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Sample records for discovery extracting usable

  1. Knowledge discovery: Extracting usable information from large amounts of data

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.

    1998-12-31

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of world wide concern. Safeguards are the key to nuclear nonproliferation and data is the key to safeguards. The safeguards community has access to a huge and steadily growing volume of data. The advantages of this data rich environment are obvious, there is a great deal of information which can be utilized. The challenge is to effectively apply proven and developing technologies to find and extract usable information from that data. That information must then be assessed and evaluated to produce the knowledge needed for crucial decision making. Efficient and effective analysis of safeguards data will depend on utilizing technologies to interpret the large, heterogeneous data sets that are available from diverse sources. With an order-of-magnitude increase in the amount of data from a wide variety of technical, textual, and historical sources there is a vital need to apply advanced computer technologies to support all-source analysis. There are techniques of data warehousing, data mining, and data analysis that can provide analysts with tools that will expedite their extracting useable information from the huge amounts of data to which they have access. Computerized tools can aid analysts by integrating heterogeneous data, evaluating diverse data streams, automating retrieval of database information, prioritizing inputs, reconciling conflicting data, doing preliminary interpretations, discovering patterns or trends in data, and automating some of the simpler prescreening tasks that are time consuming and tedious. Thus knowledge discovery technologies can provide a foundation of support for the analyst. Rather than spending time sifting through often irrelevant information, analysts could use their specialized skills in a focused, productive fashion. This would allow them to make their analytical judgments with more confidence and spend more of their time doing what they do best.

  2. Promise Fulfilled? An EBSCO Discovery Service Usability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah C.; Foster, Anita K.

    2011-01-01

    Discovery tools are the next phase of library search systems. Illinois State University's Milner Library implemented EBSCO Discovery Service in August 2010. The authors conducted usability studies on the system in the fall of 2010. The aims of the study were twofold: first, to determine how Milner users set about using the system in order to…

  3. A Tale of Two Discoveries: Comparing the Usability of Summon and EBSCO Discovery Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Anita K.; MacDonald, Jean B.

    2013-01-01

    Web-scale discovery systems are gaining momentum among academic libraries as libraries seek a means to provide their users with a one-stop searching experience. Illinois State University's Milner Library found itself in the unique position of having access to two distinct discovery products, EBSCO Discovery Service and Serials Solutions' Summon.…

  4. Enabling Data Discovery and Reuse by Improving Software Usability:Data Science Experiences, Lessons, and Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.; Yarmey, L.

    2014-12-01

    It is well understood that a good data scientist needs domain science, analysis, programming, and communication skills to create finished data products, visualizations, and reports. Articles and blogs tout the need for "expert" skill levels in domain knowledge, statistics, storytelling, graphic design, technology…and the list goes on. Since it seems impossible that one person would encompass all these skills, it is often suggested that data science be done by a team instead of an individual. This research into, and experience with, data product design offers an augmented definition - one that elevates relationships and engagement with the final user of a product. Essentially, no matter how fantastic or technically advanced a product appears, the intended audience of that product must be able to understand, use, and find value in the product in order for it to be considered a success. Usability is often misunderstood and seen as common sense or common knowledge, but it is actually an important and challenging piece of product development. This paper describes the National Snow and Ice Data Center's process to usability test the Arctic Data Explorer (ADE). The ADE is a federated data search tool for interdisciplinary Arctic science data that has been improved in features, appearance, functionality, and quality through a series of strategic and targeted usability testing and assessments. Based on the results, it is recommended that usability testing be incorporated into the skill set of each data science team.

  5. Improving data discovery and usability through commentary and user feedback: the CHARMe project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegre, R.; Blower, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Earth science datasets are highly diverse. Users of these datasets are similarly varied, ranging from research scientists through industrial users to government decision- and policy-makers. It is very important for these users to understand the applicability of any dataset to their particular problem so that they can select the most appropriate data sources for their needs. Although data providers often provide rich supporting information in the form of metadata, typically this information does not include community usage information that can help other users judge fitness-for-purpose.The CHARMe project (http://www.charme.org.uk) is filling this gap by developing a system for sharing "commentary metadata". These are annotations that are generated and shared by the user community and include: Links between publications and datasets. The CHARMe system can record information about why a particular dataset was used (e.g. the paper may describe the dataset, it may use the dataset as a source, or it may be publishing results of a dataset assessment). These publications may appear in the peer-reviewed literature, or may be technical reports, websites or blog posts. Free-text comments supplied by the user. Provenance information, including links between datasets and descriptions of processing algorithms and sensors. External events that may affect data quality (e.g. large volcanic eruptions or El Niño events); we call these "significant events". Data quality information, e.g. system maturity indices. Commentary information can be linked to anything that can be uniquely identified (e.g. a dataset with a DOI or a persistent web address). It is also possible to associate commentary with particular subsets of datasets, for example to highlight an issue that is confined to a particular geographic region. We will demonstrate tools that show these capabilities in action, showing how users can apply commentary information during data discovery, visualization and analysis. The

  6. Usability Testing for e-Resource Discovery: How Students Find and Choose e-Resources Using Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Amy; Rich, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, library staff at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio designed and conducted a usability study of key parts of the library web site, focusing on the web pages generated by the library's electronic resources management system (ERM) that list and describe the library's databases. The goal was to discover how users find and…

  7. Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2010-01-01

    All common fractions can be written in decimal form. In this Discovery article, the author suggests that teachers ask their students to calculate the decimals by actually doing the divisions themselves, and later on they can use a calculator to check their answers. This article presents a lesson based on the research of Bolt (1982).

  8. PKDE4J: Entity and relation extraction for public knowledge discovery.

    PubMed

    Song, Min; Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Dahee; Heo, Go Eun; Kang, Keun Young

    2015-10-01

    Due to an enormous number of scientific publications that cannot be handled manually, there is a rising interest in text-mining techniques for automated information extraction, especially in the biomedical field. Such techniques provide effective means of information search, knowledge discovery, and hypothesis generation. Most previous studies have primarily focused on the design and performance improvement of either named entity recognition or relation extraction. In this paper, we present PKDE4J, a comprehensive text-mining system that integrates dictionary-based entity extraction and rule-based relation extraction in a highly flexible and extensible framework. Starting with the Stanford CoreNLP, we developed the system to cope with multiple types of entities and relations. The system also has fairly good performance in terms of accuracy as well as the ability to configure text-processing components. We demonstrate its competitive performance by evaluating it on many corpora and found that it surpasses existing systems with average F-measures of 85% for entity extraction and 81% for relation extraction. PMID:26277115

  9. Marketing through Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Eric Lease

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that one of the best ways to get word-of-mouth marketing of library technology is to provide "usable" products and services. Provides an international standards definition on usability and notes that understanding usability combines an understanding of user needs/wants with an understanding of goals, functions, and limitations of…

  10. Debunking Health IT Usability Myths

    PubMed Central

    Staggers, N.; Xiao, Y.; Chapman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Poor usability is a threat to patient safety and linked to productivity loss, workflow disruption, user frustration, sub-optimal product use and system de-installations. Although usability is receiving more attention nationally and internationally, myths about usability persist. This editorial debunks five common myths about usability (1) usability only concerns the look and feel of a product and is, therefore, only a minor concern, (2) usability is not measurable, (3) usability stifles innovation, (4) vendors are solely responsible for product usability, and (5) usability methods are not practical for use in healthcare. PMID:23874361

  11. Evaluating Web Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Jean; Martin, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Web usability focuses on design elements and processes that make web pages easy to use. A website for college students was evaluated for underutilization. One-on-one testing, focus groups, web analytics, peer university review and marketing focus group and demographic data were utilized to conduct usability evaluation. The results indicated that…

  12. Statistical Methods for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery based on Feature Extraction or Functional Modeling Approaches*

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, developments in molecular biotechnology have led to the increased promise of detecting and validating biomarkers, or molecular markers that relate to various biological or medical outcomes. Proteomics, the direct study of proteins in biological samples, plays an important role in the biomarker discovery process. These technologies produce complex, high dimensional functional and image data that present many analytical challenges that must be addressed properly for effective comparative proteomics studies that can yield potential biomarkers. Specific challenges include experimental design, preprocessing, feature extraction, and statistical analysis accounting for the inherent multiple testing issues. This paper reviews various computational aspects of comparative proteomic studies, and summarizes contributions I along with numerous collaborators have made. First, there is an overview of comparative proteomics technologies, followed by a discussion of important experimental design and preprocessing issues that must be considered before statistical analysis can be done. Next, the two key approaches to analyzing proteomics data, feature extraction and functional modeling, are described. Feature extraction involves detection and quantification of discrete features like peaks or spots that theoretically correspond to different proteins in the sample. After an overview of the feature extraction approach, specific methods for mass spectrometry (Cromwell) and 2D gel electrophoresis (Pinnacle) are described. The functional modeling approach involves modeling the proteomic data in their entirety as functions or images. A general discussion of the approach is followed by the presentation of a specific method that can be applied, wavelet-based functional mixed models, and its extensions. All methods are illustrated by application to two example proteomic data sets, one from mass spectrometry and one from 2D gel electrophoresis. While the specific methods

  13. Statistical Methods for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery based on Feature Extraction or Functional Modeling Approaches.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, developments in molecular biotechnology have led to the increased promise of detecting and validating biomarkers, or molecular markers that relate to various biological or medical outcomes. Proteomics, the direct study of proteins in biological samples, plays an important role in the biomarker discovery process. These technologies produce complex, high dimensional functional and image data that present many analytical challenges that must be addressed properly for effective comparative proteomics studies that can yield potential biomarkers. Specific challenges include experimental design, preprocessing, feature extraction, and statistical analysis accounting for the inherent multiple testing issues. This paper reviews various computational aspects of comparative proteomic studies, and summarizes contributions I along with numerous collaborators have made. First, there is an overview of comparative proteomics technologies, followed by a discussion of important experimental design and preprocessing issues that must be considered before statistical analysis can be done. Next, the two key approaches to analyzing proteomics data, feature extraction and functional modeling, are described. Feature extraction involves detection and quantification of discrete features like peaks or spots that theoretically correspond to different proteins in the sample. After an overview of the feature extraction approach, specific methods for mass spectrometry (Cromwell) and 2D gel electrophoresis (Pinnacle) are described. The functional modeling approach involves modeling the proteomic data in their entirety as functions or images. A general discussion of the approach is followed by the presentation of a specific method that can be applied, wavelet-based functional mixed models, and its extensions. All methods are illustrated by application to two example proteomic data sets, one from mass spectrometry and one from 2D gel electrophoresis. While the specific methods

  14. Iterative usability testing: ensuring a usable clinical workstation.

    PubMed

    Coble, J M; Karat, J; Orland, M J; Kahn, M G

    1997-01-01

    Once the users' needs are determined, how does one ensure that the resulting software meets the users' needs? This paper describes our application of a process, usability testing, that is used to measure the usability of systems as well as guide modifications to address usability problems. Usability testing is not a method to elicit opinions about software, but rather a method to determine scientifically a product's level of usability. Our application of usability testing is designed to determine the current usability level of a workstation designed for the clinician's use, determine specific problems with the Clinical Workstation's usability, and then evaluate the effectiveness of changes that address those problems. PMID:9357724

  15. Usability of car stereo.

    PubMed

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others. PMID:22317617

  16. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  17. Earthdata Search Usability Study Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    User experience (UX) design is the process of enhancing user satisfaction by improving various aspects of the user's interaction with an application or website. One aspect of UX design is usability, or the extent to which an application can be used to to accomplish tasks efficiently, effectively, and with satisfaction. NASA's Earthdata Search Client recently underwent a focused usability testing project to measure usability and gain valuable user feedback and insights to increase usability for its end-users. This presentation focuses on the process by which the usability tests were administered and the lessons learned throughout the process.

  18. High-Throughput Screening Platform for the Discovery of New Immunomodulator Molecules from Natural Product Extract Libraries.

    PubMed

    Pérez Del Palacio, José; Díaz, Caridad; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Annang, Frederick; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; González-Menéndez, Víctor; de Pedro, Nuria; Tormo, José R; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; Gálvez, Julio

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that central nervous system inflammation and systemic inflammation play a significant role in the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, neurotropic viral infections, stroke, paraneoplastic disorders, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it seems reasonable to propose that the use of anti-inflammatory drugs might diminish the cumulative effects of inflammation. Indeed, some epidemiological studies suggest that sustained use of anti-inflammatory drugs may prevent or slow down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory drugs and biologics used clinically have the disadvantage of causing side effects and a high cost of treatment. Alternatively, natural products offer great potential for the identification and development of bioactive lead compounds into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases with an improved safety profile. In this work, we present a validated high-throughput screening approach in 96-well plate format for the discovery of new molecules with anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory activity. The in vitro models are based on the quantitation of nitrite levels in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and interleukin-8 in Caco-2 cells. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset of 5976 noncytotoxic crude microbial extracts from the MEDINA microbial natural product collection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an high-throughput screening of microbial natural product extracts for the discovery of immunomodulators. PMID:26962874

  19. Discovery of Predicate-Oriented Relations among Named Entities Extracted from Thai Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongtep, Nattapong; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    Extracting named entities (NEs) and their relations is more difficult in Thai than in other languages due to several Thai specific characteristics, including no explicit boundaries for words, phrases and sentences; few case markers and modifier clues; high ambiguity in compound words and serial verbs; and flexible word orders. Unlike most previous works which focused on NE relations of specific actions, such as work_for, live_in, located_in, and kill, this paper proposes more general types of NE relations, called predicate-oriented relation (PoR), where an extracted action part (verb) is used as a core component to associate related named entities extracted from Thai Texts. Lacking a practical parser for the Thai language, we present three types of surface features, i.e. punctuation marks (such as token spaces), entity types and the number of entities and then apply five alternative commonly used learning schemes to investigate their performance on predicate-oriented relation extraction. The experimental results show that our approach achieves the F-measure of 97.76%, 99.19%, 95.00% and 93.50% on four different types of predicate-oriented relation (action-location, location-action, action-person and person-action) in crime-related news documents using a data set of 1,736 entity pairs. The effects of NE extraction techniques, feature sets and class unbalance on the performance of relation extraction are explored.

  20. Web Redemption and the Promise of Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Alison J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses usability as an interface design concept to improve information retrieval on the World Wide Web. Highlights include criteria for a usable Web site; usability testing; usability resources on the Web; and a sidebar that gives an example of usability testing by Hewlett-Packard. (LRW)

  1. Integration of MSFC Usability Lab with Usability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Richardson, Sally

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Stage Analysis Branch, human factors engineering plays an important role in relating humans to the systems of hardware and structure designs of the new launch vehicle. While many branches are involved in the technical aspects of creating a launch vehicle, human factors connects humans to the scientific systems with the goal of improving operational performance and safety while reducing operational error and damage to the hardware. Human factors engineers use physical and computerized models to visualize possible areas for improvements to ensure human accessibility to components requiring maintenance and that the necessary maintenance activities can be accomplished with minimal risks to human and hardware. Many methods of testing are used to fulfill this goal, such as physical mockups, computerized visualization, and usability testing. In this analysis, a usability test is conducted to test how usable a website is to users who are and are not familiar with it. The testing is performed using participants and Morae software to record and analyze the results. This analysis will be a preliminary test of the usability lab in preparation for use in new spacecraft programs, NASA Enterprise, or other NASA websites. The usability lab project is divided into two parts: integration of the usability lab and a preliminary test of the usability lab.

  2. A knowledge discovery and reuse pipeline for information extraction in clinical notes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dung H M; Wang, Yefeng; Li, Min

    2011-01-01

    Objective Information extraction and classification of clinical data are current challenges in natural language processing. This paper presents a cascaded method to deal with three different extractions and classifications in clinical data: concept annotation, assertion classification and relation classification. Materials and Methods A pipeline system was developed for clinical natural language processing that includes a proofreading process, with gold-standard reflexive validation and correction. The information extraction system is a combination of a machine learning approach and a rule-based approach. The outputs of this system are used for evaluation in all three tiers of the fourth i2b2/VA shared-task and workshop challenge. Results Overall concept classification attained an F-score of 83.3% against a baseline of 77.0%, the optimal F-score for assertions about the concepts was 92.4% and relation classifier attained 72.6% for relationships between clinical concepts against a baseline of 71.0%. Micro-average results for the challenge test set were 81.79%, 91.90% and 70.18%, respectively. Discussion The challenge in the multi-task test requires a distribution of time and work load for each individual task so that the overall performance evaluation on all three tasks would be more informative rather than treating each task assessment as independent. The simplicity of the model developed in this work should be contrasted with the very large feature space of other participants in the challenge who only achieved slightly better performance. There is a need to charge a penalty against the complexity of a model as defined in message minimalisation theory when comparing results. Conclusion A complete pipeline system for constructing language processing models that can be used to process multiple practical detection tasks of language structures of clinical records is presented. PMID:21737844

  3. From User Interface Usability to the Overall Usability of Interactive Systems: Adding Usability in System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Mohamed; Seffah, Ahmed; Engleberg, Daniel

    Traditional interactive system architectures such as MVC and PAC decompose the system into subsystems that are relatively independent, thereby allowing the design work to be partitioned between the user interfaces and underlying functionalities. Such architectures extend the independence assumption to usability, approaching the design of the user interface as a subsystem that can be designed and tested independently from the underlying functionality. This Cartesian dichotomy can be fallacious, as functionalities buried in the application’s logic can sometimes affect the usability of the system. Our investigations model the relationships between internal software attributes and externally visible usability factors. We propose a pattern-based approach for dealing with these relationships. We conclude by discussing how these patterns can lead to a methodological framework for improving interactive system architec-tures, and how these patterns can support the integration of usability in the software design process.

  4. Early-Stage Software Design for Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Elspeth

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the goodwill and best efforts of software engineers and usability professionals, systems continue to be built and released with glaring usability flaws that are costly and difficult to fix after the system has been built. Although user interface (UI) designers, be they usability or design experts, communicate usability requirements to…

  5. Hello World! - Experiencing Usability Methods without Usability Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Elina; Cajander, Åsa; Gulliksen, Jan

    How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer’s understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users’ problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability pro fes sion als, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.

