remained associated with FFMI in women with CD4 count<200 cells/µl (p<0.01) but not in HIV+ women with CD4>200. Discussion While serum albumin is widely used to indicate nutritional status it did not consistently predict malnutrition outcomes in HIV- women or HIV+ women with higher CD4. This result suggests that albumin may measure end stage disease as well as malnutrition and should not be used as a proxy for nutritional status without further study of its association with validated measures.
Dusingize, Jean-Claude; Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Mutimura, Eugene; Kiefer, Elizabeth; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn
Background Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging (“inflammaging”). Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD) and microbial translocation (MT) contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear. Methods Plasma biomarkers for IEBD (iFABP), MT (LPS, sCD14), T-cell activation (sCD27), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6) were measured in 88 HIV-1 uninfected (HIVneg) and 83 treated, HIV-1-infected (HIVpos) adults from 20–100 years old. Results Age positively correlated with iFABP (r?=?0.284, p?=?0.008), sCD14 (r?=?0.646, p?=?<0.0001) and LPS (r?=?0.421, p?=?0.0002) levels in HIVneg but not HIVpos subjects. Age also correlated with sCD27, hsCRP, and IL-6 levels regardless of HIV status. Middle-aged HIVpos subjects had elevated plasma biomarker levels similar to or greater than those of elderly HIVneg subjects with the exception of sCD14. Clustering analysis described an inflammaging phenotype (IP) based on iFABP, sCD14, sCD27, and hsCRP levels in HIVneg subjects over 60 years of age. The IP in HIVneg subjects was used to develop a classification model that was applied to HIVpos subjects to determine whether HIVpos subjects under 60 years of age were IP+. HIVpos IP+ subjects were similar in age to IP- subjects but had a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on Framingham risk score (p?=? 0.01). Conclusions We describe a novel IP that incorporates biomarkers of IEBD, MT, immune activation as well as inflammation. Application of this novel IP in HIV-infected subjects identified a group at higher risk of CVD.
Steele, Amanda K.; Lee, Eric J.; Vestal, Brian; Hecht, Daniel; Dong, Zachary; Rapaport, Eric; Koeppe, John; Campbell, Thomas B.; Wilson, Cara C.
Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p < 0.01) or that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have not followed the Word of God (p < 0.001). Most participants (84.2%) said that they would disclose their HIV status to their pastor or congregation if they became infected. Although the majority of respondents (80.8%) believed that prayer could cure HIV, almost all (93.7%) said that they would begin ARV treatment if they became HIV-infected. The multivariate analysis found that respondents' hypothetical willingness to begin ARV treatme was not significantly associated with the belief that prayer could cure HIV or with other religious factors. Refusal of ARV treatment was instead correlated with lack of secondary schooling and lack of knowledge about ARVs. Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.
Zou, James; Yamanaka, Yvonne; John, Muze; Watt, Melissa; Ostermann, Jan; Thielman, Nathan
In a sample of 780 South African child victims of rape (girls under the age of 18 years; age M= 10.5 yr., SD=4.8), 10% did not qualify for antiretroviral prophylaxis because HIV status at presentation was positive and a further 34.1% did not qualify because the rape was reported more than 72 hours after the alleged offense. Regression analyses indicated that child rape victims who reported that they had been sexually active prior to the rape constitute a particularly high risk group for HIV infection and suggest primary and secondary prevention programs should be designed to decrease sexual activity among children and to encourage more immediate reporting of rape among younger children, children who are not sexually active, and children who are incestuously abused. PMID:15825899
Collings, Steven J
Feelings of vengefulness result from being treated unfairly. However, some individuals are more sensitive to unfair treatment and more likely to demand restitution than others. Degrees of vengefulness may influence behavior in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), where highly vengeful men may seek limited retribution by placing others at risk, for example, by failing to disclose their HIV-status to sexual partners. This study examined the tendency towards vengefulness in HIV-positive MSM and its associations with disclosure and condom use behaviors. Results showed that greater certainty of from whom participants had contracted HIV was associated with lowered vengefulness over time. Though condom use did not vary by vengefulness, MSM reporting higher vengefulness concealed their HIV serostatus more than men reporting less vengefulness. Vengeance was not related to individuals' perceptions that they had transmitted the disease to others. Overall, the data suggested identifying one's HIV transmitter was reconciliatory. Men reporting higher vengefulness might also derive a sense of justice from not disclosing their serostatus. PMID:18512142
Moskowitz, David A; Roloff, Michael E
Background Elevated perceptions of psychosocial stress and stressful life events are linked to faster disease progression in individuals living with HIV and these associations may be stronger for women from ethnic minority populations. Levels of neurohormones such as oxytocin (OT), cortisol, and norepinephrine (NE) have been shown to influence the effects of psychosocial stress in different populations. Understanding how intrinsic neuroendocrine substances moderate the effects of stressors in minority women living with HIV (WLWH) may pave the way for interventions to improve disease management. Methods We examined circulating levels of plasma OT as a moderator of the effects of stress on disease status (viral load, CD4+ cell count) in 71 low-income ethnic minority WLWH. Results At low levels of OT, there was an inverse association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. Counter-intuitively, at high levels of OT there was a positive association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. This pattern was unrelated to women’s viral load. Other neuroendocrine hormones known to down-regulate the immune system (cortisol, norepinephrine) did not mediate the effects of OT and stress on immune status. Conclusions OT may have stress buffering effects on some immune parameters and possibly health status in low income ethnic minority WLWH reporting elevated stress.
Fekete, Erin M.; Antoni, Michael H.; Lopez, Corina; Mendez, Armando J.; Szeto, Angela; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil
Individuals who disclose their sexual orientation are more likely to also disclose their HIV status. Disclosure of HIV-serostatus is associated with better health outcomes. The goal of this study was to build and test comprehensive models of sexual orientation that included 8 theory-informed predictors of disclosure to mothers, fathers, and closest friends in a sample of HIV-positive Latino gay and bisexual men. US acculturation, gender non-conformity to hegemonic masculinity in self-presentation, comfort with sexual orientation, gay community involvement, satisfaction with social support, sexual orientation and gender of the closest friend emerged as significant predictors of disclosure of sexual orientation.
Lechuga, Julia; Zea, Maria Cecilia
Younger Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) ages 16-29 have the highest rates of HIV in the United States. Despite increased attention to social and sexual networks as a framework for biomedical intervention, the role of measured network positions, such as bridging and their relationship to HIV risk has received limited attention. A network sample (N = 620) of BMSM respondents (N = 154) and their MSM and transgendered person network members (N = 466) was generated through respondent driven sampling of BMSM and elicitation of their personal networks. Bridging status of each network member was determined by a constraint measure and was used to assess the relationship between this bridging and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), sex-drug use (SDU), group sex (GS) and HIV status within the network in South Chicago. Low, moderate and high bridging was observed in 411 (66.8 %), 81 (13.2 %) and 123 (20.0 %) of the network. In addition to age and having sex with men only, moderate and high levels of bridging were associated with HIV status (aOR 3.19; 95 % CI 1.58-6.45 and aOR 3.83; 95 % CI 1.23-11.95, respectively). Risk behaviors observed including UAS, GS, and SDU were not associated with HIV status, however, they clustered together in their associations with one another. Bridging network position but not risk behavior was associated with HIV status in this network sample of younger BMSM. Socio-structural features such as position within the network may be important when implementing effective HIV prevention interventions in younger BMSM populations. PMID:24337699
Shah, Nirav S; Iveniuk, James; Muth, Stephen Q; Michaels, Stuart; Jose, Jo-Anne; Laumann, Edward O; Schneider, John A
Abstract Objetive: To determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of Popayan-Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated. Results: Mean age 33.5±10,2; 66 %women. Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86 % (95% CI:1.87-5.85), greater in men (7.38%; p= 0.013). Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 h). Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection.
Pinzon, Maria Virginia; Tello, Ines Constanza; Rincon-Hoyos, Hernan Gilberto; Galindo, Jaime
Introduction HIV stigma is a contributing factor to poor patient outcomes. Although HIV stigma has been documented, its impact on patient well-being in the southern US is not well understood. Methods Thirty-two adults participated in cognitive interviews after completing the Berger HIV or the Van Rie stigma scale. Participant responses were probed to ensure the scales accurately measured stigma and to assess the impact stigma had on behavior. Results Three main themes emerged regarding HIV stigma: (1) negative attitudes, fear of contagion, and misperceptions about transmission; (2) acts of discrimination by families, friends, health care providers, and within the workplace; and (3) participants’ use of self-isolation as a coping mechanism. Overwhelming reluctance to disclose a person’s HIV status made identifying enacted stigma with a quantitative scale difficult. Discussion Fear of discrimination resulted in participants isolating themselves from friends or experiences to avoid disclosure. Participant unwillingness to disclose their HIV status to friends and family could lead to an underestimation of enacted HIV stigma in quantitative scales.
Audet, Carolyn M.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Kipp, Aaron M.
Objective: To document the prevalence, age and gender distribution of oral lesions in HIV infected adults and the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy and correlate them to the immune status of the patients. Materials and Methods: Oral lesions were diagnosed by a detailed physical examination by trained and calibrated examiners according to the case definitions established by the Oral HIV/AIDS research alliance. Demographic details, risk behavior patterns and oral symptoms and habits were collected by a questionnaire. Results: 81 patients; 54 men and 27 women aged between 20 – 55 years participated in the study. A total of 49 patients; 60.5% had some oral lesion when examined. Oral candidiasis (21 %) and oral melanosis (21%) were the most common lesions, followed by linear gingival erythema, oral hairy leukoplakia, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis/gingivitis, herpes labialis, parotid gland enlargement and reccurent apthous ulcers. Oral hairy leukoplakia was exclusively seen in men (p=0.018). All six cases of herpes simplex lesion were seen in non - anti retro viral group (p=0.073) while oral candidiasis was commonly noted in the anti retro viral group (p=0.073). Lowering CD4 counts had the strongest association with the prevalence of oral candidasis (p=0.012), pseudomembranous candidiasis (p=0.014) and oral hairy leukoplakia (p= 0.065). Conclusion: This study shows a high prevalence of oral candidiasis, melanosis, linear gingival erythema and oral hairy leukoplakia in the patients. Key words:HIV, AIDS, oral lesions, prevalence.
Thakur, Rachana; Singh, Asutosh K.; Rajbhandary, Srijana; Mishra, Rajeev K.; Sagtani, Alok
Know Your Status (KYS), a novel, student-run program offered free HIV-testing at a private university (PU) and community college (CC). Following completion of surveys of risk behaviors/reasons for seeking testing, students were provided with rapid, oral HIV-testing. We investigated testing history, risk behaviors, and HIV prevalence among students tested during the first three years of KYS. In total, 1408 tests were conducted, 5 were positive: 4/408 CC, 1/1000 PU (1% vs. 0.1%, p = 0.01). Three positives were new diagnoses, all black men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Over 50% of students were tested for the first time and 59% reported risk behaviors. CC students were less likely to have used condoms at last sex (a surrogate for risk behavior) compared to PU (OR 0.73, CI [0.54, 0.98]). Race, sexual identity, and sex were not associated with condom use. These results demonstrate that KYS successfully recruited large numbers of previously untested, at-risk students, highlighting the feasibility and importance of testing college populations. PMID:25068179
Milligan, Caitlin; Cuneo, C Nicholas; Rutstein, Sarah E; Hicks, Charles
In 1997, a court in Cyprus jailed Pavlos Georgiou for fifteen months for knowingly infecting a British woman, Janet Pink, with HIV-1 through unprotected sexual intercourse. Pink met Georgiou in January 1994 whilst on holiday. She discovered that she had contracted the virus from him in October 1994 but continued the relationship until July 1996 when she developed AIDS. She returned to the UK for treatment and reported Georgiou to the Cypriot authorities.1 There have been a number of legal cases involving deliberate transmission of HIV, but most have involved forced exposure to infected bodily fluids for example, rape or biting, and have been dealt with using the existing legislation for rape or assault. While it is often difficult to prove responsibility for transmission in cases of forced exposure to HIV, it is even more contentious in cases like those of Janet Pink where an individual has consented to sex but claims that he/she was not forewarned of his/herpartner's HIV-positive status. At present there is no specific criminal offence of having unprotected sexual intercourse without disclosing one's HIV-positive status but a prosecution could possibly be brought under any one of a number of existing offences.2 Perhaps a change of policy needs to be considered. The Home Office has issued a consultation document which outlines a proposal that will allow the criminalisation of intentional transmission of diseases, like HIV, that are likely to cause serious harm. This revised legislation would cover all other potentially fatal diseases (including salmonella and legionnaire's disease, for instance) but seems primarily to be targeted at HIV transmission. Should transmission of HIV through consensual sex, without the HIV-positive status of the individual being disclosed, be an offence? This question, and that of whether there is a moral obligation to disclose a positive HIV status prior to having a sexual relationship is the subject of this paper. Key Words: HIV • duty to warn • enforcing obligation • infectious disease • ethics
Bennett, R.; Draper, H.; Frith, L.
Background Access to HIV testing and subsequent care among health care workers (HCWs) form a critical component of TB infection control measures for HCWs. Challenges to and gaps in access to HIV services among HCWs may thus compromise TB infection control. This study assessed HCWs HIV and TB screening uptake and explored their preferences for provision of HIV and TB care. Methods A cross-sectional mixed-methods study involving 499 HCWs and 8 focus group discussions was conducted in Mukono and Wakiso districts in Uganda between October 2010 and February 2011. Results Overall, 5% of the HCWs reported a history of TB in the past five years. None reported routine screening for TB disease or infection, although 89% were willing to participate in a TB screening program, 77% at the workplace. By contrast, 95% had previously tested for HIV; 34% outside their workplace, and 27% self-tested. Nearly half (45%) would prefer to receive HIV care outside their workplace. Hypothetical willingness to disclose HIV positive status to supervisors was moderate (63%) compared to willingness to disclose to sexual partners (94%). Older workers were more willing to disclose to a supervisor (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]?=?1.51, CI?=?1.16–1.95). Being female (APR?=?0.78, CI?=?0.68–0.91), and working in the private sector (APR?=?0.81, CI?=?0.65–1.00) were independent predictors of unwillingness to disclose a positive HIV status to a supervisor. HCWs preferred having integrated occupational services, versus stand-alone HIV care. Conclusions Discomfort with disclosure of HIV status to supervisors suggests that universal TB infection control measures that benefit all HCWs are more feasible than distinctions by HIVstatus, particularly for women, private sector, and younger HCWs. However, interventions to reduce stigma and ensuring confidentiality are also essential to ensure uptake of comprehensive HIV care including Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among HCWs.
Buregyeya, Esther; Nuwaha, Fred; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.; Criel, Bart; Verver, Suzanne; Kasasa, Simon; Colebunders, Robert
Introduction We sought to compare risk of death among children aged under-2 years born to HIV positive mother (HIV-exposed) and to HIV negative mother (HIV non-exposed), and identify determinants of under-2 mortality among the two groups in Rwanda. Methods In a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design, we selected mother-child pairs using national Antenatal Care (ANC) registers. Household interview with each mother was conducted to capture socio-demographic data and information related to pregnancy, delivery and post-partum. Data were censored at the date of child death. Using Cox proportional hazard model, we compared the hazard of death among HIV-exposed children and HIV non-exposed children. Results Of 1,455 HIV-exposed children, 29 (2.0%; 95% CI: 1.3%-2.7%) died by 6 months compared to 18 children of the 1,565 HIV non-exposed children (1.2%; 95% CI: 0.6%-1.7%). By 9 months, cumulative risks of death were 3.0% (95%; CI: 2.2%-3.9%) and 1.3% (96%; CI: 0.7%-1.8%) among HIV-exposed and HIV non-exposed children, respectively. By 2 years, the hazard of death among HIV-exposed children was more than 3 times higher (aHR:3.5; 95% CI: 1.8-6.9) among HIV-exposed versus non-exposed children. Risk of death by 9-24 months of age was 50% lower among mothers who attended 4 or more antenatal care (ANC) visits (aHR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9), and 26% lower among families who had more assets (aHR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-1.0). Conclusion Infant mortality was independent of perinatal HIV exposure among children by 6 months of age. However, HIV-exposed children were 3.5 times more likely to die by 2 years. Fewer antenatal visits, lower household assets and maternal HIV seropositive status were associated with increased mortality by 9-24 months.
Mugwaneza, Placidie; Umutoni, Nadine Wa Shema; Ruton, Hinda; Rukundo, Alphonse; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Bizimana, Jean de Dieu; Tsague, Landry; Wagner, Claire M; Nyankesha, Elevanie; Muita, Jane; Mutabazi, Vincent; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Karema, Corine; Binagwaho, Agnes
Objective: To examine the role of antiretroviral treatment related perceptions relative to other clinical and psychosocial factors associated with sexual risk taking in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: Participants were recruited from ambulatory HIV clinics in Montreal. Information on sociodemographic factors, health status, antiretroviral treatment related perceptions, and sexual behaviours was collected using a self administered questionnaire. At-risk sexual behaviour was defined as at least one occurrence of unprotected insertive or receptive anal intercourse in the past 6 months. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations between at-risk sexual behaviour and covariates. Results: 346 subjects participated in the study. Overall, 34% of subjects were considered at risk; 43% of sexually active subjects (n = 274). At-risk sexual behaviour was associated with two antiretroviral treatment related perceptions: (1) taking antiretroviral treatment reduces the risk of transmitting HIV (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16 to 3.80); and (2) there is less safer sex practised by MSM because of HIV treatment advances (OR, 1.82; CI, 1.14 to 2.90). Other factors, however, were more strongly associated with risk. These were: (1) safer sex fatigue (OR, 3.23; CI, 1.81 to 5.78); (2) use of "poppers" during sexual intercourse (OR, 6.28; CI, 2.43 to 16.21); and (3) reporting a greater proportion of HIV positive anal sex partners, compared with reporting no HIV positive anal sex partners: (a) <50% HIV positive (OR, 16.79; CI, 4.70 to 59.98); (b) ?50% HIV positive (OR, 67.67; CI, 15.43 to 296.90). Conclusion: Despite much emphasis on HIV treatment related beliefs as an explanation for sexual risk taking in MSM, this concern may play a relatively minor part in the negotiation of risk by HIV positive MSM. Serosorting, safer sex fatigue, and the use of poppers appear to be more important considerations in understanding the sexual risk behaviours of HIV positive MSM.
Cox, J; Beauchemin, J; Allard, R
Many current health status instruments either are too long to use in many acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinical trials or omit important concepts. In this study, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-relevant items developed for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) from subscales for cognitive function, energy\\/fatigue, health distress, and a single quality of life item were added to a portion of
Albert W. Wu; Haya R. Rubin; William C. Mathews; Ware John E. Jr; Lucy T. Brysk; William D. Hardy; Samuel A. Bozzette; Stephen A. Spector; Douglas D. Richman
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in China face a rapidly expanding HIV epidemic. Anal sex role plays a significant role in HIV infection. Research has already begun in China investigating the potential for circumcision-based interventions to slow the rise of HIV among Chinese MSM. Using peer referral recruitment, we sampled 491 men who reported anal sex role preference. We analyzed preferred anal sex role, enacted sex role during recent sexual behavior, and circumcision status and HIV infection among MSM in one Chinese city. Men reported on their anal sex role preference and reported on up to three male sexual partners. Men were asked to report on whether they were "top" or "bottom" with each of the partners. Those that preferred being bottom and versatile were significantly younger than those who preferred being top. Men who preferred bottoming and those that preferred the versatile role were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected than those who preferred to be tops. There was no significant association between circumcision and HIV infection among men who maintained their preferred top role. In terms of anal sex role behavior, prevalence was not statistically different across anal sex roles. Circumcision conferred no additional protection to men who preferred and who engaged the top role during anal sex. HIV interventions will need to address anal sex roles in more sophisticated ways than perhaps originally thought. Simplistic assumptions that anal sex role is a fixed behavior undermines interventions such as circumcision among MSM. PMID:23070532
Zhou, Chao; Raymond, H Fisher; Ding, Xianbin; Lu, Rongrong; Xu, Jing; Wu, Guohui; Feng, Liangui; Fan, Song; Li, Xuefeng; McFarland, Willi; Xiao, Yan; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming
Introduction Disclosure of HIV status to children is essential for disease management but is not well characterized in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of disclosure and associated factors among a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Kenya. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study, randomly sampling HIV-infected children ages 6–14 years attending 4 HIV clinics in western Kenya. Data were collected from questionnaires administered by clinicians to children and their caregivers, supplemented with chart review. Descriptive statistics and disclosure prevalence were calculated. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the association between disclosure and key child-level demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics. Results Among 792 caregiver-child dyads, mean age of the children was 9.7 years (SD?=?2.6) and 51% were female. Prevalence of disclosure was 26% and varied significantly by age; while 62% of 14-year-olds knew their status, only 42% of 11-year-olds and 21% of 8-year-olds knew. In multivariate regression, older age (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.35–1.63), taking antiretroviral drugs (OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.29–3.97), and caregiver-reported depression symptoms (OR 2.63, 95%CI 1.12–6.20) were significantly associated with knowing one’s status. Treatment site was associated with disclosure for children attending one of the rural clinics compared to the urban clinic (OR 3.44, 95%CI 1.75–6.76). Conclusions Few HIV-infected children in Kenya know their HIV status. The likelihood of disclosure is associated with clinical and psychosocial factors. More data are needed on the process of disclosure and its impact on children.
Vreeman, Rachel C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Mwangi, Ann; Turissini, Matthew; Ayaya, Samuel O.; Tenge, Constance; Nyandiko, Winstone M.
Objectives. We examined HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Methods. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n?=?90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Results. Eighty-one percent of parents reported “sometimes” or “often” communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one’s child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Conclusions. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents.
Reis, Janet S.; Weber, Kathleen M.
Increasing partner disclosure rates among HIV positive individuals is widely seen as an important public health strategy to reduce HIV transmission. One approach for encouraging disclosure is to emphasize individuals’ moral responsibility to disclose their status to their partners. We use South Africa as a case study to draw attention to two problems with labeling non-disclosure as immoral. First, we argue that because women are tested for HIV at much higher rates than men, any approach that involves blaming HIV positive individuals for not disclosing their status will disproportionately burden women. Second, through the narratives of six HIV positive women, we highlight how a focus on morality undervalues the complexity of sexual partnerships. Specifically, women describe how their perceived obligation to disclose is directly influenced by communication with their sexual partners. Women also discuss how the onset of different life events might alter the meaning of HIV and change obligations regarding disclosure within the partnership. The differences in testing rates across gender combined with the complexity of sexual partnerships leads us to suggest that labeling non-disclosure as immoral does little to advance HIV prevention. There is an urgent need to identify alternative interventions that support women through the disclosure process.
Groves, Allison K; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre
Objectives. We estimated associations between payer status, race/ethnicity, and acceptance of nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening in the emergency department (ED). Methods. We analyzed data from a prospective clinical trial between 2007 and 2009 at Denver Health. Patients in the ED were offered free HIV testing. Patient demographics and payer status were collected, and we used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations with HIV testing acceptance. Results. A total of 31?525 patients made 44?765 unique visits: 40% were White, 37% Hispanic, 14% Black, 1% Asian, and 7% unknown race/ethnicity. Of all visits, 10?237 (23%) agreed to HIV testing; 27% were self-pay, 23% state-sponsored, 18% Medicaid, 13% commercial insurance, 12% Medicare, and 8% another payer source. Compared with commercial insurance patients, self-pay patients (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.51, 1.75), state-sponsored patients (OR?=?1.64; 95% CI?=?1.52, 1.77), and Medicaid patients (OR?=?1.24; 95% CI?=?1.14, 1.34) had increased odds of accepting testing. Compared with White patients, Black (OR?=?1.29; 95% CI?=?1.21, 1.38) and Hispanic (OR?=?1.17; 95% CI?=?1.11, 1.23) patients had increased odds of accepting testing. Conclusions. Many ED patients are uninsured or subsidized through government programs and are more likely to consent to free rapid HIV testing.
Hopkins, Emily; Sasson, Comilla; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Bender, Brooke; Haukoos, Jason S.
In efficacy trials male circumcision (MC) protected men against HIV infection. Planners need information relevant to MC programmes in practice. In 2008, we interviewed 2915 men and 4549 women aged 15–29 years in representative cluster samples in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, asking about socio-economic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about HIV and MC and MC history. We tested finger prick blood
Neil Andersson; Anne Cockcroft
In efficacy trials male circumcision (MC) protected men against HIV infection. Planners need information relevant to MC programmes in practice. In 2008, we interviewed 2915 men and 4549 women aged 15–29 years in representative cluster samples in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, asking about socio-economic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about HIV and MC and MC history. We tested finger prick blood
Neil Andersson; Anne Cockcroft
Information on the prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among sailors is generally scarce. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HIV-1 infection among sailors in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population of sailors identified from their employment records. Two hundred and sixty sailors were personally interviewed to obtain information on risk factors. Blood samples were collected for the determination of antibodies against HIV-1 infection by ELISA with confirmation by Western blot. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 9.6% and the prevalence was observed to decrease with increasing level of education. The risk of acquiring infection was also found to increase with the use of hypodermic injections (OR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.19 to 9.80). Fourteen percent of the studied population reported condom use. However, the use was irregular. We did not find marital status and consumption of alcohol to be associated with HIV-1 infection. The high prevalence of HIV-1 infection in this population is alarming. Specific education programmes targeted to this group need to be established in order to reduce the increasing risk of infection in this population and the spread of infection to other segments of the population. PMID:9103693
Demissie, K; Amre, D; Tsega, E
Population-based surveys in Southern Africa suggest a substantial burden of undiagnosed HIV-infected long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission. We conducted an HIV prevalence survey of primary school pupils in Harare, Zimbabwe, and evaluated school-linked HIV counselling and testing (HCT) for pupils, their families and schoolteachers. Population-weighted cluster sampling was used to select six primary schools. Randomly selected class-grade pupils underwent anonymous HIV testing, with concurrent school-linked family HCT offered during the survey. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with pupils, parents/ guardians, counsellors, and schoolteachers. About 4386 (73%) pupils provided specimens for anonymous HIV testing. Median age was 9 years (IQR 8–11), and 54% were female. HIV prevalence was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2–3.1) with no difference by gender. HIV infection was significantly associated with orphanhood, stunting, wasting, and being one or more class grades behind in school due to illness (p <0.001). After adjusting for covariates, orphanhood and stunting remained significantly associated with being HIV positive (p <0.001). Uptake of diagnostic HIV testing by pupils was low with only 47/4386 (1%) pupils undergoing HCT. The HIV prevalence among children under 15 years who underwent HIV testing was 6.8%. The main barrier to HIV testing was parents’ fear of their children experiencing stigma and of unmasking their own HIV status should the child test HIV positive. Most guardians believed that a child's HIV-positive result should not be disclosed and the child could take HIV treatment without knowing the reason. Increased recognition of the high burden of undiagnosed HIV infection in children is needed. Despite awareness of the benefits of HIV testing, HIV-related stigma still dominates parents/guardians' psychological landscape. There is need for comprehensive information and support for families to engage with HIV testing services.
Bandason, Tsitsi; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Makamba, Memory; Laver, Sue; Hatzold, Karin; Mahere, Stephen; Munyati, Shungu; Mungofa, Stanley; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Ferrand, Rashida A.
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26?±?0.86 and -0.56?±?0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r?=?0.33; p?=?0.028) and viral load (r?=?-0.35; p?=?0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation. PMID:24352121
Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M
The aim of this study was to assess sexual activity, condom use and disclosure of HIV infection status among HIV-infected women 3-12 months after delivery and to identify factors associated with unsafe sex. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 480 HIV-positive sexually active new mothers in 48 primary health care clinics in Nkangala District. Post-natal women were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient over a period of 2 months) and responded to a questionnaire. Overall, 31.9% reported unsafe sex with an HIV-uninfected of unknown-status partner. In multivariate regression analysis, not having disclosed their HIV status, having experienced physical partner violence, lack of male involvement and not having attended a support group were associated with unsafe sex. Several risk factors for unsafe sex post-natally have been identified and can be utilised in post-partum sexual health education programmes. PMID:23724951
The beta -chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha , and MIP-1beta suppress infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by binding and down-regulating the viral coreceptor, CCR5. Accordingly, we have examined whether higher levels of CCR5 ligands are associated with a more favorable clinical status in AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 100 subjects enrolled in the
Alfredo Garzino-Demo; Ronald B. Moss; Joseph B. Margolick; Farley Cleghorn; Anne Sill; William A. Blattner; Fiorenza Cocchi; Dennis J. Carlo; Anthony L. Devico; Robert C. Gallo
Background The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), including basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is not well documented among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. Methods We identified 6560 HIV+ and 36 821 HIV-negative (HIV?) non-Hispanic white adults who were enrolled and followed up in Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 1996 to 2008. The first biopsy-proven NMSCs diagnosed during follow-up were identified from pathology records. Poisson models estimated rate ratios that compared HIV+ (overall and stratified by recent CD4 T-cell counts and serum HIV RNA levels) with HIV? subjects and were adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, obesity diagnosis history, and census-based household income. Sensitivity analyses were adjusted for outpatient visits (ie, a proxy for screening). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The NMSC incidence rate was 1426 and 766 per 100 000 person-years for HIV+ and HIV? individuals, respectively, which corresponds with an adjusted rate ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9 to 2.3). Similarly, the adjusted rate ratio for HIV+ vs HIV? subjects was 2.6 (95% CI = 2.1 to 3.2) for SCCs, and it was 2.1 (95% CI = 1.8 to 2.3) for BCCs. There was a statistically significant trend of higher rate ratios with lower recent CD4 counts among HIV+ subjects compared with HIV? subjects for SCCs (P trend < .001). Adjustment for number of outpatient visits did not affect the results. Conclusion HIV+ subjects had a twofold higher incidence rate of NMSCs compared with HIV? subjects. SCCs but not BCCs were associated with immunodeficiency.
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between HIV infection status and the receipt of lipid lowering therapy based on National Cholesterol\\u000a Education Program\\/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP\\/ATP III) guidelines and to assess whether HIV viral load and hepatitis C (HCV)\\u000a status alters that association.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN A cross-sectional analysis of survey, laboratory, and pharmacy data from 1,577 male participants (59% HIV infected) of
Matthew S. Freiberg; David A. Leaf; Joseph L. Goulet; Matthew B. Goetz; Krisann K. Oursler; Cynthia L. Gibert; Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas; Adeel A. Butt; Amy C. Justice
We examined the association of primary or nonprimary sexual partner relationship status on sexual risk behaviors, including condom use, among Latina women who are at self-disclosed increased heterosexual risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Data were collected via structured interviews of 187 Puerto Rican women, aged 18–35, who attended a health clinic in the Bronx, New York. Approximately 13% of participants reported sexual activities with both primary and nonprimary sexual partners during the 6 months prior to the interview. Primary or nonprimary sexual partner status was associated with significant differences in frequency of condom use during anal sex and oral–penile sex, with more frequent condom use reported during these sexual activities with non-primary sexual partners. Thus, potential contextual differences associated with primary or nonprimary relationship status may represent important factors to consider when designing interventions to facilitate HIV-protective behaviors among populations of urban women identified at increased heterosexual risk for HIV infection.
Dixon, Denise; Peters, Michael; Saul, Janet
OBJECTIVE: To describe nutritional status, body composition and lipid profile in children and adolescents receiving protease inhibitors. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients, 23 treated with protease inhibitors (group 1) and 36 not using protease inhibitors (group 2). Their dietary intake, anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis and lipid profile variables were measured. RESULTS: There was no difference in nutritional status or body composition between groups at the beginning of the study. After 6 months of follow-up, there was an increase in weight and height in both groups, as well as in waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. In group 2, body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness adequacy were significantly higher after 6 months of follow-up. The groups had similar energy and macronutrient intake at any time point. After 6 months, group 1 had a higher cholesterol intake and group 2 had a higher fiber intake. Triglyceride serum levels were significantly different between the groups, with higher values in G1, at any time point [G1: 153 mg/dl (30–344); 138 (58–378) versus G2: 76 mg/dl (29–378); 76 (29–378)]. After 6 months of follow-up, G1 had higher LDL-cholesterol than G2 [104 mg/dl (40–142) versus 82 (42–145)]. CONCLUSION: The use of protease inhibitors, per se, does not seem to significantly interfere with anthropometric measures, body composition and food intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents. However, this antiretroviral therapy was associated with a significant increase in triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in our subjects.
Contri, Patricia Vigano; Berchielli, Erica Miranda; Tremeschin, Marina Hjertquist; de Moura Negrini, Bento Vidal; Salomao, Roberta Garcia; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes
Interpersonal power gradients may prevent people implementing HIV prevention decisions. Among 7,464 youth aged 15-29 years in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland we documented indicators of choice-disability (low education, educational disparity with partner, experience of sexual violence, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), poverty, partner income disparity, willingness to have sex without a condom despite believing partner at risk of HIV), and risk behaviours like inconsistent use of condoms and multiple partners. In Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, 22.9, 9.1, and 26.1% women, and 8.3, 2.8, and 9.3% men, were HIV positive. Among both women and men, experience of IPV, IPV interacted with age, and partner income disparity interacted with age were associated with HIV positivity in multivariate analysis. Additional factors were low education (for women) and poverty (for men). Choice disability may be an important driver of the AIDS epidemic. New strategies are needed that favour the choice-disabled. PMID:21390539
Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne
Background Much research has shown an association between homelessness and unstable housing and HIV risk but most has relied on relatively narrow definitions of housing status that preclude a deeper understanding of this relationship. Fewer studies have examined access to housing subsidies and supportive housing programs among low-income populations with different personal characteristics. This paper explores personal characteristics associated with access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, the relationship between personal characteristics and housing status, and the relationship between housing status and sexual risk behaviors among low-income urban residents. Methods Surveys were conducted with 392 low-income residents from Hartford and East Harford, Connecticut through a targeted sampling plan. We measured personal characteristics (income, education, use of crack, heroin, or cocaine in the last 6 months, receipt of welfare benefits, mental illness diagnosis, arrest, criminal conviction, longest prison term served, and self-reported HIV diagnosis); access to housing subsidies or supportive housing programs; current housing status; and sexual risk behaviors. To answer the aims above, we performed univariate analyses using Chi-square or 2-sided ANOVA's. Those with significance levels above (0.10) were included in multivariate analyses. We performed 2 separate multiple regressions to determine the effects of personal characteristics on access to housing subsidies and access to supportive housing respectively. We used multinomial main effects logistic regression to determine the effects of housing status on sexual risk behavior. Results Being HIV positive or having a mental illness predicted access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, while having a criminal conviction was not related to access to either housing subsidies or supportive housing. Drug use was associated with poorer housing statuses such as living on the street or in a shelter, or temporarily doubling up with friends, acquaintances or sex partners. Living with friends, acquaintances or sex partners was associated with greater sexual risk than those living on the street or in other stable housing situations. Conclusions Results suggest that providing low-income and supportive housing may be an effective structural HIV prevention intervention, but that the availability and accessibility of these programs must be increased.
Objective: To describe infant mortality trends and associated factors among infants born to mothers enrolled in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program. Study Design: A nested case–control study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative pregnant women enrolled from the national PMTCT program at 36 weeks of gestation attending three peri-urban clinics in Zimbabwe offering maternal and child health care. Mother–infant pairs were followed up from delivery, and at 6 weeks, 4 months and 9 months. Results: A total of 1045 mother and singleton infant pairs, 474 HIV-positive and 571 HIV-negative mothers, delivered 469 and 569 live infants, respectively. Differences in mortality were at 6 weeks and 4 months, RR (95% CI) 9.71 (1.22 to 77.32) and 21.84 (2.93 to 162.98), respectively. Overall, 9-month mortality rates were 150 and 47 per 1000 person-years for infants born to HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers, respectively. Proportional hazard ratio of mortality for children born to HIV-positive mothers was 3.21 (1.91 to 5.38) when compared with that for children born to HIV-negative mothers. Conclusion: Maternal HIV exposure was associated with higher mortality in the first 4 months of life. Infant's HIV status was the strongest predictor of infant mortality. There is a need to screen infants for HIV from delivery and throughout breastfeeding.
Kurewa, E N; Gumbo, F Z; Munjoma, M W; Mapingure, M P; Chirenje, M Z; Rusakaniko, S; Stray-Pedersen, B
Objective: Our goal was to examine children's expressed emotions when they disclose maltreatment. Little scientific research exists on this topic, and yet children's emotional expressions at disclosure may inform psychological theory and play a crucial role in legal determinations. Method: One hundred and twenty-four videotaped forensic interviews…
Sayfan, Liat; Mitchell, Emilie B.; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian
As organizations come to rely on the collection and use of personal information in order to complete the transactions and providing good services to their users, more and more user personal information is being shared with web service providers leading to the need to protect the privacy. Personal information is processed, stored and disclosed and often it generated in the
NORJIHAN ABDUL GHANI; ZAILANI MOHAMED SIDEK
Summary One of the most consistent findings in social epidemiology is an inverse relationship between indicators of SES and most types of illness. However, a growing body of research on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suggests an intriguing reversal of this pattern, particularly with respect to HIV among women. In Cameroon, specifically, high-SES women have higher rates of HIV infection compared with low-SES women. Using data from the 2004 Cameroon DHS, this study explored the relationships between SES and HIV and tested a multivariate model designed to highlight the distinctive factors associated with increased risk of HIV among women in different SES classes. The results revealed that high-SES women who reported engaging in riskier sexual behaviour had the highest levels of HIV infection. Surprisingly, among this group increased knowledge of HIV, more domestic decision-making authority and access to health care did not reduce vulnerability. Meanwhile, among low-SES women relative gender inequality was significantly related to HIV risk. Specifically, among this group of women, having a partner with higher education was strongly associated with greater HIV risk. The results suggest that different approaches targeting each sub-group are needed to effectively combat the disease. PMID:24871428
Mumah, Joyce N; Jackson-Smith, Douglas
Encouraging HIV-positive people to disclose their serostatus to their main partner is considered as a key component of secondary prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify individual and structural factors associated with HIV serostatus disclosure to one's steady partner in Cameroon, a country which has implemented a large program for access to antiretroviral therapy. We used data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, ANRS 12-116 EVAL (Evaluation du programme camerounais d'accès aux traitements antirétroviraux--Impact sur la prise en charge et les conditions de vie de la population infectée par le VIH), conducted between 2006 and 2007 among HIV-infected outpatients attending health care facilities. Among the 1673 HIV-positive individuals reporting a steady partner at the time of the survey (61% women), 85.4% (n = 1429) had disclosed their serostatus to them; 77% of the respondents were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Multivariate analysis based on multilevel modeling approaches showed that the following individual factors were associated with disclosure: living with one's steady partner, living with children, reporting systematic condom use or sexual abstinence with one's steady partner, being a woman who is not the head of the household, and finally having HIV-infected people among friends or relatives and not living below the poverty line. Structural factors associated with disclosure were as follows: attending national health facilities in the country's capital cities Yaoundé or Douala and having access to psychosocial or economical support interventions. These results strengthen the argument for the introduction or development of psychosocial interventions at all levels of organization in Cameroonian hospitals as an important component of public health policies for those living with HIV. PMID:21857281
Suzan-Monti, Marie; Blanche, Jérôme; Bilé, Paule; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Marcellin, Fabienne; Boyer, Sylvie; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Spire, Bruno
HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis. We present data on the process of disclosure based on how participants recommended full disclosure be approached to HIV-positive and negative children. Participants recommended disclosure as a process starting at five years with full disclosure delivered at 10 years when the child was capable of understanding the illness, or by 14 years when the child was mature enough to receive the news if full disclosure had not been conducted earlier. Important considerations at the time of full disclosure included the parent’s and/or child’s health statuses, number of infected family members’ illnesses to be disclosed to the child, child’s maturity and understanding level, and the person best suited to deliver full disclosure to the child. The results also revealed it was important to address important life events such as taking a national school examination during disclosure planning and delivery. Recommendations are made for inclusion into HIV disclosure guidelines, manuals, and programs in resource-poor nations with high HIV prevalence.
Burkholder, Gary J.; Ferraro, Aimee
Disclosure experience to partner and its effect on intention to utilize prevention of mother to child transmission service among HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background Disclosure of HIV status has become an entry criterion for prevention of mother to child transmission programs in resource-constrained countries. However, little has been explored about the prevalence of, barriers to, outcomes and factors associated with HIV status disclosure among HIV positive pregnant women in Ethiopia. Method Cross- sectional study was conducted among 107 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care in public centers from April to June 2011 in Addis Ababa capital city of Ethiopia. Data was collected using interviewer administered pretested structured questionnaire and entered and was analyzed using SPSS- 15 version. Results presented in tables. Result Seventy three percent of women had disclosed their HIV status to their partner. Discussion about testing and a smooth relationship with the partner were independently associated with their disclosure. Women who disclosed to their partners were almost five times more likely to participate in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission programs than their counterparts (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI 1.24-18.14). Conclusions Although most participants disclosed their HIV sero-positive status, lack of disclosure by some women might result in a limited ability to participate in PMTCT programs. Thus, assertiveness and improved communication skills training should be offered to HIV positive pregnant mothers and be reinforced during on-going counseling.
It is estimated that 1.2 million Americans are infected with HIV. With advances in treatment and improved survival, HIV-positive patients are increasingly reaching an age when prostate cancer becomes a health issue. While there have been some reports in the literature reporting lower incidence of prostate cancer in HIV population cohorts, these studies have focused on younger populations, where we expect a lower incidence of prostate cancer. Our study involves patients over a 5.5 year period from a busy referral Veterans Medical Center referred to our urology clinic with either elevated PSA or abnormal DRE. Of these patients referred to our clinic, there is a markedly higher rate of prostate cancer in HIV patients when compared to our HIV-negative or HIV-unknown population. Though one may surmise a referral bias, in our highly regulated system, we use identical referral criterion for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Though this is a study with admittedly limited numbers, we believe this report is important because it is one of the first studies to address prostate cancer in a older cohort of patients who are referred because of suspicion for prostate cancer. PMID:19219374
Hsiao, Wayland; Anastasia, Katrina; Hall, John; Goodman, Michael; Rimland, David; Ritenour, Chad W M; Issa, Muta M
We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…
Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the most important problems in public health. It is estimated that 3 3 million people are infected around the world. HIV and GBV-C share the same transmission route, being frequent the co-infection. Since both viruses replicate in CD4+ lymphocytes, recent studies have described an interaction. Decreasing of HIV viral load and higher CD4 counts have been observed in co-infected patients, leading a better clinical outcome. Nevertheless, some epidemiological studies have shown contradictory results. Additionally, in vitro models report inhibition of HIV by E1, E2, NS3 and NS5A GBV-C proteins, resulting in a decreasing of p24 antigen. This review summarizes the principal findings about co-infection and mechanisms that have been proposed for HIV-1 inhibition. PMID:23450407
Arroyave, Johanna C; Pujol, Flor H; Navas, María C; Cortés-Mancera, Fabián M
As the HIV epidemic evolves, researchers are devoting increased attention to the infection's effect on various life-course activities, including marriage and reproduction. The impact of HIV on decisions about childbearing is particularly important, given the role that vertical transmission plays in the persistence of the epidemic. Previous studies on HIV and fertility intentions have yielded inconsistent results. This article expands on prior research by taking into account preferred timing of childbearing. Using data from a population-based survey in rural Mozambique, we show that higher perceived risk of HIV is associated with greater likelihood of both wanting to speed up childbearing and wanting to stop having children. The "now or never" approach to childbearing is shown to be consistent with the widely held belief that HIV infection is incompatible with childbearing in the long term. PMID:23185862
Hayford, Sarah R; Agadjanian, Victor; Luz, Luciana
The purpose of this study was to assess the relative importance and interactive effects of drug use status (i.e. injection or non-injection drug user) and condom use with casual partners in predicting perceived risk of contracting HIV among drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Baseline data was used from the longitudinal NEURO-HIV Epidemiological Study. This battery of questionnaires assessed a variety
Mary M. Mitchell; William W. Latimer
This study examined the association between socio-demographic factors (educational level and employment status) and the nutritional and immune status of 35 HIV-positive/AIDS patients at baseline. Assessment of selected macro-and micronutrient dietary intake was done using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Evaluation of anthropometric profiles (body mass index, waist-hip ratio and percentage of body fat) was also evaluated. A questionnaire was applied to obtain information on the educational level and employment status of the patients. The CD4+ T-cell counts and viral loads of the same patients were determined using the flow cytometry and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method respectively. An association between educational level and dietary intake was significant (p < 0.05) for total dietary fibre, selenium and vitamin C. There was no significant (p > 0.05) association between the two socio-demographic variables (education and employment) and anthropometric profiles. The association between education, employment and CD4+ T-cell count was not significant (p > 0.05). The viral load showed a significant (p < 0.05) association with employment status but not correlated with education. The sample size or certain inherent biological and social factors probably affected the outcomes of the interplay between the two selected socio-demographic factors and the nutritional and immune status. It is suggested that the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended. PMID:19093467
Oguntibeju, O O; van den Heever, W M J; Van Schalkwyk, F E
Background Home-use HIV tests have the potential to increase testing and may be used by sex partners to inform sexual decision-making. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an individual diagnosed with HIV using a home-use test with a sex partner. Case presentation We are conducting a randomized controlled trial of home self-testing for HIV using the OraQuick ADVANCE® HIV-1/2 Antibody Test on oral fluids. In 2011, a 27-year-old, homeless, Latino man who has sex with men not enrolled in the trial (the case) reported receiving a reactive result from a diverted study kit. When interviewed by study staff, the case reported that, 11?months prior, he had unprotected anal sex with a trial subject without discussing HIV status. Afterwards, the subject asked the case if he would like to test, performed the test, and disclosed the reactive result. The case reported altering his behavior to decrease the risk of HIV transmission to subsequent partners and sought care two months later. Conclusions This case demonstrates that home-use HIV tests will be used by sex partners to learn and disclose HIV status and inform sexual decision-making. It also highlights concerns regarding the absence of counseling and the potential for delayed entry into HIV care. Additional research must be done to determine under what circumstances home-use tests can be used to increase awareness of HIV status, how they impact linkage to care among persons newly diagnosed with HIV, and whether they can be safely used to increase the accuracy of serosorting.
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal disease in Asia with an estimated 140,000 new infections annually the majority of which occurs in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A) is the major causative agent of this disease. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using the ISHAM MLST consensus scheme for the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex was used to analyse nucleotide polymorphisms among 476 isolates of this pathogen obtained from 8 Asian countries. Population genetic analysis showed that the Asian C. neoformans var. grubii population shows limited genetic diversity and demonstrates a largely clonal mode of reproduction when compared with the global MLST dataset. HIV-status, sequence types and geography were found to be confounded. However, a correlation between sequence types and isolates from HIV-negative patients was observed among the Asian isolates. Observations of high gene flow between the Middle Eastern and the Southeastern Asian populations suggest that immigrant workers in the Middle East were originally infected in Southeastern Asia.
Simwami, Sitali; Fisher, Matthew C.; Wahyuningsih, Retno; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Ikeda, Reiko; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Khan, Ziauddin; Ip, Margaret; Imran, Darma; Sjam, Ridhawati; Sriburee, Pojana; Liao, Wanqing; Chaicumpar, Kunyaluk; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Meyer, Wieland; Trilles, Luciana; van Iersel, Leo J. J.; Meis, Jacques F.; Klaassen, Corne H. W.; Boekhout, Teun
The authors examined associations between psychosocial variables (coping self-efficacy, social support, and cognitive depression) and subjective health status among a large national sample (N = 3,670) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with different sexual identities. After controlling for ethnicity, heterosexual men reported fewer symptoms than did either bisexual or gay men and heterosexual women reported fewer symptoms than did bisexual women. Heterosexual and bisexual women reported greater symptom intrusiveness than did heterosexual or gay men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression independently explained symptom reports and symptom intrusiveness for heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression explained symptom intrusiveness among heterosexual women. Cognitive depression significantly contributed to the number of symptom reports for heterosexual and bisexual women and to symptom intrusiveness for lesbian and bisexual women. Individuals likely experience HIV differently on the basis of sociocultural realities associated with sexual identity. Further, symptom intrusiveness may be a more sensitive measure of subjective health status for these groups.
Mosack, Katie E.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Remien, Robert H.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Morin, Stephen F.
Maternal HIV-1 status and antiretroviral drug exposure may influence the haematological profiles of infants. We recruited infants from 118 uninfected control women and from 483 HIV-1 infected women who received no antiretroviral drugs (n=28), or received single-dose Nevirapine (sdNVP) (n=424) or triple-drug combination therapy (n=31) to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Blood was drawn from infants within 24 hours of delivery or 6-12 weeks post-delivery and full blood counts performed using a fully automated AcT-5-diff haematology analyser and reference controls. Exposed uninfected (EU; no NVP) differed from control infants only in having lower basophil counts and percentages. In all infant groups, leukocyte profiles showed characteristic quantitative changes with age in the first 6 weeks of life. HIV-1 infected infants displayed by 6 weeks elevations in white blood cells, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil counts, and monocyte and basophil percentages, when compared to EU infants. At birth EU NVP-treated infants exhibited elevated monocyte percentages and counts and basophil counts that did not persist at 6 weeks. Interestingly, EU newborns of mothers with high CD4 counts (> 500 cells/?l) that had taken sdNVP had significantly elevated white blood cell, monocyte and basophil counts when compared to newborn infants of mothers with similar CD4 counts that had not taken sdNVP; this was not evident in infants of mothers with CD4 counts <200 cells/?l. These previously undescribed features may affect immune response capability in early life and clinical consequences of such changes need to be further investigated.
Schramm, Diana B; Anthony, Fiona; Mathebula, Busani; Sherman, Gayle; Coovadia, Ashraf; Gray, Glenda E; Kuhn, Louise; Tiemessen, Caroline T
Background Stigma shapes the lives of people living with HIV and may affect their willingness to seek medical care. But treatment delays can compromise health and increase the risk of transmission to others. Purpose To examine whether four stigma manifestations—enacted (discrimination), vicarious (hearing stories of discrimination), felt normative (perceptions of stigma’s prevalence) and internalized (personal endorsement of stigma beliefs)—were linked with delays in seeking care among HIV-infected people in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 961 HIV-positive men and women in Mumbai and Bengaluru. Results Enacted and internalized stigmas were correlated with delays in seeking care after testing HIV-positive. Depression symptoms mediated the associations of enacted and internalized stigmas with care seeking delays, whereas efforts to avoiding disclosing HIV status mediated only the association between internalized stigma and care seeking delays. Conclusions It is vital to develop stigma reduction interventions to ensure timely receipt of care.
Steward, Wayne T.; Bharat, Shalini; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Heylen, Elsa; Ekstrand, Maria L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of food as an instrument in expressing and experiencing HIV/AIDS stigma by HIV-positive women and their families, with the goal of reducing discrimination. It goes beyond willingness to share utensils, which has been identified in HIV/AIDS research. As part of an ongoing capacity-building HIV/AIDS stigma project in South Africa, 25 focus groups and 15 key informant interviews were conducted among 195 women and 54 men in three Black communities. Participants were asked to discuss how they were treated in the family as women living with HIV and AIDS, and data was organized using the PEN-3 model. Findings highlight both the positive and negative experiences HIV-positive women encounter. Women would not disclose their HIV status to avoid being isolated from participating in the socio-cultural aspects of food preparation, while others that have disclosed their status have experienced alienation. The symbolic meanings of food should be a major consideration when addressing the elimination of HIV/AIDS stigma in South Africa.
OKOROR, T. A.; AIRHIHENBUWA, C. O.; ZUNGU, M.; MAKOFANI, D.; BROWN, D. C.; IWELUNMOR, J.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been spreading rapidly in the developing countries and vertical transmission also taking place. This study has been done to find out the prevalence of HIV infection among the pregnant women, so that necessity of routine screening test can be identified. It is a cross sectional study. Five hundred two pregnant women were included. Three ml venous blood was taken and then HIV screening test was done by ELISA method. All reactive tests were confirmed by Western blot antibody testing. The positive cases were followed up and necessary treatment was given. Delivery was conducted in this hospital. Baby's blood was tested to see vertical transmission after 18 months. Most of the subject were educated housewife, mean age was 25 years. Six (6%) husband was overseas service holder, 12% were smoker and 1.6% had drug addiction. Eight (8%) subject had previous history of blood transfusion and 49% subject or her husband had history of surgery or got parental therapy. 2% subject gave the history of familial disharmony and 2% had multiple sex partners. HIV infection was found in 2 patients (0.4%). Both of them got infection from their husband. One husband was over seas service holder and another one was injecting drug user. For the prevention of spread, reduction of vertical transmission and providing early management to the positive patient all pregnant women should be screened for HIV routinely. PMID:21240164
Khanam, N N; Hussain, M A; Ferdous, J; Kulsum, S U; Alam, H; Chakma, B; Zabin, F
Objective: This study investigated the effect of soybean supplementation on the nutritional status of school children from HIV affected households in western Kenya. Methodology and Results: A research design was used with 54 and 56 randomly selected subjects in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group received corn-soy blend porridge for three months at school. A structured questionnaire
Joyce Kamau; Omo Ohiokpehai; Dorcus Mbithe; Judith Kimiywe; Lawrence Oteba
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV co-infected population. Interferon-alpha (IFN-?) remains a major component of anti-HCV therapy despite its deleterious effects on the immune system. Furthermore, IFN-? was recently shown to diminish the size of the latent HIV reservoir. The objectives of this study were to monitor the impact of IFN-? on T cell phenotype and proliferation of HIV and HCV-specific T cells during IFN therapy, and to identify immune markers that can predict the response to IFN in HICV/HIV co-infected patients. We performed longitudinal analyses of T cell numbers, phenotype and function in co-infected patients undergoing IFN-? therapy with different outcomes including IFN-? non-responders (NR) (n?=?9) and patients who achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) (n?=?19). We examined the expression of activation (CD38, HLA-DR), functional (CD127) and exhaustion markers (PD1, Tim-3, CD160 and CD244) on total CD4 and CD8 T cells before, during and after therapy. In addition, we examined the HIV- and HCV-specific proliferative responses against HIV-p24 and HCV-NS3 proteins. Frequencies of CD127+ CD4 T cells were higher in SVR than in NR patients at baseline. An increase in CD127 expression on CD8 T cells was observed after IFN-? therapy in all patients. In addition, CD8 T cells from NR patients expressed a higher exhaustion status at baseline. Finally, SVR patients exhibited higher proliferative response against both HIV and HCV antigens at baseline. Altogether, SVR correlated with higher expression of CD127, lower T cell exhaustion status and better HIV and HCV proliferative responses at baseline. Such factors might be used as non-invasive methods to predict the success of IFN–based therapies in co-infected individuals.
Kared, Hassen; Saeed, Sahar; Klein, Marina B.; Shoukry, Naglaa H.
Given the implications for smoking among HIV-positive individuals and high smoking and HIV rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, we examined sociodemographic, smoking-related, psychosocial, and substance use factors in relation to HIV status; receiving some sort of healthcare provider intervention regarding smoking; and having made a quit attempt in the past year in a sample of MSM smokers in Chengdu. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 381 MSM smokers recruited by a nongovernmental organization in Chengdu in 2012-2013. Of these, 350 disclosed their HIV status and 344 (188 HIV-positive and 156 HIV-negative) provided completed data. Half (50.0%) reported at least one quit attempt in their lifetime; 30.5% reported a quit attempt in the past year. The majority (59.4%) reported that a healthcare provider had intervened in some way (assessed smoking, advised quitting, provided assistance), most commonly by assessing smoking status (50.0%). HIV-positive individuals were more likely to report a healthcare provider intervening on their smoking (p < .001). Those who received provider intervention were more likely to have attempted to quit ever (p = .009) and in the past year (p < .001). Those HIV-positive were more likely to have attempted to quit since diagnosis if a provider had intervened (p = .001). Multivariate regression documented that being HIV-positive (p < .001), greater cigarette consumption (p = .02), less frequent drinking (p = .03), and greater depressive symptoms (p = .003) were significant correlates of healthcare provider intervention. Multivariate regression also found that healthcare provider intervention (p = .003), older age (p = .01), and higher autonomous motivation (p = .007) were significant correlates of attempting to quit in the past year. Given the impact of healthcare provider intervention regarding smoking on quit attempts among MSM, greater training and support is needed to promote consistent intervention on smoking in the clinical setting among HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM smokers. PMID:24601710
Berg, Carla J; Nehl, Eric J; Wang, Xiaodong; Ding, Yingying; He, Na; Johnson, Brent A; Wong, Frank Y
Timely treatment of HIV infection is a public health priority, yet many HIV-positive persons delay treatment initiation. We conducted a community-based study comparing HIV-positive persons who received an HIV diagnosis at least 3 months ago but had not initiated care (n=100) with a reference population of HIV-positive persons currently in care (n=115) to identify potential barriers to treatment initiation. Study participants were mostly male (78.0%), and persons of color (54.9% Latino, 26.3% black), with median age 37.8 years. Median time since HIV diagnosis was 3.7 years. Univariate analysis revealed that those never in care differed substantially from those currently in care with regard to sociodemographics; HIV testing and counseling experiences; perceived barriers to care; and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding HIV. Factors independently associated with never initiating HIV care were younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 0.99), shorter time since diagnosis (AOR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98), lacking insurance (AOR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.35), not knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (AOR=0.09; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.30) not disclosing HIV status (AOR=0.13; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.70), not receiving help making an HIV care appointment after diagnosis (AOR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14), and not wanting to think about being HIV positive (AOR=3.57; 95% CI: 1.22, 10.46). Our findings suggest that isolation and stigma remain significant barriers to initiating HIV care in populations consisting primarily of persons of color, and that direct linkages to HIV care at the time of diagnosis are critical to promoting timely care initiation in these populations. PMID:21955175
Pollini, Robin A; Blanco, Estela; Crump, Carol; Zúñiga, María Luisa
ObjectivePhase angle ? can be easily obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis. In the literature, this angle is the single best predictor of survival in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of our study was to detect nutritional and biochemical parameters that influence the phase angle.