  6. cMRI-BED: A novel informatics framework for cardiac MRI biomarker extraction and discovery applied to pediatric cardiomyopathy classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a rare, yet heterogeneous group of pathologies of the myocardium that are routinely examined clinically using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (cMRI). This gold standard powerful non-invasive tool yields high resolution temporal images that characterize myocardial tissue. The complexities associated with the annotation of images and extraction of markers, necessitate the development of efficient workflows to acquire, manage and transform this data into actionable knowledge for patient care to reduce mortality and morbidity. Methods We develop and test a novel informatics framework called cMRI-BED for biomarker extraction and discovery from such complex pediatric cMRI data that includes the use of a suite of tools for image processing, marker extraction and predictive modeling. We applied our workflow to obtain and analyze a dataset of 83 de-identified cases and controls containing cMRI-derived biomarkers for classifying positive versus negative findings of cardiomyopathy in children. Bayesian rule learning (BRL) methods were applied to derive understandable models in the form of propositional rules with posterior probabilities pertaining to their validity. Popular machine learning methods in the WEKA data mining toolkit were applied using default parameters to assess cross-validation performance of this dataset using accuracy and percentage area under ROC curve (AUC) measures. Results The best 10-fold cross validation predictive performance obtained on this cMRI-derived biomarker dataset was 80.72% accuracy and 79.6% AUC by a BRL decision tree model, which is promising from this type of rare data. Moreover, we were able to verify that mycocardial delayed enhancement (MDE) status, which is known to be an important qualitative factor in the classification of cardiomyopathies, is picked up by our rule models as an important variable for prediction. Conclusions Preliminary results show the feasibility of our framework

  7. Fresh Wounds: Metadata and Usability Lessons from building the Earthdata Search Client

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilone, D.; Quinn, P.; Murphy, K. J.; Baynes, K.

    2014-12-01

    Data discovery and accessibility are frequent topics in science conferences but are usually discussed in an abstract XML schema kind-of way. In the course of designing and building the NASA Earthdata Search Client, a "concept-car" discovery client for the new Common Metadata Repository (CMR) and NASA Earthdata, we learned important lessons about usability from user studies and our actual use of science metadata. In this talk we challenge the community with the issues we ran into: the critical usability stumbling blocks for even seasoned researchers, "bug reports" from users that were ultimately usability problems in metadata, the challenges and questions that arise from incorporating "visual metadata", and the state of data access services. We intend to show that high quality metadata and real human usability factors are essential to making critical data accessible.

  8. Usability Flaws in Medication Alerting Systems: Impact on Usage and Work System

    PubMed Central

    Ammenwerth, E.; Roehrer, E.; Pelayo, S.; Vasseur, F.; Beuscart-Zéphir, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Previous research has shown that medication alerting systems face usability issues. There has been no previous attempt to systematically explore the consequences of usability flaws in such systems on users (i.e. usage problems) and work systems (i.e. negative outcomes). This paper aims at exploring and synthesizing the consequences of usability flaws in terms of usage problems and negative outcomes on the work system. Methods A secondary analysis of 26 papers included in a prior systematic review of the usability flaws in medication alerting was performed. Usage problems and negative outcomes were extracted and sorted. Links between usability flaws, usage problems, and negative outcomes were also analyzed. Results Poor usability generates a large variety of consequences. It impacts the user from a cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and attitudinal perspective. Ultimately, usability flaws have negative consequences on the workflow, the effectiveness of the technology, the medication management process, and, more importantly, patient safety. Only few complete pathways leading from usability flaws to negative outcomes were identified. Conclusion Usability flaws in medication alerting systems impede users, and ultimately their work system, and negatively impact patient safety. Therefore, the usability dimension may act as a hidden explanatory variable that could explain, at least partly, the (absence of) intended outcomes of new technology. PMID:26123906

  9. You're a What? Usability Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Describes the work of usability engineers, who improve computer hardware, software, and websites by focusing on how users perceive and manipulate those tools. Discusses education, training, salaries, and talents needed by usability engineers. (Author/JOW)

  10. The Art of Questions and Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Daniel H.

    The discovery method, according to the author, promotes logical thinking, is motivational in nature, makes learning more permanent, produces more usable knowledge, and gets students actively involved. A discovery lesson is characterized by the following: (1) the concept to be learned is not announced, (2) experiences and activities are developed…

  11. The Development of MSFC Usability Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Richardson, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the development of the usability lab at Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of the lab was to integrate a fully functioning usability laboratory to provide a resource for future human factor assessments. and to implement preliminary usability testing on a MSFC website to validate the functionality of the lab.

  12. Visualizing Cyber Security: Usable Workspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; North, Christopher L.; Endert, Alexander; Rose, Stuart J.

    2009-10-11

    An environment that supports cyber analytics work should enable multiple, simultaneous investigations, information foraging, and provide a solution space for organizing data. We describe our study of cyber security professionals and visualizations in a large, high-resolution display work environment. We discuss the tasks and needs of analysts that such an environment can support and present several prototypes designed to support these needs. We conclude with a usability evaluation of the prototypes and additional lessons learned.

  13. Improving EHR Usability Using LEAN Methodology.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Corbin; Kelly, Kandace

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) usability concerns continue to reduce EHR effectiveness. LEAN methodology, which focuses on waste elimination, may provide an effective method to address efficiency related usability deficiencies. We aimed to improve the usability of an inpatient seclusion and restraint (SR) EHR module using LEAN methodology. A multidisciplinary team convened to evaluate and redesign clinical and technological SR workflows using LEAN techniques, including process mapping and time-series analyses. SR module modifications addressed 40 of the 60 efficiency related usability deficiencies identified in the initial SR module. Usability enhancements included elimination of 10 nonessential inputs, 21 redundancies, and nine overhead functions. Process steps were reduced from 74 to 47. Improving EHR usability is critical to assure safe, effective, and efficient care1. We demonstrated that LEAN methodology is an effective method to address efficiency related EHR usability deficiencies. More research is needed to determine how these improvements impact care quality. PMID:27332384

  14. Sensor-oriented feature usability evaluation in fingerprint segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Gongping

    2013-06-01

    Existing fingerprint segmentation methods usually process fingerprint images captured by different sensors with the same feature or feature set. We propose to improve the fingerprint segmentation result in view of an important fact that images from different sensors have different characteristics for segmentation. Feature usability evaluation, which means to evaluate the usability of features to find the personalized feature or feature set for different sensors to improve the performance of segmentation. The need for feature usability evaluation for fingerprint segmentation is raised and analyzed as a new issue. To address this issue, we present a decision-tree-based feature-usability evaluation method, which utilizes a C4.5 decision tree algorithm to evaluate and pick the best suitable feature or feature set for fingerprint segmentation from a typical candidate feature set. We apply the novel method on the FVC2002 database of fingerprint images, which are acquired by four different respective sensors and technologies. Experimental results show that the accuracy of segmentation is improved, and time consumption for feature extraction is dramatically reduced with selected feature(s).

  15. First Discovery of Acetone Extract from Cottonseed Oil Sludge as a Novel Antiviral Agent against Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future. PMID:25705894

  16. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.

  17. Telerehabilitation Technologies: Accessibility and Usability

    PubMed Central

    Pramuka, Michael; van Roosmalen, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In the fields of telehealth and telemedicine, phone and/or video technologies are key to the successful provision of services such as remote monitoring and visits. How do these technologies affect service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness when applied to rehabilitation services in the field of telerehabilitation? To answer this question, we provide a overview of the complex network of available technologies and discuss how they link to rehabilitation applications, services, and practices as well as to the telerehabilitation end-user. This white paper will first present the numerous professional considerations that shape the use of technology in telerehabilitation service and set it somewhat apart from telemedicine. It will then provide an overview of concepts essential to usability analysis; present a summary of various telerehabilitation technologies and their strengths and limitations, and consider how the technologies interface with end users’ clinical needs for service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness. The paper will highlight a conceptual framework (including task analyses and usability issues) that underlies a functional match between telerehabilitation technologies, clinical applications, and end-user capabilities for telerehabilitation purposes. Finally, we will discuss pragmatic issues related to user integration of telerehabilitation technology versus traditional face-to-face approaches. PMID:25945165

  18. From Usability Engineering to Evidence-based Usability in Health IT.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Usability is a critical factor in the acceptance, safe use, and success of health IT. The User-Centred Design process is widely promoted to improve usability. However, this traditional case by case approach that is rooted in the sound understanding of users' needs is not sufficient to improve technologies' usability and prevent usability-induced use-errors that may harm patients. It should be enriched with empirical evidence. This evidence is on design elements (what are the most valuable design principles, and the worst usability mistakes), and on the usability evaluation methods (which combination of methods is most suitable in which context). To achieve this evidence, several steps must be fulfilled and challenges must be overcome. Some attempts to search evidence for designing elements of health IT and for usability evaluation methods exist and are summarized. A concrete instance of evidence-based usability design principles for medication-related alerting systems is briefly described. PMID:27198098

  19. How Do We Teach Usability? An Investigation of Usability Instruction in Technical Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the curricular implementation of usability instruction in technical communication. Though there are a plethora of publications and studies on usability in technical communication, little discussion focuses on usability instruction in the classroom or its implementation in the curriculum. Thus, this exploratory…

  20. Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…

  1. Usable Interface Design for Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud

    When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.

  2. Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Lutchman, Vicky; Medkour, Younes; Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-03-29

    We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729

  3. Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729

  4. State Digital Library Usability: Contributing Organizational Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hong; Wolfram, Dietmar

    2002-01-01

    Examines contributing factors for the organizational usability of state digital libraries through evidence from usage statistics of Internet-based database services available through a state digital library, a statewide-administered library survey, and a Web-based survey of users. Presents an organizational usability model for state digital…

  5. Evaluation of Usability Utilizing Markov Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penedo, Janaina Rodrigues; Diniz, Morganna; Ferreira, Simone Bacellar Leal; Silveira, Denis S.; Capra, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the usability of a remote learning system in its initial development phase, using a quantitative usability evaluation method through Markov models. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory study. The data of interest of the research correspond to the possible accesses of users…

  6. A Call for Bioimaging Software Usability

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Anne E.; Kamentsky, Lee; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

    2013-01-01

    Bioimaging software developed in a research setting often fails to be widely used by the scientific community. We suggest that, to maximize both the public’s and researchers’ investments, usability should be a more highly valued goal. We describe specific characteristics of usability towards which bioimaging software projects should aim. PMID:22743771

  7. Interactivity Centered Usability Evaluation (ICUE) for Course Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sangil

    2010-01-01

    ICUE (Interactivity Centered Usability Evaluation) is an enhanced usability testing protocol created by the researcher. ICUE augments the facilitator's role for usability testing, and offers strategies in developing and presenting usability tasks during a testing session. ICUE was designed to address weaknesses found in the usability evaluation of…

  8. Development of the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ)

    PubMed Central

    PARMANTO, BAMBANG; LEWIS, ALLEN NELSON; GRAHAM, KRISTIN M.; BERTOLET, MARNIE H.

    2016-01-01

    Current telehealth usability questionnaires are designed primarily for older technologies, where telehealth interaction is conducted over dedicated videoconferencing applications. However, telehealth services are increasingly conducted over computer-based systems that rely on commercial software and a user supplied computer interface. Therefore, a usability questionnaire that addresses the changes in telehealth service delivery and technology is needed. The Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ) was developed to evaluate the usability of telehealth implementation and services. This paper addresses: (1) the need for a new measure of telehealth usability, (2) the development of the TUQ, (3) intended uses for the TUQ, and (4) the reliability of the TUQ. Analyses indicate that the TUQ is a solid, robust, and versatile measure that can be used to measure the quality of the computer-based user interface and the quality of the telehealth interaction and services. PMID:27563386

  9. The influence of age in usability testing.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Schmutz, Sven; Sauer, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of age in usability testing were examined in an experiment. Sixty users from two age groups (M = 23.0 yrs, M = 58.1 yrs) operated two technical devices (keyboard-based and touchscreen-based smartphones). In addition to various performance measures (e.g. task completion time, task completion rate), several subjective measures were taken (e.g. perceived usability, affect, and workload). The results showed better performance scores for younger adults than older adults for task completion time. For older adult users there was a mismatch between usability ratings and task completion time but not between usability ratings and task completion rate. Age-related differences in the importance of speed and accuracy in task completion point to the need to consider more strongly the factor user age in usability research and practice. PMID:26360221

  10. Development of the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ).

    PubMed

    Parmanto, Bambang; Lewis, Allen Nelson; Graham, Kristin M; Bertolet, Marnie H

    2016-01-01

    Current telehealth usability questionnaires are designed primarily for older technologies, where telehealth interaction is conducted over dedicated videoconferencing applications. However, telehealth services are increasingly conducted over computer-based systems that rely on commercial software and a user supplied computer interface. Therefore, a usability questionnaire that addresses the changes in telehealth service delivery and technology is needed. The Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ) was developed to evaluate the usability of telehealth implementation and services. This paper addresses: (1) the need for a new measure of telehealth usability, (2) the development of the TUQ, (3) intended uses for the TUQ, and (4) the reliability of the TUQ. Analyses indicate that the TUQ is a solid, robust, and versatile measure that can be used to measure the quality of the computer-based user interface and the quality of the telehealth interaction and services. PMID:27563386

  11. Improving Public Relations Web Sites through Usability Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallahan, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Argues that usability research has particular relevance for enhancing the effectiveness of websites. Examines the nature and value of usability research, and the elements of an effective website based on usability principles. (SR)

  12. Discovery of a novel pharmacological and structural class of gamma secretase modulators derived from the extract of Actaea racemosa.

    PubMed

    Findeis, Mark A; Schroeder, Frank; McKee, Timothy D; Yager, Debra; Fraering, Patrick C; Creaser, Steffen P; Austin, Wesley F; Clardy, Jon; Wang, Rong; Selkoe, Dennis; Eckman, Christopher B

    2012-11-21

    A screen of a library of synthetic drugs and natural product extracts identified a botanical extract that modulates the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cultured cells to produce a lowered ratio of amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) (Aβ42) relative to Aβ40. This profile is of interest as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The extract, from the black cohosh plant (Actaea racemosa), was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation to isolate active components. Using a combination of normal-phase and reverse-phase chromatography, a novel triterpene monoglycoside, 1, was isolated. This compound was found to have an IC(50) of 100 nM for selectively reducing the production of amyloidogenic Aβ42 while having a much smaller effect on the production of Aβ40 (IC(50) 6.3 μM) in cultured cells overexpressing APP. Using IP-MS methods, this compound was found to modulate the pool of total Aβ produced by reducing the proportion of Aβ42 while increasing the relative amounts of shorter and less amyloidogenic Aβ37 and Aβ39. Concentrations of 1 sufficient to lower levels of Aβ42 substantially (up to 10 μM) did not significantly affect the processing of Notch or other aspects of APP processing. When 1 (10 μg) was administered to CD-1 normal mice intracerebroventricularly, the level of Aβ42 in brain was reduced. Assays for off-target pharmacology and the absence of overt signs of toxicity in mice dosed with compound 1 suggest a comparatively selective pharmacology for this triterpenoid. Compound 1 represents a new lead for the development of potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease via modulation of gamma-secretase. PMID:23205187

  13. Mass spectrometric protein maps for biomarker discovery and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yansheng; Hüttenhain, Ruth; Collins, Ben; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-01-01

    Among the wide range of proteomic technologies, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has shown great potential for biomarker studies. To extend the degree of multiplexing achieved by selected reaction monitoring (SRM), we recently developed SWATH MS. SWATH MS is a variant of the emerging class of data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods and essentially converts the molecules in a physical sample into perpetually re-usable digital maps. The thus generated SWATH maps are then mined using a targeted data extraction strategy, allowing us to profile disease-related proteomes at a high degree of reproducibility. The successful application of both SRM and SWATH MS requires the a priori generation of reference spectral maps that provide coordinates for quantification. Herein, we demonstrate that the application of the mass spectrometric reference maps and the acquisition of personalized SWATH maps hold a particular promise for accelerating the current process of biomarker discovery. PMID:24138574

  14. The effects of protoype medium on usability testing.

    PubMed

    Boothe, Chase; Strawderman, Lesley; Hosea, Ethan

    2013-11-01

    Inconsistencies among testing methods and results in previous research prompted this study that builds upon a systematic usability testing research framework to better understand how interface medium influences users' abilities to detect usability flaws in applications. Interface medium was tested to identify its effects on users' perceptions of usability and abilities to detect usability problems and severe usability problems. Results indicated that medium has no effect on users' abilities to detect usability problems or perceptions of usability. However, results did indicate an interaction between the medium and the tested application in which users were able to identify significantly more usability problems on a higher fidelity medium using a particular application. Results also indicated that as users' perceptions of an application's usability increases, the users are less able to detect usability problems in that application. Usability testing should begin early in the design process, even if low fidelity mediums will be used. PMID:23668779

  15. Usability Heuristics and Qualitative Indicators for the Usability Evaluation of Touch Screen Ventilator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katre, Dinesh; Bhutkar, Ganesh; Karmarkar, Shekhar

    A ventilator system provides respiratory support to critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Increasing complexity in the user interface, features and functionalities of ventilator systems can cause medical errors and cost the life of a patient. Therefore, the usability of ventilator systems is most crucial to ensure patient safety. We have evolved a specialized set of heuristics combined with objectively defined usability indicators for the usability evaluation of touch screen based ventilator systems. Our study presents the heuristic evaluation of three touch screen based ventilator systems manufactured by three different companies. The heuristic evaluation has been performed by four different usability evaluators to ensure the reliability of heuristics proposed in this paper. The specialized set of heuristics linked with user interface components and the objectively defined usability indicators are found more reliable in identifying specific usability problems of ventilator systems.