Daniel A. de Luis; Rocio Aller; Pablo Bachiller; M. Gonzalez Sagrado; Javier Martin; Olatz Izaola
Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…
Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.
...Disclosing other information. Use these guidelines to decide whether to release information: (a) Would the subject have a reasonable expectation of privacy in the information requested? (b) Would disclosing the information benefit the general...
Background In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. Methods An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items), basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items), and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item). The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. Results In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01) and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01). Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. Conclusion Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.
Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R.
Does knowledge about antiretroviral therapy and mother-to-child transmission affect the relationships between hiv status and fertility preferences and contraceptive use? New evidence from Nigeria and zambia.
Summary The increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and drug regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has probably changed the context of childbearing for people living with HIV. Using data from 2009-2010 community-based surveys in Nigeria and Zambia, this study explores whether women's knowledge about ART and PMTCT influences the relationship between HIV status and fertility preferences and contraceptive behaviour. The findings show that women living with HIV are more likely to want more children in Nigeria and to want to limit childbearing in Zambia compared with HIV-negative women. While there is no significant difference in contraceptive use by women's HIV status in the two countries, women who did not know their HIV status are less likely to use contraceptives relative to women who are HIV-negative. Knowledge about ART reduces the childbearing desires of HIV-positive women in Nigeria and knowledge about PMTCT increases desire for more children among HIV-positive women in Zambia, as well as contraceptive use among women who do not know their HIV status. The findings indicate that knowledge about HIV prevention and treatment services changes how living with HIV affects childbearing desires and, at least in Zambia, pregnancy prevention, and highlight the importance of access to accurate knowledge about ART and PMTCT services to assist women and men to make informed childbearing decisions. Knowledge about ART and PMTCT should be promoted not only through HIV treatment and maternal and newborn care facilities but also through family planning centres and the mass media. PMID:24331375
Bankole, Akinrinola; Biddlecom, Ann E; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Akinyemi, Joshua O; Awolude, Olutosin; Adewole, Isaac F
Living with HIV, for many of those infected, has meant adjusting to life with a stigmatised condition and, until recently, the threat of looming death. We explore the adjustment of a group of long-term former clients of The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) in Uganda who, when tested for HIV during the rollout of antiretroviral therapy in 2004, were found to be HIV negative. In-depth semi-structured interviews with 34 former TASO clients were conducted between 2005 and 2007. Their narratives reveal a great deal about the biographical disruption they have faced, and the biographical work that they have undertaken in both the personal and the social dimensions of their lives in order to manage their new-found HIV-uninfected status. After the negative test result, as they were no longer HIV-infected, they had to leave TASO and that support was sorely missed, as was the friendship of TASO members to whom they often felt reluctant to disclose their new status. The identity 'reversal' or change was often handled privately. Compared with their transition to an HIV-positive identity, they now lacked a social dimension to their identity transformation as they managed their new identity in the face of self- and public doubt. PMID:21707665
Seeley, Janet; Mbonye, Martin; Ogunde, Nelly; Kalanzi, Isaiah; Wolff, Brent; Coutinho, Alex
Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW) and derive fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Methods/Design This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396.
Chronic HIV-1 infection is characterized by immune cell dysfunctions driven by chronic immune activation. Plasma HIV-1 viral load (VL) is closely correlated with disease progression and the level of immune activation. However, the mechanism by which the persistent presence of HIV-1 damages immune cells is still not fully understood. To evaluate how HIV-1 affects disruption of T cell-mediated immune responses during chronic HIV-1 infection we determined the functional profiles of T cells from subjects with chronic HIV-1 infection. We measured the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce 25 specific cytokines in response to nonspecific T cell stimulation, and found that the capacity to produce Th-1-related cytokines (MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES, IFN-?, and MIG), sIL-2R, and IL-17, but not Th-2-related cytokines, was inversely correlated with plasma VL. The capacities to produce these cytokines were interrelated; notably, IL-17 production had a strong direct correlation with production of MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES, and IFN-?. In both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, dysfunctional production of cytokines was associated with T cell activation (CD38 expression) and exhaustion (PD-1 and/or CTLA-4 expression) status of memory subsets. Although the capacity to produce these cytokines was recovered soon after multiple log(10) reduction of plasma viral levels by antiretroviral therapy, memory CD8(+) T cells remained activated and exhausted after prolonged virus suppression. Our data suggest that HIV-1 levels directly affect the ability of memory T cells to produce specifically Th1- and Th17-related cytokines during chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:21902582
Nakayama, Kaori; Nakamura, Hitomi; Koga, Michiko; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Fujii, Takeshi; Miura, Toshiyuki; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai
We interviewed 33 HIV-infected parents from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), 27 of their minor children, 19 adult children, and 15 caregivers about the process of children learning that their parents were HIV positive. We summarize the retrospective descriptions of parents' disclosure of their HIV status to their children, from the perspective of multiple family members. We analyzed transcripts of these interviews with systematic qualitative methods. Both parents and children reported unplanned disclosure experiences with positive and negative outcomes. Parents sometimes reported that disclosure was not as negative as they feared. However, within-household analysis showed disagreement between parents and children from the same household regarding disclosure outcomes. These findings suggest that disclosure should be addressed within a family context to facilitate communication and children's coping. Parents should consider negative and positive outcomes, unplanned disclosure and children's capacity to adapt after disclosure when deciding whether to disclose. PMID:20509046
Kennedy, David P; Cowgill, Burton O; Bogart, Laura M; Corona, Rosalie; Ryan, Gery W; Murphy, Debra A; Nguyen, Theresa; Schuster, Mark A
We interviewed 33 HIV-infected parents from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), 27 of their minor children, 19 adult children, and 15 caregivers about the process of children learning that their parents were HIV positive. We summarize the retrospective descriptions of parents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their children, from the perspective of multiple family members. We analyzed transcripts of these interviews with systematic qualitative methods. Both parents and children reported unplanned disclosure experiences with positive and negative outcomes. Parents sometimes reported that disclosure was not as negative as they feared. However, within-household analysis showed disagreement between parents and children from the same household regarding disclosure outcomes. These findings suggest that disclosure should be addressed within a family context to facilitate communication and children’s coping. Parents should consider negative and positive outcomes, unplanned disclosure and children’s capacity to adapt after disclosure when deciding whether to disclose.
Cowgill, Burton O.; Bogart, Laura M.; Corona, Rosalie; Ryan, Gery W.; Murphy, Debra A.; Nguyen, Theresa; Schuster, Mark A.
BackgroundWe analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007.MethodsKAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15–64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with
Peter Cherutich; Reinhard Kaiser; Jennifer Galbraith; John Williamson; Ray W. Shiraishi; Carol Ngare; Jonathan Mermin; Elizabeth Marum; Rebecca Bunnell
Increasingly parents living with HIV will have to confront the dilemmas of concealing their lifelong treatment or disclosing to their children exposed to their daily treatment practices. However, limited data are available regarding parental HIV disclosure to children in Burkina Faso. Do parents on antiretroviral therapy disclose their HIV status to their children? What drives them? How do they proceed and how do children respond? We conducted in-depth interviews with 63 parents of children aged seven and above where the parents had been in treatment for more than 3 years in two major cities of Burkina Faso. Interviews addressed parental disclosure and the children's role in their parents' treatment. The rate of parental HIV status disclosure is as high as that of non-disclosure. Factors associated with parental disclosure include female sex, parent's older age, parent's marital history and number of children. After adjustment, it appears that the only factor remaining associated with parental disclosure was the female gender of the parent. In most of the cases, children suspected, and among non-disclosers many believed their children already knew without formal disclosure. Age of the children and history of divorce or widowhood were associated with parental disclosure. Most parents believed children do not have the necessary emotional skills to understand or that they cannot keep a secret. However, parents who disclosed to their children did not experience blame nor was their secret revealed. Rather, children became treatment supporters. Challenges to parental HIV disclosure to children are neither essential nor specific since disclosure to adults is already difficult because of perceived risk of public disclosure and subsequent stigma. However, whether aware or not of their parents' HIV-positive status, children contribute positively to the care of parents living with HIV. Perceptions about children's vulnerability and will to protect them against stigma lead parents to delay disclosure and not to overwhelm them with their experience of living with HIV. Finally, without institutional counselling support, disclosure to children remains a challenge for both parents and children, which suggests a need for rethinking of current counselling practices. PMID:23808393
Tiendrebeogo, Georges; Hejoaka, Fabienne; Belem, Edwige Mireille; Compaoré, Pascal Louis Germain; Wolmarans, Liezel; Soubeiga, André; Ouangraoua, Nathalie
The success of combination antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has resulted in prolonged life expectancy (over 40 years from diagnosis) and an improved quality of life for people living with HIV. The risk of vertical HIV transmission during pregnancy has been reduced to less than 1%. As a result of these breakthroughs and as many of these individuals are of reproductive age, fertility issues are becoming increasingly important for this population. One population in which conception planning and reduction of horizontal HIV transmission warrants further research is HIV-discordant couples where the male partner is HIV-positive and the female partner is HIV-negative. Sperm washing is a technique carried out in a fertility clinic that separates HIV from the seminal fluid. Although sperm washing followed by intrauterine insemination significantly reduces the risk of horizontal HIV transmission, there has been limited access to the procedure in North America. Furthermore, little is known about the conception decision-making experiences of HIV-discordant couples who might benefit from sperm washing. Chart reviews and semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 HIV-discordant couples in Ontario, Canada. Couples were recruited through HIV clinics and one fertility clinic that offered sperm washing. Participants identified a number of factors that affected their decision-making around pregnancy planning. Access to sperm washing and other fertility services was an issue (cost, travel and few clinics). Participants identified a lack of information on the procedure (availability, safety). Sources of support (social networks, healthcare providers) were unevenly distributed, especially among those who did not disclose their HIV status to friends and family. Finally, the stigmatisation of HIV continues to have a negative affect on HIV-discordant couples and their intentions to conceive. Access to sperm washing and fertility service is significantly limited for this population and is accompanied with a number of challenges.
Newmeyer, Trent; Tecimer, Sandy N.; Jaworsky, Denise; Chihrin, Steven; Gough, Kevin; Rachlis, Anita; Martin, James; Mohammed, Saira; Loutfy, Mona R.
The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Sexual Violence group assessed the level of confidence of Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) trainees in managing patients disclosing sexual violence using an online survey. Twenty-eight percent of current UK GUM trainees responded. The results demonstrated wide variation in trainees' experience and confidence in managing these patients, which was dependent on the patient type, as well as the gender of the trainee and the number of years' experience the trainee had in the specialty. There were also differences in the reported availability of training in this specialist area. Regular accessible training in identification and management of patients disclosing sexual violence is recommended for GUM trainees. PMID:24100285
Sacks, Rachel; Emerson, Carol
This study evaluates associations between internalized homonegativity and demographic factors, drug use behaviors, sexual\\u000a risk behaviors, and HIV status among men who have sex with men (MSM) and with men and women (MSM\\/W). Participants were recruited\\u000a in Los Angeles County using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and completed the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory (IHNI)\\u000a and questionnaires on demographic and behavioral factors. Biological samples
Steven Shoptaw; Robert E. Weiss; Brett Munjas; Christopher Hucks-Ortiz; Sean D. Young; Sherry Larkins; Gregory D. Victorianne; Pamina M. Gorbach
This study investigated protective effects of circumcision in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). A survey in Portuguese, Spanish, or English was administered with computer-assisted self-interview technology with audio enhancement (A-CASI) to 482 MSM from Brazil (n=146), Colombia (n=169), and the Dominican Republic (n=167), living in the New York metropolitan area. Logistic regression revealed that after controlling for age, income, education, having had syphilis, having done sex work, and preferring the receptive role in anal intercourse, uncircumcised men were almost twice as likely to be HIV-positive as circumcised men. Follow-up analyses revealed, however, that the protective effects occurred only among the group of Colombian men. PMID:19002268
Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J; Bianchi, Fernanda T
People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This report examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. A total of 43 focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWH, and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as observed in HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. A total of 17 different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one's HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma. PMID:18328964
Makoae, Lucia N; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D; Uys, Leana R; Naidoo, Joanne R; Kohi, Thecla W; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Chirwa, Maureen L; Holzemer, William L
Food insecurity (FI) is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior in some studies. However, the overlap between FI and socioeconomic status (SES) has been poorly described. The study objectives were to: (1) determine the relationship between household FI and four dimensions of SES among sexually active Tanzanian women in farming households: expenditures, assets, flooring material of the home, and land ownership; and (2) determine whether FI is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior and relationship power. In male-headed households, FI was associated with assets, flooring material, and land ownership but not expenditures. There was no association between FI and the four dimensions of SES in female-headed households. Among women in male-headed households, but not female household heads themselves, severe FI was associated with a non-significant increase in the likelihood of being in a relationship because of material goods [adjusted prevalence ratio (PRa) = 1.76, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.81, 3.81] and was inversely associated with being able to ask partners to use condoms (PRa = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.25, 0.88). There was not a strong association between food security and relationship power. Our findings suggest that the association between FI and HIV risk behavior may differ depending on the type of household. PMID:24097335
McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Njau, Prosper F; Msolla, Mbette Mshindo; Padian, Nancy S
Nondisclosure of one’s HIV infection to sexual partners obviates safer sex negotiations and thus jeopardizes HIV transmission prevention. The role of alcohol use in the disclosure decision process is largely unexplored. This study assessed the association between alcohol use and recent nondisclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners by HIV-infected risky drinkers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Approximately half (317/605; 52.4 %) reported not having disclosed their HIV serostatus to all partners since awareness of infection. Using three separate GEE logistic regression models, we found no significant association between alcohol dependence, risky alcohol use (past 30 days), or alcohol use at time of sex (past 30 days) with recent (past 3 months) nondisclosure (AOR [95 %CI] 0.81 [0.55, 1.20], 1.31 [0.79, 2.17], 0.75 [0.54, 1.05], respectively). Alcohol use at time of sex was associated with decreased odds of recent nondisclosure among seroconcordant partners and among casual partners. Factors associated with nondisclosure were relationship with a casual partner, a serodiscordant partner, multiple sex partners, awareness of HIV diagnosis less than 1 year, and a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Nondisclosure of HIV status to sex partners is common among HIV-infected Russians, however alcohol does not appear to be a predictor of recent disclosure.
Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Raj, Anita; Walley, Alexander Y.; Bridden, Carly; Chaisson, Christine; Lioznov, Dmitry; Blokhina, Elena; Samet, Jeffrey H.
Nondisclosure of one's HIV infection to sexual partners obviates safer sex negotiations and thus jeopardizes HIV transmission prevention. The role of alcohol use in the disclosure decision process is largely unexplored. This study assessed the association between alcohol use and recent nondisclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners by HIV-infected risky drinkers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Approximately half (317/605; 52.4 %) reported not having disclosed their HIV serostatus to all partners since awareness of infection. Using three separate GEE logistic regression models, we found no significant association between alcohol dependence, risky alcohol use (past 30 days), or alcohol use at time of sex (past 30 days) with recent (past 3 months) nondisclosure (AOR [95 % CI] 0.81 [0.55, 1.20], 1.31 [0.79, 2.17], 0.75 [0.54, 1.05], respectively). Alcohol use at time of sex was associated with decreased odds of recent nondisclosure among seroconcordant partners and among casual partners. Factors associated with nondisclosure were relationship with a casual partner, a serodiscordant partner, multiple sex partners, awareness of HIV diagnosis less than 1 year, and a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Nondisclosure of HIV status to sex partners is common among HIV-infected Russians, however alcohol does not appear to be a predictor of recent disclosure. PMID:22677972
Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Raj, Anita; Walley, Alexander Y; Bridden, Carly; Chaisson, Christine; Lioznov, Dmitry; Blokhina, Elena; Samet, Jeffrey H
Stigma profoundly affects the lives of people with HIV/AIDS. Fear of being identified as having HIV or AIDS may discourage a person from getting tested, from accessing medical services and medications, and from disclosing their HIV status to family and friends. In the present study, we use focus groups to identify the most salient domains of stigma and the coping strategies that may be common to a group of diverse, low-income women and men living with HIV in Los Angeles, CA (n = 48). We also explore the impact of stigma on health and healthcare among HIV positive persons in our sample. Results indicate that the most salient domains of stigma include: blame and stereotypes of HIV, fear of contagion, disclosure of a stigmatized role, and renegotiating social contracts. We use the analysis to develop a framework where stigma is viewed as a social process composed of the struggle for both internal change (self-acceptance) and reintegration into the community. We discuss implications of HIV-related stigma for the mental and physical health of HIV-positive women and men and suggestions for possible interventions to address stigma in the healthcare setting. PMID:17786561
Sayles, Jennifer N; Ryan, Gery W; Silver, Junell S; Sarkisian, Catherine A; Cunningham, William E
Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients.
Torres, Montserrat; Gonzalez, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Fortunez, Patricia; Masia, Mar; Blanco, Jose Ramon; Portilla, Joaquin; Rodriguez, Carmen; Hernandez-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia
Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501
Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia; Ortiz, Marta
Disclosure of HIV serostatus to sexual partners supports risk reduction and facilitates access to prevention and care services for people living with HIV/AIDS. To assess health and social predictors of disclosure as well as to explore and describe the process, experiences and outcomes related to disclosure of HIV-infected men and women in Eastern Uganda, we conducted a study among HIV-infected men and women who were clients of The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Jinja, Uganda. We enrolled TASO clients in a cross-sectional study on transmission risk behavior. Demographic and behavioral data and CD4 cell count measurements were collected. Among 1,092 participants, 42% were currently sexually active and 69% had disclosed their HIV serostatus to their most recent sexual partner. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that disclosure of HIV-status was associated with being married, having attended TASO for more than 2 years, increased condom use, and knowledge of partner's serostatus. From these clients, 45 men and women were purposefully selected and interviewed in-depth on disclosure issues. Positive outcomes included risk reduction behavior, partner testing, increased care-seeking behavior, anxiety relief, increased sexual communication, and motivation to plan for the future. PMID:17828450
King, Rachel; Katuntu, David; Lifshay, Julie; Packel, Laura; Batamwita, Richard; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Abang, Betty; Babirye, Frances; Lindkvist, Pille; Johansson, Eva; Mermin, Jonathan; Bunnell, Rebecca
This study examines the effects of sex upon the perception, evaluation and reciprocation of self-disclosing behavior. Subjects were 68 Rutgers University undergraduates who responded to a written statement attributed to either a male or female. The statements varied according to level of intimacy; some disclosed intimate information, while others…
Woolfolk, Anita E.; Meyers, Linda
The development and application of biomarkers to neurodegenerative diseases has become increasingly important in clinical practice and therapeutic trials. While substantial progress has been made at the basic science level in understanding the pathophysiology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), there are significant limitations in our current ability to predict the onset or trajectory of disease, and to accurately determine the effects of therapeutic interventions. Thus, the development of objective biomarkers is critical to further our understanding and treatment of HAND. In recent years, biomarker discovery efforts have largely been driven forward through the implementation of multiple "omics" approaches that include (but are not restricted to): Lipidomics, proteomics, metabolomics, genomics, transcriptomics, and advances in brain imaging approaches such as functional connectomics. In this paper we summarize our progress to date on lipidomic approaches to biomarker discovery, discuss how these data have influenced basic research on the neuropathology of HAND, and implications for the development of therapeutics that target metabolic pathways involved in lipid handling. PMID:24203462
Haughey, Norman J; Zhu, Xiaomao; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam
Because caregivers' monitoring of care recipients' mental health status likely facilitates provision of needed forms of assistance, the current study examines relationship factors associated with agreement in caregiver- and recipient self-reports of recipients' mental health status. Participants were former or current injection drug using persons with HIV/AIDS and their main caregivers (N = 258 dyads). Care recipients completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and caregivers responded to a single item rating their recipients' mental health. Nearly two-thirds (64.7 %) of dyads agreed on care recipients' mental health status (? = .26, p < .001). More secondary stressors of care, less reciprocity, and care recipients' greater physical limitations, substance use, and younger age predicted greater agreement on recipients' having poorer mental health. Greater secondary stressors and lower income were associated with less agreement on care recipients' mental health. Findings, which suggest that promoting reciprocity and alleviating secondary stressors of caregiving may help facilitate these caregivers' improved assessment of their care recipients' mental health status, have implications to dyadic approaches to promote drug users' HIV health outcomes. PMID:24385229
Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Wolff, Jennifer L; Knowlton, Amy R
Background.?The effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, at CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/mm3) on sexual behaviors and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) transmission risk has not been documented in populations other than HIV-serodiscordant couples in stable relationships. Methods.?On the basis of data from a behavioral study nested in a randomized, controlled trial (Temprano-ANRS12136) of early ART, we compared proportions of risky sex (ie, unprotected sex with a partner of negative/unknown HIV status) reported 12 months after inclusion between participants randomly assigned to initiate ART immediately (hereafter, “early ART”) or according to ongoing World Health Organization criteria. Group-specific HIV transmission rates were estimated on the basis of sexual behaviors and viral load–specific per-act HIV transmission probabilities. The ratio of transmission rates was computed to estimate the protective effect of early ART. Results.?Among 957 participants (baseline median CD4+ T-cell count, 478 cells/mm3), 46.0% reported sexual activity in the past month; of these 46.0%, sexual activity for 41.5% involved noncohabiting partners. The proportion of subjects who engaged in risky sex was 10.0% in the early ART group, compared with 12.8% in the standard ART group (P = .17). After accounting for sexual behaviors and viral load, we estimated that the protective effect of early ART was 90% (95% confidence interval, 81%–95%). Conclusion.?Twelve months after inclusion, patients in the early and standard ART groups reported similar sexual behaviors. Early ART decreased the estimated risk of HIV transmission by 90%, suggesting a major prevention benefit among seronegative sex partners in stable or casual relationships with seropositive individuals.
Jean, Kevin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Fassassi, Raimi; Desgrees-du-Lou, Annabel; Eholie, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary
On 14th October, 1999 the first satellite developed, assembled, integrated and tested by two emergent countries, Brazil and China, was successfully launched by a Long March series type rocket, from the Chinese launch base of Taiyuan, and its designed 2 years long life has already been extended by one year more. Since then, the China Brazil Earth Resources Satellite - Flight Model # 1 (CBERS-FM1) satellite is providing imaging services for both countries and also offering a competitive commercial products in the international market. Following the cooperation, FM1 orbit control has been conducted by both countries during different periods. For the orbit operation, both countries conduct the control once the satellite is passing inside each ground station window. The experience accumulated during the FM1 Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT), at Chinese laboratories, and its flight operation, provided important clues to implement some modification in the second satellite in order to enhance its operational performance. Succeeding these significant marks, the second satellite has already accomplished its AIT sequence at Brazilian Integration and Test Laboratory (LIT). In order to get the FM2 satellite ready to replace FM1 on time, the AIT schedule became critical, taking into account the several effects of the aspects intrinsic to this joint cooperation program. Since the AIT should be conducted in Brazil, and the later launching in China, the satellite preparation gained additional constraints for its logistic, management, follow up, technical progression, product assurance, and so on. The substantial feedback gained by both countries from their own CBERS FM1 remote sensing imagery capability, and now from the FM2 maturation, are leading the expansion of the program toward its second generation. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the program progresses, the FM1satellite flight operational status, the conduction and realization of the FM2 satellite AIT at LIT, and compare the AIT approaches used during FM1/China and FM2/Brazil. The significance of the ongoing success and the program continuing certainly represent a new experience for the international space community.
IntroductionThe objectives of this study are to address if and how albumin can be used as an indication of malnutrition in HIV infected and uninfected Africans.MethodsIn 2005, 710 HIV-infected and 226 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in a cohort study. Clinical\\/demographic parameters, CD4 count, albumin, liver transaminases; anthropometric measurements and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) were performed. Malnutrition outcomes were defined as body
Jean-Claude Dusingize; Donald R. Hoover; Qiuhu Shi; Eugene Mutimura; Elizabeth Kiefer; Mardge Cohen; Kathryn Anastos
...other information. Use these guidelines to decide whether to release information: (a) Would the subject have a reasonable expectation of privacy in the information requested? (b) Would disclosing the information benefit the...
Trust in health care providers and the health care system are essential. This study examined factors associated with trust in providers and distrust in the health care system among minority HIV-positive and -negative women.Interviews were conducted and laboratory tests performed with 102 women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study Bronx site. Interviews collected information about trust in providers, distrust in
C. O. Cunningham; N. L. Sohler; L. Korin; W. Gao; K. Anastos
HIV-1 is an enveloped virus that enters target cells by fusion either directly at the plasma membrane or at the endosomal membrane. The latter mechanism follows a rapid engulfment of HIV-1 after its receptor engagement at the cell surface, and its scale depends on cellular endocytosis/degradation rates and virus fusion kinetics. HIV-1 has recently been shown to exploit a novel Pak1-dependent macropinocytosis mechanism as a way to productively infect macrophages. However, macrophages are highly heterogeneous cells that can adapt functionally to their changing environment, and their endosomal/lysosomal pathway is highly regulated upon cell activation. These changes might impact the ability of HIV-1 to exploit endocytosis as a way to productively infect macrophages. In this study, we compared HIV-1 endocytosis/degradation rates in nonactivated, M1-activated, and M2a-activated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We found that the rate of HIV-1 endocytosis was increased in M1-activated but decreased in M2a-activated MDMs. However, both M1 and M2a activations of MDMs led specifically to a greater clathrin-mediated endocytosis of HIV-1, which was independent of CD4 and CCR5 binding. Furthermore, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is unlikely to result in productive HIV-1 infection, given that it leads to increased viral degradation. Therefore, we suggest that viral fusion following endocytosis is restricted in activated macrophages.
Gobeil, Lise-Andree; Lodge, Robert
Undernutrition among HIV-positive children can be ameliorated if they are given adequate foods in the right frequency and diversity. Food insecurity is known to undermine such efforts, but even in food rich areas, people have undernutrition. As yet no study has examined feeding practices and their associations with nutrition status among as HIV-positive children in regions with high food production. We therefore examined the magnitude of undernutrition and its association with feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a high food production region in Tanzania. Methods We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs). Results HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (??=?0.11, p?=?0.016); underweight (??=?0.12, p?=?0.029); and thinness (??=?0.11, p?=?0.026). Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (??=?0.06, p<0.001), food insecurity (??=??0.05, p<0.001), and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. Conclusion Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate undernutrition. To improve it, tailored interventions should target children of poor households, the food insecure, and caregivers who have received only a low level of education.
Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine
Background Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from HBV-positive mothers to their infants is common and usually occurs when the mother is hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and/or has a high HBV DNA load. In this study, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg among pregnant women with known HIV status. Findings A total of 650 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.2 years including 301 HIV-positives and 349 HIV-negatives were screened for HBsAg (Monolisa AgHBs Plus Biorad, France). Among the HBsAg-positives, HBeAg and anti-HBe were tested (Monolisa Ag HBe Plus Biorad, France). Overall, 51 (7.85%) were positive for HBsAg. The prevalence of HBsAg was not statistically different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women [28/301 (9.3%) vs 23/349 (6.59%); p = 0.2]. None of the 45 HBsAg-positive samples was reactive for HBeAg. Conclusions Our study indicates a high prevalence of HBsAg with very low proportion of HBeAg in Cameroonian pregnant women. Since perinatal transmission of HBV is mostly effective when the mother is also HBeAg-positive, our data could suggest that perinatal transmissions play a minor role in HBV prevalence in Cameroon. In line with previous African studies, these findings further suggests that horizontal transmission could be the most common mechanism of HBV infections in Cameroon.
BACKGROUND: To assess the acceptability of intrapartum HIV testing and determine the prevalence of HIV among labouring women with unknown HIV status in Cameroon. METHOD: The study was conducted in four hospitals (two referral and two districts hospitals) in Cameroon. Labouring women with unknown HIV status were counselled and those who accepted were tested for HIV. RESULTS: A total of
Eugene J Kongnyuy; Enow R Mbu; Francois X Mbopi-Keou; Nelson Fomulu; Philip N Nana; Pierre M Tebeu; Rebecca N Tonye; Robert JI Leke
In the absence of HIV testing, how do rural Malawians assess their HIV status? In this paper, we use a unique dataset that includes respondents' HIV status as well as their subjective likelihood of HIV infection. These data show that many rural Malawians overestimate their likelihood of current HIV infection. The discrepancy between actual and perceived status raises an important question: Why are so many wrong? We begin by identifying determinants of self-assessed HIV status, and then compare these assessments with HIV biomarker results. Finally, we ask what characteristics of individuals are associated with errors in self-assessments.
Anglewicz, Philip; Kohler, Hans-Peter
Abstract A divide exists between categories of men who have sex with men (MSM) in India based on their sex position, which has consequences for the design of novel HIV prevention interventions. We examine the interaction between sex position and other attributes on existing HIV risk including previous HIV testing, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and HIV serostatus among MSM recruited from drop-in centers and public cruising areas in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. A survey was administered by trained research assistants and minimally invasive HIV testing was performed by finger-stick or oral testing. HIV seropositive MSM underwent CD4+ lymphocyte count measurement. In our sample (n=676), 32.6% of men were married to women, 22.2% of receptive only participants were married, and 21.9% of men were HIV seropositive. In bivariate analysis, sex position was associated with previous HIV testing, UAI, HIV serostatus, and CD4+ lymphocyte count at diagnosis. In multivariate analysis with interaction terms, dual unmarried men were more likely to have undergone an HIV test than insertive unmarried men (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–6.5), a relationship that did not hold among married men. Conversely, dual married men were less likely than insertive married men to engage in UAI (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1–0.6), a relationship that did not hold among unmarried men. Further implementation research is warranted in order to best direct novel biologic and behavioral prevention interventions towards specific risk behaviors in this and other similar contexts.
Hemmige, Vagish; Snyder, Hannah; Liao, Chuanhong; Mayer, Kenneth; Lakshmi, Vemu; Gandham, Sabitha R.; Orunganti, Ganesh
Despite the increased risk of domestic violence among women living with HIV/AIDS, its burden has not been adequately explored in many developing countries including Nigeria. Using interviewer administered questionnaires we assessed the prevalence and risk factors for domestic violence among 300 HIV seropositive women attending a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria. Participants have been diagnosed HIV positive for an average of 6.7 years; 66.3% were seroconcordant with their intimate partners while 16.3% were serodiscordant, the rest 17.4% did not know the partner's status; 67.1% had disclosed their status to their partners; and 64(22.1%) [95% CI (17.5% to 27.4%)] had experienced domestic violence following HIV diagnosis. Specifically, 30.0% (n = 19) experienced physical violence (slapping, kicking and punching), 59.3% (n = 38) reported verbal violence (insults, threats) and 10.7% (n = 7) endured emotional violence. None was sexually assaulted. Predictors of domestic violence were the woman's age, marital status, disclosure and partner's educational status. This calls for urgent steps and strategies for prevention, protection and post-test counseling on disclosure to avert this human right infringement. PMID:22574491
Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Babashani, Musa; Galadanci, Hadiza S
This review examines the global empirical literature regarding disclosure of parental HIV infection to children. Thirty-eight articles published in English-language journals prior to 2011 were retrieved and reviewed regarding disclosure process, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and impacts of disclosure/non-disclosure. Disclosure rate was relatively low worldwide. The decision making of disclosure or non-disclosure was mainly affected by children's development level, stigma, consideration of children's benefits, and parenting practices. Unintentional and forced disclosures were common. Findings regarding the impacts of disclosure/non-disclosure were mixed but disclosure tended to have long-term positive impacts on the well-being of children, parents and family in general. This review underscores the importance of developing evidence-informed developmentally and culturally appropriate interventions to assist HIV-positive parents to disclose their HIV status to children, particularly in low-resource settings. PMID:22016331
Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
For this study we conducted in-depth interviews with 29 youth living with HIV (YLWH) and key informant interviews with 8 HIV care/support providers. We describe terms used to portray people living with HIV (PLWH) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Labels commonly used, mostly derogatory, described PLWH as walking corpses, dangers to others, or people deserving to die before others get infected. Blame and other accusations were directed at PLWH through anchoring or objectification. Being labeled sometimes made these youth suffer in silence, afraid to disclose their status, or avoid performing actions in public, preferring to let others do them. YLWH need psychosocial support to mitigate the harmful effects of these labels and strengthen their coping skills, whereas community, institutional, and national efforts are needed for stigma reduction. PMID:24463633
Mupenda, Bavon; Duvall, Sandra; Maman, Suzanne; Pettifor, Audrey; Holub, Christina; Taylor, Eboni; Rennie, Stuart; Kashosi, Mujalambo; Lema, Mamie; Behets, Frieda
The pathways through which stigma is associated with psychological distress remains understudied in Africa. This study evaluates stigma among 277 Mozambicans who were on an antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for a full year. Using bivariate and multiple regression analyses, we examine psychosocial factors (disclosure decisions, perceived social support, and depression) associated with stigma, at ART initiation and one year later. We found one year after initiating ART, participants reported no change in stigma, a decreased in perceived social support, and an increase in depressive symptomology. Disclosing HIV status to friends (vs. family or partner) was associated with lower levels of stigma. These findings suggest that HIV care in comparable settings should include counselling, support groups, and peer support, that includes stigma and disclosure concerns prior to and during the first year following diagnosis. Most importantly, assessment and treatment of depression should be incorporated into ongoing HIV care.
Pearson, C. R.; Micek, M. A.; Pfeiffer, J.; Montoya, P.; Matediane, E.; Jonasse, T.; Cunguara, A.; Rao, D.; Gloyd, S. S.
Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05). For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma.
Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian
Abstract Disclosing HIV status to friends, family, and sex partners is often stressful. However, HIV disclosure has been associated with improved physical health, psychological well-being, and improved health behaviors. The aim of this study was to address some of the gaps in the literature regarding the disclosure process by conducting a mixed-methods study of disclosure in people newly diagnosed with HIV and the relationship of disclosure to stigma and social support. The CHAI (Coping, HIV, and Affect Interview) Study was a longitudinal cohort study that followed individuals who were newly diagnosed with HIV. The study took place from October 2004 to June 2008 in the San Francisco Bay Area. This sample includes data from 50 participants who were interviewed 1, 3, and 9 months following diagnosis with HIV. We identified four main approaches to HIV disclosure that revealed distinct differences in how participants appraised disclosure, whether disclosure was experienced as stressful, and whether disclosure or nondisclosure functioned as a way of coping with an HIV diagnosis. Implications of these findings for disclosure counseling are discussed.
Wrubel, Judith; Branstrom, Richard; Acree, Michael; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie
HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330
Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis
HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection.
Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montano-Agudelo, David; Pinzon-Fernandez, Maria Virginia; Tello-Bolivar, Ines Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis
The objective of this study was to assess changes in the family situation of HIV-infected women who have recently given birth. As part of a prospective perinatal HIV transmission study, interviews were conducted with a subset of HIV-infected women at 18 to 24 months postpartum, and answers were compared with baseline information obtained during pregnancy. Standardized scales were used to assess levels of psychosocial functioning. A convenience sample of 129 HIV-infected women enrolled during pregnancy was interviewed at 18 to 24 months postpartum. At delivery, the women were young (median age, 22 years), primiparous (57%), and asymptomatic (93%). When baseline and follow-up data were compared, more women were living alone (1% versus 6%; p = 0.03), fewer women were living with their partners (98% versus 73%; p < 0.001), and 30% of families had reduced incomes. At follow-up, 10% of partners had died, and more partners than wives had become ill or died (21% versus 4%; p = 0.02). Most children (78%) were living with their mothers, but only 57% of the HIV-infected women were the primary caretakers. Fewer women had disclosed their HIV status to others (e.g., family, friends) than to their partners (34% versus 84%; p < 0.001), largely because of fear of disclosure. The women appeared to have high levels of depression and worry. The women's greatest worries were about their children's health and the family's future. Within 2 years after childbirth, substantial change within the families of HIV-infected women was evident. These were manifest by partner illness or death, family separation, reduced family income, shifting responsibilities for child care, and signs of depression and isolation. Providing family support is a major challenge in Thailand as the perinatal HIV epidemic progresses. PMID:9593459
Manopaiboon, C; Shaffer, N; Clark, L; Bhadrakom, C; Siriwasin, W; Chearskul, S; Suteewan, W; Kaewkungwal, J; Bennetts, A; Mastro, T D
Background Retrieving pertinent information from biological scientific literature requires cutting-edge text mining methods which may be able to recognize the meaning of the very ambiguous names of biological entities. Aliases of a gene share a common vocabulary in their respective collections of PubMed abstracts. This may be true even when these aliases are not associated with the same subset of documents. This gene-specific vocabulary defines a unique fingerprint that can be used to disclose ambiguous aliases. The present work describes an original method for automatically assessing the ambiguity levels of gene aliases in large gene terminologies based exclusively in the content of their associated literature. The method can deal with the two major problems restricting the usage of current text mining tools: 1) different names associated with the same gene; and 2) one name associated with multiple genes, or even with non-gene entities. Important, this method does not require training examples. Results Aliases were considered “ambiguous” when their Jaccard distance to the respective official gene symbol was equal or greater than the smallest distance between the official gene symbol and one of the three internal controls (randomly picked unrelated official gene symbols). Otherwise, they were assigned the status of “synonyms”. We evaluated the coherence of the results by comparing the frequencies of the official gene symbols in the text corpora retrieved with their respective “synonyms” or “ambiguous” aliases. Official gene symbols were mentioned in the abstract collections of 42 % (70/165) of their respective synonyms. No official gene symbol occurred in the abstract collections of any of their respective ambiguous aliases. In overall, querying PubMed with official gene symbols and “synonym” aliases allowed a 3.6-fold increase in the number of unique documents retrieved. Conclusions These results confirm that this method is able to distinguish between synonyms and ambiguous gene aliases based exclusively on their vocabulary fingerprint. The approach we describe could be used to enhance the retrieval of relevant literature related to a gene.
Men infected with HIV are often faced with caregiving responsibilities of aging, ill parents, while simultaneously looking for support from their parents in dealing with their own health problems. Unfortunately, the reciprocal roles of HIV-positive adult sons and aging mothers as caregivers have not been examined. To address this gap in the literature, HIV-positive men (n = 118) answered open-ended questions about the support they exchanged with their mothers, completed the Depth of Relationships Inventory, and rated the importance of health-related assistance between themselves and their mothers. The men viewed themselves as important providers of both instrumental and emotional support to their mothers. Men perceived their mothers to be significant providers of emotional support but only moderately important in providing instrumental support. About a third of the men responded that the help they provided and received from the mothers in managing each other's health and staying healthy was extremely important. Men regarded their relationships with their mothers as one of their most important social relationships. Non-White men rated the quality of their mother-son relationships more highly, exchanged more instrumental support, and provided more emotional support to their mothers than White men. Men who disclosed their HIV-positive status to their mothers rated the importance of the help they received from their mothers in managing their illnesses higher than men who had not disclosed. PMID:21816862
Uphold, Constance R; Shehan, Constance L; Bender, Joyce McDonald; Bender, Bradley S
Context: Tamil Nadu comes under group I high prevalence state, with less than 1% prevalence of HIV infection in antenatal women but above 5% prevalence in high risk group. One of the ways to control HIV/AIDS in India is through Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT), the success of which lies in identifying pregnant women with HIV infection. But due to the stigma against HIV/AIDS among health care providers, HIV positive patients face discrimination in the health sector. Aims: To explore the difficulties faced by rural HIV positive mothers during the intra-natal period. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among HIV positive mothers, in Gingee block of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. All the mothers who tested positive between June 2006 and May 2010 were interviewed in-depth using an interview guide. Results: There were 21 HIV positive mothers during this period, 19 of whom gave consent. Majority of the mothers were <30 years of age from families belonging to lower socio-economic class. The discriminations faced from the health staff was avoidance of physical examination, rude behaviour like throwing of records on the face, discriminatory comments, unnecessary referrals and even refusal to provide intra-partum services. The negative attitude of the staff made a few mothers to deliver in some other institution without disclosing their HIV status. Conclusion: Stigma among health care providers towards HIV positive pregnant women acts as a barrier for improving access to PPTCT services in India and it poses high risk to the mothers, babies and also the health care providers. There is a pressing need to improve access to quality PPTCT services especially during the intranatal period.
Subramaniyan, Anbarasi; Sarkar, Sonali; Roy, Gautam; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha
Non-gay identified (NGI) Black men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) and use substances are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV to their partners. Homophobic community norms can discourage such men from disclosing their risk behaviour to female partners and others, including service providers. It is important to understand the dynamics of risk in this vulnerable population, but research is challenged by the men’s need for secrecy. In this paper we report on successful efforts to recruit 33 non-disclosing, NGI Black MSMW for in-depth interviews concerning substance use, HIV risk and attitudes toward disclosing their risk behaviour. We employed targeted and referral sampling, with initial contacts and/or key informants drawn from several types of settings in New York City including known gay venues, community organisations, neighbourhood networks and the Internet. Key informant gatekeepers and the ability to establish rapport proved central to success. Perceived stigma is a source of social isolation, but men are willing to discuss their risk behaviour when they trust interviewers to protect their privacy and engage with them in a non-judgemental manner. Findings imply that the most effective prevention approaches for this population may be those that target risk behaviours without focusing on disclosure of sexual identities.
Benoit, Ellen; Pass, Michael; Randolph, Doris; Murray, Deborah; Downing, Martin J.
To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ?1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (?1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%), syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, p<0.001), participation in HIV support groups (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p=0.01), easy access to condoms (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p=0.04) were protective factors for unprotected sex. Reporting a casual partner in the last 12 months (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.5, p=0.004). and having an STI (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.3-5.5, p=0.02) were associated with an increased odds of unprotected sex. Prevention interventions among HIV-positives in El Salvador should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change.
Paz-Bailey, G; Shah, N; Creswell, J; Guardado, ME; Nieto, AI; Estrada, MC; Cedillos, R; Pascale, JM; Monterroso, E
To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ?1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (?1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%), syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, p<0.001), participation in HIV support groups (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p=0.01), easy access to condoms (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p=0.04) were protective factors for unprotected sex. Reporting a casual partner in the last 12 months (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.5, p=0.004). and having an STI (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.3-5.5, p=0.02) were associated with an increased odds of unprotected sex. Prevention interventions among HIV-positives in El Salvador should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change. PMID:23049671
Paz-Bailey, G; Shah, N; Creswell, J; Guardado, M E; Nieto, A I; Estrada, M C; Cedillos, R; Pascale, J M; Monterroso, E
Purpose – This paper aims to provide insights into the moral values embodied by a popular social networking site (SNS), Facebook. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study is based upon qualitative fieldwork, involving participant observation, conducted over a two-year period. The authors adopt the position that technology as well as humans has a moral character in order to disclose ethical concerns that
Ben Light; Kathy McGrath
Purpose – In recent years, the clinical performance of named cardiac surgeons in England has been disclosed. This paper aims to explore the nature and impact of disclosure of clinical performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on literature from across the social sciences to assess the impact of disclosure, as a form of transparency, in improving clinical performance. Specifically, it
Mark Exworthy; Glenn Smith; Jonathan Gabe; Ian Rees Jones
Participants in some clinical trials are at risk of being harmed and sometimes are seriously harmed as a result of not being provided with available, relevant risk information. We argue that this situation is unacceptable and that there is a moral duty to disclose all adverse clinical trial results to participants in clinical trials. This duty is grounded in the
S. Matthew Liao; Mark Sheehan; Steve Clarke
Background: Healthcare-related errors cause patient morbidity and mortality. Despite fear of reprimand, laboratory personnel have a professional obligation to rapidly report major medical errors when they are identified. Well-defined protocols regarding how and when to disclose a suspected error by a colleague do not exist. Patient: We describe a woman with a well documented allergy to sulfamethoxazole who was treated
Kimberley G. Crone; Michele B. Muraski; Joy D. Skeel; Latisha Love-Gregory; Jack H. Ladenson; Ann M. Gronowski
A gap exists between recommendations to disclose errors to patients and current practice. This gap may reflect important, yet unanswered questions about implementing disclosure principles. We explore some of these unanswered questions by presenting three real cases that pose challenging disclosure dilemmas. The first case involves a pancreas transplant that failed due to the pancreas graft being discarded, an error that was not disclosed partly because the family did not ask clarifying questions. Relying on patient or family questions to determine the content of disclosure is problematic. We propose a standard of materiality that can help clinicians to decide what information to disclose. The second case involves a fatal diagnostic error that the patient's widower was unaware had happened. The error was not disclosed out of concern that disclosure would cause the widower more harm than good. This case highlights how institutions can overlook patients' and families' needs following errors and emphasizes that benevolent deception has little role in disclosure. Institutions should consider whether involving neutral third parties could make disclosures more patient centered. The third case presents an intraoperative cardiac arrest due to a large air embolism where uncertainty around the clinical event was high and complicated the disclosure. Uncertainty is common to many medical errors but should not deter open conversations with patients and families about what is and is not known about the event. Continued discussion within the medical profession about applying disclosure principles to real-world cases can help to better meet patients' and families' needs following medical errors. PMID:19736193
Gallagher, Thomas H; Bell, Sigall K; Smith, Kelly M; Mello, Michelle M; McDonald, Timothy B
An increasing number of children born with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) are surviving into late adolescence and early adulthood. At this developmental stage, developing intimate relationships and having children are potentially important goals with associated normative challenges. Young people with PAH face a variety of additional HIV-related stressors that may be associated with relationships and parenting. These may include managing HIV disclosure to their partner and adherence to antiretroviral medication to (a) prevent transmission to partners and future offspring and (b) maintain their own health. Some of these challenges may be impacted upon by issues associated with having been born with HIV, for example, managing long-standing secrecy about HIV and having been told from a young age that life expectancy could be shortened. To date, there has been limited research into the procreational and parenting reflections of young people with PAH. This study examined the hopes and the concerns that a group of young people with PAH have regarding having children. Seven participants (five females and two males) currently or previously in an intimate relationship, aged 18-23 years, two of whom were parents, were recruited from a UK hospital clinic. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview, with data analysed according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four main themes were elicited: the perceived impact of having a child on intimate relationships, the effect of normative beliefs on parenting intentions and expectations, the thoughts and feelings about disclosing parental HIV status to one's children in the future, and the perceived impact of HIV on procreational intentions. Implications for supporting young people with PAH in parenting decision-making are explored. PMID:24266514
Evangeli, Michael; Greenhalgh, Clare; Frize, Graham; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah
Aims Combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has led to a reduction in the incidence of HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe motor/cognitive disorder afflicting HIV(+) patients. However, the prevalence of subtler forms of neurocognitive dysfunction, which together with HAD are termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), continues to escalate in the post-cART era. The microgliosis, astrogliosis, dendritic damage, and synaptic and neuronal loss observed in autopsy cases suggest an underlying neuroinflammatory process, due to the neurotoxic factors released by HIV-infected/activated macrophages/ microglia in the brain, might underlie the pathogenesis of HAND in the post-cART era. These factors are known to induce the integrated stress response (ISR) in several neurodegenerative diseases; we have previously shown that BiP, an indicator of general ISR activation, is upregulated in cortical autopsy tissue from HIV-infected patients. The ISR is composed of three pathways, each with its own initiator protein: PERK, IRE1? and ATF6. Methods To further elucidate the specific ISR pathways activated in the central nervous system of HAND patients, we examined the protein levels of several ISR proteins, including ATF6, peIF2? and ATF4, in cortical tissue from HIV-infected patients. Results The ISR does not respond in an all-or-none fashion in HAND, but rather demonstrates a nuanced activation pattern. Specifically, our studies implicate the ATF6 pathway of the ISR as a more likely candidate than the PERK pathway for increases in BiP levels in astrocytes. Conclusion These findings begin to characterize the nature of the ISR response in HAND and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention in this disease.
Akay, C.; Lindl, K. A.; Shyam, N.; Nabet, B.; Goenaga-Vazquez, Y.; Ruzbarsky, J.; Wang, Y.; Kolson, D. L.; Jordan-Sciutto, K. L.
...2013-07-01 false Disclosing the medical records of minors. 806b.48 Section... Â§ 806b.48 Disclosing the medical records of minors. Air Force personnel may disclose the medical records of minors to their...
Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. We examined whether a multi-component framework, initially consisting of enacted, felt normative, and internalized forms of individual stigma experiences, could be used to understand HIV-related stigma in Southern India. In Study 1, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 16 people living with HIV revealed instances of all three types of stigma. Experiences of discrimination (enacted stigma) were reported relatively infrequently. Rather, perceptions of high levels of stigma (felt normative stigma) motivated people to avoid disclosing their HIV status. These perceptions often were shaped by stories of discrimination against others HIV-infected individuals, which we adapted as an additional component of our framework (vicarious stigma). Participants also varied in their acceptance of HIV stigma as legitimate (internalized stigma). In Study 2, newly-developed measures of the stigma components were administered in a survey to 229 people living with HIV. Findings suggested that enacted and vicarious stigma influenced felt normative stigma; that enacted, felt normative, and internalized stigma were associated with higher levels of depression; and that the associations of depression with felt normative and internalized forms of stigma were mediated by the use of coping strategies designed to avoid disclosure of one's HIV serostatus.
Herek, Gregory M; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Bharat, Shalini; Chandy, Sara; Wrubel, Judith; Ekstrand, Maria L
Background: Couple counseling has been promoted as a strategy to improve uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) and to minimize adverse social outcomes associated with disclosure of HIV status. Objectives: We tested whether women counseled antenatally as part of a couple were more likely to accept HIV testing and nevirapine in a pMTCT program, and whether they would be less likely to experience later adverse social events than women counseled alone. Methods: A pMTCT program that included active community education and outreach to encourage couple counseling and testing was implemented in two antenatal clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. A subset of HIV-positive women was asked to report their experience of adverse social events 6 months after delivery. Couple-counseled women were compared with individual-counseled women stratified by whether or not they had disclosed their HIV status to their partners. Results: Nine percent (868) of 9409 women counseled antenatally were counseled with their husband. Couple-counseled women were more likely to accept HIV testing (96%) than women counseled alone (79%); however uptake of nevirapine was not improved. Six months after delivery, 28% of 324 HIV-positive women reported at least one adverse social event (including physical violence, verbal abuse, divorce or separation). There were no significant differences in reported adverse social events between couple- and individual-counseled women. Conclusions: Couple counseling did not increase the risk of adverse social events associated with HIV disclosure. Support services and interventions to improve social situations for people living with HIV need to be further evaluated.
Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.
Background Prevention of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals is critical to the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT), but its potential has not been fully utilized by PMTCT programmes. The uptake of family planning methods among women in Uganda is low, with current use of family planning methods estimated at 24%, but available data has not been disaggregated by HIV status. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of family planning and unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected people in Uganda. Methods We conducted exit interviews with 1100 HIV-infected individuals, including 441 men and 659 women, from 12 HIV clinics in three districts in Uganda to assess the uptake of family planning services, and unplanned pregnancies, among HIV-infected people. We conducted multivariate analysis for predictors of current use of family planning among women who were married or in consensual union and were not pregnant at the time of the interview. Results One-third (33%, 216) of the women reported being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses and 28% (123) of the men reported their partner being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses. Of these, 43% (105) said these pregnancies were not planned: 53% (80) among women compared with 26% (25) among men. Most respondents (58%; 640) reported that they were currently using family planning methods. Among women who were married or in consensual union and not pregnant, 80% (242) were currently using any family planning method and 68% were currently using modern family planning methods (excluding withdrawal, lactational amenorrhoea and rhythm). At multivariate analysis, women who did not discuss the number of children they wanted with their partners and those who did not disclose their HIV status to sexual partners were less likely to use modern family planning methods (adjusted OR 0.40, range 0.20-0.81, and 0.30, range 0.10-0.85, respectively). Conclusions The uptake of family planning among HIV-infected individuals is fairly high. However, there are a large number of unplanned pregnancies. These findings highlight the need for strengthening of family planning services for HIV-infected people.
Alcohol use is cited as a risk factor for exposure to HIV infection through risky sexual behavior, especially among adolescents. From Social Cognitive Theory, positive outcome expectancies about the use of alcohol have often been presented as a critical aspect of alcohol use. Yet little is known about how they might be related to different aspects…
Mitchell, Christina M.; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.
Background Optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectiveness depends upon medication adherence, which is a complex behavior with many contributing factors including neurocognitive function. Pharmacy refill records offer a promising and practical tool to assess adherence. Methods A substudy of the CHARTER (CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research) study was conducted at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and the University of Washington (UW). Pharmacy refill records were the primary method to measure ART adherence, indexed to a “sentinel” drug with the highest central nervous system penetration effectiveness score. Standardized neuromedical, neuropsychological, psychiatric and substance use assessments were performed at enrollment and at 6 months. Regression models were used to determine factors associated with adherence and the relationships between adherence and change in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA concentrations between visits. Results Among 80 (33 JHU, 47 UW) participants, the mean adherence score was 86.4% with no difference by site. In the final multivariable model, better neurocognitive function was associated with better adherence, especially among participants who were at JHU, male, and HIV-infected for a longer time-period. Worse performance on working memory tests was associated with worse adherence. Better adherence predicted greater decreases in cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA between visits. Conclusion Poorer global neurocognitive functioning and deficits in working memory were associated with lower adherence defined by a pharmacy refill record measure, suggesting that assessments of cognitive function, and working memory in particular, may identify patients at risk for poor ART adherence who would benefit from adherence support.
Andrade, Adriana S.A.; Deutsch, Reena; Celano, Shivaun; Duarte, Nichole A.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Umlauf, Anya; Atkinson, J. Hampton; McCutchan, J. Allen; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry J.; McArthur, Justin; Marra, Christina; Grant, Igor; Collier, Ann C
This study assessed the prevalence of extradyadic sex and the relationship between such activity and psychological distress and relationship quality in male couples of mixed HIV serostatus. Sixty-three couples were interviewed and had sufficient data for inclusion in all analyses. With regard to sexual activity during the year prior to being interviewed, 19 (30%) couples were monogamous, 18 (29%) described
Glenn J. Wagner; Robert H. Remien; Alex Carballo Dieguez
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates more than 1.1 million adults and adolescents are living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States and 18% of persons living with HIV are not aware of their status. The e...
Although the incidence of HIV in the United States is higher among men compared to women, the global proportion of women versus men who are infected has been approximately 50% since the late 1990s. Women have been under-represented in neuropsychological studies of HIV. A small number of studies have reported a significantly higher prevalence of neurocognitive impairment among HIV+ women compared to HIV? controls regardless of symptom status and with or without an AIDS diagnosis. Impairment was most evident on psychomotor tasks. The risk of neuropsychological impairment was increased among HIV+ women not on antiretroviral therapy. Age and depressive symptoms also increase neurocognitive risk. New neurocognitive studies of ovarian steroid hormones, PTSD and other psychiatric conditions are critical for addressing potential female-specific aspects of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. Such studies will also address questions regarding involvement of the hippocampus and verbal memory, which may be of particular significance among HIV+ women.
This study investigates the reporting of premarital sex in rural southern Malawi. It summarizes the results of an interview-mode experiment conducted with unmarried young women aged 15–21 in which respondents were randomly assigned to either an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) or a conventional face-to-face (FTF) interview. In addition, biomarkers were collected for HIV and three STIs: gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. Prior to collecting the biomarkers, nurses conducted a short face-to-face interview in which they repeated questions about sexual behavior. The study builds on earlier research among adolescents in Kenya where we first investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of ACASI. In both Malawi and Kenya, the mode of interviewing and questions about types of sexual partners affect the reporting of sexual activity. Yet the results are not always in accordance with expectations. Reporting for “ever had sex” and “sex with a boyfriend” is higher in the FTF mode. When we ask about other partners as well as multiple lifetime partners, however, the reporting is consistently higher with ACASI, in many cases significantly so. The FTF mode produced more consistent reporting of sexual activity between the main interview and a subsequent interview. The association between infection status and reporting of sexual behavior is stronger in the FTF mode, although in both modes a number of young women who denied ever having sex test positive for STIs/HIV.
Mensch, Barbara S.; Hewett, Paul C.; Gregory, Richard; Helleringer, Stephane
Comparative chromosome painting, termed ZOO-FISH, using DNA libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes 1,16,17 and X, and mouse chromosome 11 discloses the presence of syntenic groups in distantly related mammalian Orders ranging from primates (Homo sapiens), rodents (Mus musculus), even-toed ungulates (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis and Muntiacus reevesi) and whales (Balaenoptera physalus). These mammalian Orders have evolved separately for 55-80 million
Harry Scherthan; Thomas Cremer; Ulfur Arnason; Heinz-Ulrich Weier; Antonio Lima-de-Faria; Lutz Frönicke
Using data from a probability based sample of adult men who have sex with men (MSM) we examined the association of negative life factors during adolescence and adult HIV status. 521 MSM reported on experiences of connectedness to community, comfort with sexuality, harassment and discrimination due to their sexual orientation at ages 12-18 years. HIV status was determined by serological testing. Overall, men reported moderate levels of being harassed, being discriminated against and high levels of feeling disconnected from gay communities while reporting high levels of being uncomfortable with their sexuality at those ages. However, in analyses of scores on these factors, higher experiences of harassment, higher levels of discrimination and more discomfort with sexuality at these ages are associated with HIV-negative status as adults. This study suggests that the relationship between negative adolescent experiences among MSM and adult HIV infection may not be straightforward, but may also dependent upon aspects of the intensity of the negative experiences, the relationship of the victim and the perpertrator(s), the sexual identity of the victim at the time and/or the number of these experiences or the length of time over which they occurred. Studies investigating specific multiple stressors in adolescent gay development and their effect on adult health outcomes are needed. PMID:19915973
Raymond, H Fisher; Chen, Yea-Hung; Stall, Ron D; McFarland, Willi
Introduction: Translation of the evidence regarding the protective role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV sexual transmission rates into sexual behaviour patterns of HIV-infected subjects remains largely unexplored. This study aims to describe frequency of self-reported condom use among women living with HIV in Italy and to investigate the variables associated with inconsistent condom use (ICU). Methods: DIDI (Donne con Infezione Da HIV) is an Italian multicentre study based on a questionnaire survey performed during November 2010 and February 2011. Women-reported frequency of condom use was dichotomized in "always" versus "at times"/"never" (ICU). Results: Among 343 women, prevalence of ICU was 44.3%. Women declared a stable partnership with an HIV-negative (38%) and with an HIV-positive person (43%), or an occasional sexual partner (19%). Among the 194 women engaged in a stable HIV-negative or an occasional partnership, 51% reported fear of infecting the partner. Nonetheless, 43% did not disclose HIV-positive status. Less than 5% of women used contraceptive methods other than condoms. At multivariable analysis, variables associated with ICU in the subgroup of women with a stable HIV-negative or an occasional HIV-unknown partner were: having an occasional partner (AOR 3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-8.54, p=0.005), and reporting fear of infecting the sexual partner (AOR 3.20, 95% CI 1.43-7.16, p=0.004). Current use of HAART together with virological control in plasma level did not predict ICU after adjusting for demographic, behavioural and HIV-related factors. With regard to socio-demographic factors, lower education was the only variable significantly associated with ICU in the multivariate analysis (AOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.07-4.82, p=0.03). No association was found between high adherence to HAART and ICU after adjusting for potential confounders (AOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.39-2.01, p=0.78). Conclusions: Currently in Italy, the use of HAART with undetectable HIV RNA in plasma as well as antiretroviral adherence is not associated with a specific condom use pattern in women living with HIV and engaged with a sero-discordant or an HIV-unknown partner. This might suggest that the awareness of the protective role of antiretroviral treatment on HIV sexual transmission is still limited among HIV-infected persons, at least in this country. PMID:24135086
Cicconi, Paola; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Castagna, Antonella; Quirino, Tiziana; Alessandrini, Anna; Gargiulo, Miriam; Francisci, Daniela; Anzalone, Enza; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Pierro, Paola; Ammassari, Adriana
Background.?Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure. Methods.?We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1. Results.?HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1–infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time. Conclusions.?A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1–discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection.