  16. Resource Discovery within the Networked "Hybrid" Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Sally-Anne

    This paper focuses on the development, adoption, and integration of resource discovery, knowledge management, and/or knowledge sharing interfaces such as interactive portals, and the use of the library's World Wide Web presence to increase the availability and usability of information services. The introduction addresses changes in library…

  17. On the dimensionality of the System Usability Scale: a test of alternative measurement models.

    PubMed

    Borsci, Simone; Federici, Stefano; Lauriola, Marco

    2009-08-01

    The System Usability Scale (SUS), developed by Brooke (Usability evaluation in industry, Taylor & Francis, London, pp 189-194, 1996), had a great success among usability practitioners since it is a quick and easy to use measure for collecting users' usability evaluation of a system. Recently, Lewis and Sauro (Proceedings of the human computer interaction international conference (HCII 2009), San Diego CA, USA, 2009) have proposed a two-factor structure-Usability (8 items) and Learnability (2 items)-suggesting that practitioners might take advantage of these new factors to extract additional information from SUS data. In order to verify the dimensionality in the SUS' two-component structure, we estimated the parameters and tested with a structural equation model the SUS structure on a sample of 196 university users. Our data indicated that both the unidimensional model and the two-factor model with uncorrelated factors proposed by Lewis and Sauro (Proceedings of the human computer interaction international conference (HCII 2009), San Diego CA, USA, 2009) had a not satisfactory fit to the data. We thus released the hypothesis that Usability and Learnability are independent components of SUS ratings and tested a less restrictive model with correlated factors. This model not only yielded a good fit to the data, but it was also significantly more appropriate to represent the structure of SUS ratings. PMID:19565283

  18. The Perils of Pathogen Discovery: Origin of a Novel Parvovirus-Like Hybrid Genome Traced to Nucleic Acid Extraction Spin Columns

    PubMed Central

    Naccache, Samia N.; Greninger, Alexander L.; Lee, Deanna; Coffey, Lark L.; Phan, Tung; Rein-Weston, Annie; Aronsohn, Andrew; Hackett, John; Delwart, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing was used for discovery and de novo assembly of a novel, highly divergent DNA virus at the interface between the Parvoviridae and Circoviridae. The virus, provisionally named parvovirus-like hybrid virus (PHV), is nearly identical by sequence to another DNA virus, NIH-CQV, previously detected in Chinese patients with seronegative (non-A-E) hepatitis. Although we initially detected PHV in a wide range of clinical samples, with all strains sharing ∼99% nucleotide and amino acid identity with each other and with NIH-CQV, the exact origin of the virus was eventually traced to contaminated silica-binding spin columns used for nucleic acid extraction. Definitive confirmation of the origin of PHV, and presumably NIH-CQV, was obtained by in-depth analyses of water eluted through contaminated spin columns. Analysis of environmental metagenome libraries detected PHV sequences in coastal marine waters of North America, suggesting that a potential association between PHV and diatoms (algae) that generate the silica matrix used in the spin columns may have resulted in inadvertent viral contamination during manufacture. The confirmation of PHV/NIH-CQV as laboratory reagent contaminants and not bona fide infectious agents of humans underscores the rigorous approach needed to establish the validity of new viral genomes discovered by next-generation sequencing. PMID:24027301

  19. Mapping Usability: A Critical Research Analysis of Trends in Software Usability Research, Theory, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Morgan Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The impetus for this project stemmed from a curiosity about two particular areas in the history of usability research. For one, I began research for this project with a desire to learn about patterns in the theory, practice, attitude, and perception about usability work, both in academic contexts and in corporate contexts, with a focus on the…

  20. Usability Evaluation of Public Web Mapping Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The

  1. Situated Usability Testing for Security Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-03-02

    While usability testing is well established, assessing the usability of security software, tools, or methods deserves more careful consideration. It has been argued that dealing with security has become too difficult for individuals or organizations to manage effectively or to use conveniently. As difficult as it is for system administrators and developers to deal with, security is even more challenging for casual users. Indeed, it is much too easy for casual/home users to configure the security of their systems in non-optimal ways that leave their systems inadvertently insecure. This is exacerbated by the fact that casual users are focused on matters other than security, and likely would prefer not even to think about security. This brief report argues that when security and/or privacy are part of the equation, traditional methods for usability testing should be re-considered. The purpose of this brief report is to argue for and outline a method associated with a new approach to usability testing for examining usable security issues.

  2. Discovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's Discovery Systems Project is given. The topics of discussion include: 1) NASA's Computing Information and Communications Technology Program; 2) Discovery Systems Program; and 3) Ideas for Information Integration Using the Web.

  3. Guided Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Presented are four mathematical discoveries made by students on an arithmetical function using the Fibonacci sequence. Discussed is the nature of the role of the teacher in directing the students' discovery activities. (KR)

  4. Usability Practice in Medical Imaging Application Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chufeng; Abdelnour-Nocera, Jose; Wells, Stephen; Pan, Nora

    Historically, development of medical imaging applications has focused on solving technical issues for small numbers of expert users. However, their use is now more mainstream and users are no longer willing to tolerate poor performance and usability. In this study we illustrate the application of user centred design methods in a medical imaging applications development company by using a usability comparative study of different regions of interest (ROI) tools. A use case analysis was used to judge usability efficiency and effectiveness of different ROI tools; and a user observation was also carried out which measured the accuracy achieved by these tools. We have found that useful results can be obtained by using these methods. We also generated some concrete suggestions that could be incorporated into future product development.

  5. Usability issues in Learning Management Systems (LMS).

    PubMed

    Muniz, Maria Isabella de Porto Alegre; Moraes, Anamaria de

    2012-01-01

    This project is about the usability of Learning Management Systems (LMS), focusing on the specific case of the open source system Moodle. Specifically, this project is about communication and collaboration tools that are used by teachers on the system. This study investigates whether usability problems hamper the use teachers make of these tools. Focused interviews were conducted with professionals working in distance education and the answers of the respondents were subjected to techniques of content analysis in order to obtain data for developing the tools needed to prove the hypothesis. PMID:22316825

  6. Usability on the p-medicine infrastructure: an extended usability concept

    PubMed Central

    Christ-Neumann, Marie-Luise; Escrich, Ana; Anguita, Alberto; Stenzhorn, Holger; Taylor, Marian; Ramay, Hena; Rüping, Stefan; Krauth, Christian; Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Graf, Norbert; Rossi, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Usability testing methods are nowadays integrated into the design and development of health-care software, and the need for usability in health-care information technology (IT) is widely accepted by clinicians and researchers. Usability assessment starts with the identification of specific objectives that need to be tested and continues with the definition of evaluation criteria and monitoring procedures before usability tests are performed to assess the quality of all services and tasks. Such a process is implemented in the p-medicine environment and gives feedback iteratively to all software developers in the project. GCP (good clinical practice) criteria require additional usability testing of the software. For the p-medicine project (www.p-medicine.eu), an extended usability concept (EUC) was developed. The EUC covers topics like ease of use, likeability, and usefulness, usability in trial centres characterised by a mixed care and research environment and by extreme time constraints, confidentiality, use of source documents, standard operating procedures (SOA), and quality control during data handling to ensure that all data are reliable and have been processed correctly in terms of accuracy, completeness, legibility, consistence, and timeliness. Here, we describe the p-medicine EUC, focusing on two of the many key tools: ObTiMA and the Ontology Annotator (OA). PMID:24567756

  7. EEG-based usability assessment of 3D shutter glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Markus A.; Schultze-Kraft, Rafael; Meinecke, Frank C.; Cardinaux, Fabien; Kemp, Thomas; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Neurotechnology can contribute to the usability assessment of products by providing objective measures of neural workload and can uncover usability impediments that are not consciously perceived by test persons. In this study, the neural processing effort imposed on the viewer of 3D television by shutter glasses was quantified as a function of shutter frequency. In particular, we sought to determine the critical shutter frequency at which the ‘neural flicker’ vanishes, such that visual fatigue due to this additional neural effort can be prevented by increasing the frequency of the system. Approach. Twenty-three participants viewed an image through 3D shutter glasses, while multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. In total ten shutter frequencies were employed, selected individually for each participant to cover the range below, at and above the threshold of flicker perception. The source of the neural flicker correlate was extracted using independent component analysis and the flicker impact on the visual cortex was quantified by decoding the state of the shutter from the EEG. Main Result. Effects of the shutter glasses were traced in the EEG up to around 67 Hz—about 20 Hz over the flicker perception threshold—and vanished at the subsequent frequency level of 77 Hz. Significance. The impact of the shutter glasses on the visual cortex can be detected by neurotechnology even when a flicker is not reported by the participants. Potential impact. Increasing the shutter frequency from the usual 50 Hz or 60 Hz to 77 Hz reduces the risk of visual fatigue and thus improves shutter-glass-based 3D usability.

  8. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  9. Staples.com: Focus on Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Tom; Hynes, Colin

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Staples.com electronic commerce Web site; discusses its steady growth rate; and details two case studies in which data from a variety of sources were used to identify and resolve site usability issues and which are supported by compelling ROI (return on investment) figures. (Author/LRW)

  10. Web Usability Testing in a Polytechnic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegener, Debby R.; Moi, May Goh-Ong Ai; Li, Mae Lim Mei

    2004-01-01

    The Temasek Polytechnic Library in Singapore launched its new digital library portal in December 2002. Circumstances precluded usability testing prior to this so it was with some concern that the library web team monitored its use. A few months later it became clear the users were having problems, so a new website was designed. This article deals…

  11. Usability: A Teaching and School Service Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    Your next usability project could be waiting for you in the college library, registration office, or online admissions process that your college or university utilizes in their daily transactions. As an added bonus, these exercises supplement the IS2002 curriculum model, benefit the instructor's institution, build inter-departmental collaboration,…

  12. Assessing Collaboratively Usable Applications to Collaborative Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipponen, Lasse; Lallimo, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    The continually increasing number of applications said to facilitate collaboration makes it very difficult for educators to identify and evaluate the ones that are suitable for educational purposes. In this paper we argue that from the educational point of view, it is meaningful to make a distinction between collaboratively usable applications and…

  13. Automatic assessment of ultrasound image usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Luca; Funka-Lea, Gareth; Stoll, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel and efficient approach for evaluating the quality of ultrasound images. Image acquisition is sensitive to skin contact and transducer orientation and requires both time and technical skill to be done properly. Images commonly suffer degradation due to acoustic shadows and signal attenuation, which present as regions of low signal intensity masking anatomical details and making the images partly or totally unusable. As ultrasound image acquisition and analysis becomes increasingly automated, it is beneficial to also automate the estimation of image quality. Towards this end, we present an algorithm that classifies regions of an image as usable or un-usable. Example applications of this algorithm include improved compounding of free-hand 3D ultrasound volumes by eliminating unusable data and improved automatic feature detection by limiting detection to only usable areas. The algorithm operates in two steps. First, it classifies the image into bright areas, likely to have image content, and dark areas, likely to have no content. Second, it classifies the dark areas into unusable (i.e. due to shadowing and/or signal loss) and usable (i.e. anatomically accurate dark regions, such as with a blood vessel) sub-areas. The classification considers several factors, including statistical information, gradient intensity and geometric properties such as shape and relative position. Relative weighting of factors was obtained through the training of a Support Vector Machine. Classification results for both human and phantom images are presented and compared to manual classifications. This method achieves 91% sensitivity and 91% specificity for usable regions of human scans.

  14. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations. PMID:17300893

  15. Understanding Usability: Investigating an Integrated Design Environment and Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jason Chong; Wahid, Shahtab; McCrickard, D. Scott; Chewar, C. M.; Congleton, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Decades of innovation in designing usable (and unusable) interfaces have resulted in a plethora of guidelines, usability methods, and other design tools. The purpose of this research is to develop ways for novice developers to effectively leverage and contribute to the large and growing body of usability knowledge and methods.…

  16. Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thao

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a contingent, learner-centred usability evaluation method and a prototype tool of such systems. This is a new usability evaluation method for web-based learning systems using a set of empirically-supported usability factors and can be done effectively with limited resources. During the evaluation process, the method allows for…

  17. Defining Usability: How Library Practice Differs from Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Germain, Carol Anne; Rorissa, Abebe

    2011-01-01

    Library/information science professionals need a clearly articulated definition of usability/Web usability to implement intuitive websites. In this study, the authors analyzed usability definitions provided by the ARL library professionals and those found in the library/information science and computer science-information systems literature.…

  18. 36 CFR 1193.31 - Accessibility and usability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accessibility and usability... COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.31 Accessibility and usability. When required by § 1193.21, telecommunications equipment...

  19. 36 CFR 1193.31 - Accessibility and usability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility and usability... COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.31 Accessibility and usability. When required by § 1193.21, telecommunications equipment...

  20. Usability of a Virtual Learning Environment Concerning Safety at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihamäki, Heli; Vilpola, Inka

    2004-01-01

    Most of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) design methods focus on producing content for a VLE. However, usability of the VLE is also of great importance. Several potential usability problems have been reported in recent e-learning conferences. These problems could have been avoided by applying usability engineering methods before the VLE was…

  1. Assessing Library Instruction through Web Usability and Vocabulary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Remi

    2008-01-01

    Can we use the methods of Web usability testing to learn about library instruction? This article is among the first in the field trying to establish a link between usability and instruction. The author discusses useful insights that Web usability can bring to our pedagogy as well as to the efficiency of library instruction. The result of a Web…

  2. Psychological Usability of Layered Application Software Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhiarik, John

    1999-01-01

    This grant provided Graduate Research Fellowship Program support to James Michael Herold to obtain a graduate degree from the Department of Psychology at Kansas State University and conduct usability testing of graphical user interfaces the Kennedy Space Center. The student independently took an additional internship at Boll Laboratories without informing his graduate advisor or the Department of Psychology. Because he was NOT making progress toward his degree, he elected not to pursue his graduate studies at Kansas State University and self-terminated from the program (spin without informing his advisor or the Department of Psychology]. What he accomplished for NASA in terms of usability testing at the Kennedy Space Center is unclear. NASA terminated support for the project: 07/30/99, including a $4,000 commitment to provide infrastructure support to the Department of Psychology.

  3. Usability in Public Services and Border Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirelli, Giuliano

    The paper starts with a brief overview of the scale of disability and associated challenges and puts them in the context of the public policy on disability. It then analyses the usability challenges in public services and border control, including the issues of accessibility, safety and communication. These need to be addressed in future policy proposals, to provide the best assistance by new technologies to elderly people and people with disabilities, avoiding creating new barriers due to incorrect or incomplete initial conception. With increasing flux of novel security technology in mass transportation systems, and particularly the use of biometric identification in airports, the challenge of usability is recognized. This paper analyses these issues in the context of users with disability in an idealized process of Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT).

  4. Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at NASA Johnson Space Center. It is one of the Space Human Factors Laboratories in the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (SF3) at NASA Johnson Space Center The primary focus pf the UTAF is to perform Human factors evaluation and usability testing of crew / vehicle interfaces. The presentation reviews the UTAF expertise and capabilities, the processes and methodologies, and the equipment available. It also reviews the programs that it has supported detailing the human engineering activities in support of the design of the Orion space craft, testing of the EVA integrated spacesuit, and work done for the design of the lunar projects of the Constellation Program: Altair, Lunar Electric Rover, and Outposts

  5. Usability and trust in e-banking.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Leotta, Salvatore Nuccio; Lucchiari, Claudio; Misuraca, Raffaella

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking. PMID:18361127

  6. Evaluation of expert system application based on usability aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaiseche, C. P. C.; Liando, O. E. S.

    2016-04-01

    Usability usually defined as a point of human acceptance to a product or a system based on understands and right reaction to an interface. The performance of web application has been influence by the quality of the interface of that web to supporting information transfer process. Preferably, before the applications of expert systems were installed in the operational environment, these applications must be evaluated first by usability testing. This research aimed to measure the usability of the expert system application using tasks as interaction media. This study uses an expert system application to diagnose skin disease in human using questionnaire method which utilize the tasks as interaction media in measuring the usability. Certain tasks were executed by the participants in observing usability value of the application. The usability aspects observed were learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction. Each questionnaire question represent aspects of usability. The results present the usability value for each aspect and the total average merit for all the five-usability aspect was 4.28, this indicated that the tested expert system application is in the range excellent for the usability level, so the application can be implemented as the operated system by user. The main contribution of the study is the research became the first step in using task model in the usability evaluation for the expert system application software.

  7. Maximizing usability: the principles of universal design.

    PubMed

    Story, M F

    1998-01-01

    The Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University has developed a set of seven Principles of Universal Design that may be used to guide the design process, to evaluate existing or new designs, and to teach students and practitioners. This article presents preceding design guidelines and evaluation criteria, describes the process of developing the Principles, lists The Principles of Universal Design and provides examples of designs that satisfy each, and suggests future developments that would facilitate applying the Principles to assess the usability of all types of products and environments. PMID:10181150

  8. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  9. WUATSA: Weighted usable area time series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Franc, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    As stated in my paper entitled, {open_quotes}FISHN-Minimum Flow Selection Made Easy{close_quotes}, there continues to exist differences of opinion between environmental resource agencies (Agencies) and power producers in the interpretation of Weighted Usable Area (WUA) versus flow data, as a tool for making minimum flow recommendations. WUA-flow curves are developed from Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) studies. Each point on a WUA-flow curve defines the usable habitat area created within a bypassed reach, for a specific species and life stage, due to a specified minimum flow being constantly maintained within that reach. In the FISHN paper I discussed the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERCs) effort to standardize the use of WUA-flow data to assist in minimum flow selection, as proposed in their article entitled, {open_quotes}Evaluating Relicense Proposals at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission{close_quotes}. This FERC paper advanced a technique which has subsequently become known as the FARGO method (named after the primary author). The FISHN paper initially critiqued FARGO and then focused discussion on an alternative approach (FISHN) which is an extension to the IFIM methodology.

  10. Crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper distills core lessons about how researchers (scientists, engineers, planners, etc.) interested in promoting sustainable development can increase the likelihood of producing usable knowledge. We draw the lessons from both practical experience in diverse contexts around the world and from scholarly advances in understanding the relationships between science and society. Many of these lessons will be familiar to those with experience in crafting knowledge to support action for sustainable development. However, few are included in the formal training of researchers. As a result, when scientists and engineers first venture out of the laboratory or library with the goal of linking their knowledge with action, the outcome has often been ineffectiveness and disillusionment. We therefore articulate here a core set of lessons that we believe should become part of the basic training for researchers interested in crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development. These lessons entail at least four things researchers should know, and four things they should do. The knowing lessons involve understanding the coproduction relationships through which knowledge making and decision making shape one another in social–environmental systems. We highlight the lessons that emerge from examining those coproduction relationships through the ICAP lens, viewing them from the perspectives of Innovation systems, Complex systems, Adaptive systems, and Political systems. The doing lessons involve improving the capacity of the research community to put its understanding of coproduction into practice. We highlight steps through which researchers can help build capacities for stakeholder collaboration, social learning, knowledge governance, and researcher training. PMID:27091979

  11. Crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Clark, William C; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Lebel, Louis; Gallopin, Gilberto C

    2016-04-26

    This paper distills core lessons about how researchers (scientists, engineers, planners, etc.) interested in promoting sustainable development can increase the likelihood of producing usable knowledge. We draw the lessons from both practical experience in diverse contexts around the world and from scholarly advances in understanding the relationships between science and society. Many of these lessons will be familiar to those with experience in crafting knowledge to support action for sustainable development. However, few are included in the formal training of researchers. As a result, when scientists and engineers first venture out of the laboratory or library with the goal of linking their knowledge with action, the outcome has often been ineffectiveness and disillusionment. We therefore articulate here a core set of lessons that we believe should become part of the basic training for researchers interested in crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development. These lessons entail at least four things researchers should know, and four things they should do. The knowing lessons involve understanding the coproduction relationships through which knowledge making and decision making shape one another in social-environmental systems. We highlight the lessons that emerge from examining those coproduction relationships through the ICAP lens, viewing them from the perspectives of Innovation systems, Complex systems, Adaptive systems, and Political systems. The doing lessons involve improving the capacity of the research community to put its understanding of coproduction into practice. We highlight steps through which researchers can help build capacities for stakeholder collaboration, social learning, knowledge governance, and researcher training. PMID:27091979

  12. Usability Evaluation of Multimedia Courseware (MEL-SindD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yussof, Rahmah Lob; Badioze Zaman, Halimah

    Constructive evaluations on any software are needed to ensure the effectiveness and usability of the software. This assesment on the multimedia courseware is part of the researcher's study towards the development and usability of the early reading software for students with Down Syndrome (MEL-SindD). This paper will discuss the usability assesment of this courseware, the methods used for the evaluation as well as suitable approaches that can be deployed to evaluate the courseware effectiveness to disabled children.

  13. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  14. Estimating usable resources from historical industry data.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cargill, S.M.; Root, D.H.; Bailey, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    The commodities considered are mercury, copper and its byproducts gold and silver, and petroleum; the production and discovery data are for the US. The results indicate that the cumulative return per unit of effort, herein measured as grade of metal ores and discovery rate of recoverable petroleum, is proportional to a negative power of total effort expended, herein measured as total ore mined and total exploratory wells or footage drilled. This power relationship can be extended to some limiting point (a lower ore grade or a maximum number of exploratory wells or footage), and the apparent quantity of available remaining resource at that limit can be calculated. -from Authors

  15. Chlorhexidine cleaning of re-usable bougies.

    PubMed

    Cummings, I M; Howell, V; Thoppil, A; Flaxman, E; Sharma, S; Blunt, M C; Young, P J

    2013-08-01

    Bougies are susceptible to becoming contaminated before or during use. Chlorhexidine wipes may have a residual antibacterial effect, potentially minimising bacterial transmission after bougie use or storage. We evaluated the decontaminant and antibacterial effectiveness of 70% alcohol/2% chlorhexidine wipes in laboratory, clinical and accelerated ageing studies, and conducted a telephone survey of normal practice. In the laboratory tests, chlorhexidine wipes were completely effective against Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and prevented recontamination for 24 h. Clinical introduction of chlorhexidine wipes reduced bougie contamination from 33% to 0%. Following 150 cleaning episodes, there was no physical or functional damage to the bougies. Eight out of nine hospitals in the East of England Health Region use re-usable bougies. We recommend that following decontamination, bougies should be wiped with 70% alcohol/2% chlorhexidine wipes, to retain antimicrobial activity during handling. PMID:23672624

  16. Methods and Tools for Ethical Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis; Kostrzewa, Agata; Laaksoharju, Mikael

    The objectives of the tutorial are to provide knowledge of basic ethical, psychological and organizational theories that are relevant to consider ethical aspects during design and use of IT systems; knowledge and skills about handling and solving ethical problems in connection with design and use of IT-systems; and skills in using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and the like in connection with software development and IT-use. It contains lectures, workshop and exercises; use of special tools to identify and consider IT ethical issues during planning, construction, installation and use of IT systems; and group exercises where the participants train their ethical skills on IT ethical conflicts and problems. Intended participants are system developers, purchasers, usability experts, academics, HCI teachers.

  17. Augmenting Usability: Cultural Elicitation in HCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, Souleymane Boundaouda; Oyugi, Cecilia; Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Smith, Andy

    This paper offers context and culture elicitation in an inter-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting of ICT design. Localised usability evaluation (LUE) is augmented with a socio-technical evaluation tool (STEM) as a methodological approach to expose and address issues in a collaborative ICT design within the Village e-Science for Life (VeSeL) project in rural Kenya. The paper argues that designers need to locally identify context and culture in situ and further explicate their implications through the design process and at the global level. Stakeholders' context, culture, decisions, agendas, expectations, disciplines and requirements need to be locally identified and globally evaluated to ensure a fit for purpose solution.

  18. How the Website Usability Elements Impact Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljukhadar, Muhammad; Senecal, Sylvain

    This research builds on the results of a large scale study in which participants performed an informational task on one of 59 websites spanning various industries to examine how the website usability elements (graphical attractiveness, information, interactivity, trust, and ease of use) drive users’ attitudes and intentions toward the website and how these effects vary according to site experience and end product tangibility. Results show that while the effects of site interactivity and graphical attractiveness were more influential for services sites, the effects of site information and trust were stronger for tangibles sites. Alternatively, compared to returning site visitors, first-time visitors perceived the website as less easy to use, needed more time to accomplish the online task, and based positive attitudes and intentions more strongly on the site information and interactivity. The results of a second study performed in a proximate culture largely corroborate these findings.

  19. Usability evaluation of centered time cartograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Rehmat; Mengistu, Eskedar Zelalem; van Elzakker, C. P. J. M.; Kraak, Menno-Jan

    2016-06-01

    A time cartogram visualizes travelling-times between locations. It replaces the geographic distance by time distance and distorts the underlyingmap accordingly. By distorting themap, time cartogramsmay give a more intuitive and clear picture of travelling-times. The distortion of the map, however, can make time cartograms harder to recognize and use. Although cartograms are becoming widespread in use, very little is known about their usability. This study focuses on the usability of centered time cartograms: time cartograms that visualize travellingtimes from a fixed starting location to other destinations in a region. We created several centered time cartograms to answer spatio-temporal questions related to the Dutch railway network. Two experiments were performed: a laboratory test and an online survey. In the laboratory test, we used eye-tracking, thinking aloud, and video-recording to compare four different designs of centered time cartograms to find out which one (or combination) of these performs better in answering spatiotemporal questions and thus, to establish a favorable design strategy for these cartograms. In the online survey, centered time cartograms were evaluated against a geographic and schematic map for accuracy, response time, and preference. The first experiment suggested that among various designs, the centered time cartogram with emphasized railroads is the most preferred design and the centered time cartogram without railroads is the least preferred. The second experiment indicated that overall, centered time cartograms perform better than the two other solutions in performing spatio-temporal tasks, particularly when the task has a dominant time-related component.

  20. Earning the Stamp of Approval: How To Achieve Optimal Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makar, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the Web site at the virtual library of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Discusses usability problems with the original site, including navigation difficulties; focus groups to determine user needs; usability testing for the new Web site; and the importance of customer input. (LRW)

  1. A Usability Evaluation of Academic Virtual Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Anthony S.; Croxton, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the usability of five virtual reference services--instant messenger chat, e-mail, telephone, text messaging, and Skype videoconferencing--by having 31 undergraduate and graduate students evaluate the usability of the virtual reference services of two different universities. The study's results suggest that user preference and…

  2. User and Usability Testing--How It Should Be Undertaken?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyer, Merle

    1995-01-01

    Discusses advantages and limitations of six usability evaluation methods (heuristic evaluation, pluralistic walk-throughs, formal usability inspections, empirical methods, cognitive walk-throughs, and formal design analysis) and six data collection techniques (verbal reports, concurrent think-aloud method, questionnaire, video analysis,…

  3. Evaluating the Usability of a Museum Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Ilse; Schweibenz, Werner

    This paper presents a research project conducted by the Department of Information Science in cooperation with the Saarland Museum, the art museum of the Federal State of Saarland, Germany. The study had two aims. The first was to evaluate some methods of usability engineering for the Web, and the second was to evaluate the usability of the…

  4. New Options for Usability Testing Projects in Business Communication Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of recording technologies makes it easier to include usability testing projects in business communication courses. Usability testing is a method of discovering whether people can navigate, read, and understand a print or electronic communication well enough to achieve a particular purpose in a reasonable time frame.…

  5. Usability Evaluation of the Student Centered e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junus, Inas Sofiyah; Santoso, Harry Budi; Isal, R. Yugo K.; Utomo, Andika Yudha

    2015-01-01

    Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCeLE) has substantial roles to support learning activities at Faculty of Computer Science, Universitas Indonesia (Fasilkom UI). Although it has been utilized for about 10 years, the usability aspect of SCeLE as an e-Learning system has not been evaluated. Therefore, the usability aspects of SCeLE Fasilkom…

  6. 36 CFR 1193.21 - Accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...

  7. Evaluating Usability in a Distance Digital Systems Laboratory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostaras, N.; Xenos, M.; Skodras, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the usability evaluation of a digital systems laboratory class offered to distance-learning students. It details the way in which students can participate remotely in such a laboratory, the methodology employed in the usability assessment of the laboratory infrastructure (hardware and software), and also outlines the main…

  8. Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

  9. 36 CFR 1193.21 - Accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and... BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES General Requirements § 1193.21 Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...

  10. Training Software Developers and Designers to Conduct Usability Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov, Mikael Brasholt; Stage, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Many efforts to improve the interplay between usability evaluation and software development rely either on better methods for conducting usability evaluations or on better formats for presenting evaluation results in ways that are useful for software designers and developers. Both of these approaches depend on a complete division of work between…

  11. Users Views about the Usability of Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex; Ondracek, James

    2005-01-01

    This study examined users' views about the usability of digital libraries' current and perceived importance. Age, gender, prior experience with the Internet, college status, and digital library proficiency are the independent variables. Users' current views about the usability of digital libraries and users perceived importance of digital library…

  12. Perceptions and Effects of a System's Usability by Experience Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mike; Chen, Hsin-liang

    2003-01-01

    Compares users' self-reported and observed usability problems within a Web-based information system. Participants were asked to complete a specific list of tasks within the system, after which they answered several questions regarding the system's usability. While, advanced users generally completed the tasks in less time than novices, the number…

  13. On-Line Learning Courses: A Review and Usability Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharias, Panagiotis; Vassilopoulou, Konstantina; Poulymenakou, Angeliki

    While electronic learning environments provide exciting possibilities for supporting learners, the design of the user interface is as yet little understood. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of specific usability attributes for online learning courses. A review of related papers on usability methods and learning theories…

  14. Usability engineering: domain analysis activities for augmented-reality systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Joseph; Swan, J. E., II; Hix, Deborah; Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Livingston, Mark; Brown, Dennis B.; Julier, Simon J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured, iterative, stepwise development process. Like the related disciplines of software and systems engineering, usability engineering is a combination of management principals and techniques, formal and semi- formal evaluation techniques, and computerized tools. BARS is an outdoor augmented reality system that displays heads- up battlefield intelligence information to a dismounted warrior. The paper discusses our general usability engineering process. We originally developed the process in the context of virtual reality applications, but in this work we are adapting the procedures to an augmented reality system. The focus of this paper is our work on domain analysis, the first activity of the usability engineering process. We describe our plans for and our progress to date on our domain analysis for BARS. We give results in terms of a specific urban battlefield use case we have designed.

  15. Evaluation of Home Health Care Devices: Remote Usability Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing amount of health care is now performed in a home setting, away from the hospital. While there is growing anecdotal evidence about the difficulty patients and caregivers have using increasingly complex health care devices in the home, there has been little systematic scientific study to quantify the global nature of home health care device usability in the field. Research has tended to focus on a handful of devices, making it difficult to gain a broad view of the usability of home-care devices in general. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe a remote usability assessment method using the System Usability Scale (SUS), and to report on the usability of a broad range of health care devices using this metric. Methods A total of 271 participants selected and rated up to 10 home health care devices of their choice using the SUS, which scores usability from 0 (unusable) to 100 (highly usable). Participants rated a total of 455 devices in their own home without an experimenter present. Results Usability scores ranged from 98 (oxygen masks) to 59 (home hormone test kits). An analysis conducted on devices that had at least 10 ratings showed that the effect of device on SUS scores was significant (P<.001), and that the usability of these devices was on the low end when compared with other commonly used items in the home, such as microwave ovens and telephones. Conclusions A large database of usability scores for home health care devices collected using this remote methodology would be beneficial for physicians, patients, and their caregivers. PMID:27025664

  16. Search Pathways: Modeling GeoData Search Behavior to Support Usable Application Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmey, L.; Rosati, A.; Tressel, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent technical advances have enabled development of new scientific data discovery systems. Metadata brokering, linked data, and other mechanisms allow users to discover scientific data of interes across growing volumes of heterogeneous content. Matching this complex content with existing discovery technologies, people looking for scientific data are presented with an ever-growing array of features to sort, filter, subset, and scan through search returns to help them find what they are looking for. This paper examines the applicability of available technologies in connecting searchers with the data of interest. What metrics can be used to track success given shifting baselines of content and technology? How well do existing technologies map to steps in user search patterns? Taking a user-driven development approach, the team behind the Arctic Data Explorer interdisciplinary data discovery application invested heavily in usability testing and user search behavior analysis. Building on earlier library community search behavior work, models were developed to better define the diverse set of thought processes and steps users took to find data of interest, here called 'search pathways'. This research builds a deeper understanding of the user community that seeks to reuse scientific data. This approach ensures that development decisions are driven by clearly articulated user needs instead of ad hoc technology trends. Initial results from this research will be presented along with lessons learned for other discovery platform development and future directions for informatics research into search pathways.

  17. [The discovery of insulin].

    PubMed

    Lestradet, H

    1996-02-01

    When a medical problem is intensively studied by many teams in the world, it is frequent to see the solution found simultaneously in different countries. However that was not exactly the case concerning the extraction of a potent insulin able to cure Diabetes Mellitus. It seems necessary, seventy five years later, when passions are quenched, to reconsider the chronology of the history and put Paolesco but also Collip at the right places much before Banting and Best to whom, by a curious misinterpretation of facts, was attributed the priority of this fundamental discovery. PMID:8705382

  18. CLIPS: A proposal for improved usability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes the enhancement of the CLIPS user interface to improve the over-all usability of the CLIPS development environment. It suggests some directions for the long term growth of the user interface, and discusses some specific strengths and weaknesses of the current CLIPS PC user interface. Every user of CLIPS shares a common experience: his/her first interaction with the system itself. As with any new language, between the process of installing CLIPS on the appropriate computer and the completion of a large application, an intensive learning process takes place. For those with extensive programming knowledge and LISP backgrounds, this experience may have been mostly interesting and pleasant. Being familiar with products that are similar to CLIPS in many ways, these users enjoy a relatively short training period with the product. Already familiar with many of the functions they wish to employ, experienced users are free to focus on the capabilities of CLIPS that make it uniquely useful within their working environment.

  19. Knowledge Discovery from Databases: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Introduces new procedures being used to extract knowledge from databases and discusses rationales for developing knowledge discovery methods. Methods are described for such techniques as classification, clustering, and the detection of deviations from pre-established norms. Examines potential uses of knowledge discovery in the information field.…

  20. The potential use of SUISEKI as a protein interaction discovery tool.

    PubMed

    Blaschke, C; Valencia, A

    2001-01-01

    Relevant information about protein interactions is stored in textual sources. This sources are commonly used not only as archives of what is already known but also as information for generating new knowledge, particularly to pose hypothesis about new possible interactions that can be inferred from the existing ones. This task is the more creative part of scientific work in experimental systems. We present a large-scale analysis for the prediction of new interactions based on the interaction network for the ones already known and detected automatically in the literature. During the last few years it has became clear that part of the information about protein interactions could be extracted with automatic tools, even if these tools are still far from perfect and key problems such as detection of protein names are not completely solved. We have developed a integrated automatic approach, called SUISEKI (System for Information Extraction on Interactions), able to extract protein interactions from collections of Medline abstracts. Previous experiments with the system have shown that it is able to extract almost 70% of the interactions present in relatively large text corpus, with an accuracy of approximately 80% (for the best defined interactions) that makes the system usable in real scenarios, both at the level of extraction of protein names and at the level of extracting interaction between them. With the analysis of the interaction map of Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that interactions published in the years 2000/2001 frequently correspond to proteins or genes that were already very close in the interaction network deduced from the literature published before these years and that they are often connected to the same proteins. That is, discoveries are commonly done among highly connected entities. Some biologically relevant examples illustrate how interactions described in the year 2000 could have been proposed as reasonable working hypothesis with the information

  1. Scientific Datasets: Discovery and Aggregation for Semantic Interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, L. A.; Scott, S.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Duerr, R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges that interdisciplinary researchers face is finding suitable datasets in order to advance their science; this problem remains consistent across multiple disciplines. A surprising number of scientists, when asked what tool they use for data discovery, reply "Google", which is an acceptable solution in some cases but not even Google can find -or cares to compile- all the data that's relevant for science and particularly geo sciences. If a dataset is not discoverable through a well known search provider it will remain dark data to the scientific world.For the past year, BCube, an EarthCube Building Block project, has been developing, testing and deploying a technology stack capable of data discovery at web-scale using the ultimate dataset: The Internet. This stack has 2 principal components, a web-scale crawling infrastructure and a semantic aggregator. The web-crawler is a modified version of Apache Nutch (the originator of Hadoop and other big data technologies) that has been improved and tailored for data and data service discovery. The second component is semantic aggregation, carried out by a python-based workflow that extracts valuable metadata and stores it in the form of triples through the use semantic technologies.While implementing the BCube stack we have run into several challenges such as a) scaling the project to cover big portions of the Internet at a reasonable cost, b) making sense of very diverse and non-homogeneous data, and lastly, c) extracting facts about these datasets using semantic technologies in order to make them usable for the geosciences community. Despite all these challenges we have proven that we can discover and characterize data that otherwise would have remained in the dark corners of the Internet. Having all this data indexed and 'triplelized' will enable scientists to access a trove of information relevant to their work in a more natural way. An important characteristic of the BCube stack is that all