Mackelprang, Romel D.; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.
Objectives: To assess the relationship between prior knowledge of one's HIV status and the likelihood to refuse HIV testing in populations-based surveys and explore its potential for producing bias in HIV prevalence estimates. Methods: Using longitudinal survey data from Malawi, we estimate the relationship between prior knowledge of HIV-positive status and subsequent refusal of an HIV test. We use that
Georges Reniersa; Jeffrey Eatond
Introduction Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is vital for HIV-infected adolescents for survival and quality of life. However, this age group faces many challenges to remain adherent. We used multiple data sources (role-play, focus group discussions (FGD), and in-depth interviews (IDI)) to better understand adherence barriers for Rwandan adolescents. Forty-two HIV positive adolescents (ages 12–21) and a selection of their primary caregivers were interviewed. All were perinatally-infected and received (cART) for ?12 months. Topics discussed during FGDs and IDIs included learning HIV status, disclosure and stigma, care and treatment issues, cART adherence barriers. Results Median age was 17 years, 45% female, 45% orphaned, and 48% in boarding schools. We identified three overarching but inter-related themes that appeared to influence adherence. Stigma, perceived and experienced, and inadvertent disclosure of HIV status hampered adolescents from obtaining and taking their drugs, attending clinic visits, carrying their cARTs with them in public. The second major theme was the need for better support, in particular for adolescents with different living situations, (orphanages, foster-care, and boarding schools). Lack of privacy to keep and take medication came out as major barrier for adolescents living in congested households, as well the institutionalization of boarding schools where privacy is almost non-existent. The third important theme was the desire to be ‘normal’ and not be recognized as an HIV-infected individual, and to have a normal life not perturbed by taking a regimen of medications or being forced to disclose where others would treat them differently. Conclusions We propose better management of HIV-infected adolescents integrated into boarding school, orphanages, and foster care; training of school-faculty on how to support students and allow them privacy for taking their medications. To provide better care and support, HIV programs should stimulate caregivers of HIV-infected adolescents to join them for their clinic visits.
Mutwa, Philippe R.; Van Nuil, Jennifer Ilo; Asiimwe-Kateera, Brenda; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Pool, Robert; Ruhirimbura, John; Kanakuze, Chantal; Reiss, Peter; Geelen, Sibyl; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Boer, Kimberly R.
Studies on HIV/AIDS treatment adherence have been carried out in a limited number of geographic settings, but few studies have explored it in people of higher socioeconomic status in Latin America. This qualitative study explored and compared determinants of adherence behaviors among 52 HIV-positive Colombian women in medium and high socioeconomic positions (SPs). Findings indicated that the two SP groups reported high adherence behaviors related to taking medication, following a diet, and executing lifestyle changes in line with healthcare providers' recommendations. Nevertheless, differences were observed between the two groups. While women with a medium SP disclosed their diagnosis, were empowered, and had acceptable access to economic resources that resulted in favorable adherence, their better off counterparts tended to hide their status and made a conscious effort to keep their adherence behaviors in secret due to HIV-related stigma. More studies on adherence of people living with HIV/AIDS from high SPs should be conducted to better understand how psychosocial support can be provided and to advance the knowledge of how and why adherence practices in these groups are undertaken. PMID:22273077
Arrivillaga, Marcela; Springer, Andrew E; Lopera, Monica; Correa, Diego; Useche, Bernardo; Ross, Michael W
We present preliminary results of a 200-orbit HST/WFC3 survey of compact Galactic planetary nebulae, aimed at filling the blanks in the morphological studies, and in particular to study the early onset of morphology. Planetary nebulae smaller than 4" are usually younger than ˜5000 yr, thus the early stages of their evolution is conveniently studied therein. Both broad- and narrow-band imagery has been employed to disclose both nebular and central star characteristics. We found that early morphology is represented by the known main types, including bipolar and quadrupolar PNe. Statistics, images, and correlations with dust properties of the nebulae analyzed via Spitzer spectra are presented in this paper.
Stanghellini, L.; Shaw, R. A.; Villaver, E.
We describe the experiences of a sample of Canadian HIV+ youth whose intact adolescent identities contrast sharply with the expected identity challenges of persons living with a serious, chronic disease. We first showcase the positive HIV+ identities emerging from the successful management of HIV+ status through long-term HIV-related medical care and established pharmaceutical regimes. Second, we describe the medical, familial,
Michelle Di Risio; Peri J. Ballantyne; Stanley E. Read; Reina Bendayan
For the past three decades, legislative approaches to prevent HIV transmission have been used at the national, state, and local levels. One punitive legislative approach has been enactment of laws that criminalize behaviors associated with HIV exposure (HIV-specific criminal laws). In the USA, HIV-specific criminal laws have largely been shaped by state laws. These laws impose criminal penalties on persons who know they have HIV and subsequently engage in certain behaviors, most commonly sexual activity without prior disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus. These laws have been subject to intense public debate. Using public health law research methods, data from the legal database WestlawNext© were analyzed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of laws that criminalize potential HIV exposure in the 50 states (plus the District of Columbia) and to examine the implications of these laws for public health practice. The first state laws were enacted in 1986; as of 2011 a total of 67 laws had been enacted in 33 states. By 1995, nearly two-thirds of all laws had been enacted; by 2000, 85 % of laws had been enacted; and since 2000, an additional 10 laws have been enacted. Twenty-four states require persons who are aware that they have HIV to disclose their status to sexual partners and 14 states require disclosure to needle-sharing partners. Twenty-five states criminalize one or more behaviors that pose a low or negligible risk for HIV transmission. Nearly two-thirds of states in the USA have legislation that criminalizes potential HIV exposure. Many of these laws criminalize behaviors that pose low or negligible risk for HIV transmission. The majority of laws were passed before studies showed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces HIV transmission risk and most laws do not account for HIV prevention measures that reduce transmission risk, such as condom use, ART, or pre-exposure prophylaxis. States with HIV-specific criminal laws are encouraged to use the findings of this paper to re-examine those laws, assess the laws' alignment with current evidence regarding HIV transmission risk, and consider whether the laws are the best vehicle to achieve their intended purposes. PMID:24633716
Lehman, J Stan; Carr, Meredith H; Nichol, Allison J; Ruisanchez, Alberto; Knight, David W; Langford, Anne E; Gray, Simone C; Mermin, Jonathan H
Since 1970, OSHA has used its authority to regulate various health and safety hazards in private workplaces. Two types of OSHA regulations establish rights to know and duties to disclose: rules dealing with specific substances, and generic access to information rules. OSHA rules for specific hazards such as coke oven emissions, asbestos, arsenic, acrylonitrile, cotton dust, noise, and lead each contain separate requirements for record compilation, reporting, and worker access. Generic rights of access and duties to disclose are afforded by three OSHA rules: the rule on inspections under the general duty clause of the enabling statute, the access to medical and exposure records rule, and the new hazard communication rule. Under the general duty clause and OSHA regulation, workers have the right to request OSHA inspection, and to be notified of any imminent dangers of death or serious physical harm discovered by the inspector. The effectiveness of this rule is dependent on worker initiative, OSHA inspection, and the extent to which proprietary claims limit disclosures. It is usually invoked after some exposure has occurred, and thus has a somewhat limited role in risk prevention. Legal and historical aspects of these regulations are discussed in detail in this review. 38 references
Background.?Maintaining vitamin D sufficiency may decrease the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. We present the first prospective study of vitamin D among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults receiving antiretrovirals in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods.?Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was assessed at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for 1103 HIV-infected adults enrolled in a trial of multivitamins (not including vitamin D) in Tanzania. Participants were prospectively followed at monthly visits at which trained physicians performed a clinical examination and nurses took anthropometric measurements and assessed self-reported symptoms. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of morbidity outcomes. Results.?After multivariate adjustment, vitamin D deficiency (defined as a concentration of <20 ng/mL) had a significantly greater association with incident pulmonary tuberculosis, compared with vitamin D sufficiency (HR, 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–7.41; P = .027), but no association was found for vitamin D insufficiency (defined as a concentration of 20–30 ng/mL; P = .687). Deficiency was also significantly associated with incident oral thrush (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.01–3.81; P = .046), wasting (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.33–7.24; P = .009), and >10% weight loss (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.13–3.91; P = .019). Wasting results were robust to exclusion of individuals experiencing pulmonary tuberculosis. Vitamin D status was not associated with incident malaria, pneumonia, or anemia. Conclusions.?Vitamin D supplementation trials for adults receiving ART appear to be warranted.
Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Isanaka, Sheila; Aboud, Said; Mugusi, Ferdinand M.; Wang, Molin; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie W.
This study assessed the prevalence of extradyadic sex and the relationship between such activity and psychological distress and relationship quality in male couples of mixed HIV serostatus. Sixty-three couples were interviewed and had sufficient data for inclusion in all analyses. With regard to sexual activity during the year prior to being interviewed, 19 (30%) couples were monogamous, 18 (29%) described themselves as "open," 13 (21%) kept extradyadic sex a secret from their partners, and in 13 couples there was only partial knowledge of extradyadic sex. Though not statistically significant, monogamous and open couples consistently scored lower numerically on measures of psychological distress and higher on measures of relationship quality, compared to "partial knowledge" and "secretive" couples. When pooled, monogamous and open couples scored significantly higher on measures of dyadic consensus, affectional expression, dyadic satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction compared to the combined subgroup of partial knowledge and secretive couples. PMID:10933280
Wagner, G J; Remien, R H; Carballo-Diéguez, A
Quinolinic acid is an "excitotoxic" metabolite and an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who were neurologically normal or exhibited only equivocal and subclinical signs of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex, concentrations of quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were increased twofold in patients in the early stages of disease (Walter Reed stages 1 and 2) and averaged 3.8 times above normal in later-stage patients (Walter Reed stages 4 through 6). However, in patients with either clinically overt AIDS dementia complex, aseptic meningitis, opportunistic infections, or neoplasms, CSF levels were elevated over 20-fold and generally paralleled the severity of cognitive and motor dysfunction. CSF concentrations of quinolinic acid were significantly correlated to the severity of the neuropsychological deficits. After treatment of AIDS dementia complex with zidovudine and treatment of the opportunistic infections with specific antimicrobial therapies, CSF levels of quinolinic acid decreased in parallel with clinical neurological improvement. By analysis of the relationship between levels of quinolinic acid in the CSF and serum and integrity of the blood-brain barrier, as measured by the CSF:serum albumin ratio, it appears that CSF levels of quinolinic acid may be derived predominantly from intracerebral sources and perhaps from the serum. While quinolinic acid may be another "marker" of host- and virus-mediated events in the brain, the established excitotoxic effects of quinolinic acid and the magnitude of the increases in CSF levels of the acid raise the possibility that quinolinic acid plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of brain dysfunction associated with HIV-1 infection. PMID:1826418
Heyes, M P; Brew, B J; Martin, A; Price, R W; Salazar, A M; Sidtis, J J; Yergey, J A; Mouradian, M M; Sadler, A E; Keilp, J
Humans devote 30–40% of speech output solely to informing others of their own subjective experiences. What drives this propensity for disclosure? Here, we test recent theories that individuals place high subjective value on opportunities to communicate their thoughts and feelings to others and that doing so engages neural and cognitive mechanisms associated with reward. Five studies provided support for this hypothesis. Self-disclosure was strongly associated with increased activation in brain regions that form the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Moreover, individuals were willing to forgo money to disclose about the self. Two additional studies demonstrated that these effects stemmed from the independent value that individuals placed on self-referential thought and on simply sharing information with others. Together, these findings suggest that the human tendency to convey information about personal experience may arise from the intrinsic value associated with self-disclosure.
Tamir, Diana I.; Mitchell, Jason P.
Objective?To explore communication about HIV prevention, risk behaviors, and transmission in families affected by HIV.?Methods?Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 parents with HIV, 27 children (9- to 17-years old), and 19 adult children (?18-years old) across the U.S. Coders reviewed transcripts, identified themes, and coded transcripts.?Results?Youth felt uncomfortable discussing HIV with their parent who has HIV because they worried about upsetting and reminding the parent of his/her illness. Adult children reported learning about HIV prevention by watching how the illness affected their parents. Few siblings reported talking with one another about HIV because they worried about upsetting their brother/sister and about their sibling unintentionally disclosing the parent's illness to others.?Conclusions?Discussions between youth and their parent with HIV and their siblings vary, highlighting the need for further research in this area.
Cowgill, Burton O.; Bogart, Laura M.; Parra, Michelle T.; Ryan, Gery; Elliott, Marc N.; Park, Susan K.; Patch, Jennifer; Schuster, Mark A.
Objective: Although most agree that poor adherence to antiretrovirals is a common problem, relatively few factors have been shown to consistently predict treatment failure. In this study, a theoretical framework encompassing demographic characteristics, health beliefs\\/attitudes, treatment self-efficacy, and neurocognitive status was examined in relationship to highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional observational design. Main Outcome Measures: Neuropsychological test
Terry R. Barclay; Charles H. Hinkin; Steven A. Castellon; Karen I. Mason; Matthew J. Reinhard; Sarah D. Marion; Andrew J. Levine; Ramani S. Durvasula
...1545-BJ54 Requirement of a Statement Disclosing Uncertain Tax Positions AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...corporations to file a schedule disclosing uncertain tax positions related to the tax return as required by the IRS. DATES:...
...false In what other situations will the Endowment disclose its records? 1159.13 ...THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE...13 In what other situations will the Endowment disclose its records? (a)...
Objectives There is limited research about cochlear function in adults who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (+). The aim of the present study was to collect measures of cochlear function in a large sample of adults with, or at risk for, HIV infection, to evaluate associations between HIV status, HIV treatment, and cochlear function. Design Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were used to evaluate cochlear function in 506 participants; 329 men, 150 of whom were HIV+, and 177 women, 136 of whom were HIV+. DPOAEs were measured at frequencies 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz. A DPOAE nonresponse (NR) was defined as an absolute DPOAE level less than ?15 dB SPL or a difference between the absolute DPOAE level and the background noise level less than 6 dB. The total number of NRs was calculated for each ear. The associations of demographic variables, HIV status, and HIV treatment with number of NRs were evaluated with univariate and multivariate ordinal regression models. Results There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of higher numbers of NRs with age, being male, and being non-Black, but not with HIV status. Among HIV+ participants, there were no statistically significant associations of the HIV disease status or treatment variables with higher number of NRs. Conclusion The authors found no evidence of impaired cochlear function by HIV disease status or highly active antiretroviral therapy–treated HIV infection in this cross-sectional study.
Torre, Peter; Hoffman, Howard J.; Springer, Gayle; Cox, Christopher; Young, Mary; Margolick, Joseph B.; Plankey, Michael
In the Shona culture of Zimbabwe, a high regard for childbearing contributes to strong pressures on women to have children. For young women living with HIV, consequently, disclosure of HIV status can be a central strategy to garner support for controlling fertility. This paper reports findings from qualitative interviews with 28 young women aged 16-20 living with HIV in urban Zimbabwe and discusses how these findings can contribute to better policies and programs for this population. Regardless of their current relationship status, interview participants described disclosure as a turning point in romantic partnerships, recounting stressful experiences with major ramifications such as abuse and abandonment on the one hand, and support and love on the other. All but one participant had been in a committed relationship, and most had disclosed to a previous or current partner, with about half of disclosure experiences resulting in adverse reactions. Findings suggest that sexual and reproductive health services must do more to help young women living with HIV negotiate the complexities of disclosure in the context of achieving desired fertility. PMID:23177677
Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Lambdin, Barrot H; Dunbar, Megan S
...Failure to disclose treaty-based return positions. 301.6712-1 Section 301.6712-1...Failure to disclose treaty-based return positions. (a) Penalty imposed. A taxpayer...a material way to disclose one or more positions taken for a taxable year, as...
Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have been tested for HIV; that he has consented to his HIV status being made available to the surrogate mother, and if he is HIV-positive, that sperm washing will be used to minimise the risk of infection and that the surrogate mother has been informed of his HIV status, and given her informed consent. PMID:24388075
Jordaan, Donrich W
When security vulnerabilities are discovered, it is often unclear how much public disclosure of the vulnerabilities is prudent. This is especially true for physical security vis a vis cyber security. We never want to help the 'bad guys' more than the 'good guys', but if the good guys aren't made aware of the problems, they are unlikely to fix them. This paper presents a unique semi-quantitative tool, called the 'Vulnerability Disclosure Index' (VDI), to help determine how much disclosure of vulnerabilities is warranted and in what forum. The VDI certainly does not represent the final, definitive answer to this complex issue. It does, however, provide a starting point for thinking about some of the factors that must go into making such a decision. Moreover, anyone using the VDI tool can at least claim to have shown some degree of responsibility in contemplating disclosure issues. The purpose of this paper is to provide a tool to help decide if and how security vulnerabilities should be disclosed. This tool, called the Vulnerability Disclosure Index (VDI), is not presented here as the ultimate, authoritative method for dealing with this complex issue. It is offered instead as a first step, and as a vehicle for thinking about and discussing some of the factors that need to be pondered when vulnerability disclosures are being considered.
Johnston, R. G. (Nuclear Engineering Division)
Introduction Children living with HIV experience particular challenges in accessing HIV care. Children usually rely on adult caregivers for access to care, including timely diagnosis, initiation of treatment and sustained engagement with HIV services. The aim of this study was to inform the design of a community-based intervention to support caregivers of HIV-positive children to increase children's retention in care as part of a programme introducing decentralized HIV care in primary health facilities. Methods Using an existing conceptual framework, we conducted formative research to identify key local contextual factors affecting children's linkages to HIV care in Harare, Zimbabwe. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 primary caregivers of HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years enrolled at a hospital clinic for at least six months, followed by interviews with nine key informants from five community-based organizations providing adherence support or related services. Results We identified a range of facilitators and barriers that caregivers experience. Distance to the hospital, cost of transportation, fear of disclosing HIV status to the child or others, unstable family structure and institutional factors such as drug stock-outs, healthcare worker absenteeism and unsympathetic school environments proved the most salient limiting factors. Facilitators included openness within the family, availability of practical assistance and psychosocial support from community members. Conclusions The proposed decentralization of HIV care will mitigate concerns about distance and transport costs but is likely to be insufficient to ensure children's sustained retention. Following this study, we developed a package of structured home visits by voluntary lay workers to proactively address other determinants such as disclosure within families, access to available services and support through caregivers’ social networks. A randomized controlled trial is underway to assess impact on children's retention in care over two years.
Busza, Joanna; Dauya, Ethel; Bandason, Tsitsi; Mujuru, Hilda; Ferrand, Rashida A
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have been releasing data on US AIDS and HIV cases since 1982. This semi-annual report provides tables and graphics for by state, metropolitan area, mode of exposure to HIV, gender, race/ ethnicity, age group, vital status, and more.
Self-disclosure of HIV infection was examined among 105 African-American men and 264 European-American men sampled randomly at two outpatient HIV clinics in Los Angeles. After statistically controlling for potentially confounding factors, it was found that the African-Americans were less likely to disclose their serostatus to intimate lovers, close friends, and family members or to discuss HIV-related worries with others. There
Hyacinth R. C. Mason; Jane M. Simoni; Gary Marks; Christine J. Johnson; Jean L. Richardson
For many people living with HIV (PLHIV), disclosure or concealment of their HIV status may be under their personal control; however, for PLHIV with visible symptoms of their illness, disclosure may no longer be a choice. Previous research suggests that those with visible HIV symptoms have poorer mental and physical health than those without visible HIV symptoms. This study aimed to extend these findings and assess the role of perceived centrality of HIV in the lives of PLHIV as well as the role of attachment to an HIV-positive community in understanding the negative effects on health and well-being for PLHIV with visible HIV symptoms. Participants were 697 PLHIV who completed an online survey that assessed symptom visibility, HIV-status disclosure, perceived stigma, health and well-being, how central HIV was to identity and HIV community attachment. Results indicate that those with visible symptoms experienced more HIV-related stigma and had poorer outcomes on a range of psychological and mental health measures than those who were able to conceal their stigma. These effects remained after controlling for length of time since diagnosis, time on HIV treatment, perceived health satisfaction and age. PLHIV with visible symptoms also reported that HIV was more central to their identity and reported greater attachment to an HIV-positive community. Furthermore, findings suggest that while HIV centrality appears to increase the negative effects of having visible symptoms associated with HIV, greater community attachment seems to ameliorate these effects. This suggests the need for a nuanced understanding of the implications of visible HIV symptoms for PLHIV. The study also highlights the potential benefits of HIV-positive community attachment in buffering PLHIV from the negative effect of visible HIV symptoms on their health and well-being. PMID:23311451
Brener, Loren; Callander, Denton; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John
The quick HIV testing method called "MiraWell Rapid HIV Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the HIV virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a simple pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This HIV test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart HIV testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick HIV testing kits. Also, the smart HIV system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the HIV kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct. PMID:16078623
El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King
Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women's Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results: Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively). Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive attitudes. Discussion and conclusions: The prevalence rates of both lifetime physical and sexual violence were very high among HIV-uninfected women and even higher among HIV-infected women recruited in health facilities in this West African country. Screening for intimate partner violence should be systematic in health-care settings, and specifically within HIV care services. At a time of increased investments in couple-oriented HIV prevention interventions, further longitudinal research to better understanding of HIV-serodiscordant couple dynamics in terms of intimate partner violence is needed. PMID:24866864
Burgos-Soto, Juan; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Patassi, Akouda; Woronowski, Aurore; Kariyiare, Benjamin; Lawson-Evi, Annette K; Leroy, Valériane; Dabis, François; Ekouevi, Didier K; Becquet, Renaud
Reduced HIV risk behavior and increased use of care and support services have been demonstrated among adults accessing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). The impact of VCT on adolescents is, however, not known. Focus group discussions were held with adolescents and parents in two South African townships to establish the perceptions of and…
MacPhail, Catherine Lorne; Pettifor, Audrey; Coates, Tom; Rees, Helen
Background In 2005, the International Patient Decisions Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration developed quality criteria for patient decisions aids; one of the quality dimensions dealt with disclosure of conflicts of interest (COIs). The purposes of this paper are to review newer evidence on dealing with COI in the development of patient decision aids and to readdress the theoretical justification and definition for this quality dimension. Methods The committee conducted a primary systematic literature review to seek published research addressing the question, "What is the evidence that disclosure of COIs in patient decision aids reduces biased decision making?" A secondary literature review included a systematic search for recent meta-analyses addressing COIs in other spheres of health care, including research and publication, medical education, and clinical care. Results No direct evidence was found addressing this quality dimension in the primary literature review. The secondary review yielded a comprehensive Institute of Medicine report, as well as four relevant meta-analyses addressing disclosure of COIs in health care. They revealed a broad consensus that disclosure of COIs is desirable in such areas as research publication, guideline development, medical education, and clinical care. Conclusions The committee recommends the criteria that are currently used to operationally define the quality dimension “disclosing conflicts of interest” be changed as follows (changes in italics): Does the patient decision aid: • report prominently and in plain language the source of funding to develop or exclusively distribute the patient decision aid? • report prominently and in plain language whether funders, authors, or their affiliations, stand to gain or lose by choices patients make after using the patient decision aid? Furthermore, based on a consensus that simple disclosure is insufficient to protect users from potentially biased information, the committee recommends that the IPDAS Collaboration consider adding the following criterion when the IPDAS consensus process is next conducted: “Does the patient decision aid: • report that no funding to develop or exclusively distribute the patient decision aid has been received from commercial, for-profit entities that sell tests or treatments included as options in the patient decision aid?”
Abstract Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is produced in response to active vitamin D to exert immunomodulatory effects and inhibits HIV replication in vitro. To date, no studies have investigated LL-37 in HIV-infected patients. This study sought to investigate LL-37 and the relationship to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and HIV-related variables in this population. HIV-infected subjects and healthy controls ages 1-25 years old were prospectively enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fasting plasma LL-37 and 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in duplicate with ELISA. HIV(+) subjects (36 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced subjects; 27 ART-naïve subjects) and 31 healthy controls were enrolled. Overall, 93% were black and the median age was 20 years. There was no difference in median (interquartile range) LL-37 between the HIV-infected group and controls [58.3 (46.4,69.5) vs. 51.3 (40.8,98.2) ng/ml, respectively; p=0.57]; however, the ART-experienced group had higher concentrations than the ART-naive group [66.2 (55.4,77.0) vs. 48.9 (38.9,57.9) ng/ml, respectively; p<0.001]. LL-37 was positively correlated with 25(OH)D in controls, but not in HIV-infected groups, and was positively correlated with current CD4 and ?CD4 (current-nadir) in the ART-experienced group. After adjustment for age, race, sex, and HIV duration, the association between LL-37 and CD4 remained significant. These findings suggest that HIV and/or HIV-related variables may alter the expected positive relationship between vitamin D and LL-37 and should be further investigated. PMID:24798231
Tangpricha, Vin; Judd, Suzanne E; Ziegler, Thomas R; Hao, Li; Alvarez, Jessica A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; McComsey, Grace A; Eckard, Allison Ross
This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing. PMID:24037044
Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in HIV Prevention; Current Status and Future Directions: A Summary of the DAIDS and BMGF Sponsored Think Tank on Pharmacokinetics (PK)/Pharmacodynamics (PD) in HIV Prevention
Abstract Thirty years after its beginning, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still raging around the world. According to UNAIDS, in 2011 alone 1.7M deaths were attributable to AIDS, and 2.5M people were newly infected by the virus. Despite the success in treating HIV-infected people with potent antiretroviral drugs, preventing HIV infection is the key to ending the epidemic. Recently, the efficacy of topical and systemic antiviral chemoprophylaxis (i.e., preexposure prophylaxis or “PrEP”), using the same drugs used for HIV treatment, has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. However, results from other trials have been inconsistent, especially those evaluating PrEP in women. These inconsistencies may result from our incomplete understanding of pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) at the mucosal sites of sexual transmission: the male and female gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. The drug concentrations used in these trials were derived from those used for treatment; however, we still do not know the relationship between the therapeutic and the preventive dose. This article presents the first comprehensive review of the available data in the HIV pharmacology field from animal models to human studies, and outlines gaps, challenges, and future directions. Addressing these pharmacological gaps and challenges will be critical in selecting and advancing future PrEP candidates and strategies with the greatest impact on the HIV epidemic.
Romano, Joseph; Kashuba, Angela; Becker, Stephen; Cummins, James; Turpin, Jim
Background HIV surveillance systems aim to monitor trends of HIV infection, the geographical distribution and its magnitude, and the impact of HIV. The quality of HIV surveillance is a key element in determining the uncertainty ranges around HIV estimates. This paper aims to assess the quality of HIV surveillance systems in low- and middle-income countries in 2009 compared with 2007. Methods Four dimensions related to the quality of surveillance systems are assessed: frequency and timeliness of data; appropriateness of populations; consistency of locations and groups; and representativeness of the groups. An algorithm for scoring the quality of surveillance systems was used separately for low and concentrated epidemics and for generalised epidemics. Results The number of countries categorised as fully functioning in 2009 was 35, down from 40 in 2007. 47 countries were identified as partially functioning, while 56 were categorised as poorly functioning. When compared with 2007, the quality of HIV surveillance remains similar. The number of ANC sites in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over time. The number of countries with low and concentrated epidemics that do not have functioning HIV surveillance systems has increased from 53 to 56 between 2007 and 2009. Conclusion Overall, the quality of surveillance in low- and middle-income countries has remained stable. Still too many countries have poorly functioning surveillance systems. Several countries with generalised epidemics have conducted more than one population-based survey which can be used to confirm trends. In countries with concentrated or low-level epidemics, the lack of data on high-risk populations remains a challenge.