  2. Toward Standard Usability Questionnaires for Handheld Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marc Ericson C; Polvi, Jarkko; Taketomi, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Sandor, Christian; Kato, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Usability evaluations are important to improving handheld augmented reality (HAR) systems. However, no standard questionnaire considers perceptual and ergonomic issues found in HAR. The authors performed a systematic literature review to enumerate these issues. Based on these issues, they created a HAR usability scale that consists of comprehensibility and manipulability scales. These scales measure general system usability, ease of understanding the information presented, and ease of handling the device. The questionnaires' validity and reliability were evaluated in four experiments, and the results show that the questionnaires consistently correlate with other subjective and objective measures of usability. The questionnaires also have good reliability based on the Cronbach's alpha. Researchers and professionals can directly use these questionnaires to evaluate their own HAR applications or modify them with the insights presented in this article. PMID:26416363

  3. Discovery Scarp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    One of the most prominent lobate scarps (Discovery Scarp), photographed by Mariner 10 during it's first encounter with Mercury, is located at the center of this image (extending from the top to near bottom). This scarp is about 350 kilometers long and transects two craters 35 and 55 kilometers in diameter. The maximum height of the scarp south of the 55-kilometer crater is about 3 kilometers. Notice the shallow older crater (near the center of the image) perched on the crest of the scarp. (FDS 17389 and 27399)

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  4. Development of a Customizable Health IT Usability Evaluation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Po-Yin; Wantland, Dean; Bakken, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    We developed a customizable questionnaire, the Health Information Technology (IT) Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES) and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to examine the scale’s psychometric properties. Nurses (n=377) completed Health-ITUES to rate the usability of a web-based communication system for scheduling nursing staff. The analysis revealed a four-factor structure of Health-ITUES. The results provided preliminary evidence for the factorial validity and internal consistency reliability of Health-ITUES. PMID:21347112

  5. Compliance of blood donation apps with mobile OS usability guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Pozo, José Rivera; Bajta, Manal El; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to employ the guidelines of Android, iOS, Blackberry and Windows Phone to analyze the usability compliance of free blood donation (BD) apps. An analysis process based on a systematic review protocol is used to select free BD apps. An assessment is conducted using a questionnaire composed of 13 questions concerning the compliance of free BD apps with Android, Blackberry, iOS and Windows Phone usability guidelines. A total of 133 free BD apps have been selected from the 188 BD apps identified. Around 63% of the free BD apps selected have a good compliance with mobile OS usability recommendations. Around 72% of Android, 57% of Windows Phone, 33% of iOS and 33% of Blackberry BD apps have a high usability score. The aspect of BD app behavior should be improved along with some style components: the use of pictures to explain ideas and the adaptation of the app to both horizontal and vertical orientations. Structure patterns should also be used to improve the structure aspect of a BD app. Usability is a quality aspect that should be improved in current BD apps. Our study provides smartphone users with a list of usable free BD apps and BD app developers with recommendations. PMID:25845672

  6. Web usability testing with a Hispanic medically underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Bias, Randolph G.; Prentice, Katherine; Fletcher, Robin; Vaughn, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Skilled website developers value usability testing to assure user needs are met. When the target audience differs substantially from the developers, it becomes essential to tailor both design and evaluation methods. In this study, researchers carried out a multifaceted usability evaluation of a website (Healthy Texas) designed for Hispanic audiences with lower computer literacy and lower health literacy. Methods: Methods included: (1) heuristic evaluation by a usability engineer, (2) remote end-user testing using WebEx software; and (3) face-to-face testing in a community center where use of the website was likely. Results: Researchers found standard usability testing methods needed to be modified to provide interpreters, increased flexibility for time on task, presence of a trusted intermediary such as a librarian, and accommodation for family members who accompanied participants. Participants offered recommendations for website redesign, including simplified language, engaging and relevant graphics, culturally relevant examples, and clear navigation. Conclusions: User-centered design is especially important when website developers are not representative of the target audience. Failure to conduct appropriate usability testing with a representative audience can substantially reduce use and value of the website. This thorough course of usability testing identified improvements that benefit all users but become crucial when trying to reach an underserved audience. PMID:19404502

  7. Assessing ligand selectivity for uranium over vanadium ions to aid in the discovery of superior adsorbents for extraction of UO2(2+) from seawater.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander S; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S

    2016-06-28

    Uranium is used as the basic fuel for nuclear power plants, which generate significant amounts of electricity and have life cycle carbon emissions that are as low as renewable energy sources. However, the extraction of this valuable energy commodity from the ground remains controversial, mainly because of environmental and health impacts. Alternatively, seawater offers an enormous uranium resource that may be tapped at minimal environmental cost. Nowadays, amidoxime polymers are the most widely utilized sorbent materials for large-scale extraction of uranium from seawater, but they are not perfectly selective for uranyl, UO2(2+). In particular, the competition between UO2(2+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) cations poses a significant challenge to the efficient mining of UO2(2+). Thus, screening and rational design of more selective ligands must be accomplished. One of the key components in achieving this goal is the establishment of computational techniques capable of assessing ligand selectivity trends. Here, we report an approach based on quantum chemical calculations that achieves high accuracy in reproducing experimental aqueous stability constants for VO(2+)/VO2(+) complexes with ten different oxygen donor ligands. The predictive power of the developed computational protocol is demonstrated for amidoxime-type ligands, providing greater insights into new design strategies for the development of the next generation of adsorbents with high selectivity toward UO2(2+) over VO(2+)/VO2(+) ions. Importantly, the results of calculations suggest that alkylation of amidoxime moieties present in poly(acrylamidoxime) sorbents can be a potential route to better discrimination between the uranyl and competing vanadium ions in seawater. PMID:27285397

  8. 36 CFR 1193.39 - Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.39 Section 1193.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.39 Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and... accessibility, usability, or compatibility of telecommunications equipment or customer premises equipment....

  9. 36 CFR 1193.39 - Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.39 Section 1193.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.39 Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and... accessibility, usability, or compatibility of telecommunications equipment or customer premises equipment....

  10. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, U.

    1995-01-01

    The process of knowledge discovery and data mining is the process of information extraction from very large databases. Its importance is described along with several techniques and considerations for selecting the most appropriate technique for extracting information from a particular data set.

  11. On the usability of grid middleware and security mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Stefan J; Haidar, Ali N; Coveney, Peter V

    2011-08-28

    Usability is an all too often neglected aspect of grid computing, although it is one of the principal factors militating against the widespread uptake of distributed computing. Many resource providers on a grid infrastructure deploy a standard middleware stack and expect users to invoke the default client tools for that middleware stack to access their resources. Unfortunately, many of these middleware client tools have been developed as an afterthought, and are widely considered difficult to use. Such tools typically require a user to interact with a machine, to stage data and launch jobs, and to use digital certificates. Our experience of working with grids over many years has led us to propose a new model of grid interaction, which we call the user-application interaction model. Similar considerations have also led us to develop environments that remove digital certificates from the user's experience, replacing them with familiar username and password authentication credentials. In this paper, we investigate the usability of this interaction model and its security system through a series of tests, which compare the usability of our systems with commonly deployed middleware tools using five usability metrics. Our middleware and security solutions are judged to be more usable than the systems in use by most of today's computational grids. PMID:21768148

  12. Facilitating Energy Savings through Enhanced Usability of Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2011-05-23

    Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.

  13. Extracting energy from natural flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.; Wilhold, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    Three concepts for extracting energy from wind, waterflow, and tides utilize flow instability to generate usable energy. Proposed converters respond to vortex excitation motion, galloping or plunging motion, and flutter. Fluid-flow instability is more efficient in developing lift than is direct flow.

  14. Usability evaluation of a mobile tool to support prenatal examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Juan C.; Aponte, Angelica; Vega, Sebastian; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    There have existed for a long period several strategies developed by international organisms to improve their intervention at the very rst level of some public health problems. In particular, the prenatal control has been introduced as a structured strategy for the rst level as the integrated management of childhood illness (AIEPI in spanish) since more than twenty years. This paper presents a novel approach to include recent technological advances within the work ow of such process so that it facilitates interaction and decreases the training time. The method, named herein TeleAIEPI, implements the whole AIEPI questionnaire in a mobile application with high portability, little computational requirements and usability. The success of teleAIEPI application is completely dependent on the usability and integrability with any mobile device. The architecture, functional requirements and usability evaluation are herein presented, showing an adequate performance when real users interact with such an application.

  15. Using Usability Evaluation to Inform Alberta's Personal Health Record Design.

    PubMed

    Price, Morgan; Bellwood, Paule; Davies, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Alberta Health is deploying the Personal Health Portal (PHP) (MyHealth.Alberta.ca) to all people in the province of Alberta, Canada. The PHP will include several components such as a Personal Health Record (PHR) where users can enter and access their own health data. For the first PHR of its kind in Canada, Alberta Health asked the University of Victoria's eHealth Observatory to evaluate the PHP, including the PHR. The evaluation includes pre-design, design, and adoption evaluation. This paper focuses on early usability evaluations of the PHR software. Persona-based usability inspection was combined with usability testing sessions using think aloud. These evaluations found that while people were familiar with the web-based technology, several aspects of the PHR information architecture, content, and presentation could be improved to better support and provide value to the users. The findings could be helpful to others designing and implementing similar PHR software. PMID:25676994

  16. Towards engagement of digital Malaysian traditional games: Usability evaluation experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Nur Azzah Abu; ChePa, Noraziah

    2016-08-01

    Focusing on measuring the engagement towards digital Malaysian traditional games, this paper discusses engagement of digital traditional games from usability aspect. Three digital versions of Malaysian traditional games were evaluated. They are Dam Haji, Congkak and Gasing-X. Usability is one of the significant contributing factors towards engagement of digital games. Usability helps in verifying the requirements, successes and functionality of the games which are missing. The study adopted the heuristic instruments developed by Jakob Nielson in 1990 which consists of 17 heuristic component protocols based on interface design. Evaluation involved 50 respondents who are IT and domain experts. Result analysis is discussed and presented for each game. Results suggested features and aspects to be improved in the development of future digital Malaysian traditional games towards better engagement of the games.

  17. An Antique Microscope Slide Brings the Thrill of Discovery into a Contemporary Biology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a Victorian-era microscope slide titled "Grouped Flower Seeds" began an investigation into the scientific and historical background of the antique slide to develop its usefulness as a multidisciplinary tool for PowerPoint presentations usable in contemporary biology classrooms, particularly large-enrollment sections. The resultant…

  18. Usability/Sentiment for the Enterprise and ENTERPRISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meza, David; Berndt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Sentiment of Search Study for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to gain insight into the intranet search environment. With an initial usability survey, the authors were able to determine a usability score based on the Systems Usability Scale (SUS). Created in 1986, the freely available, well cited, SUS is commonly used to determine user perceptions of a system (in this case the intranet search environment). As with any improvement initiative, one must first examine and document the current reality of the situation. In this scenario, a method was needed to determine the usability of a search interface in addition to the user's perception on how well the search system was providing results. The use of the SUS provided a mechanism to quickly ascertain information in both areas, by adding one additional open-ended question at the end. The first ten questions allowed us to examine the usability of the system, while the last questions informed us on how the users rated the performance of the search results. The final analysis provides us with a better understanding of the current situation and areas to focus on for improvement. The power of search applications to enhance knowledge transfer is indisputable. The performance impact for any user unable to find needed information undermines project lifecycle, resource and scheduling requirements. Ever-increasing complexity of content and the user interface make usability considerations for the intranet, especially for search, a necessity instead of a 'nice-to-have'. Despite these arguments, intranet usability is largely disregarded due to lack of attention beyond the functionality of the infrastructure (White, 2013). The data collected from users of the JSC search system revealed their overall sentiment by means of the widely-known System Usability Scale. Results of the scores suggest 75%, +/-0.04, of the population rank the search system below average. In terms of a grading scaled, this equated to D or

  19. Usability of stereoscopic view in teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonsuk, Wutthigrai

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there are tremendous growths in the area of 3D stereoscopic visualization. The 3D stereoscopic visualization technology has been used in a growing number of consumer products such as the 3D televisions and the 3D glasses for gaming systems. This technology refers to the idea that human brain develops depth of perception by retrieving information from the two eyes. Our brain combines the left and right images on the retinas and extracts depth information. Therefore, viewing two video images taken at slightly distance apart as shown in Figure 1 can create illusion of depth [8]. Proponents of this technology argue that the stereo view of 3D visualization increases user immersion and performance as more information is gained through the 3D vision as compare to the 2D view. However, it is still uncertain if additional information gained from the 3D stereoscopic visualization can actually improve user performance in real world situations such as in the case of teleoperation.

  20. User-Centered Innovation: A Model for "Early Usability Testing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.; Boling, Elizabeth

    The goal of this study is to show how some concepts and techniques from disciplines outside Instructional Systems Development (ISD) have the potential to extend and enhance the traditional view of ISD practice when they are employed very early in the ISD process. The concepts and techniques employed were user-centered in design and usability, and…

  1. Usability Definitions in a Dynamically Changing Information Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Rorissa, Abebe; Germain, Carol Anne

    2015-01-01

    The authors compared Web usability definitions, collected from library professionals at academic institutions of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) through online surveys in 2007 and 2012, to determine whether library practitioners' perspectives had altered as information technologies evolved during this time. The authors applied three…

  2. Looking at Digital Library Usability from a Reuse Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Tamara; Dawe, Melissa

    The need for information systems to support the dissemination and reuse of educational resources has sparked a number of large-scale digital library efforts. This article describes usability findings from one such project--the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)--focusing on its role in the process of educational resource reuse.…

  3. Usability Evaluation of a Research Repository and Collaboration Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Maron, Deborah J.; Charles, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports results from an empirical usability evaluation of Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative Central as part of the effort to develop an open access research repository and collaboration platform for human-animal bond researchers. By repurposing and altering key features of the original HUBzero system, Human-Animal Bond Research…

  4. Mind, Brain, and Literacy: Biomarkers as Usable Knowledge for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience has the potential to make some very exciting contributions to education and pedagogy. However, it is important to ask whether the insights from neuroscience studies can provide "usable knowledge" for educators. With respect to literacy, for example, current neuroimaging methods allow us to ask research questions about how the brain…

  5. Security Design Flaws That Affect Usability in Online Banking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurlen, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    As the popularity of online banking Websites has increased, the security of these sites has become increasingly critical as attacks against these sites are on the rise. However, the design decisions made during construction of the sites could make usability more difficult, where the user has difficulty making good security decisions. This study…

  6. Adequate number of clinicians on usability tests lacking, says study.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    A new study reveals that some of the largest EMR vendors failed to meet certification standards, specifying that they state their user-centered design processes, and that they include at least 15 representative end-user participants in their usability tests. It is not clear why these vendors were certified despite not meeting the standards established by Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), but investigators suggest that emergency clinicians and administrators should engage with vendors early on, querying them about their user-centered processes. An analysis of the usability tests performed by 41 of some the largest EMR vendors found that 34% of them did not meet certification standards, specifying that they state their user-centered design process. Also, 63% of the vendors failed to include at least 15 representative end-users in their usability tests. Only 15% of the vendors used at least 15 participants who had clinical backgrounds in their usability tests. Experts urge clinicians to engage with EMR user groups to share best practices for optimizing specific EMR products. PMID:26677480

  7. Designing Websites for ESL Learners: A Usability Testing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Traphagan, Tomoko; Huh, Jin; Koh, Young Ihn; Choi, Gilok; McGregor, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a usability study for ESL websites conducted to gain insights from learners of English as a second language (ESL) as they interacted with specific sites. Five carefully selected ESL sites were tested by 10 different users generating a total of fifty testing sessions. Two major research questions guided the…

  8. The Portable Usability Testing Lab: A Flexible Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Michael E.; And Others

    A group of faculty at the University of Georgia obtained funding for a research and development facility called the Learning and Performance Support Laboratory (LPSL). One of the LPSL's primary needs was obtaining a portable usability lab for software testing, so the facility obtained the "Luggage Lab 2000." The lab is transportable to any site…

  9. Learning Management Systems: ICT Skills, Usability and Learnability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Marco; van Biljon, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implications of usability and learnability in learning management systems (LMS) by considering the experiences of information and communications technology (ICT) experts and non-experts in using the LMS of an open-distance university. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses task-based…

  10. Usability Testing in a Library Web Site Redesign Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for an intuitive library information gateway to meet users' information needs and describes the process involved in redesigning a library Web site based on experiences at Roger Williams University. Explains usability testing methods that were used to discover how users were interacting with the Web site interface. (Author/LRW)

  11. Usability of four commercially-oriented EEG systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, W. David; Whitaker, Keith W.; Ries, Anthony J.; Vettel, Jean M.; Cortney Bradford, J.; Kerick, Scott E.; McDowell, Kaleb

    2014-08-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) holds promise as a neuroimaging technology that can be used to understand how the human brain functions in real-world, operational settings while individuals move freely in perceptually-rich environments. In recent years, several EEG systems have been developed that aim to increase the usability of the neuroimaging technology in real-world settings. Here, the usability of three wireless EEG systems from different companies are compared to a conventional wired EEG system, BioSemi’s ActiveTwo, which serves as an established laboratory-grade ‘gold standard’ baseline. The wireless systems compared include Advanced Brain Monitoring’s B-Alert X10, Emotiv Systems’ EPOC and the 2009 version of QUASAR’s Dry Sensor Interface 10-20. The design of each wireless system is discussed in relation to its impact on the system’s usability as a potential real-world neuroimaging system. Evaluations are based on having participants complete a series of cognitive tasks while wearing each of the EEG acquisition systems. This report focuses on the system design, usability factors and participant comfort issues that arise during the experimental sessions. In particular, the EEG systems are assessed on five design elements: adaptability of the system for differing head sizes, subject comfort and preference, variance in scalp locations for the recording electrodes, stability of the electrical connection between the scalp and electrode, and timing integration between the EEG system, the stimulus presentation computer and other external events.

  12. Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM): Phase 2 Usability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.; Anwar, Zaeem

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is a virtual space for exchanging information about digital learning tools. The purpose of the present study was to determine how users responded to DREAM in the first four months after its public release. This study is the second phase of usability research on DREAM, and was conducted to guide…

  13. Linking Pedagogical Theory of Computer Games to their Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Chee Siang; Avni, Einav; Zaphiris, Panayiotis

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews a range of literature of computer games and learning theories and attempts to establish a link between them by proposing a typology of games which we use as a new usability measure for the development of guidelines for game-based learning. First, we examine game literature in order to understand the key elements that…

  14. Mobile Usability in Educational Contexts: What Have We Learnt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    The successful development of mobile learning is dependent on human factors in the use of new mobile and wireless technologies. The majority of mobile learning activity continues to take place on devices that were not designed with educational applications in mind, and usability issues are often reported. The paper reflects on progress in…

  15. Usability Testing of the Indiana University Education Faculty Web Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuzun, Hakan; Lee, Sun Myung; Graham, Charles; Sluder, Kirk Job

    The usability test team examined design problems that limit the ability of instructors at the Indiana University to use data entry forms on the School of Education Web site. The forms permit instructors to publish information about themselves and about courses they teach on the School of Education Web site. Faculty and graduate student instructors…

  16. Virtually Usable: A Test of the Information Gardens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan; Ochoa, Louise; Purpur, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a usability study conducted to determine the functionality of a desktop, three-dimensional virtual library designed and supported by the Appalachian State University Distance Learning Library Services team. Formative evaluations were performed with representative students utilizing Morae software. Results…

  17. The Usability Analysis of an E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torun, Fulya; Tekedere, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    In this research, an E-learning environment is developed for the teacher candidates taking the course on Scientific Research Methods. The course contents were adapted to one of the constructivist approach models referred to as 5E, and an expert opinion was received for the compliance of this model. An usability analysis was also performed to…

  18. Usability Level of Distance Education Website (Sakarya University Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Isbulan, Onur

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to determine the usability of Sakarya University Adapazari Vocational Two-Year Community College's Web Site. A scale was developed to the evaluation and applied to 1512 students. From the applied questionnaire only appropriate ones were selected to be evaluated and 1229 questionnaires were analysed. Finally,…

  19. Designing an Affordable Usability Test for E-Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Johnson, Donald M.; Shores-Ellis, Katrina D.; Crandall, Philip G.; Marcy, John A.; Seideman, Steve C.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides background and an introduction to a user-centered design and usability test in an inexpensive format that allows content experts who are novices in e-learning development to perform testing on newly developed technical training modules prior to their release. The use of a small number of test participants, avoidance of…

  20. Evaluating the Usability of Web-Based Learning Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, M. -A.; Phillips, B.; Maczewski, M.; Wang, M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Web-based learning tools and reports results from a study at the University of Victoria that compared and evaluated two commercially available learning tools. Considers usability issues and discusses navigation, customization, student management, content creation, and students' perceptions. (Author/LRW)

  1. Investigating the Usability of Classroom Management Strategies among Elementary Schoolteachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Although teachers are often asked to implement classroom interventions to address student behavior, little is known about their perceived usability of many evidence-based strategies. One thousand five elementary schoolteachers completed the Usage Rating Profile-Intervention-Revised (URP-IR) with regard to the use of one of five evidence-based…

  2. A Usability Study of Interactive Web-Based Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa

    2011-01-01

    This research advances the understanding of the usability of marketing case study modules in the area of interactive web-based technologies through the assignment of seven interactive case modules in a Principles of Marketing course. The case modules were provided for marketing students by the publisher, McGraw Hill Irwin, of the "Marketing"…

  3. The Mom-and-Pop-Shop Approach to Usability Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David

    2003-01-01

    Explains the process of creating, implementing, and getting results from a usability study of a library Web site while spending little or no money, based on experiences at the Kansas City Public Library. Topics include how to design the test; finding volunteers to participate; and how to use the results. (LRW)

  4. Usability Testing Finds Problems for Novice Users of Pediatric Portals

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Maria T.; Jimison, Holly B.; Munafo, Jennifer Knopf; Wissman, Jennifer; Rogers, Michelle L.; Hersh, William

    2009-01-01

    Objective Patient portals may improve pediatric chronic disease outcomes, but few have been rigorously evaluated for usability by parents. Using scenario-based testing with think-aloud protocols, we evaluated the usability of portals for parents of children with cystic fibrosis, diabetes or arthritis. Design Sixteen parents used a prototype and test data to complete 14 tasks followed by a validated satisfaction questionnaire. Three iterations of the prototype were used. Measurements During the usability testing, we measured the time it took participants to complete or give up on each task. Sessions were videotaped and content-analyzed for common themes. Following testing, participants completed the Computer Usability Satisfaction Questionnaire which measured their opinions on the efficiency of the system, its ease of use, and the likability of the system interface. A 7-point Likert scale was used, with seven indicating the highest possible satisfaction. Results Mean task completion times ranged from 73 (± 61) seconds to locate a document to 431 (± 286) seconds to graph laboratory results. Tasks such as graphing, location of data, requesting access, and data interpretation were challenging. Satisfaction was greatest for interface pleasantness (5.9 ± 0.7) and likeability (5.8 ± 0.6) and lowest for error messages (2.3 ± 1.2) and clarity of information (4.2 ± 1.4). Overall mean satisfaction scores improved between iteration one and three. Conclusions Despite parental involvement and prior heuristic testing, scenario-based testing demonstrated difficulties in navigation, medical language complexity, error recovery, and provider-based organizational schema. While such usability testing can be expensive, the current study demonstrates that it can assist in making healthcare system interfaces for laypersons more user-friendly and potentially more functional for patients and their families. PMID:19567793

  5. Solar flare discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper considers the discoveries that have appreciably changed our understanding of the physics of solar flares. A total of 42 discoveries from all disciplines, ranging from Galileo's initial observation of faculae to the recent discovery of strong limb brightening in 10-MeV gamma-radiation, are identified. The rate of discovery increased dramatically over the past four decades as new observational tools became available. The assessment of significance suggests that recent discoveries -though more numerous - are individually less significant; perhaps this is because the minor early discoveries tend to be taken for granted.

  6. Are Language Learning Websites Special? Towards a Research Agenda for Discipline-Specific Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Lesley; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    With the intention of defining an initial research agenda for discipline-specific factors in the usability of e-learning websites, this article focuses on the example of foreign language learning. First, general notions and concepts of usability are analyzed, and the term "pedagogical usability" is proposed as a means of focusing on the close…

  7. Using Cluster Analysis to Extend Usability Testing to Instructional Content. CRESST Report 816

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre S.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial video games undergo usability studies to determine the degree to which the player is able to learn, control, and understand the game. Usability studies allow game designers to improve their games before they are released to the public. If usability studies could be expanded to include information about the presentation of the…

  8. Usability Testing of the ClassWide Peer Tutoring-Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzhardt, Jay; Abbott, Mary; Greenwood, Charles; Tapia, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    The usability of classroom interventions plays a significant role in the likelihood that they will reach wide scale use. The current report describes the usability testing of a software application designed for ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a research-based classroom intervention. Initially, CWPT teachers rated the usability of the software and…

  9. Usability Testing of a Multimedia e-Learning Resource for Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Halperin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    The usability of computer interfaces may have a major influence on learning. Design approaches that optimize usability are commonplace in the software development industry but are seldom used in the development of e-learning resources, especially in medical education. We conducted a usability evaluation of a multimedia resource for teaching…

  10. 5 CFR 532.241 - Analysis of usable wage survey data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Analysis of usable wage survey data. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.241 Analysis of usable wage survey data. (a)(1... percent or more of the total usable wage survey data reflect rates paid on a straight-time basis only....

  11. 5 CFR 532.241 - Analysis of usable wage survey data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Analysis of usable wage survey data. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.241 Analysis of usable wage survey data. (a)(1... percent or more of the total usable wage survey data reflect rates paid on a straight-time basis only....

  12. 5 CFR 532.241 - Analysis of usable wage survey data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Analysis of usable wage survey data. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.241 Analysis of usable wage survey data. (a)(1... percent or more of the total usable wage survey data reflect rates paid on a straight-time basis only....

  13. 5 CFR 532.241 - Analysis of usable wage survey data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analysis of usable wage survey data. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.241 Analysis of usable wage survey data. (a)(1... percent or more of the total usable wage survey data reflect rates paid on a straight-time basis only....

  14. 5 CFR 532.241 - Analysis of usable wage survey data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analysis of usable wage survey data. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.241 Analysis of usable wage survey data. (a)(1... percent or more of the total usable wage survey data reflect rates paid on a straight-time basis only....

  15. The usable capacity of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Hirscher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A large number of different porous materials has been investigated for their hydrogen uptake over a wide pressure range and at different temperature. From the absolute adsorption isotherms, the enthalpy of adsorption is evaluated for a wide range of surface coverage. The usable capacity, defined as the amount of hydrogen released between a maximum tank pressure and a minimum back pressure for a fuel cell, is analyzed for isothermal operation. The usable capacity as a function of temperature shows a maximum which defines the optimum operating temperature. This optimum operating temperature is higher for materials possessing a higher enthalpy of adsorption. However, the fraction of the hydrogen stored overall that can be released at the optimum operating temperature is higher for materials with a lower enthalpy of adsorption than for the ones with higher enthalpy.

  16. Usability factors of mobile health application for chronic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Fatima; Hussain, Azham; Mohd, Haslina

    2016-08-01

    M-health has changed the conventional delivery system of health-care, permitting continuous, pervasive Health-care anywhere, anytime. Chronic disease apps are increasing, as many health workers, patients and clinicians already embracing smartphones in their comprehensive and diverse practices. There are lots of challenges and requirements that need to be addressed for mobile health applications to prevent or eliminate design problems and minimize potential threats for users, the proposed factors for chronic disease mobile applications can be used as a guide for app developers While, the usability testing, and evaluations of chronic disease apps have not yet touched the accuracy level of other web based applications. This study is being conducted to learn about challenges of m-health apps and to identify the factors that affect the usability of such applications.

  17. Usability Study of Two Collocated Prototype System Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, most of the displays in control rooms can be categorized as status screens, alerts/procedures screens (or paper), or control screens (where the state of a component is changed by the operator). The primary focus of this line of research is to determine which pieces of information (status, alerts/procedures, and control) should be collocated. Two collocated displays were tested for ease of understanding in an automated desktop survey. This usability study was conducted as a prelude to a larger human-in-the-loop experiment in order to verify that the 2 new collocated displays were easy to learn and usable. The results indicate that while the DC display was preferred and yielded better performance than the MDO display, both collocated displays can be easily learned and used.

  18. Usability Assessment of Moodle by Brazilian and Portuguese Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Carlos Alberto; de Godoy, Simone; Martins, JoséÉ Carlos Amado; Mazzo, Alessandra; Baptista, Rui Carlos Negrão; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2016-06-01

    Distance education has turned into an important tool for nursing education. The virtual learning environments contribute toward an interactive and attractive educational process. In this study, we assess the usability of a virtual learning environment that was developed to teach nursing students how to care for patients with urinary retention. A multicenter and descriptive study was undertaken, which involved nursing students from the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing, Brazil, and the Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra, Portugal. The participants were 79 students, mostly female, between 20 and 24 years of age. The virtual learning environment revealed good properties in terms of usability on most criteria. Future research will help to confirm the results. PMID:27058673

  19. Developing an SDK of usability-engineered handheld evaluation aid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Polun

    2007-01-01

    Handheld devices are useful tools to collect date at practice settings. However, it takes time and is very challenging for healthcare professionals to design a usability-engineered system. This study is to upgrade our practically-proven easy to use and effective handheld systems to an SDK. The SDK are composed of Excel-based form designer and Palm-based template. We have successfully tested the prototype in developing a 407-question homecare evaluation support system. PMID:18694082

  20. Enhancing the usability of CRT displays in test flight monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Sredinski, Victoria E.

    1991-01-01

    Enhancing the usability of Mission Control Center (MCC) CRT displays stands to improve the quality, productivity, and safety of flight-test research at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The results of this research suggests that much can be done to assist the user and improve the quality of flight research through the enhancement of current displays. This research has applications to a variety of flight data monitoring displays.

  1. Addressing the Tension Between Strong Perimeter Control an Usability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas H.; Kolano, Paul Z.; Keller, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a strong perimeter control system for a general purpose processing system, with the perimeter control system taking significant steps to address usability issues, thus mitigating the tension between strong perimeter protection and usability. A secure front end enforces two-factor authentication for all interactive access to an enclave that contains a large supercomputer and various associated systems, with each requiring their own authentication. Usability is addressed through a design in which the user has to perform two-factor authentication at the secure front end in order to gain access to the enclave, while an agent transparently performs public key authentication as needed to authenticate to specific systems within the enclave. The paper then describes a proxy system that allows users to transfer files into the enclave under script control, when the user is not present to perform two-factor authentication. This uses a pre-authorization approach based on public key technology, which is still strongly tied to both two-factor authentication and strict control over where files can be transferred on the target system. Finally the paper describes an approach to support network applications and systems such as grids or parallel file transfer protocols that require the use of many ports through the perimeter. The paper describes a least privilege approach that dynamically opens ports on a host-specific, if-authorized, as-needed, just-in-time basis.

  2. Health websites: accessibility and usability for American sign language users.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been efforts toward creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our article focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users' perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (n = 32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to (a) navigation to find the task, (b) website usability, and (c) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This article also describes the participants' preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users. PMID:24901350

  3. New Technologies for Improving Earth Science Data Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Graves, S. J.; Ramachandran, R.; Redman, S.; Rushing, J.; Tanner, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Information Technology and Systems Center (ITSC) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) is performing research in advanced applications with the goal of improving data usability in the next generation of distributed science data and information systems. These research areas include: data mining and subsetting in real time and for post-run analysis, interchange technologies for improved data exploitation, and the use of semantics to transform data exploitation via intelligent automated processing. Taken together, these technologies will be an important contribution to an evolving standards-based network of interoperable data and services. In addition, ITSC is investigating the role of a variety of infrastructure improvements for improved data usability, such as grid technologies for seamless access to multiple computational and data resources in a virtual computing environment; cluster technologies for high-speed parallel computation, multi-agent computations, and other applications; high-performance networking for high-speed connectivity among advanced applications; and next generation technologies in videoconferencing and electronic collaboration. This presentation will highlight several current ITSC research projects and collaborations which focus on advanced tools and services for such high-performance infrastructures, and which illustrate new approaches to improving data usability.

  4. Health Websites: Accessibility and Usability for American Sign Language Users

    PubMed Central

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R.; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been efforts towards creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our paper focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users’ perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (N=32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to: 1) navigation to find the task, 2) website usability, and 3) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This paper also describes the participants’ preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users. PMID:24901350

  5. Health literacy and usability of clinical trial search engines.

    PubMed

    Utami, Dina; Bickmore, Timothy W; Barry, Barbara; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Several web-based search engines have been developed to assist individuals to find clinical trials for which they may be interested in volunteering. However, these search engines may be difficult for individuals with low health and computer literacy to navigate. The authors present findings from a usability evaluation of clinical trial search tools with 41 participants across the health and computer literacy spectrum. The study consisted of 3 parts: (a) a usability study of an existing web-based clinical trial search tool; (b) a usability study of a keyword-based clinical trial search tool; and (c) an exploratory study investigating users' information needs when deciding among 2 or more candidate clinical trials. From the first 2 studies, the authors found that users with low health literacy have difficulty forming queries using keywords and have significantly more difficulty using a standard web-based clinical trial search tool compared with users with adequate health literacy. From the third study, the authors identified the search factors most important to individuals searching for clinical trials and how these varied by health literacy level. PMID:25315593

  6. Combining Usability Techniques to Design Geovisualization Tools for Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Anthony C.; Chen, Jin; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Meyer, Hans G.; MacEachren, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Designing usable geovisualization tools is an emerging problem in GIScience software development. We are often satisfied that a new method provides an innovative window on our data, but functionality alone is insufficient assurance that a tool is applicable to a problem in situ. As extensions of the static methods they evolved from, geovisualization tools are bound to enable new knowledge creation. We have yet to learn how to adapt techniques from interaction designers and usability experts toward our tools in order to maximize this ability. This is especially challenging because there is limited existing guidance for the design of usable geovisualization tools. Their design requires knowledge about the context of work within which they will be used, and should involve user input at all stages, as is the practice in any human-centered design effort. Toward that goal, we have employed a wide range of techniques in the design of ESTAT, an exploratory geovisualization toolkit for epidemiology. These techniques include; verbal protocol analysis, card-sorting, focus groups, and an in-depth case study. This paper reports the design process and evaluation results from our experience with the ESTAT toolkit. PMID:19960106

  7. Usability Guidelines for Product Recommenders Based on Example Critiquing Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Pearl; Faltings, Boi; Chen, Li; Zhang, Jiyong; Viappiani, Paolo

    Over the past decade, our group has developed a suite of decision tools based on example critiquing to help users find their preferred products in e-commerce environments. In this chapter, we survey important usability research work relative to example critiquing and summarize the major results by deriving a set of usability guidelines. Our survey is focused on three key interaction activities between the user and the system: the initial preference elicitation process, the preference revision process, and the presentation of the systems recommendation results. To provide a basis for the derivation of the guidelines, we developed a multi-objective framework of three interacting criteria: accuracy, confidence, and effort (ACE). We use this framework to analyze our past work and provide a specific context for each guideline: when the system should maximize its ability to increase users' decision accuracy, when to increase user confidence, and when to minimize the interaction effort for the users. Due to the general nature of this multi-criteria model, the set of guidelines that we propose can be used to ease the usability engineering process of other recommender systems, especially those used in e-commerce environments. The ACE framework presented here is also the first in the field to evaluate the performance of preference-based recommenders from a user-centric point of view.

  8. The Relationship between Personality Type and Software Usability Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…

  9. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Young, Cristin C. W.; Olival, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007–2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  10. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats.