Jacobson, J; Garg, R; Thuy, N; Stengaard, A; Alonso, M; Ziady, H O; Mukenge, L; Ntabangana, S; Chamla, D; Alisalad, A; Gouws, E; Sabin, K; Souteyrand, Y
... 2013-04-01 false Failure to disclose lead-based paint hazards. 30.65 Section 30.65 Housing and Urban Development... Violations Â§ 30.65 Failure to disclose lead-based paint hazards. (a) General. The Director of the...
Despite possible negative effects, many children do not tell their teachers when they have been bullied. This study examined junior school pupils' ("N" = 294) reports of instrumental, emotional and validation social support received after disclosing being bullied to teachers, and associations with intentions to disclose in the future. Overall,…
Boulton, Michael J.; Murphy, Debborah; Lloyd, Julie; Besling, Sabine; Coote, Jennifer; Lewis, Jennifer; Perrin, Roxanne; Walsh, Linda
The processing of sensitive information in the health field is subject to rigorous standards that guarantee the protection of information confidentiality. Recently, the Italian Data Protection Authority (Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali) stated their formal opinion on a standard procedure in dental offices involving the submission of a questionnaire that includes the patient's health status. HIV infection status is included on the form. The Authority has stated that all health data collection must be in accordance with the current Italian normative framework for personal data protection and respect the patient's freedom. This freedom allows the patient to decide, in a conscious and responsible way, whether to share health information with health personnel without experiencing any prejudice in the provision of healthcare requested. Moreover, data collection must be relevant and cannot exceed the principles of treatment goals with reference to the specific care of the concerned person. However, the need for recording information regarding HIV infection at the first appointment, regardless of the clinical intervention or therapeutic plan that needs to be conducted, should not alter the standard protection measures of the healthcare staff. In fact, these measures are adopted for every patient. PMID:22313663
Conti, Adelaide; Delbon, Paola; Laffranchi, Laura; Paganelli, Corrado; De Ferrari, Francesco
Some adolescent girls perinatally infected with HIV (PIH) engage in sexual behavior that poses risks to their own well-being and that of sexual partners. Interventions to promote condom use among girls PIH may be most effective if provided prior to first sexual intercourse. With in-depth interviews, we explored gender- and HIV-specific informational and motivational factors that might be important for sexual risk reduction interventions designed to reach U.S. girls PIH before they first engage in sexual intercourse. Open-ended interview questions and vignettes were employed. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model guided descriptive qualitative analyses. Participants (20 girls PIH ages 12–16 years) had experienced kissing (n = 12), genital touching (n = 6), and oral (n = 3), vaginal (n = 2), and anal sex (n = 1). Most knew sex poses transmission risks but not all knew anal sex is risky. Motivations for and against condom use included concerns about: sexual transmission, psychological barriers, and partners’ awareness of the girl’s HIV+ status. Girls were highly motivated to prevent transmission, but challenged by lack of condom negotiation skills as well as negative potential consequences of unsafe sex refusal and HIV status disclosure. Perhaps most critical for intervention development is the finding that some girls believe disclosing one’s HIV status to a male partner shifts the responsibility of preventing transmission to that partner. These results suggest a modified IMB model that highlights the role of disclosure in affecting condom use among girls PIH and their partners. Implications for cognitive-behavioral interventions are discussed.
Marhefka, Stephanie L.; Valentin, Cidna R.; Pinto, Rogerio M.; Demetriou, Nicole; Wiznia, Andrew; Mellins, Claude Ann
In Nyanza Province, Kenya, HIV incidence is highest (26.2%) in the beach communities along Lake Victoria. Prior research documented high mobility and HIV risks among fishermen; mobility patterns and HIV risks faced by women in fishing communities are less well researched. This study aimed to characterize forms of mobility among women in the fish trade in Nyanza; describe the spatial and social features of beaches; and assess characteristics of the "sex-for-fish" economy and its implications for HIV prevention. We used qualitative methods, including participant observation in 6 beach villages and other key destinations in the Kisumu area of Nyanza that attract female migrants, and we recruited individuals for in-depth semi-structured interviews at those destinations. We interviewed 40 women, of whom 18 were fish traders, and 15 men, of whom 7 were fishermen. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software. We found that female fish traders are often migrants to beaches; they are also highly mobile. They are at high risk of HIV acquisition and transmission via their exchange of sex for fish with jaboya fishermen. PMID:23631716
Camlin, Carol S; Kwena, Zachary A; Dworkin, Shari L
In this article we examine how members of fishing communities on the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda respond to HIV diagnosis in terms of disclosure to sexual partners. We then explore the subsequent changes in sexual behavior and relationships. To access this information, we collected life history data from 78 HIV-positive individuals in five fishing communities. We found that the strength of the sexual relationships shaped how and why individuals disclosed to partners, and that these relationships tended to be stronger when partners shared familial responsibility. Those who perceived their current sexual partnership to be weak sought to conceal their status by maintaining prediagnosis patterns of sexual behavior. The majority of the study's participants rarely changed their sexual behavior following HIV diagnosis, regardless of their relationship's strength. These findings elucidate barriers to disclosure and behavior change, and suggest that a life-course approach might enhance individual-level counseling so that counselors can provide tailored support to individuals regarding disclosure decisions and outcomes. PMID:23774629
McArthur, Moriah; Birdthistle, Isolde; Seeley, Janet; Mpendo, Juliet; Asiki, Gershim
Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and intersectoral levels. Mobilization of actors from different sectors would facilitate the implementation of pertinent and opportune interventions.
We examined relationships between client-perpetrated emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, injection drug use, and HIV-serostatus\\u000a among 924 female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-US border cities. We hypothesized that\\u000a FSWs’ injection drug use would mediate the relationship between client-perpetrated abuse and HIV-seropositivity. The prevalence\\u000a of client-perpetrated emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in the past 6 months
Monica D. Ulibarri; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Emilio C. Ulloa; Remedios Lozada; Miguel A. Fraga; Carlos Magis-Rodríguez; Adela De La Torre; Hortensia Amaro; Patricia O’Campo; Thomas L. Patterson
In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection. PMID:24559564
Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli
Background Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. Methods This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 64 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted. Results While women reported some positive experiences of sex in pregnancy, most participants commonly experienced coercive sexual practices. They reported that men failed to understand, or refused to accept, pregnancy and its associated emotional changes, and often forced painful and degrading sexual acts on them, usually while the men were under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs. Men often refused or delayed HIV testing, and participants reported accounts of HIV-positive men not disclosing their status to their partners and deliberately infecting or attempting to infect them. Women's passive acceptance of sexual violence was influenced by advice they received from other females to subordinate to their partners and to not deprive men of their conjugal sexual rights. Conclusions Cultural and societal factors, unequal gender norms and practices, women's economic vulnerability, and men's failure to understand pregnancy and emotional changes, influence men to perpetrate IPSV, leading to high risk of HIV infection.
Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Shefer, Tamara; Zarowsky, Christina
We characterized patients at publicly funded HIV\\/AIDS patient treatment sites who moved (“migrated”) post-diagnosis of HIV\\u000a to five urban Florida counties, by geographic, demographic, socioeconomic and risk variables. Each patient who came for services\\u000a at the sites in a 2–3 week sampling period was asked to complete a brief, self-administered questionnaire. We compared migrant\\u000a with non-migrant patients to disclose characteristics
Spencer Lieb; Mary Jo Trepka; Thomas M. Liberti; Lisa Cohen; Javier Romero
Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Larger studies were conducted in countries with poor economic resources and limited access to HAART. According to the majority of published studies low selenium levels appear to have an association with mortality, and selenium supplementation appears to play a beneficial role on survival or on slowing disease progression among HIV infected individuals. The role of selenium supplementation on preventing hospital admission among HIV outpatients was also noticed. The literature suggests an association between selenium deficiency and development of HIV associated cardiomyopathy and furthermore, selenium supplementation appears to improve the cardiac function in HIV infected individuals with cardiomyopathy. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the role selenium in modifying HIV viral load and immune status in HIV infection.
Bella, Stefano Di; Grilli, Elisabetta; Cataldo, Maria Adriana; Petrosillo, Nicola
...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Areas Available for Leasing Filing Applications Â§ 3503.41 Will BLM disclose information I submit under...
...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Procedure and Administration Â§ 20.6011-4 Requirement of statement disclosing...
Whole-genome analysis and whole-exome analysis generate many more clinically actionable findings than traditional targeted genetic analysis. These findings may be relevant to research participants themselves as well as for members of their families. Though researchers performing genomic analyses are likely to find medically significant genetic variations for nearly every research participant, what they will find for any given participant is unpredictable. The ubiquity and diversity of these findings complicate questions about disclosing individual genetic test results. We outline an approach for disclosing a select range of genetic results to the relatives of research participants who have died, developed in response to relatives’ requests during a pilot study of large-scale medical genetic sequencing. We also argue that studies that disclose individual research results to participants should, at a minimum, passively disclose individual results to deceased participants’ relatives.
Chan, Ben; Facio, Flavia M.; Eidem, Haley; Hull, Sara Chandros; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Berkman, Benjamin E.
This paper examines the representations and emotions associated with disclosure and stigma in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, seven years after the start of the South African government’s ARV roll-out programme on the basis of in-depth oral history interviews of HIV-positive support group members. It argues that the wider availability of ARV treatment, the ensuing reduced fatality rate and the increased number of people, including men, who receive counselling and testing, may mean that HIV/AIDS is less stigmatised and that disclosure has become easier. This does not mean that stigma has disappeared and that the confusion created by competing world-views and belief systems has dissipated. Yet the situation of extreme denial and ideological confusion observed, for example, by Deborah Posel and her colleagues in 2003 and 2004 in the Mpumalanga province seems to have lessened. The interviews hint at the possibility that people living with HIV may have, more than a decade before, a language to express the emotions and feelings associated with HIV/AIDS. They were also found to be more assertive in matters of gender relations. These new attitudes would make disclosure easier and stigma more likely to recede.
This paper examines the representations and emotions associated with disclosure and stigma in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, seven years after the start of the South African government's ARV roll-out programme on the basis of in-depth oral history interviews of HIV-positive support group members. It argues that the wider availability of ARV treatment, the ensuing reduced fatality rate and the increased number of people, including men, who receive counselling and testing, may mean that HIV/AIDS is less stigmatised and that disclosure has become easier. This does not mean that stigma has disappeared and that the confusion created by competing world-views and belief systems has dissipated. Yet the situation of extreme denial and ideological confusion observed, for example, by Deborah Posel and her colleagues in 2003 and 2004 in the Mpumalanga province seems to have lessened. The interviews hint at the possibility that people living with HIV may have, more than a decade before, a language to express the emotions and feelings associated with HIV/AIDS. They were also found to be more assertive in matters of gender relations. These new attitudes would make disclosure easier and stigma more likely to recede. PMID:24775433
Background South Africa accounts for more than a sixth of the global population of people infected with HIV and TB, ranking her highest in HIV/TB co-infection worldwide. Remote areas often bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality, yet there are spatial differences within rural settings. Objectives The primary aim was to investigate HIV/TB mortality determinants and their spatial distribution in the rural Agincourt sub-district for children aged 1–5 years in 2004. Our secondary aim was to model how the associated factors were interrelated as either underlying or proximate factors of child mortality using pathway analysis based on a Mosley-Chen conceptual framework. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis based on cross-sectional data collected in 2004 from the Agincourt sub-district in rural northeast South Africa. Child HIV/TB death was the outcome measure derived from physician assessed verbal autopsy. Modelling used multiple logit regression models with and without spatial household random effects. Structural equation models were used in modelling the complex relationships between multiple exposures and the outcome (child HIV/TB mortality) as relayed on a conceptual framework. Results Fifty-four of 6,692 children aged 1–5 years died of HIV/TB, from a total of 5,084 households. Maternal death had the greatest effect on child HIV/TB mortality (adjusted odds ratio=4.00; 95% confidence interval=1.01–15.80). A protective effect was found in households with better socio-economic status and when the child was older. Spatial models disclosed that the areas which experienced the greatest child HIV/TB mortality were those without any health facility. Conclusion Low socio-economic status and maternal deaths impacted indirectly and directly on child mortality, respectively. These factors are major concerns locally and should be used in formulating interventions to reduce child mortality. Spatial prediction maps can guide policy makers to target interventions where they are most needed.
Musenge, Eustasius; Vounatsou, Penelope; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen; Kahn, Kathleen
HIV/AIDS remains a chronic and incurable disease, in spite of the notable successes of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Gene therapy offers the prospect of creating genetic resistance to HIV that supplants the need for antiviral drugs. In sight of this goal, a variety of anti-HIV genes have reached clinical testing, including gene-editing enzymes, protein-based inhibitors, and RNA-based therapeutics. Combinations of therapeutic genes against viral and host targets are designed to improve the overall antiviral potency and reduce the likelihood of viral resistance. In cell-based therapies, therapeutic genes are expressed in gene modified T lymphocytes or in hematopoietic stem cells that generate an HIV-resistant immune system. Such strategies must promote the selective proliferation of the transplanted cells and the prolonged expression of therapeutic genes. This review focuses on the current advances and limitations in genetic therapies against HIV, including the status of several recent and ongoing clinical studies.
Burnett, John C.; Zaia, John A.; Rossi, John J.
HIV is recognized as a highly stigmatized disease; however, there has been a lack of research on the internalization of this stigma by seropositive people. This study examined internalized stigma among HIV-positive men and women (N = 268) in Milwaukee and Madison, Wisconsin, and New York City. The majority of the sample experienced internalized stigma related to their HIV status.
Rachel S. Lee; Arlene Kochman; Kathleen J. Sikkema
The objectives of the project were 1) to determine the extent to which HIV-positive persons living in Michigan were aware of and understood Michigan's criminal HIV exposure law, 2) to examine whether awareness of the law was associated with seropositive status disclosure to prospective sex partners, and, 3) to examine whether awareness of the law was associated with potential negative effects of the law on persons living with HIV (PLWH) including heightened HIV-related stigma, perceived societal hostility toward PLWH, and perceived need to conceal one's HIV infection. The study design was cross-sectional. A statewide sample of 384 PLWH in Michigan completed anonymous pen and paper surveys in 1 of 25 data collection sessions. A majority of participants were aware of Michigan's HIV exposure law. Awareness of the law was not associated with increased seropositive status disclosure to all prospective sex partners, decreased HIV transmission risk behavior, or increased perceived responsibility for HIV transmission prevention. However, awareness of the law was significantly associated with disclosure to a greater proportion of sex partners prior to respondents’ first sexual interaction with that partner. Awareness of the law was not associated with increased HIV-related stigma, perceived societal hostility toward PLWH, or decreased comfort with seropositive status disclosure. Evidence of an effect of Michigan's HIV exposure law on seropositive status disclosure was mixed. Further research is needed to examine the various forms of HIV exposure laws among diverse groups of persons living with or at increased risk of acquiring HIV.
Galletly, Carol L.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; DiFranceisco, Wayne
Background As immune compromised HIV sero-positive people regain health after initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART), they may seek a return to an active 'normal' life, including sexual activity. The aim of the paper is to explore the changing sexual desires and behaviour of people on ART in Uganda over a 30 month period. Methods This study employed longitudinal qualitative interviews with forty people starting ART. The participants received their ART, adherence education and counselling support from The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO). The participants were selected sequentially as they started ART, stratified by sex, ART delivery mode (clinic or home-based) and HIV progression stage (early or advanced) and interviewed at enrolment, 3, 6, 18 and 30 months of their ART use. Results Sexual desire changed over time with many reporting diminished desire at 3 and 6 months on ART compared to 18 and 30 months of use. The reasons for remaining abstinent included fear of superinfection or infecting others, fear that engaging in sex would awaken the virus and weaken them and a desire to adhere to the counsellors' health advice to remain abstinent. The motivations for resumption of sexual activity were: for companionship, to obtain material support, social norms around marriage, desire to bear children as well as to satisfy sexual desires. The challenges for most of the participants were using condoms consistently and finding a suitable sexual partner (preferably someone with a similar HIV serostatus) who could agree to have a sexual relationship with them and provide for their material needs. Conclusions These findings point to the importance of tailoring counselling messages to the changing realities of the ART users' cultural expectations around child bearing, marriage and sexual desire. People taking ART require support so they feel comfortable to disclose their HIV status to sexual partners.
Health promotion increases healthy behaviors, enhances health status, and decreases health care costs of chronically ill persons. As HIV has become a chronic illness, many HIV-positive persons may have health learning needs that affect their behaviors, health status, and health care costs. Health learning needs may be general or HIV specific. Social stigma may affect learning resource usage. We used
Elnora P. Mendias; David P. Paar
Despite advances in HIV prevention and care, African Americans and Latino Americans remain at much higher risk of acquiring HIV, are more likely to be unaware of their HIV-positive status, are less likely to be linked to and retained in care, and are less likely to have suppressed viral load than are Whites. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategy…
Grossman, Cynthia I.; Purcell, David W.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Veniegas, Rosemary
The aim of the study was to study factors related to anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation among HIV-seropositive heterosexuals soon after being tested for their HIV status for the first time. Anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation were assessed among 51 HIV-seropositive heterosexual men and women with various stages of HIV infection. All assessments were done between 4 and 6 weeks
Prabha S Chandra; V Ravi; A Desai; D. K Subbakrishna
Nursing homes are part of the long-term care continuum available to people with advanced HIV disease. The objective of this paper is to profile nursing home residents with HIV at fa time of admission, using the Minimum Data Set (MDS). These resident profiles contain sociodemographic characteristics, health status measures, and special treatments and procedures. There are 5,115 admission assessments in
Robert J. Buchanan; Suojin Wang
:Nursing homes are part of the long-term care continuum available to people with advanced HIV disease. The objective of this paper is to profile nursing home residents with HIV at fa time of admission, using the Minimum Data Set (MDS). These resident profiles contain sociodemographic characteristics, health status measures, and special treatments and procedures. There are 5,115 admission assessments in
Robert J. Buchanan; Suojin Wang; Chunfeng Huang
Background Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes have great potential to achieve virtual elimination of perinatal HIV transmission provided that PMTCT recommendations are properly followed. This study assessed mothers and infants adherence to medication regimen for PMTCT and the proportions of exposed infants who were followed up in the PMTCT programme. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 282 HIV-positive mothers attending 15 health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and mulitivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results Of 282 mothers enrolled in the cohort, 232 (82%, 95% CI 77-86%) initiated medication during pregnancy, 154 (64%) initiated combined zidovudine (ZDV) prophylaxis regimen while 78 (33%) were initiated lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART). In total, 171 (60%, 95% CI 55-66%) mothers ingested medication during labour. Of the 221 live born infants (including two sets of twins), 191 (87%, 95% CI 81-90%) ingested ZDV and single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) at birth. Of the 219 live births (twin births were counted once), 148 (68%, 95% CI 61-73%) mother-infant pairs ingested their medication at birth. Medication ingested by mother-infant pairs at birth was significantly and independently associated with place of delivery. Mother-infant pairs attended in health facilities at birth were more likely (OR 6.7 95% CI 2.90-21.65) to ingest their medication than those who were attended at home. Overall, 189 (86%, 95% CI 80-90%) infants were brought for first pentavalent vaccine and 115 (52%, 95% CI 45-58%) for early infant diagnosis at six-weeks postpartum. Among the infants brought for early diagnosis, 71 (32%, 95% CI 26-39%) had documented HIV test results and six (8.4%) were HIV positive. Conclusions We found a progressive decline in medication adherence across the perinatal period. There is a big gap between mediation initiated during pregnancy and actually ingested by the mother-infant pairs at birth. Follow up for HIV-exposed infants seem not to be organized and is inconsistent. In order to maximize effectiveness of the PMTCT programme, the rate of institutional delivery should be increased, the quality of obstetric services should be improved and missed opportunities to exposed infant follow up should be minimized.
Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±antiretroviral therapy [ART]) were investigated with Women's Interagency HIV Study data (n = 1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. Sixty-three percent of women had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) was highest in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (17 ng/mL; P < .001) and was the same in HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected women without ART (14 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were lower if efavirenz (EFV) was included in ART (15 versus 19 ng/mL; P < .001). The most common lipid abnormality was high triglycerides (?200 mg/dL) in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (13% versus 7% of HIV-infected without ART and 5% of HIV-uninfected; P < .001), with a positive relationship between 25-OH vitamin D and triglycerides (95% confidence interval 0.32-1.69; P < .01). No relationships between 25-OH vitamin D and cholesterol were detected. Vitamin D deficiency is common irrespective of HIV status but influenced by HIV treatment. Similarly, vitamin D levels were positively related to triglycerides only in ART-treated HIV-infected women and unrelated to cholesterol. PMID:24668135
Schwartz, Janice B; Moore, Kelly L; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T; Tien, Phyllis C; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has multiple genetic clades with varying prevalence throughout the world. Both HIV clade C (HIV-C) and HIV clade B (HIV-B) can cause cognitive impairment, but it is unclear if these clades are characterized by similar patterns of brain dysfunction. We examined brain volumetrics and neuropsychological performance among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naïve HIV-B and HIV-C participants. Thirty-four HAART-naïve HIV-infected (HIV+) participants [17 HIV-B (USA); 17 HIV-C (South Africa)] and 34 age- and education-matched HIV-uninfected (HIV?) participants were evaluated. All participants underwent similar laboratory, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies. Brain volume measures were assessed within the caudate, putamen, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus, corpus callosum, and cortical (gray and white matter) structures. A linear model that included HIV status, region, and their interaction assessed the effects of the virus on brain volumetrics. HIV? and HIV+ individuals were similar in age. On laboratory examination, HIV-C participants had lower CD4 cell counts and higher plasma HIV viral loads than HIV-B individuals. In general, HIV+ participants performed significantly worse on neuropsychological measures of processing speed and memory and had significantly smaller relative volumetrics within the thalamus, hippocampus, corpus callosum, and cortical gray and white matter compared to the respective HIV? controls. Both HIV-B and HIV-C are associated with similar volumetric declines when compared to matched HIV? controls. HIV-B and HIV-C were associated with significant reductions in brain volumetrics and poorer neuropsychological performance; however, no specific effect of HIV clade subtype was evident. These findings suggest that HIV-B and HIV-C both detrimentally affect brain integrity. PMID:24078556
Ortega, Mario; Heaps, Jodi M; Joska, John; Vaida, Florin; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J; Paul, Robert; Ances, Beau M
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and mental illness are interlinked health problems; mental illness may pose a risk for contracting HIV and HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk of mental illness. However, in countries with high HIV prevalence, the main focus of HIV-related health programmes is usually on prevention and treatment of somatic complications of HIV, and mental illness is not given high priority. We examined HIV prevalence, uptake of HIV services, and HIV-related risk behaviour among people attending a mental health clinic in rural Malawi. Methodology Semi-structured interviews were performed with patients capable to consent (94%), and with those accompanied by a capable caregiver who consented. HIV counselling and testing was offered to participants. Findings Among 174 participants, we collected 162 HIV test results (91%). HIV prevalence was 14.8%. Women were three times as likely to be HIV-positive compared to men. Two-thirds of participants reported having been tested for HIV prior to this study. The uptake of HIV-services among HIV-positive patients was low: 35% did not use recommended prophylactic therapy and 44% of patients not receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) had never been assessed for ART eligibility. The reported rate of sexual activity was 61%, and 9% of sexually active participants had multiple partners. Inconsistent condom use with stable (89%) and occasional (79%) sexual partners, and absence of knowledge of the HIV status of those partners (53%, 63%) indicate high levels of sexual risk behaviour. Conclusions HIV-prevalence among persons attending the clinic, particularly men, was lower than among the general population in a population survey. The rate of HIV testing was high, but there was low uptake of preventive measures and ART. This illustrates that HIV-positive individuals with mental illness or epilepsy constitute a vulnerable population. HIV programmes should include those with neuropsychiatric illness.
Lommerse, Kinke; Stewart, Robert C.; Chilimba, Queen; van den Akker, Thomas; Lund, Crick
Background Privacy concerns by providers have been a barrier to disclosing patient information for public health purposes. This is the case even for mandated notifiable disease reporting. In the context of a pandemic it has been argued that the public good should supersede an individual's right to privacy. The precise nature of these provider privacy concerns, and whether they are diluted in the context of a pandemic are not known. Our objective was to understand the privacy barriers which could potentially influence family physicians' reporting of patient-level surveillance data to public health agencies during the Fall 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Methods Thirty seven family doctors participated in a series of five focus groups between October 29-31 2009. They also completed a survey about the data they were willing to disclose to public health units. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the amount of patient detail the participants were willing to disclose, factors that would facilitate data disclosure, and the consensus on those factors. The analysis of the qualitative data was based on grounded theory. Results The family doctors were reluctant to disclose patient data to public health units. This was due to concerns about the extent to which public health agencies are dependable to protect health information (trusting beliefs), and the possibility of loss due to disclosing health information (risk beliefs). We identified six specific actions that public health units can take which would affect these beliefs, and potentially increase the willingness to disclose patient information for public health purposes. Conclusions The uncertainty surrounding a pandemic of a new strain of influenza has not changed the privacy concerns of physicians about disclosing patient data. It is important to address these concerns to ensure reliable reporting during future outbreaks.
Monitoring of humans either in the healthy men under extreme environmental stress like space flight, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients or in sepsis is of critical importance with regard to the timing of adequate therapeutic (counter-)measures. The in vivo skin delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH) served for many years as a tool to evaluate cell mediated immunity. However, this standardised in vivo test was removed from the market in 2002 due to the risk of antigen stabilization. To the best of our knowledge an alternative test as monitoring tool to determine cell mediated immunity is not available so far. For this purpose we tested a new alternative assay using elements of the skin DTH which is based on an ex vivo cytokine release from whole blood and asked if it is suitable and applicable to monitor immune changes in HIV infected patients and in patients with septic shock.
Kaufmann, I.; Draenert, R.; Gruber, M.; Feuerecker, M.; Crucian, B. E.; Mehta, S. L.; Roider, J.; Pierson, D. L.; Briegel, J. M.; Schelling, G.; Sams, C. F.; Chouker, A.
Psychological distress states have been related to rate of disease progression among HIV-positive individuals. However, the\\u000a measures that have been used in this research as well as the treatment context of the populations studied are highly variable,\\u000a making it challenging for clinicians to incorporate such measures into screening batteries. The present study examined the\\u000a association of two summary scales of
Caitlin Burbridge; Dean G. Cruess; Michael H. Antoni; Sarah Meagher
Objective:To describe infant mortality trends and associated factors among infants born to mothers enrolled in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program.Study Design:A nested case–control study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative pregnant women enrolled from the national PMTCT program at 36 weeks of gestation attending three peri-urban clinics in Zimbabwe offering maternal and child health care. Mother–infant pairs
E N Kurewa; F Z Gumbo; M W Munjoma; M P Mapingure; M Z Chirenje; S Rusakaniko; B Stray-Pedersen; NE Kurewa
Background HIV-infection results in damage and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal system. HIV enteropathy includes pronounced CD4+ T-cell loss, increased intestinal permeability, and microbial translocation that promotes systemic immune activation, which is implicated in disease progression. A synbiotic is the combination of probiotics and prebiotics that could improve gut barrier function. Our study goal was to determine whether the use of a synbiotic, probiotics or a prebiotic can recover immunological parameters in HIV-infected subjects through of a reduction of microbial translocation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Methods A randomized, double-blind controlled study was performed; twenty Antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-infected subjects were subgrouped and assigned to receive a synbiotic, probiotics, a prebiotic, or a placebo throughout 16?weeks. Results We had no reports of serious adverse-events. From baseline to week 16, the synbiotic group showed a reduction in bacterial DNA concentrations in plasma (p?=?0.048). Moreover, the probiotic and synbiotic groups demonstrated a decrease in total bacterial load in feces (p?=?0.05). The probiotic group exhibited a significant increment of beneficial bacteria load (such as Bifidobacterium; p?=?0.05) and a decrease in harmful bacteria load (such as Clostridium; p?=?0.063). In the synbiotic group, the CD4+ T-cells count increased (median: +102 cells/?L; p?=?0.05) and the level of Interleukin 6 cytokine decreased significantly (p?=?0.016). Conclusions Our study showed a significant increase in CD4+ T lymphocyte levels in the synbiotic group, which could delay the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and decrease costs in countries with limited resources.
Introduction HIV infection is increasingly characterized as a chronic condition that can be managed through adherence to a healthy lifestyle,\\u000a complex drug regimens, and regular treatment and monitoring. The location, quality, and\\/or affordability of a person’s housing\\u000a can be a significant determinant of his or her ability to meet these requirements. The objective of this systematic review\\u000a is to inform program
Chad A. Leaver; Gordon Bargh; James R. Dunn; Stephen W. Hwang
\\u000a Women now constitute the majority of those living with HIV\\/AIDS globally, even if only by a small margin (UNAIDS, 2007). While\\u000a the lower status of women has been recognized as increasing their HIV risk, issues of migration and conflict combined with\\u000a this lower status are believed to propel women’s risk for infection further, particularly in high infection areas such as
Anita Raj; Jhumka Gupta; Jay G. Silverman
Differences in innate immune responses may be associated with different capabilities of controlling HIV infection, not necessarily reflected by CD4(+) T-cell counts alone. We investigated by cytofluorometry the expression of NK cell receptors and ligands in 19 treated HIV-infected patients with CD4(+)<220 ml(-1) at presentation (11 AIDS, 8 non-AIDS) and 10 healthy donors. Expression of NKp46 and NKp30 was significantly higher in non-AIDS vs. AIDS patients. Overall, the level of NKp46 expression directly correlated with the degree of NK cell cytotoxicity. As compared to healthy donors, in both groups, there was a similar increase of CD69 and HLA-DR expression in NK cells that directly correlated with the presence of activation markers (HLA-DR) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. As compared to AIDS, in non-AIDS patients in vitro activated CD4(+) showed higher expression of MIC-A (NKG2D ligand), with significantly higher Nectin-2/DNAM-1 and MIC-A/NKG2D ratios. Thus, NK cell responses in AIDS and non-AIDS patients with similar CD4(+) counts significantly differ despite similar treatment. This suggests an involvement of innate mechanisms, in preventing AIDS-defining opportunistic infections in HIV infection and further suggests, that CD4(+) absolute counts alone, may be inadequate to explain differences in the clinical outcome. PMID:23538009
Bisio, Francesca; Bozzano, Federica; Marras, Francesco; Di Biagio, Antonio; Moretta, Lorenzo; De Maria, Andrea
CD4 T-lymphocytes play a vital role in maintaining the integrity of the human immune system. They are also the primary target cells for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The progressive depletion of these cells eventually results in weakening of the host's immune ability to fight against any pathogen, thus rendering the host susceptible to infections and leading ultimately to death of patients in the terminal stage of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although several clinical and laboratory parameters have been used for monitoring disease progression and the effectiveness of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is the simple measurement of CD4+ T-lymphocytes that remains the single and most important parameter for management of HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. To date, flow cytometer is considered to be the most accepted technology for both percentage and absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte determination because of its accuracy, precision and reproducibility. However, flow cytometer based CD4 testing is relatively expensive, complex and thus technically demanding. Simple innovative approaches applicable to the conventional flow cytometric system and new technologies have been successfully developed to increase cost saving especially for use in resource-challenged settings. Principles of the existing dual- and single-platform approaches as well as several affordable CD4 measurement technologies are discussed along with both internal and external quality control systems in the management of laboratories performing CD4 testing. PMID:22523903
Background Stigma and discrimination can limit access to care and treatment services. Stigma hides HIV from the public, resulting in reduced pressure for behavioral change. For effective behavior change, empirically grounded and theory-based behavioral change approaches are fundamental as a prevention interventions directed on decreasing stigma and discrimination. The objective of the study was to assess the experience of stigma and discrimination on the psychosocial and health care seeking behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. Methods This study uses qualitative methods involving focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews conducted in Arba Minch town and nearby Kebeles. Our sample consisted of PLHIV and other key informants who were purposively selected. Data were analyzed manually using thematic content analysis framework. Results It appears that the magnitude of stigma and discrimination in the area has decreased to a considerably lower level, however, the problem's severity is still being influenced by various factors including: current residence, disclosure status and level of community's awareness about HIV/AIDS. Care and support services provided to PLHIV were well accepted by the respondents and the majority of them were willing to make use of any service available. Health information messages that have been disseminated to the public through mass media since the start of the epidemic in 1984 and AIDS cases in 1986 have played a significant role regarding the current prevailing problem of stigma and discrimination of PLHIV. Conclusion Stigma and discrimination have come to a level that can be tolerated by most PLHIV that live in this region, especially those who have disclosed their HIV status and were living in urban areas. This calls for a strategy that improves the rates of serostatus disclosure after HIV counseling and testing and strengthens and integrates activities in the task of expanding care and support activities.
Alemu, Taddese; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Deribe, Kebede; Escudero, Horacio Ruisenor
Background It is unclear to which extent the rate of disclosure of the diagnosis "HIV" to the social environment and the nature of experienced responses are correlated with the current mental health status of HIV-infected patients living in Germany. Materials and Methods Eighty consecutive patients of two German HIV outpatient clinics were enrolled. Patients performed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in its German version. Disclosure behaviour and the experienced responses after disclosing as perceived by the participants were assessed using a questionnaire. In addition, patients were asked to state whether they felt guilty for the infection on a 1-4 point Likert scale. Results Pathological results on the anxiety scale were reached by 40% of male and 73% of female patients, and on the depression scale by 30% of male and 47% of female patients, thus significantly exceeding recently assessed values in the German general population, except for depression in males. None of the HADS scale results was interrelated either with the rate of disclosure or the experienced responses. 36% of patients reported to feel guilty for the infection, which was positively correlated with results from the HADS. Limitation: The time since the single disclosure events was not assessed, and the subgroup of women was comparably small. Conclusions Despite substantial improvement in treatment, HIV-infected patients in Germany still suffer from an elevated level of anxiety and, in part, depression. However, mental health status was neither related with disclosure behaviour nor with experienced responses. We hypothesize that internal beliefs may play a more important role.
Brokamp, Felix; Thomaidis, Thomas; Schmidt, Reinhold E.; Wiltink, Jorg; Galle, Peter R.
IntroductionHIV-1 is often acquired in the presence of pre-existing co-infections, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2). We examined the impact of HSV-2 status at the time of HIV-1 acquisition for its impact on subsequent clinical course, and total CD4+ T cell phenotypes.MethodsWe assessed the relationship of HSV-1\\/HSV-2 co-infection status on CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels over
Jason D. Barbour; Mariana M. Sauer; Elizabeth R. Sharp; Keith E. Garrison; Brian R. Long; Helena Tomiyama; Katia C. Bassichetto; Solange M. Oliveira; Maria C. Abbate; Douglas F. Nixon; Esper G. Kallas; Derya Unutmaz
While international guidelines are currently being drawn up about HIV and infant feeding practices, and national and regional guidelines are under discussion in South Africa, there have been remarkably few studies that have sought to elicit HIV-positive mothers' experiences of breastfeeding and of paediatric infection. There is an urgent need to document this 'grass roots' knowledge in different sites, and for this data to be used to inform policy development, and for advocacy and counselling purposes. This qualitative investigation reports on the experiences and decisions taken around breastfeeding by a peer support group of 13 HIV-positive mothers meeting at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. In this study, the particular focus of information-giving and decision-making as to breast or formula feed is concerned with the impact on individual HIV-positive women and their babies. The most significant finding is that at no stage during their pregnancy were any of these mothers given information about the risks of HIV transmission through breastmilk. The study data were elicited in an in-depth group discussion, and individual women were invited to re-enact their stories in a follow-up discussion for clarification purposes. The women also discussed how they dealt with problems surrounding confidentiality in cases where few have been able to disclose their status to the extended family. There have been renewed calls for further investment in counsellors, with an enhanced role for community activists as peer educators. While there are severe resource constraints and low morale among many overworked nurses, one of the general problems in hospital settings remains the vertical health paradigm. This does not accommodate women's experiences, preferences, social networks and lay knowledge, and inhibits many women from becoming full participants in decisions affecting their own and their family's health. PMID:10731232
Seidel, G; Sewpaul, V; Dano, B
... your partner's HIV status," he said. Dr. Dawn Smith is the epidemiologist in CDC's Division of HIV/ ... regular medical visits for monitoring, counseling and testing," Smith said. The new guidelines were published May 14 ...
Purpose: To analyze error disclosure attitudes of radiation oncologists and to correlate error disclosure beliefs with survey-assessed disclosure behavior. Methods and Materials: With institutional review board exemption, an anonymous online survey was devised. An email invitation was sent to radiation oncologists (American Society for Radiation Oncology [ASTRO] gold medal winners, program directors and chair persons of academic institutions, and former ASTRO lecturers) and residents. A disclosure score was calculated based on the number or full, partial, or no disclosure responses chosen to the vignette-based questions, and correlation was attempted with attitudes toward error disclosure. Results: The survey received 176 responses: 94.8% of respondents considered themselves more likely to disclose in the setting of a serious medical error; 72.7% of respondents did not feel it mattered who was responsible for the error in deciding to disclose, and 3.9% felt more likely to disclose if someone else was responsible; 38.0% of respondents felt that disclosure increased the likelihood of a lawsuit, and 32.4% felt disclosure decreased the likelihood of lawsuit; 71.6% of respondents felt near misses should not be disclosed; 51.7% thought that minor errors should not be disclosed; 64.7% viewed disclosure as an opportunity for forgiveness from the patient; and 44.6% considered the patient's level of confidence in them to be a factor in disclosure. For a scenario that could be considerable, a non-harmful error, 78.9% of respondents would not contact the family. Respondents with high disclosure scores were more likely to feel that disclosure was an opportunity for forgiveness (P=.003) and to have never seen major medical errors (P=.004). Conclusions: The surveyed radiation oncologists chose to respond with full disclosure at a high rate, although ideal disclosure practices were not uniformly adhered to beyond the initial decision to disclose the occurrence of the error.
Evans, Suzanne B., E-mail: Suzannne.firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Chagpar, Anees [Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)
There is disclosed a structural genus of compounds, defined according to coordinates in three-dimensional space, that bind amino moieties on neighboring residues in a tyrosine residue 29 pocket of the matrix protein component of the HIV-1 preintegration c...
J. Bajorath J. W. Godden O. K. Haffar
A survey of 65 ethnically diverse women revealed relatively low rates of disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus to extended family members, somewhat higher rates for immediate family members, and highest rates for lovers or friends. Spanish-speaking Latinas were less likely to disclose their serostatus than English-speaking Latinas, African…
Simoni, Jane M.; And Others
Little is known about the impact of maternal disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus on young children. The objective of this study was to explore this topic, utilizing in-depth qualitative interviews. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 mothers who had disclosed to their young, well child, and with the children. The most prevalent child…
Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Hoffman, Dannie
2010 saw a significant development in advocating for enhanced rights protection of HIV-positive workers: the adoption of an International Labour Organisation (ILO) recommendation on HIV/AIDS in the employment sphere. In this article, based on a presentation made at AIDS 2010, Ronald Brands outlines the key components of the document and how it seeks to protect employees and job-seekers from discrimination on the grounds of real or perceived HIV status. PMID:21413633
Central memory (T(CM)) and transitional memory (T(TM)) CD4(+) T cells are known to be the major cellular reservoirs for HIV, as these cells can harbor a transcriptionally silent form of viral DNA that is not targeted by either the immune system or current antiretroviral drug regimens. In the present study, we explored the molecular bases of the anti-HIV reservoir effects of auranofin (AF), a pro-oxidant gold-based drug and a candidate compound for a cure of AIDS. We here show that T(CM) and T(TM) lymphocytes have lower baseline antioxidant defenses as compared with their naive counterpart. These differences are mirrored by the effects exerted by AF on T-lymphocytes: AF was able to exert a pro-differentiating and pro-apoptotic effect, which was more pronounced in the memory subsets. AF induced an early activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) followed by mitochondrial depolarization and a final burst in intracellular peroxides. The pro-differentiating effect was characterized by a downregulation of the CD27 marker expression. Interestingly, AF-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pyruvate, a well-known peroxide scavenger, but pyruvate did not inhibit the pro-differentiating effect of AF, indicating that the pro-apoptotic and pro-differentiating effects involve different pathways. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that AF selectively targets the T(CM)/T(TM) lymphocyte subsets, which encompass the HIV reservoir, by affecting redox-sensitive cell death pathways. PMID:24309931
Chirullo, B; Sgarbanti, R; Limongi, D; Shytaj, I L; Alvarez, D; Das, B; Boe, A; DaFonseca, S; Chomont, N; Liotta, L; Petricoin, E Iii; Norelli, S; Pelosi, E; Garaci, E; Savarino, A; Palamara, A T
During their second pregnancy with diagnosed HIV (n?=?1177), two-fifths of women in the UK/Ireland not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at conception had an immunological indication for treatment (CD4+ <350?cells/?l), of whom nearly half had CD4+ at least 350?cells/?l in their previous pregnancy. Those initiating ART during pregnancy had a 4.3-fold increased odds of detectable viral load at delivery compared with those conceiving on treatment, suggesting that continuation of ART after pregnancy may be beneficial for many women.
French, Clare E.; Thorne, Claire; Tariq, Shema; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tookey, Pat A.
Objective?To compare obstetric and neonatal outcomes between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women and to determine if racial disparities exist among pregnancies complicated by HIV infection. Study Design?This was a retrospective analysis of data from the Consortium of Safe Labor between 2002 and 2008. Comparisons of obstetric morbidity, neonatal morbidity, and indications for cesarean delivery were examined. Included were singletons with documented HIV status, race, and antepartum admission. Chi-square, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results?Included were 178,972 patients (178,210 HIV-, 762 HIV+, 464 HIV+ black, 298 HIV+ nonblack). HIV+ women were more likely to have a cesarean delivery, preterm premature rupture of membranes, another sexually transmitted infection, and delivery at an earlier gestational age. Obstetric outcomes were similar between HIV+ black and HIV+ nonblack women. Neonates of HIV+ mothers had lower birth weights and higher rates of neonatal intensive care admissions. HIV+ black women had lower birth weight neonates than HIV+ nonblack women. Conclusion?HIV+ women have higher rates of obstetric complications and deliver at an earlier gestational age than HIV- mothers. Lower birth weight was the only notable complication among HIV+ black women compared with HIV+ nonblack women. PMID:24000110
Parikh, Laura; Timofeev, Julia; Singh, Jasbir; Sullivan, Shannon; Huang, Chun-Chih; Landy, Helain J; Driggers, Rita W
Living with HIV can challenge core features of a person’s sense of identity and ultimately lead to a diminished sense of self regard. Self-regard has been defined as the extent to which a person experiences an integrated sense of identity. Gay men with HIV may also face struggles related to their identity in deciding whether to disclose or conceal their
Philip M. Ullrich; Susan K. Lutgendorf; Jack T. Stapleton; Mardi Horowitz
The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive women and men receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Across 16 clinics, 1,890 HIV+ patients on ART completed a risk-focused audio computer-assisted self-interview upon enrolling in a prevention-with-positives intervention trial. Results demonstrated that 62 % of HIV-positive patients' recent unprotected sexual acts involved HIV-negative or HIV status unknown partners. For HIV-positive women, multivariable correlates of unprotected sex with HIV-negative or HIV status unknown partners were indicative of poor HIV prevention-related information and of sexual partnership-associated behavioral skills barriers. For HIV-positive men, multivariable correlates represented motivational barriers, characterized by negative condom attitudes and the experience of depressive symptomatology, as well as possible underlying information deficits. Findings suggest that interventions addressing gender-specific and culturally-relevant information, motivation, and behavioral skills barriers could help reduce HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive South Africans. PMID:24158486
Shuper, Paul A; Kiene, Susan M; Mahlase, Gethwana; MacDonald, Susan; Christie, Sarah; Cornman, Deborah H; Fisher, William A; Greener, Ross; Lalloo, Umesh G; Pillay, Sandy; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Fisher, Jeffrey D
In a series of 60 HIV-1-infected individuals, serum electrofocusing analysis disclosed clonally restricted IgG patterns in 9 patients (15%), most with limited disease progression (stages WR1-WR3). These oligoclonal bands had a very heterogeneous light chain pattern, and most showed specificity for HIV-1 in affinity-driven transfer studies; virus specificity was more clear-cut following adsorption of sera with the relevant antigen. These findings further stress the profound B-cell function derangement in HIV-1 infection; their possible relevance to AIDS-associated lymphoma development is discussed. PMID:1694450
Amadori, A; Gallo, P; Zamarchi, R; Veronese, M L; De Rossi, A; Wolf, D; Chieco-Bianchi, L
The purpose of this study was to examine college students' perceptions of their teaching assistants' self-disclosure behavior in the classroom. Students in the introductory speech course rated their teaching assistants' self-disclosure based on positive and negative statements. In addition, student rated the self-disclosure on intent to disclose,…
Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria
Much attention has been given to self-disclosure as an important component of parent-adolescent relationships. The authors address gaps in the current literature via a multimethod, multicultural design, interviewing 120 adolescents in Costa Rica, Thailand, and South Africa about their reasons for disclosing to parents, and then constructing items…
Hunter, Sally B.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.; McNeely, Clea A.; Bose, Krishna
The last decade has witnessed the emergence of international ethics guidelines discussing the importance of disclosing global and also, in certain circumstances, individual genetic research results to participants. This discussion is all the more important considering the advent of pharmacogenomics and the increasing incidence of ‘translational’ genetic research in the post-genomic era. We surveyed both the literature and the ethical
Bartha Maria Knoppers; Yann Joly; Jacques Simard; Francine Durocher
...electronically stored information, and tangible things that the disclosing party has in its possession...location of any documents or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons...person from whom discovery is sought may move for a protective order. The motion...
The role of disclosing child sexual abuse on adolescent survivors' symptomology and the presence of additional unwanted sexual experiences was investigated in a subsample of 111 adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents who reported child sexual abuse. Results indicated that prompt disclosure of sexual abuse to an adult moderated the…
Kogan, Steven M.
Objectives: The present study was designed to explore structural differences between forensic interviews in which children made allegations and those in which children did not make allegations. Methodology: Fifty forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old suspected victims of abuse who did not disclose abuse during the interview were compared with…
Hershkowitz, Irit; Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Horowitz, Dvora
While bullying among students is a recalcitrant problem in U.S. schools, research indicates that many students do not disclose bullying they experience or witness despite repeated efforts on the part of adults. The preponderance of research tends to neither include the perceptions of students nor provide understanding about their reluctance to…
deLara, Ellen W.
Introduction As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help parents to assess and understand the evolving cognitive capacity and maturity of their adolescents in order to determine the appropriate time to inform them of their HIV-positive status. Such interventions should also mitigate the risk of HIV stigma, as well as local norms that may prevent discussions of sexuality within families. Adolescents who have been informed of their HIV status should be provided with on-going support to prevent disclosure from negatively affecting their psychological and sexual wellbeing. Further research is needed to explore the potential role of trusted family members in contributing to the disclosure process.
Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Kalibala, Sam; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Cataldo, Fabian; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Ross, David
Population-based disease prevalence surveys raise ethical questions, including whether participants should be routinely told their test results. Ethical guidelines call for informing survey participants of any clinically relevant finding to enable appropriate management. However, in anonymous surveys of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, participants can "opt out" of being given their test results or are offered the chance to undergo voluntary HIV testing in local counselling and testing services. This is aimed at minimizing survey participation bias. Those who opt out of being given their HIV test results and who do not seek their results miss the opportunity to receive life-saving antiretroviral therapy. The justification for HIV surveys without routine feedback of results to participants is based on a public health utility argument: that the benefits of more rigorous survey methods - reduced participation bias - outweigh the benefits to individuals of knowing their HIV status. However, people with HIV infection have a strong immediate interest in knowing their HIV status. In consideration of the ethical value of showing respect for people and thereby alleviating suffering, an argument based on public health utility is not an appropriate justification. In anonymous HIV surveys as well as other prevalence surveys of treatable conditions in any setting, participation should be on the basis of routine individual feedback of results as an integral part of fully informed participation. Ensuring that surveys are ethically sound may stimulate participation, increase a broader uptake of HIV testing and reduce stigmatization of people who are HIV-positive. PMID:24347734
HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:22676465
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
Background More and more quantitative information is becoming available about the risks of complications arising from medical treatment. In everyday practice, this raises the question whether each and every risk, however low, should be disclosed to patients. What could be good reasons for doing or not doing so? This will increasingly become a dilemma for practitioners. Objective To report doctors' views on whether to disclose or withhold information on low risks of complications. Methods In a qualitative study design, 37 respondents (gastroenterologists and gynaecologists or obstetricians) were included. Focus group interviews were held with 22 respondents and individual in?depth interviews with 15. Results Doctors have doubts about disclosing or withholding information on complication risk, especially in a risk range of 1 in 200 to 1 in 10?000. Their considerations on whether to disclose or to withhold information depend on a complicated mix of patient and doctor?associated reasons; on medical and personal considerations; and on the kind and purpose of intervention. Discussion Even though the degree of a risk is important in a doctor's considerations, the severity of the possible complications and patients' wishes and competencies have an important role as well. Respondents said that low risks should always be communicated when there are alternatives for the intervention or when the patient may prevent or mitigate the risk. When the appropriateness of disclosing risks is doubtful, doctors should always tell their patients that no intervention is without risk, give them the opportunity to gather all the information they need or want, and enable them to detect a complication at an early stage.
Palmboom, G G; Willems, D L; Janssen, N B A T; de Haes, J C J M
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is an important determinant of bone health and also plays a major role in the regulation of the immune system. Interestingly, vitamin D status before the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been recently associated with HIV disease progression and overall mortality in HIV-positive pregnant women. We prospectively studied vitamin D status in HIV individuals
Anali Conesa-Botella; Eric Florence; Lutgarde Lynen; Robert Colebunders; Joris Menten; Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes
The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.
Richman, Douglas D.
A shift in focus in the field of neuroHIV was clearly manifest at the 2014 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), where a major emphasis was on the milder forms of neurologic morbidity, including cognitive impairment, seen in well-treated patients. Mechanisms of this persistent abnormality were investigated, including extensive analysis of the prevalence and associations of persistent HIV detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and characterization of persistent CNS immune activation. Another key emphasis was the early establishment of HIV replication and inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) and the potentially salutary effect of very early HIV diagnosis and treatment in protecting the CNS from HIV-related injury. Mitochondrial function was identified as a potential mediator of a number of aspects of HIV-associated CNS dysfunction, including neurotoxicity associated with efavirenz, host genetic determinants of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), associations with direct measures of mitochondria in CSF, and metabolomic screening of CSF in HIV-infected subjects and those with HAND. Many studies employed laboratory rather than neuropsychologic end points, with a major focus on CSF biomarkers. Overall, neuroHIV presentations at CROI 2014 provided new insights into pathogenesis and treatment of the CNS, raising new challenges for researchers and practitioners aiming to optimize the status of the brain in people living with HIV infection. PMID:24901885
Spudich, Serena S
Background In Kenya, the comparative incidences of tuberculosis among persons with and without HIV have not been described, and the differential impact of public health interventions on tuberculosis incidence in the two groups is unknown. Methods We estimated annual tuberculosis incidence stratified by HIV status during 2006–2012 based on the numbers of reported tuberculosis patients with and without HIV infection, the prevalence of HIV infection in the general population, and the total population. We also made crude estimates of annual tuberculosis incidence stratified by HIV status during 1998–2012 by assuming a constant ratio of HIV prevalence among tuberculosis patients compared to the general population. Results Tuberculosis incidence among both adults with HIV and adults without HIV increased during 1998–2004 then remained relatively stable until 2007. During 2007–2012, tuberculosis incidence declined by 28–44% among adults with HIV and by 11–26% among adults without HIV, concurrent with an increase in antiretroviral therapy uptake. In 2012, tuberculosis incidence among adults with HIV (1,839–1,936 cases/100,000 population) was still eight times as high as among adults without HIV (231–238 cases/100,000 population), and approximately one third of tuberculosis cases were attributable to HIV. Conclusions Although tuberculosis incidence has declined among adults with and without HIV, the persistent high incidence of tuberculosis among those with HIV and the disparity between the two groups are concerning. Early diagnosis of HIV, early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, regular screening for tuberculosis, and isoniazid preventive therapy among persons with HIV, as well as tuberculosis control in the general population, are required to address these issues.
Yuen, Courtney M.; Weyenga, Herman O.; Kim, Andrea A.; Malika, Timothy; Muttai, Hellen; Katana, Abraham; Nganga, Lucy; Cain, Kevin P.; De Cock, Kevin M.
Background The 2011 Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS) was conducted as part of a national study to evaluate the scale up of key HIV prevention programs. Methods From a randomly selected sample of all Swazi households, all women and men aged 18-49 were considered eligible, and all consenting adults were enrolled and received HIV testing and counseling. In this analysis, population-based measures of HIV prevalence were produced and compared against similarly measured HIV prevalence estimates from the 2006-7 Swaziland Demographic and Health. Also, measures of HIV service utilization in both HIV infected and uninfected populations were documented and discussed. Results HIV prevalence among adults aged 18-49 has remained unchanged between 2006-2011 at 31-32%, with substantial differences in current prevalence between women (39%) and men (24%). In both men and women, between since 2006-7 and 2011, prevalence has fallen in the young age groups and risen in the older age groups. Over a third (38%) of the HIV-infected population was unaware of their infection status, and this differed markedly between men (50%) and women (31%). Of those aware of their HIV-positive status, a higher percentage of men (63%) than women (49%) reported ART use. Conclusions While overall HIV prevalence remains roughly constant, age-specific changes strongly suggest both improved survival of the HIV-infected and a reduction in new HIV infections. Awareness of HIV status and entry into ART services has improved in recent years but remains too low. This study identifies opportunities to improve both HIV preventive and care services in Swaziland.
Bicego, George T.; Nkambule, Rejoice; Peterson, Ingrid; Reed, Jason; Donnell, Deborah; Ginindza, Henry; Duong, Yen T.; Patel, Hetal; Bock, Naomi; Philip, Neena; Mao, Cherry; Justman, Jessica
Early HIV testing is critical to prevention and timely treatment. Missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis can result in unnecessary deaths at a time when access to antiretroviral treatment proves life saving. While HIV prevention and treatment research has increased, less research exists on women's experiences with HIV diagnosis, despite the fact that women are most affected. Insights from local women are critical in designing culturally meaningful interventions that thwart missed opportunities for early HIV diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to uncover steps women took to know their HIV diagnosis. Using narrative inquiry methodology informed by post-colonial feminism, we interviewed 40 HIV- positive women in Kenya. Five themes emerged related to uptake of HIV testing for women: (a) spouse's critical illness or death; (b) years of suffering from HIV-related symptoms; (c) sick children; (d) prenatal testing; and (e) personal desire to know one's HIV status. These findings centered on women experiences provide an important basis for health promotion interventions related to HIV prevention, earlier detection, and treatment.
Kako, Peninnah M.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Kibicho, Jennifer; Karani, Anna K.; Dressel, Anne
Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI withinserodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (ncouples=91; nindividuals=182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load.A minority of couples (30%) engaged in risk taking and/or strategicpositioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regressionindicated that HIV-negative partners’ levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in both risk taking and strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, autonomy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners’reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation ofdiscussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care.
Starks, Tyrel J.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Johnson, Mallory O.
Objective: HIV-positive women are known to be at high-risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its associated cervical pathology. Here, we describe the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among HIV-positive and -negative women in South Africa, with and without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods: We report data on 1,371 HIV-positive women and 8,050 HIV-negative women, aged 17–65?years, recruited into three sequential studies in Cape Town, South Africa, conducted among women who had no history of cervical cancer screening recruited from the general population. All women were tested for HIV. Cervical samples were tested for high-risk HPV DNA (Hybrid Capture 2) with positive samples tested to determine the specific genotype (Line Blot). CIN status was determined based on colposcopy and biopsy. Results: The HPV prevalence was higher among HIV-positive women (52.4%) than among HIV-negative women (20.8%) overall and in all age groups. Younger women, aged 17–19?years, had the highest HPV prevalence regardless of HIV status. HIV-positive women were more likely to have CIN 2 or 3 than HIV-negative women. HPV 16, 35, and 58 were the most common high-risk HPV types with no major differences in the type distribution by HIV status. HPV 18 was more common in older HIV-positive women (40–65?years) with no or low grade disease, but less common in younger women (17–29?years) with CIN 2 or 3 compared to HIV-negative counterparts (p?0.03). Infections with multiple high-risk HPV types were more common in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women, controlling for age and cervical disease status. Conclusion: HIV-positive women were more likely to have high-risk HPV than HIV-negative women; but, among those with HPV, the distribution of HPV types was similar by HIV status. Screening strategies incorporating HPV genotyping and vaccination should be effective in preventing cervical cancer in both HIV-positive and -negative women living in sub-Saharan Africa.
McDonald, Alicia C.; Tergas, Ana I.; Kuhn, Louise; Denny, Lynette; Wright, Thomas C.