    PubMed

    Young, Cristin C W; Olival, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007-2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  11. STS-92 Discovery Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Viewed from across the waters of Banana Creek, clouds of smoke and steam are illuminated by the flames from Space Shuttle Discovery'''s perfect on-time launch at 7:17 p.m. EDT. Discovery carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery'''s landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  12. Computational drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ou-Yang, Si-sheng; Lu, Jun-yan; Kong, Xiang-qian; Liang, Zhong-jie; Luo, Cheng; Jiang, Hualiang

    2012-01-01

    Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process. Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information, the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow, including target identification and validation, lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests. Over the past decades, computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking, pharmacophore modeling and mapping, de novo design, molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved. In this review, we present an overview of these important computational methods, platforms and successful applications in this field. PMID:22922346

  13. Content discovery and retrieval services at the European Nucleotide Archive

    PubMed Central

    Silvester, Nicole; Alako, Blaise; Amid, Clara; Cerdeño-Tárraga, Ana; Cleland, Iain; Gibson, Richard; Goodgame, Neil; ten Hoopen, Petra; Kay, Simon; Leinonen, Rasko; Li, Weizhong; Liu, Xin; Lopez, Rodrigo; Pakseresht, Nima; Pallreddy, Swapna; Plaister, Sheila; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Rossello, Marc; Senf, Alexander; Smirnov, Dmitriy; Toribio, Ana Luisa; Vaughan, Daniel; Zalunin, Vadim; Cochrane, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) is Europe's primary resource for nucleotide sequence information. With the growing volume and diversity of public sequencing data comes the need for increased sophistication in data organisation, presentation and search services so as to maximise its discoverability and usability. In response to this, ENA has been introducing and improving checklists for use during submission and expanding its search facilities to provide targeted search results. Here, we give a brief update on ENA content and some major developments undertaken in data submission services during 2014. We then describe in more detail the services we offer for data discovery and retrieval. PMID:25404130

  14. Antibiotic drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Mast, Yvonne; Stegmann, Evi; Ziemert, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Due to the threat posed by the increase of highly resistant pathogenic bacteria, there is an urgent need for new antibiotics; all the more so since in the last 20 years, the approval for new antibacterial agents had decreased. The field of natural product discovery has undergone a tremendous development over the past few years. This has been the consequence of several new and revolutionizing drug discovery and development techniques, which is initiating a 'New Age of Antibiotic Discovery'. In this review, we concentrate on the most significant discovery approaches during the last and present years and comment on the challenges facing the community in the coming years. PMID:27470984

  15. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Abbreviations; Introduction: the natural history of the heavens and the natural history of discovery; Part I. Entrée: 1. The Pluto affair; Part II. Narratives of Discovery: 2. Moons, rings, and asteroids: discovery in the realm of the planets; 3. In Herschel's gardens: nebulous discoveries in the realm of the stars; 4. Dwarfs, giants, and planets (again!): the discovery of the stars themselves; 5. Galaxies, quasars, and clusters: discovery in the realm of the galaxies; Part III. Patterns of Discovery: 6. The structure of discovery; 7. The varieties of discovery; 8. Discovery and classification; Part IV. Drivers of Discovery: 9. Technology and theory as drivers of discovery; Part V. The Synthesis of Discovery: 10. Luxuriant gardens and the master narrative; 11. The meaning of discovery; Appendix I; Appendix II.

  16. Evaluation of Web-Based Consumer Medication Information: Content and Usability of 4 Australian Websites

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Amina; Richardson, Lauren; Byrne, Mary; Robinson, Maureen; Li, Ling; Westbrook, Johanna I; Baysari, Melissa T

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication is the most common intervention in health care, and written medication information can affect consumers’ medication-related behavior. Research has shown that a large proportion of Australians search for medication information on the Internet. Objective To evaluate the medication information content, based on consumer medication information needs, and usability of 4 Australian health websites: Better Health Channel, myDr, healthdirect, and NPS MedicineWise . Methods To assess website content, the most common consumer medication information needs were identified using (1) medication queries to the healthdirect helpline (a telephone helpline available across most of Australia) and (2) the most frequently used medications in Australia. The most frequently used medications were extracted from Australian government statistics on use of subsidized medicines in the community and the National Census of Medicines Use. Each website was assessed to determine whether it covered or partially covered information and advice about these medications. To assess website usability, 16 consumers participated in user testing wherein they were required to locate 2 pieces of medication information on each website. Brief semistructured interviews were also conducted with participants to gauge their opinions of the websites. Results Information on prescription medication was more comprehensively covered on all websites (3 of 4 websites covered 100% of information) than nonprescription medication (websites covered 0%-67% of information). Most websites relied on consumer medicines information leaflets to convey prescription medication information to consumers. Information about prescription medication classes was less comprehensive, with no website providing all information examined about antibiotics and antidepressants. Participants (n=16) were able to locate medication information on websites in most cases (accuracy ranged from 84% to 91%). However, a number of

  17. Usability Analysis within The DataONE Network of Collaborators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budden, A. E.; Frame, M. T.; Tenopir, C.; Volentine, R.

    2014-12-01

    DataONE was conceived as a 10-year project to enable new science and knowledge creation through universal access to data about life on Earth and the environment that sustains it. In Phase I (2009-2014) more than 300 DataONE participants designed, developed and deployed a robust cyberinfrastructure (CI) with innovative services, and directly engaged and educated a broad stakeholder community. DataONE provides a resilient, scalable infrastructure using Member Nodes (data repositories), Coordinating Nodes, and an Investigator Toolkit to support the data access and data management needs of biological, Earth, and environmental science researchers in the U.S. and across the globe. DataONE collaborators, such as the U.S. Geological Survey, University of New Mexico, and the University of Tennessee, perform research to measure both the current data practices and opinions of DataONE stakeholders and the usability of DataONE for these stakeholders. Stakeholders include scientists, data managers, librarians, and educators among others. The DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group, which includes members from multiple sectors, does research, development, and implementation projects on DataONE processes, systems, and methods. These projects are essential to insure that DataONE products and services meet network goals, include appropriate community involvement, and demonstrate progress and achievements of DataONE. This poster will provide an overview of DataONE's usability analysis and assessment methodologies, benefits to DataONE and its collaborators, and current tools/techniques being utilized by the participants.

  18. Usability and training differences between two personal insulin pumps.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Noel E; Parks, Linda J; Verhoef, Erik T; Bailey, Timothy S; Schorr, Alan B; Davis, Trent; Halford, Jean; Sulik, Becky

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were usability and training differences between the Medtronic MiniMed Paradigm Revel Insulin Pump and the Tandem Diabetes Care t:slim Insulin Pump during use by representative users, performing representative tasks, in a simulated use environment. This study utilized a between-subjects experimental design with a total of 72 participants from 5 sites across the United States. Study participants were randomized to either the Revel pump group or the t:slim Pump group. Participants were 18 years of age or older and managed their diabetes using multiple daily insulin injections. Dependent variables included training time, training satisfaction, time on task, task failures, System Usability Scale (SUS) ratings, perceived task difficulty, and a pump survey that measured different aspects of the pumps and training sessions. There was a statistically significant difference in training times and error rates between the t:slim and Revel groups. The training time difference represented a 27% reduction in time to train on the t:slim versus the Revel pump. There was a 65% reduction in participants' use error rates between the t:slim and the Revel group. The t:slim Pump had statistically significant training and usability advantages over the Revel pump. The reduction in training time may have been a result of an optimized information architecture, an intuitive navigational layout, and an easy-to-read screen. The reduction in use errors with the t:slim may have been a result of dynamic error handling and active confirmation screens, which may have prevented programming errors. PMID:25316715

  19. The Usability of Online Geographic Virtual Reality for Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Moore, A. B.

    2013-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is starting to become widely and freely available (for example the online OpenSimulator tool), with potential for use in 3D urban planning and design tasks but still needing rigorous assessment to establish this. A previous study consulted with a small group of urban professionals, who concluded in a satisfaction usability test that online VR had potential value as a usable 3D communication and remote marketing tool but acknowledged that visual quality and geographic accuracy were obstacles to overcome. This research takes the investigation a significant step further to also examine the usability aspects of efficiency (how quickly tasks are completed) and effectiveness (how successfully tasks are completed), relating to OpenSimulator in an urban planning situation. The comparative study pits a three-dimensional VR model (with increased graphic fidelity and geographic content to address the feedback of the previous study) of a subdivision design (in a Dunedin suburb) against 3D models built with GIS (ArcGIS) and CAD (BricsCAD) tools, two types of software environment well established in urban professional practice. Urban professionals participated in the study by attempting to perform timed tasks correctly in each of the environments before being asked questions about the technologies involved and their perceived importance to their professional work. The results reinforce the positive feedback for VR of the previous study, with the graphical and geographic data issues being somewhat addressed (though participants stressed the need for accurate and precise object and terrain modification capabilities in VR). Ease-ofuse and associated fastest task completion speed were significant positive outcomes to emerge from the comparison with GIS and CAD, pointing to a strong future for VR in an urban planning context.

  20. Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821

  1. On the usability and security of pseudo-signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Lopresti, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Handwriting has been proposed as a possible biometric for a number of years. However, recent work has shown that handwritten passphrases are vulnerable to both human-based and machine-based forgeries. Pseudosignatures as an alternative are designed to thwart such attacks while still being easy for users to create, remember, and reproduce. In this paper, we briefly review the concept of pseudo-signatures, then describe an evaluation framework that considers aspects of both usability and security. We present results from preliminary experiments that examine user choice in creating pseudo-signatures and discuss the implications when sketching is used for generating cryptographic keys.

  2. Leveraging Python Interoperability Tools to Improve Sapphire's Usability

    SciTech Connect

    Gezahegne, A; Love, N S

    2007-12-10

    The Sapphire project at the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) develops and applies an extensive set of data mining algorithms for the analysis of large data sets. Sapphire's algorithms are currently available as a set of C++ libraries. However many users prefer higher level scripting languages such as Python for their ease of use and flexibility. In this report, we evaluate four interoperability tools for the purpose of wrapping Sapphire's core functionality with Python. Exposing Sapphire's functionality through a Python interface would increase its usability and connect its algorithms to existing Python tools.

  3. Drug discovery in academia.

    PubMed

    Verkman, A S

    2004-03-01

    Drug discovery and development is generally done in the commercial rather than the academic realm. Drug discovery involves target discovery and validation, lead identification by high-throughput screening, and lead optimization by medicinal chemistry. Follow-up preclinical evaluation includes analysis in animal models of compound efficacy and pharmacology (ADME: administration, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and studies of toxicology, specificity, and drug interactions. Notwithstanding the high-cost, labor-intensive, and non-hypothesis-driven aspects of drug discovery, the academic setting has a unique and expanding niche in this important area of investigation. For example, academic drug discovery can focus on targets of limited commercial value, such as third-world and rare diseases, and on the development of research reagents such as high-affinity inhibitors for pharmacological "gene knockout" in animal models ("chemical genetics"). This review describes the practical aspects of the preclinical drug discovery process for academic investigators. The discovery of small molecule inhibitors and activators of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is presented as an example of an academic drug discovery program that has yielded new compounds for physiology research and clinical development. PMID:14761879

  4. Decades of Discovery

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  5. Serendipity and Scientific Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)

  6. Friends' Discovery Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  7. A human reliability based usability evaluation method for safety-critical software

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, R. L.; Tran, T. Q.; Gertman, D. I.; Ragsdale, A.

    2006-07-01

    Boring and Gertman (2005) introduced a novel method that augments heuristic usability evaluation methods with that of the human reliability analysis method of SPAR-H. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to individual heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). Although this UEP is not a literal probability of error, it nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. This method allows one to seamlessly prioritize and identify usability issues (i.e., a higher UEP requires more immediate fixes). However, the original version of this method required the usability evaluator to assign priority weights to the final UEP, thus allowing the priority of a usability issue to differ among usability evaluators. The purpose of this paper is to explore an alternative approach to standardize the priority weighting of the UEP in an effort to improve the method's reliability. (authors)

  8. Usability evaluation of in-housed developed ERP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, Chaudhry Muhammad Nadeem; Shakeel Faridi, Muhammad; Javed, Zahid

    2011-10-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning systems are the combination of different business IS (Information System) applications that are designed according to the organization requirements. Generally ERP systems are suffering from complex user interface issues. Recent research shows that there is a need for improvement concerning, the user interface from their perspectives. In order to design the software applications that are easy to use, memorize and apply to new problems, we must know the users philosophy and something about learning, reminiscence and problems solving. The Usability engineering is the only way to study the deeds of users while interacting with ERP (Enterprise Resource & Planning). This paper will focus on the users' experiences view of financial module in ERP system. The HCI research method, explicitly survey questionnaire method was adopted to gather users understanding in order to evaluate the selected modules for in-housed ERP system. The study involved group of users from two industries, the results can not be generalized as a whole. The study was first time successfully applied Usability evaluation on in-housed ERP in local industry (Masood Textile Mills, Interloop Ltd) in Pakistan. The results may hopefully opened-up an area of research and methodology that could provide considerable further benefits to Industry in developments of Industrial information systems.

  9. Improving the Interoperability and Usability of NASA Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Berrick, S. W.; Murphy, K. J.; Mitchell, A. E.; Tilmes, C.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is charged with managing, maintaining, and evolving NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is responsible for processing, archiving, and distributing NASA Earth Science data. The system supports a multitude of missions and serves diverse science research and other user communities. While NASA has made, and continues to make, great strides in the discoverability and accessibility of its earth observation data holdings, issues associated with data interoperability and usability still present significant challenges to realizing the full scientific and societal benefits of these data. This concern has been articulated by multiple government agencies, both U.S. and international, as well as other non-governmental organizations around the world. Among these is the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy who, in response, has launched the Big Earth Data Initiative and the Climate Data Initiative to address these concerns for U.S. government agencies. This presentation will describe NASA's approach for addressing data interoperability and usability issues with our earth observation data.

  10. Beyond Usability: Evaluation Aspects of Visual Analytic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean

    2006-10-29

    A new field of research, visual analytics, has recently been introduced. This has been defined as “the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by visual interfaces." Visual analytic environments, therefore, support analytical reasoning using visual representations and interactions, with data representations and transformation capabilities, to support production, presentation and dissemination. As researchers begin to develop visual analytic environments, it will be advantageous to develop metrics and methodologies to help researchers measure the progress of their work and understand the impact their work will have on the users who will work in such environments. This paper presents five areas or aspects of visual analytic environments that should be considered as metrics and methodologies for evaluation are developed. Evaluation aspects need to include usability, but it is necessary to go beyond basic usability. The areas of situation awareness, collaboration, interaction, creativity, and utility are proposed as areas for initial consideration. The steps that need to be undertaken to develop systematic evaluation methodologies and metrics for visual analytic environments are outlined.

  11. Usability study of a vineyard teleoperated compost spreader.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ester; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Teleoperation has been widely applied in modern industry because of a variety of advantages, such as providing replaceable surrogates for humans in dangerous or difficult working environments over long distances. In this paper, a usability evaluation study of a teleoperation system for a compost spreader robotic machine is presented. The machine has been designed for the application of compost in small and stepping parcels of hilly vineyards. Driving and working tasks can be controlled remotely by a portable piloting unit, reducing the risk for the operator in the event of machine overturning. Participants of the study were asked to perform a series of tasks and sub-tasks and to vocalize their thoughts while working with the machine. The tasks were designed to simulate typical user experience. Once all the tasks were accomplished each participant was asked to fill a questionnaire. The evaluation considered aspects such as learnability, ease of use, understandability, controllability, frustration, mental effort, distraction, clarity of presentation, perceived usefulness, temporal efficiency and machine aesthetic. Results show that usability evaluation helped detecting design deficiencies in the teleoperated compost spreader machine. PMID:22317497

  12. AMOLED (active matrix OLED) functionality and usable lifetime at temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Prache, Olivier; Jones, Susan

    2005-05-01

    Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) displays are known to exhibit high levels of performance, and these levels of performance have continually been improved over time with new materials and electronics design. eMagin Corporation developed a manually adjustable temperature compensation circuit with brightness control to allow for excellent performance over a wide temperature range. Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (US Army) tested the performance and survivability of a number of AMOLED displays in a temperature chamber over a range from -55°C to +85°C. Although device performance of AMOLEDs has always been its strong suit, the issue of usable display lifetimes for military applications continues to be an area of discussion and research. eMagin has made improvements in OLED materials and worked towards the development of a better understanding of usable lifetime for operation in a military system. NVESD ran luminance degradation tests of AMOLED panels at 50°C and at ambient to characterize the lifetime of AMOLED devices. The result is a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military systems: where good fits are made, and where further development is needed.