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973
Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S
Individuals testing HIV positive were interviewed at testing centers, followed prospectively and interviewed again when they registered at referral antiretroviral therapy (ART) centers (ARTCs). Those who did not register at ARTCs were traced and interviewed in the community. A total of 1057 newly diagnosed people living with HIV (PLHIV; 52% women; mean age, 34.7 years) were recruited. A total of 73.5% of PLHIV registered at referral ARTCs within 60 days, 17.9% did not register and were interviewed in the community, and 8.6% were not interviewed. The 2 main reasons cited for not registering were a perception of good health (30%) and work/family engagements (22%). Single clients (adjusted relative risk [ARR]: 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-2.34), participants who had not disclosed their HIV status (ARR: 2.32; 95%CI: 1.77-3.05), participants who knew a PLHIV (ARR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.41-2.53), and participants from laborer households (ARR: 2.66; 95%CI:1.15-6.15) were more likely to not register. In conclusion, the majority of newly diagnosed PLHIV do reach ARTCs. Disclosure concerns and a perception of good health prevent PLHIV from accessing services. PMID:23418205
Sarna, Avina; Sebastian, Mary; Bachani, Damodar; Sogarwal, Ruchi; Battala, Madhusudana
HIV testing has been promoted as a key HIV prevention strategy in low-resource settings, despite studies showing variable impact on risk behavior. We sought to examine rates of HIV testing and the association between testing and sexual risk behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya. Participants were interviewed about HIV testing and sexual risk behaviors. They then underwent HIV serologic testing. We found that 47% of women and 36% of men reported prior testing. Two-thirds of participants who tested HIV-positive in this study reported no prior HIV test. Women who had undergone recent testing were less likely to report high-risk behaviors than women who had never been tested; this was not seen among men. Although rates of HIV testing were higher than seen in previous studies, the majority of HIV-infected people were unaware of their status. Efforts should be made to increase HIV testing among this population. PMID:20012479
Huchko, Megan J; Montandon, Michele; Nguti, Rosemary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R
Living with an ostomy is a major change to a person's body and poses difficult questions about how to disclose personal medical information to others. This autoethnography examines my time with an ostomy through the lens of co-cultural theory and sheds light on how people with ostomies communicate with the dominant culture, in this case people without ostomies. I discuss how my communication goals and approaches evolved over time. PMID:22955345
Frohlich, Dennis Owen
Background Privacy concerns by providers have been a barrier to disclosing patient information for public health purposes. This is the\\u000a case even for mandated notifiable disease reporting. In the context of a pandemic it has been argued that the public good\\u000a should supersede an individual's right to privacy. The precise nature of these provider privacy concerns, and whether they\\u000a are diluted
Khaled El Emam; Jay Mercer; Katherine Moreau; Inese Grava-Gubins; David Buckeridge; Elizabeth Jonker
Background: Considerable lives and money could be saved if one could detect early stages of lapsing\\/ relapsing behavior in addicted persons (e.g., in safety-sensitive workplaces) and could disclose harmful drinking in social drinkers. Due to the serious public health problem of alcohol use and abuse worldwide, markers of alcohol use have been sought. Both ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and phosphatidyl ethanol
Friedrich Martin Wurst; Katja Jachau; Arthur Varga; Christer Alling; Andreas Alt; Gregory E. Skipper
Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management. PMID:24002679
Little is known about the process by which children disclose adult wrongdoing, a topic of considerable debate and controversy. In the current study, we investigated children's evaluations of disclosing adult wrongdoing by focusing on children's preferences for particular disclosure recipients and perceptions of the consequences of disclosure in hypothetical vignettes. We tested whether children thought that disclosure recipients would believe a story child as a truth teller and what actions the recipients would take against the "instigator" who committed the transgression. Maltreated and non-maltreated 4- to 9-year-olds (N=235) responded to questions about vignettes that described a parent's or stranger's transgression. Older children preferred caregiver recipients over police officer recipients when disclosing a parent's transgression but not a stranger's transgression. Maltreated children's preference for caregiver recipients over police officer recipients developed more gradually than that of non-maltreated children. Older children expected disclosure recipients to be more skeptical of the story child's account, and older children and maltreated children expected disclosure recipients to intervene formally less often when a parent, rather than a stranger, was the instigator. Results contribute to understanding vulnerable children's development and highlight the developmental, experiential, and socio-contextual factors underlying children's disclosure patterns. PMID:24769356
Malloy, Lindsay C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D; Ahern, Elizabeth C
Home-based HIV testing and counseling (HBTC) has the potential to increase access to HIV testing. However, the extent to which HBTC programs successfully link HIV-positive individuals into clinical care remains unclear. To determine factors associated with early enrollment in HIV clinical care, adult residents (aged ?13 years) in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Kisumu, Kenya were offered HBTC. All HIV-positive residents were referred to nearby HIV clinical care centers. Two to four months after HBTC, peer educators conducted home visits to consenting HIV-positive residents. Overall, 9,895 (82 %) of 12,035 residents accepted HBTC; 1,087 (11 %) were HIV-positive; and 737 (68 %) received home visits. Of those receiving home visits, 42 % reported HIV care attendance. Factors associated with care attendance included: having disclosed, living with someone attending HIV care, and wanting to seek care after diagnosis. Residents who reported their current health as excellent or who doubted their HBTC result were less likely to report care attendance. While findings indicate that HBTC was well-received in this setting, less than half of HIV-positive individuals reported current care attendance. Identification of effective strategies to increase early enrollment and retention in HIV clinical care is critical and will require coordination between testing and treatment program staff and systems. PMID:23076720
Medley, Amy; Ackers, Marta; Amolloh, Manase; Owuor, Patrick; Muttai, Helen; Audi, Beryl; Sewe, Manquins; Laserson, Kayla
A qualitative study was conducted to explore disclosure decisions of rural African American (AA) men living with HIV disease. The sample consisted of 20 HIV-infected AA men living in the rural south, who had been diagnosed with HIV for at least six months. Audio taped semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The men were questioned about who they had told about their disease, reactions to their disclosures, and their advice to others about disclosing. Findings showed initially the men did not disclose their disease to others, and many of them continued not to disclose. They were concerned about negative consequences, such as rejection, fear of contagion, and of the recipients telling others. If and when they disclosed, it was likely to be to sexual partners, immediate family members, and health care providers. Their decision not to disclose protected them from the possible negative reactions, but it also limited the amount of social and emotional support they received related to their HIV disease.
Gaskins, Susan W.
Lunula is the white, half-moon shaped area seen in proximal ends of some nails. Though a few studies have described the nail changes that can occur in association with HIV infection, none of these paid much attention to lunula. Aims and Objectives. To study the lunula in fingernails among HIV infected patients. Materials and Methods. An observational, cross-sectional study to record presence of lunula in 168 HIV-positive patients and compare it with age and sex matched 168 healthy HIV-negative control. Anolunula (absence of lunula) in HIV-positive patients was correlated with CD4 counts, stages of HIV infection, time since patient was diagnosed as HIV-positive, and status of antiretroviral therapy. Results. Anolunula was present in significantly more fingernails in HIV-positive patients compared to HIV-negative controls. There was a highly significant difference for total anolunula (anolunula in all fingernails) in study and control group. Incidence of total anolunula was directly proportional to the stage of HIV infection, increasing progressively as the HIV infection advances from stage 1 to stage 4. Conclusion. Absence of lunula is related to not only HIV infection per se but also the stages of HIV infection.
Mishra, Nitin; Chauhan, Sandhya; Ali, Mir Mubashir; Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Thakur, Richa
...disclosing data and information submitted to MMS under a permit. 251.14 Section 251...disclosing data and information submitted to MMS under a permit. (a) Disclosure of data and information to the public by MMS. (1) In making data and...
Sexual health is defined in terms of well-being, but is challenged by the social, cultural and economic realities faced by women and men with HIV. A sexual rights approach puts women and men with HIV in charge of their sexual health. Accurate, accessible information to make informed choices and safe, pleasurable sexual relationships possible is best delivered through peer education and health professionals trained in empathetic approaches to sensitive issues. Young people with HIV especially need appropriate sex education and support for dealing with sexuality and self-identity with HIV. Women and men with HIV need condoms, appropriate services for sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunction and management of cervical and anogenital cancers. Interventions based on positive prevention, that combine protection of personal health with avoiding HIV/STI transmission to partners, are recommended. HIV counselling following a positive test has increased condom use and decreased coercive sex and outside sexual contacts among discordant couples. HIV treatment and care have reduced stigma and increased uptake of HIV testing and disclosure of positive status to partners. High adherence to antiretroviral therapy and safer sexual behaviour must go hand-in-hand. Sexual health services have worked with peer educators and volunteer groups to reach those at higher risk, such as sex workers. Technological advances in diagnosis of STIs, microbicide development and screening and vaccination for human papillomavirus must be available in developing countries and for those with the highest need globally. PMID:17531749
Shapiro, Kathy; Ray, Sunanda
Objective: To test the predictive accuracy of the Framingham Risk Score for Stroke (FRS-S) in HIV-infected (HIV+) vs HIV-uninfected (HIV?) men. Methods: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is an ongoing prospective study of HIV+ and HIV? men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in 4 US cities. We ascertained all reported stroke events during a recent 15-year timeframe (July 1, 1996 to June 30, 2011) among 3,945 participants (1,776 HIV+ and 2,169 HIV?). For those with strokes, FRS-S were calculated 10 years before the stroke event and assessed according to HIV status. Results: A total of 114 stroke events occurred, including 57 HIV+ and 37 HIV? participants with first-ever strokes and 19 fatal strokes. The incidence of first-ever stroke was 1.7/1,000 person-years among HIV? and 3.3/1,000 person-years among HIV+ participants. Among those with strokes, HIV+ participants were younger than HIV? participants (median age 51.3 vs 61.8 years, p < 0.0001). For these men with stroke, the average 10-year risk of stroke was higher for HIV? MSM (6.6% [range 3%–26%] vs 4.9% for HIV+ MSM [range 0%–15%], p < 0.04). Traditional risk factors for stroke were similar among the Framingham cohort and the MACS HIV+ and HIV? participants. Conclusions: FRS-S prediction was systematically different in HIV+ vs HIV? men with stroke events. The FRS-S underestimates the long-term risk of stroke in HIV+ men.
Post, Wendy S.; Sacktor, Ned; Abraham, Alison G.; Becker, James T.; Smith, Bryan R.; Detels, Roger; Martin, Eileen; Phair, John P.; Shinohara, Russell T.
Objective To determine whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased risk of malaria incidence and recurrence in children. Methods Newborn infants of HIV-infected mothers were enrolled at 6 weeks and followed for 2 years. HIV status was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and confirmed by HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction. Malaria was defined as (1) physician-diagnosed clinical malaria; (2) probable malaria, in which laboratory testing is requested for parasitemia; and (3) blood smear–confirmed malaria. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for development of first and second malaria episodes, and generalized estimating equation models estimated malaria rate differences per 100-child-years in relation to time-updated HIV status. Results Child HIV infection was associated with clinical (HR, 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.61), probable (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19–1.81), and confirmed (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18–2.36) malaria episodes. Per 100 child-years, HIV-infected children experienced 88 (95% CI, 65–113), 36 (95% CI, 19–53), and 20 (95% CI, 9–31) more episodes of clinical, probable, and confirmed malaria episodes, respectively, than HIV-uninfected children. Among children with ?1 malaria episodes, those with HIV infection developed second clinical (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04–1.57), probable (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.26–2.14), and confirmed (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06–3.89) malaria sooner than HIV-uninfected children. Conclusions HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of malaria. Proactive malaria disease prevention and treatment is warranted for all children, particularly those with HIV infection in settings of coendemicity.
Ezeamama, Amara E.; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Bosch, Ronald J.; Manji, Karim P.; Duggan, Christopher; Kupka, Roland; Lo, Melanie W.; Okuma, James O.; Kisenge, Rodrick; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie W.
Background The clinical importance of the association of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) with low bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women is uncertain because BMD stabilizes on established ART and fracture data are limited. Methods We measured time to first new fracture at any site with median follow-up of 5.4 years in 2391 (1728 HIV-infected, 663 HIV-uninfected) participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Self-report of fracture was recorded at semiannual visits. Proportional hazard models assessed predictors of incident fracture. Results At baseline, HIV-infected women were older (40 ± 9 vs. 36 ± 10 years, P <0.0001), more likely to report postmenopausal status and be hepatitis C virus-infected, and weighed less than HIV-uninfected women. Among HIV-infected women, mean CD4+ cell count was 482 cells/?l; 66% were taking ART. Unadjusted incidence of fracture did not differ between HIV-infected and uninfected women (1.8 vs. 1.4/100 person-years, respectively, P = 0.18). In multivariate models, white (vs. African-American) race, hepatitis C virus infection, and higher serum creatinine, but not HIV serostatus, were statistically significant predictors of incident fracture. Among HIV-infected women, older age, white race, current cigarette use, and history of AIDS-defining illness were associated with incidence of new fracture. Conclusion Among predominantly premenopausal women, there was little difference in fracture incidence rates by HIV status, rather traditional risk factors were important predictors. Further research is necessary to characterize fracture risk in HIV-infected women during and after the menopausal transition.
Yin, Michael T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Hoover, Donald R.; Anastos, Kathryn; Sharma, Anjali; Young, Mary; Levine, Alexandra; Cohen, Mardge H.; Shane, Elizabeth; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Tien, Phyllis C.
Objective?To examine the association of youth and caregiver HIV status, and other contextual and social regulation factors with youth mental health.?Method?Data were from two longitudinal studies of urban youth perinatally infected, affected, and unaffected by HIV (N?=?545; 36% PHIV+ youth; 45.7% HIV+ caregivers). Youth mental health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Depression Inventory, and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children.?Results?HIV+ youth reported elevated scores on the CDI compared with HIV? youth. HIV+ caregivers reported fewer symptoms and were less likely to report scores in the clinical range for their children on the CBCL compared with HIV? caregivers. Caregiver mental health and parent–child communication and involvement were also associated with youth mental health.?Conclusions?Youth who resided with HIV+ caregivers had better mental health. Future research needs to further explore the role of caregiver HIV infection in youth mental health. Understanding and building upon strengths of HIV-affected families may be an effective focus of interventions for this population.
Robbins, Reuben N.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; McKay, Mary; Mellins, Claude A.
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine remains a central component in the quest to control the worldwide epidemic. To examine the status of the development of HIV vaccines, we review the results of the efficacy trials carried out to date and the immunologic principles that guided them. Four vaccine concepts have been evaluated in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials, and the results of these trials have provided significant information for future vaccine development. While one of these trials demonstrated that a safe and effective HIV vaccine is possible, many questions remain regarding the basis for the observed protection and the most efficient way to stimulate it. Novel HIV vaccine strategies including induction of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, use of novel homologous and heterologous vector systems, and vectored immunoprophylaxis seek to expand and build upon the knowledge gained from these trials.
Background While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the survey design using nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 100,030 women and men from the 2005–2006 India National Family Health survey which, for the first time, provided objective assessments of HIV seroprevalence. Although there was a weak relationship between household wealth and risk of being HIV-positive, there was a clear negative relationship between individual education attainment and risk of being HIV-positive among both men and women. A 1000 Rupee change in the per capita net state domestic product was associated with a 4% and 5% increase in the risk for positive HIV status among men and women, respectively. State-level income inequality was associated with increased risk of HIV for men. Marital status and selected sexual behavior indicators were significant predictors of HIV status among women whereas the age effect was the most dominant predictor of HIV infection among men. Conclusions/Significance Although the prevalence of HIV in India is low, the lack of strong wealth patterning in the risk of HIV suggests a more generalized distribution of HIV risk than some of India's high-risk group HIV prevention policies have assumed. The positive association between state economic development and individual risk for HIV is intriguing and requires further scrutiny.
Perkins, Jessica M.; Khan, Kashif T.; Subramanian, S. V.
Muscular fatigue may result from HIV infection, and may be associated with antiretroviral drug treatment. Clinical features linked to muscle biopsy findings may assist in determining etiology, and guide treatment decisions.This case series examined HIV patients in an ambulatory HIV clinic who received antiretroviral therapy, and complained of unexplained muscular fatigue. Clinical features with measurement of acid-base status, levels of
Steven C. Zell; Surl Nielsen
The fastest growing segment of the United States HIV population is people aged 50 and older. This heterogeneous group includes people with diverse pathways into HIV positive status in later life, including aging with the disease as well as later life-acquired infections. As people with HIV live into older ages, solving problems of successful secondary prevention and ongoing treatment requires
Andrea Sankar; Andrea Nevedal; Stewart Neufeld; Rico Berry; Mark Luborsky
...Indian Health Programs; Title V HIV/AIDS Program Announcement Type: New Limited...Urban Indian Health Programs Title V HIV/AIDS program. This program is authorized...V grants to increase awareness of HIV/AIDS status among urban American...
Background: Few research studies have examined the HIV trans- mission risk behaviors of HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) who are men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Methods: We compared unprotected vaginal or anal sex with an HIV-negative or unknown (UNK) status sexual partner of MSMW (n = 118) with men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW;
Kelly R. Knight; Starley B. Shade; David W. Purcell; Carol Dawson Rose; Lisa R. Metsch; Mary H. Latka; Carl A. Latkin; Cynthia A. Gomez
According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates, thousands of Americans are infected with HIV but are unaware of their infection status. National disease prevention goals to identify and treat these individuals will benefit from HIV risk screening, counseling, testing, and referral services conducted in nontraditional settings and the use of alternative diagnostic methods such as oral fluid-based HIV
Lauren L. Patton; V. Allen Santos; Rosemary G. McKaig; Diane C. Shugars; Ronald P. Strauss
Background Dementia is an insidious and stigmatised condition, and research indicates that GPs find communicating this diagnosis particularly problematic. Delays in diagnosis may impede optimal patient care. Little research has been published on Australian GPs’ perceptions of barriers to disclosing the diagnosis of dementia. Aim To explore GPs’ perceptions of barriers to disclosing the diagnosis of dementia. Design and setting Qualitative study in the general practice consultation context. Method Semi-structured, audiorecorded interviews were conducted with GPs from three capital cities and one regional centre in Australia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Results GPs’ lack of confidence in having a correct diagnosis, concern to act in patients’ best interests, and the stigma associated with the ‘dementia’ label influenced the disclosure process. GPs found it challenging to identify dementia in the consultation context. It was difficult to raise the issue when both the patient and their family/carer(s) ignore/are unaware of symptoms of cognitive decline. Referral to a specialist was favoured to confirm suspicions, although this did not always result in a definitive diagnosis. Opinions differed as to whether the GP or the specialist was better placed to deliver the diagnosis. GPs preferred disclosure to the patient with his/her family/carer(s) present; associated issues of confidentiality and the importance of offering hope emerged. The severity of the patient’s dementia also guided the diagnostic disclosure process. GPs often used euphemisms for dementia when disclosing the diagnosis, to soften the message. Conclusion Complex issues surround the disclosure of dementia. Communicating this diagnosis remains particularly challenging for many GPs.
Phillips, Jill; Pond, Constance Dimity; Paterson, Nerida Elizabeth; Howell, Cate; Shell, Allan; Stocks, Nigel P; Goode, Susan M; Marley, John E
A total removal of the bacterial deposits is one of the main challenges of periodontal therapy. A surgical approach is sometimes required in order to allow a correct access to the areas not thoroughly reached during the initial therapy. The present study focuses on the surgical scaling effectiveness in root deposits removal; the potential support of a disclosing agent during this procedure is also evaluated. Forty surgical periodontal patients were randomly divided between surgeries where the operator was informed about a final examination of the residual root deposits and surgeries where the operator was not informed. Straight after scaling procedures a supervisor recorded the O’Leary Plaque Index of the exposed roots by mean of a disclosing agent and the percentage of teeth with residual biofilm. After the stained deposits removal, a second chromatic examination was performed and new data were collected. Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test for paired samples were used for comparisons respectively between the two surgery groups and the first and the second chromatic examination; one-sided p-value was set at 0.05. At first examination no significant differences between the two groups were observed regarding Plaque Index (p=0.24) and percentages of teeth with residual biofilm (p=0.07). The 100% removal of roots deposits was never achieved during the study but a significant reduction of 80% of root deposits was observed between first and second examination (p=0.0001). Since root deposits removal during periodontal surgery resulted always suboptimal, the use of a disclosing agent during this procedure could be a useful and practical aid.
Montevecchi, Marco; Checchi, Vittorio; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Klein, Sascha; Checchi, Luigi
A 55-year-old HIV-positive man presented with acute vision loss in the right eye and altered mental status. Ophthalmic evaluation revealed light perception vision OD with a right relative afferent pupillary defect, conjunctival chemosis, large mutton-fat keratitic precipitates, and diffuse cream-colored vitreous cells. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbit with and without contrast with fat saturation showed choroidal thickening OD, multifocal deep periventricular and deep ganglionic enhancing lesions, and a suprasellar mass. Brain biopsy showed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate and cytarabine and whole brain radiation therapy failed. His mental status deteriorated. He developed pancytopenia, neutropenic fever, and septic shock and subsequently expired under palliative care. PMID:24856819
Prospero Ponce, Claudia M; Al Zubidi, Nagham; Beaver, Hilary A; Lee, Andrew G; Huey, Derrick A; Chavis, Pamela S
Social and cultural forces have led some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women to question the recommendation in the United States not to breastfeed. Without an open dialogue, women may choose to breastfeed exclusively or intermittently and not disclose this to their provider. We review the evidence from global studies of the risks of breastfeeding among HIV-infected mothers and propose a harm reduction model for women considering breastfeeding. PMID:24771330
Levison, Judy; Weber, Shannon; Cohan, Deborah
Objectives. Our primary aims were to identify differences on the basis of sex- ual orientation in victimization, substance use, and HIV risk behaviors and to ex- amine associations among these variables in American Indian men. Our sec- ondary aims included describing condom-use attitudes, beliefs about HIV\\/AIDS in the Indian community, HIV knowledge, HIV status, and preference for and ac- cess
Jane M. Simoni; Karina L. Walters; Kimberly F. Balsam; Seth B. Meyers
We assess the cost-effectiveness of maintenance treatment for heroin addiction, with emphasis on its role in preventing HIV infection. The analysis is based on a dynamic compartmental model of the HIV epidemic among a population of adults, ages 18 to 44. The population is divided into nine compartments according to infection status and risk group. The model takes into account
Gregory S. Zaric; Margaret L. Brandeau; Paul G. Barnett
Four dimensions of psychological adaptation of 101 parents of HIV-infected children were examined. Heightened anxiety, depression, and anticipatory grief were associated with child's age at diagnosis, parent's HIV status, and parent's relationship to the child. Parents at higher risk for psychological distress were identified, and an optimum time point for intervention is suggested. PMID:7977671
Wiener, L; Theut, S; Steinberg, S M; Riekert, K A; Pizzo, P A
Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…
Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others
This Extended Plan maintains the focus on core prevention priorities expressed in the 2001 Plan: reducing the number of new infections, increasing knowledge of HIV status, and promoting linkages to care, treatment, and prevention services. In addition, ne...
Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±ART) were investigated with Women’s Interagency HIV Study data (n=1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. 63 % had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-OH vitamin D was highest in HIV-infected +ART-treated women (17 ng/mL, p<0.001), but the same in HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected without ART (14 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were lower if ART included efavirenz (15 vs 19 ng/mL, p<0.001). The most common lipid abnormality was high triglycerides (?200 mg/dL) in HIV-infected +ART, (13%, vs 7% of HIV-infected without ART and 5% of HIV-uninfected (p<0.001) with a positive relationship between 25-OH-D and triglycerides (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.69, p<.01). No relationships between 25-OH-D and cholesterol were detected. Vitamin D deficiency is common irrespective of HIV status but influenced by HIV treatment. Similarly, vitamin D levels were positively related to triglycerides only in ART treated HIV infected, and unrelated to cholesterol.
Schwartz, Janice B.; Moore, Kelly L.; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M.
Following earlier observations on the snout (SR) and palmomental(PMR) reflexes in AIDS in Tanzania, a series of 1127 adults, 649 HIV-positive and 478 HIV-negative, from 4 groups at different risk of HIV infection were examined neurologically between 1987 and 1992. The prevalence of SR and PMR was calculated according to HIV status, HIV stage, demographic factors and neurologic findings. In the total series of HIV positives the prevalence ranged from SR 39.3% and PMR 22.6% in asymptomatic HIV disease to SR 87% and PMR 69% in terminal AIDS. In HIV negatives the prevalence of SR was 19.2% and PMR 15.3%, and increased with age. There was no relationship with age in the HIV positives and no gender differences. SR and PMR were also associated with neuropathy, myelopathy and AIDS dementia complex independent of HIV stage. This study shows a strong association between SR and PMR and HIV disease in Africa. The prevalence increased with HIV stage and related neurological disorders. PMID:7572042
Howlett, W P; Nkya, W M; Kvále, G; Nilssen, S
Itemset mining has recently focused on discovery of frequent itemsets from high-dimensional datasets with relatively few rows and a larger number of items. With exponentially in-creasing running time as average row length increases, mining such datasets renders most conventional algorithms impracti-cal. Unfortunately, large cardinality closed itemsets are likely to be more informative than small cardinality closed itemsets in this type of dataset. This paper proposes an approach, called DisClose, to extract large cardinality (colossal) closed itemsets from high-dimensional datasets. The approach relies on a memory-efficient Compact Row-Tree data structure to represent itemsets during the search process. The search strategy explores the transposed representation of the dataset. Large cardinality itemsets are enumerated first followed by smaller ones. In addition, we utilize a minimum cardinality threshold to further reduce the search space. Experimental result shows that DisClose can complete the extraction of colossal closed itemsets in the considered dataset, even for low support thresholds. The algorithm immediately discovers closed itemsets without needing to check if each new closed itemset has previously been found.
Zulkurnain, Nurul F.; Keane, John A.; Haglin, David J.
Research has revealed differences on scales measuring HIV knowledge between individuals from various ethnic backgrounds and cultures. Few studies have examined this knowledge with immigrant populations and persons living with HIV. This study examined HIV knowledge among persons living with HIV who were either born in Canada or in sub-Saharan Africa and, for comparison, in a sample of college students. All participants were residing in Canada. Participants completed questionnaires measuring demographic variables, sexual health behaviour, and HIV status, treatment, and knowledge. Canadian-born patients living with HIV were more likely to be older and male than the other groups. On average, patients living with HIV were diagnosed 6.4 years ago, and 80% reported having current or previous experience taking HIV medications. After adjusting for age and gender, significant differences were found between the groups on the Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire. Canadian-born persons living with HIV (n = 110) scored higher than sub-Saharan African-born patients (n = 23) and college students (n = 81); mean percentage correct was 86, 70, and 62%, respectively (P < .01). These results suggested that ongoing HIV education is needed for all groups, and that additional tailored and targeted educational interventions are needed to address important gaps in knowledge among persons living with HIV patients originating from Africa and among college students. PMID:21643728
Tulloch, Heather E; Balfour, Louise; Kowal, John; Tasca, Georgio A; Angel, Jonathan B; Garber, Gary; Macpherson, Paul; Cooper, Curtis; Cameron, D W
The objective is to assess health status and health utilities (values) of HIV-infected patients and to examine changes in health status and health utilities over time. One hundred thirty-nine patients with various stages of HIV infection and, for comparis...
Introduction Patients who are lost to follow-up (LTFU) while on antiretroviral therapy (ART) pose challenges to the long-term success of ART programs. We describe the extent to which patients considered LTFU are misclassified as true disengagement from care when they are still alive on ART and explain reasons for ART discontinuation using our active tracing program to further improve ART retention programs and policies. Methods We identified adult ART patients who missed clinic appointment by more than 3 weeks between January 2006 and December 2010, assuming that such patients would miss their doses of antiretroviral drugs. Patients considered LTFU who consented during ART registration were traced by phone or home visits; true ART status after tracing was documented. Reasons for ART discontinuation were also recorded for those who stopped ART. Results Of the 4,560 suspected LTFU cases, 1,384 (30%) could not be traced. Of the 3,176 successfully traced patients, 952 (30%) were dead and 2,224 (70%) were alive, of which 2,183 (99.5%) started ART according to phone-based self-reports or physical verification during in-person interviews. Of those who started ART, 957 (44%) stopped ART and 1,226 (56%) reported still taking ART at the time of interview by sourcing drugs from another clinic, using alternative ART sources or making brief ART interruptions. Among 940 cases with reasons for ART discontinuations, failure to remember (17%), too weak/sick (12%), travel (46%), and lack of transport to the clinic (16%) were frequently cited; reasons differed by gender. Conclusion The LTFU category comprises sizeable proportions of patients still taking ART that may potentially bias retention estimates and misdirect resources at the clinic and national levels if not properly accounted for. Clinics should consider further decentralization efforts, increasing drug allocations for frequent travels, and improving communication on patient transfers between clinics to increase retention and adherence.
Tweya, Hannock; Feldacker, Caryl; Estill, Janne; Jahn, Andreas; Ng'ambi, Wingston; Ben-Smith, Anne; Keiser, Olivia; Bokosi, Mphatso; Egger, Matthias; Speight, Colin; Gumulira, Joe; Phiri, Sam
Background Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Design An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A cutoff score ?19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Results The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS?19). Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27–20.81), low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85–36.29), number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77–8.99), not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33–20.62), and CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 (OR=1.98, 95% CI 0.45–0.83) and 200–499 cells/mm3 (OR=3.53, 95% CI 1.62–7.73). Conclusions This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health services with HIV/AIDS care and support program.
Tesfaye, Solomon H.; Bune, Girma T.
HIV is a chronic illness that requires strict adherence to medication regimens. This study attempts to examine the patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence relative to religious beliefs in a population of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. Eligible subjects included perinatally HIV-infected youth aged 14–22 years who knew their HIV status. Assessment tools included an antiretroviral adherence form, a standardized depression
James Park; Sharon Nachman
Objectives HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Methods Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Results Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also report