  13. Usability standards meet scenario-based design: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Christopher J; Blandford, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on the challenges and opportunities presented by developing scenarios of use for interactive medical devices. Scenarios are integral to the international standard for usability engineering of medical devices (IEC 62366:2007), and are also applied to the development of health software (draft standard IEC 82304-1). The 62366 standard lays out a process for mitigating risk during normal use (i.e. use as per the instructions, or accepted medical practice). However, this begs the question of whether "real use" (that which occurs in practice) matches "normal use". In this paper, we present an overview of the product lifecycle and how it impacts on the type of scenario that can be practically applied. We report on the development and testing of a set of scenarios intended to inform the design of infusion pumps based on "real use". The scenarios were validated by researchers and practitioners experienced in clinical practice, and their utility was assessed by developers and practitioners representing different stages of the product lifecycle. These evaluations highlighted previously unreported challenges and opportunities for the use of scenarios in this context. Challenges include: integrating scenario-based design with usability engineering practice; covering the breadth of uses of infusion devices; and managing contradictory evidence. Opportunities included scenario use beyond design to guide marketing, to inform purchasing and as resources for training staff. This study exemplifies one empirically grounded approach to communicating and negotiating the realities of practice. PMID:25460202

  14. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety. PMID:22316929

  15. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  16. Usability in product development practice; an exploratory case study comparing four markets.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Jasper; van Driel, Liesbeth; van Eijk, Daan

    2015-03-01

    This study explored how usability was dealt with in four product development organizations active in different sectors: high-end automotive, professional printers and copiers, office coffee makers and fast moving consumer goods. The primary differentiators of the selected cases were whether they were targeting businesses or consumers and the degree of product complexity. Interviews with 19 product development practitioners were conducted, focussing on three topics: 1) the product development process and the integration of user involvement, 2) multidisciplinary teamwork, and 3) organizational attitude towards usability. Based on the interviews, context descriptions of the companies were created and barriers and enablers for usability were identified. To verify the findings and to discuss remaining issues a feedback workshop was held in which the primary contact from each company participated. The results indicate that differences in product-market combination lead to differences in organizational attitude towards usability. The prioritization of usability in an organization seems to be influenced by the degree of product complexity (complex products are more prone to suffer from usability issues) and whether developers think that usability is a purchase consideration for their clients. The product-market combination a company targets also affects the methods for user-centred design that a company can apply and that are relevant. What methods for user-centred design are used also seems to be influenced by the attitude towards usability: if usability is considered more important, methods that require more resources can be applied. PMID:25480002

  17. A rapid usability assessment methodology to support the choice of clinical information systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M C; Watbled, L; Carpentier, A M; Degroisse, M; Alao, O

    2002-01-01

    We present here an adapted methodology integrating usability engineering and early evaluation procedures to support the choice of a Clinical Information System in the context of a standard Call for Tender. We illustrate the application of this methodology with a case study. We integrated a standard 'contextual task and activity analysis' into the choice process and then drew up usability recommendations for the choice of an application. We organized a one-week on-site exhibition and test for each candidate company. During the test sessions, we performed a rapid usability assessment. The final choice of the application is strongly and positively influenced by the results of the usability assessment. PMID:12463784

  18. A nursing focus on EMR usability enhancing documentation of patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Page, Cecilia Anne Kennedy; Schadler, Aric

    2014-03-01

    Achieving the healthcare reform goals of broad electronic medical record (EMR) adoption and meaningful use will require that usability of EMR's be addressed. A usability checklist was implemented in a process improvement redesign of nursing documentation in an academic medical center to ensure optimal design of the user interface in the EMR. The outcomes of this framework were based on metrics of usability: efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction. Implementation of a usability checklist as standard work ensures a focus on the user interface design to enhance use of the EMR by nursing in clinical care and improve patient outcomes. PMID:24485189

  19. Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming climate information into usable tools to support Midwestern agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopy, L. S.; Widhalm, M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a close connection between weather and climate patterns and successful agricultural production. Therefore, incorporating climate information into farm management is likely to reduce the risk of economic losses and increase profitability. While weather and climate information is becoming ever more abundant and accessible, the use of such information in the agricultural community remains limited. Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers is a USDA-NIFA funded research and extension project focused on improving the use of climate information for agricultural production in the Midwestern United States by developing user-driven decision tools and training resources. The U2U team is a diverse and uniquely qualified group of climatologists, crop modelers, agronomists, and social scientists from 9 Midwestern universities and two NOAA Regional Climate Centers. Together, we strive to help producers make better long-term plans on what, when and where to plant and also how to manage crops for maximum yields and minimum environmental damage. To ensure relevance and usability of U2U products, our social science team is using a number of techniques including surveys and focus groups to integrate stakeholder interests, needs, and concerns into all aspects of U2U research. It is through this coupling of physical and social science disciplines that we strive to transform existing climate information into actionable knowledge.

  20. Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... shows examples of discoveries and their impact. Diseases Discoveries The Benefits for All Americans Huntington's Disease Venezuela— ...

  1. Purposive discovery of operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Michael H.; Bresina, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The Generate, Prune & Prove (GPP) methodology for discovering definitions of mathematical operators is introduced. GPP is a task within the IL exploration discovery system. We developed GPP for use in the discovery of mathematical operators with a wider class of representations than was possible with the previous methods by Lenat and by Shen. GPP utilizes the purpose for which an operator is created to prune the possible definitions. The relevant search spaces are immense and there exists insufficient information for a complete evaluation of the purpose constraint, so it is necessary to perform a partial evaluation of the purpose (i.e., pruning) constraint. The constraint is first transformed so that it is operational with respect to the partial information, and then it is applied to examples in order to test the generated candidates for an operator's definition. In the GPP process, once a candidate definition survives this empirical prune, it is passed on to a theorem prover for formal verification. We describe the application of this methodology to the (re)discovery of the definition of multiplication for Conway numbers, a discovery which is difficult for human mathematicians. We successfully model this discovery process utilizing information which was reasonably available at the time of Conway's original discovery. As part of this discovery process, we reduce the size of the search space from a computationally intractable size to 3468 elements.

  2. Distributed usability evaluation of the Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Tanuka; Robinson, Anthony C; Gruver, Adrienne; MacEachren, Alan M; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2008-01-01

    Background The Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas (PA-CA) is an interactive online atlas to help policy-makers, program managers, and epidemiologists with tasks related to cancer prevention and control. The PA-CA includes maps, graphs, tables, that are dynamically linked to support data exploration and decision-making with spatio-temporal cancer data. Our Atlas development process follows a user-centered design approach. To assess the usability of the initial versions of the PA-CA, we developed and applied a novel strategy for soliciting user feedback through multiple distributed focus groups and surveys. Our process of acquiring user feedback leverages an online web application (e-Delphi). In this paper we describe the PA-CA, detail how we have adapted e-Delphi web application to support usability and utility evaluation of the PA-CA, and present the results of our evaluation. Results We report results from four sets of users. Each group provided structured individual and group assessments of the PA-CA as well as input on the kinds of users and applications for which it is best suited. Overall reactions to the PA-CA are quite positive. Participants did, however, provide a range of useful suggestions. Key suggestions focused on improving interaction functions, enhancing methods of temporal analysis, addressing data issues, and providing additional data displays and help functions. These suggestions were incorporated in each design and implementation iteration for the PA-CA and used to inform a set of web-atlas design principles. Conclusion For the Atlas, we find that a design that utilizes linked map, graph, and table views is understandable to and perceived to be useful by the target audience of cancer prevention and control professionals. However, it is clear that considerable variation in experience using maps and graphics exists and for those with less experience, integrated tutorials and help features are needed. In relation to our usability assessment strategy, we find

  3. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  4. Viral surveillance and discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, Walter Ian; Firth, Cadhla

    2014-01-01

    The field of virus discovery has burgeoned with the advent of high throughput sequencing platforms and bioinformatics programs that enable rapid identification and molecular characterization of known and novel agents, investments in global microbial surveillance that include wildlife and domestic animals as well as humans, and recognition that viruses may be implicated in chronic as well as acute diseases. Here we review methods for viral surveillance and discovery, strategies and pitfalls in linking discoveries to disease, and identify opportunities for improvements in sequencing instrumentation and analysis, the use of social media and medical informatics that will further advance clinical medicine and public health. PMID:23602435

  5. Usability of Security Management:Defining the Permissions of Guests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Stajano, Frank

    Within the scenario of a Smart Home, we discuss the issues involved in allowing limited interaction with the environment for unidentified principals, or guests. The challenges include identifying and authenticating guests on one hand and delegating authorization to them on the other. While the technical mechanisms for doing so in generic distributed systems have been around for decades, existing solutions are in general not applicable to the smart home because they are too complex to manage. We focus on providing both security and usability; we therefore seek simple and easy to understand approaches that can be used by a normal computer-illiterate home owner, not just by a trained system administrator. This position paper describes ongoing research and does not claim to have all the answers.

  6. Universally-Usable Interactive Electronic Physics Instructional And Educational Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, John

    2000-03-01

    Recent developments of technologies that promote full accessibility of electronic information by future generations of people with print disabilities will be described. ("Print disabilities" include low vision, blindness, and dyslexia.) The guiding philosophy of these developments is that information should be created and transmitted in a form that is as display-independent as possible, and that the user should have maximum freedom over how that information is to be displayed. This philosophy leads to maximum usability by everybody and is, in the long run, the only way to assure truly equal access. Research efforts to be described include access to mathematics and scientific notation and to graphs, tables, charts, diagrams, and general object-oriented graphics.

  7. The usability and acceptability of a needleless connector system.

    PubMed

    Casey, Anna L; Elliott, Tom Sj

    Needleless connectors were introduced into clinical practice to reduce the rate of needlestick injuries to healthcare workers (HCWs). There have, however, been limited reports of user acceptability of these devices. The usability and acceptability of the Clearlink needleless connector (Baxter Healthcare, UK) was therefore completed by HCWs at University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust following a 12-month clinical evaluation. Seventy percent (28/40) of HCWs reported that they would prefer to use Clearlink needleless connectors rather than conventional luers caps, 15% (6/40) would use either, and only 15% (6/40) preferred to use luer caps. In total, 85% of HCWs reported that Clearlink was acceptable to use in the clinical situation. The results demonstrate that comprehensive training and technical support both before and after new device implementation were essential to ensure a smooth transition. PMID:17505370

  8. Supporting Local Aliases as Usable Presentation of Secure Pseudonyms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Elke; Liesebach, Katja

    Privacy-Enhancing Identity Management (PIM) enables users to control which personal data they provide to whom by partitioning this information into subsets called partial identities. Since these partial identities should not be linkable except by their owner, randomly generated pseudonyms that are unique are used as their identifiers instead of real names. Randomly generated pseudonyms do not leak any information about the corresponding user, but their handling is not easy for human beings. Users should therefore be enabled to assign local aliases according to their individual preferences to such pseudonyms to allow for a better recognizability in interaction scenarios. However, the use of local aliases requires a reasonable support to ensure both privacy and usability.

  9. Towards viable, useful and usable human factors design guidance.

    PubMed

    Burns, C M; Vicente, K J; Christoffersen, K; Pawlak, W S

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors relevant to producing effective human factors design guidance, using the Engineering Data Compendium (EDC) as a research vehicle. A series of three exploratory experiments focusing on the factors that affect the usability, usefulness and viability of human factors handbooks was conducted. The results of these studies were interpreted in the context of the process by which the EDC was developed, leading to the following recommendations: (a) human factors guidance should be organized in a manner that is stepped in context; (b) human factors guidance should be based on an explicit requirements analysis; (c) the calibration of designers' perceptions of the cost of obtaining human factors information must be improved; (d) organizational policies must be changed to induce more effective information search behaviour. PMID:9414371

  10. Quality and usability aspects of space physics data archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.; Escoubet, C. P.; Masson, A.; Perry, C. H.; Taylor, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The ESA Cluster Active Archive (CAA) was opened to public in February 2006 after an initial three-year development phase. It provides access to the calibrated full-resolution observations of the four-satellite Cluster mission that has been in operation since February 2001. The data archive is required to include all full-resolution measurements, be publicly accessible and suitable for science use and publication by the world-wide scientific community. The guidelines for the development of the archive system include the following two key terms: quality and usability. The former is essentially related to the quality of the data products, in particular as far as the quality of instrument calibrations is concerned. To help this activity, the CAA runs two calibration/cross-calibration workshops where the calibration results and activities are discussed in great detail. The usability is related to the usability of the data access tools (both web GUI and command-line tool are available) but also to the content of the data products (e.g. all necessary science and auxiliary parameters must be included) in order to fully exploit the observations. Both aspects are critical to the success of the Cluster archive that has currently about 1500 different users who can have highly varying knowledge of the Cluster instruments and observations. There is a large group of Cluster investigators who are fully capable of assessing the quality of the archived data products which however may require various additional science and auxiliary data that must all be included in the archive. On the other hand there is a much larger group of users who have very limited knowledge, if any, of the Cluster mission and all they need is a number of physical parameters either measured or determined by the four Cluster spacecraft. The latter forms a major challenge particularly for the completeness of the metadata as one must include a complete set of information about each data product. The CAA attempts

  11. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  12. Discovery Touches Down!

    NASA Video Gallery

    Discovery has completed its final mission, STS-133, for NASA's Space Shuttle Program landing on-time at Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 11:57 a.m. EST, March 9, 2011 after 202 orbits around Eart...

  13. NASA's Discovery Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicza, Mary; Bruegge, Richard Vorder

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Discovery Program represents an new era in planetary exploration. Discovery's primary goal: to maintain U.S. scientific leadership in planetary research by conducting a series of highly focused, cost effective missions to answer critical questions in solar system science. The Program will stimulate the development of innovative management approaches by encouraging new teaming arrangements among industry, universities and the government. The program encourages the prudent use of new technologies to enable/enhance science return and to reduce life cycle cost, and it supports the transfer of these technologies to the private sector for secondary applications. The Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous and Mars Pathfinder missions have been selected as the first two Discovery missions. Both will be launched in 1996. Subsequent, competitively selected missions will be conceived and proposed to NASA by teams of scientists and engineers from industry, academia, and government organizations. This paper summarizes the status of Discovery Program planning.

  14. Toxins and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. PMID:25448391

  15. The Discovery of Noggin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recently published work that appears to have many of the answers to the question of how the nervous system develops. Focuses on the discovery of what is believed to be neural inducer, a protein called noggin. (LZ)

  16. Automated Knowledge Discovery from Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael C.; DeCoste, D.; Enke, B. L.; Mazzoni, D.; Merline, W. J.; Scharenbroich, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we explore one aspect of knowledge discovery from simulators, the landscape characterization problem, where the aim is to identify regions in the input/ parameter/model space that lead to a particular output behavior. Large-scale numerical simulators are in widespread use by scientists and engineers across a range of government agencies, academia, and industry; in many cases, simulators provide the only means to examine processes that are infeasible or impossible to study otherwise. However, the cost of simulation studies can be quite high, both in terms of the time and computational resources required to conduct the trials and the manpower needed to sift through the resulting output. Thus, there is strong motivation to develop automated methods that enable more efficient knowledge extraction.

  17. Making Sense of an Academic Library Web Site: Toward a More Usable Interface for University Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitalong, Karla Saari; Hoeppner, Athena; Scharf, Meg

    2008-01-01

    Library patrons familiar with Web searching conventions often find library searching to be less familiar and even intimidating. This article describes and evaluates a series of usability research studies employing two different and popular methodologies: user-centered redesign and usability testing. Card sorting and affinity mapping were used to…

  18. Training Teachers and Serving Students: Applying Usability Testing in Writing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Teachers often test course materials by using them in class. Usability testing provides an alternative: teachers receive student feedback and revise materials "before" teaching a class. Case studies based on interviews and observations with two teaching assistants who usability tested materials before teaching introductory technical writing…

  19. Patterns for Success: A Lesson in Usable Design from U.S. Patent Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durack, Katherine T.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the design history of women's household sewing patterns as that history is recorded in United States Patent Records. Finds that the history of home sewing patterns illustrates a key aspect of usable design: the interrelationship between a device and its documentation and the way changes to both enhance overall product usability. (RS)

  20. The Relationship between National Culture and the Usability of an E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Steve; Wentling, Rose Mary; Wentling, Tim; Wadsworth, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to measure the relationship between national culture and the usability of an e-Learning system by using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Nielson's usability attributes. The study revealed that high uncertainty avoidance cultures found the system more frustrating to use. The study also revealed that individuals from cultures…

  1. The Relationship between National Culture and the Usability of an E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeoye, Blessing; Wentling, Rose Mary

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between national culture and the usability of an e-learning system. The theoretical frameworks that were used to guide this study were Hofstede's (1980) cultural dimensions, and Nielson's (1993) usability attributes. The sample for this study was composed of 24 international…

  2. Assessing the Usability of University Websites: An Empirical Study on Namik Kemal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentes, S. Ahmet; Turan, Aykut H.

    2012-01-01

    Web sites are emerging as a key component of an organization's survival in our ever globalizing competitive world. Usability of a web site has assumed a great deal of importance in terms of satisfying web site users' needs and expectations. The aim of the study is to evaluate and to explore the usability level of Namik Kemal University (NKU)…

  3. Developing and Validation a Usability Evaluation Tools for Distance Education Websites: Persian Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafezi, Soheila; Farahi, Ahmad; Mehri, Soheil Najafi; Mahmoodi, Hosein

    2010-01-01

    The web is playing a central role in distance education. The word "usability" is usually synonymous with functionality of the system for the user. Also, usability of a website is defined as something that can be used by a specific group of people to carry out specific objectives in an effective way, with efficiency and satisfaction.…

  4. A Study of Users' Perceptions toward E-Learning Courseware Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate users' perceptions toward e-learning courseware usability, giving attention to the variables of age, gender, prior experience with the Internet, and the amount of time the e-learner spent on the e-learning courseware to do his/her assignments. Based on a set of usability properties proposed in this…

  5. Design and Usability of Digital Libraries: Case Studies in the Asia Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theng, Yin-Leng, Ed.; Foo, Schubert, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book showcases some of the best digital library practices from organizations in the Asia Pacific. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design, use and usability of digital libraries. Not only are digital libraries examined, but related technologies, the management of knowledge in digital libraries, and the associated usability and…

  6. Architecting Usability Properties in the E-Learning Instructional Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex; du Plessis, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    This paper advances a framework for architecting usability properties in the e-learning instructional design process. To understand the framework for architecting usability properties into the e-learning instructional design process, the following have been defined: instructional design process, e-learning instructional design process, usability…

  7. The Virtual Anatomy Laboratory: Usability Testing to Improve an Online Learning Resource for Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…

  8. A Usability Study of Users' Perceptions toward a Multimedia Computer-Assisted Learning Tool for Neuroanatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Douglas J.; Terrell, Mark A.; Fleming, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This usability study evaluated users' perceptions of a multimedia prototype for a new e-learning tool: Anatomy of the Central Nervous System: A Multimedia Course. Usability testing is a collection of formative evaluation methods that inform the developmental design of e-learning tools to maximize user acceptance, satisfaction, and adoption.…

  9. Embedding Accessibility and Usability: Considerations for E-Learning Research and Development Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martyn; Colwell, Chetz; Jelfs, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes the case that if e-learning research and development projects are to be successfully adopted in real-world teaching and learning contexts, then they must effectively address accessibility and usability issues; and that these need to be integrated throughout the project. As such, accessibility and usability issues need to be made…

  10. Effect of Improving the Usability of an E-Learning Resource: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf M. E.; Halperin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing the usability of e-learning materials is necessary to reduce extraneous cognitive load and maximize their potential educational impact. However, this is often neglected, especially when time and other resources are limited. We conducted a randomized trial to investigate whether a usability evaluation of our multimedia e-learning…