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Sample records for discriminating power psychometric

  1. Limitations of True Score Variance to Measure Discriminating Power: Psychometric Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung Suk; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2010-01-01

    Demonstrating a specific cognitive deficit usually involves comparing patients’ performance on two or more tests. The psychometric confound occurs if the psychometric properties of these tests lead patients to show greater cognitive deficits in one domain. One way to avoid the psychometric confound is to use tests with a similar level of discriminating power, which is a test’s ability to index true individual differences in classic psychometric theory. One suggested way to measure discriminating power is to calculate true score variance (Chapman & Chapman, 1978). Despite the centrality of these formulations, there is no systematic examination of the relationship between the observable property of true score variance and the latent property of discriminating power. We simulated administrations of free response tests and forced choice tests by creating different replicable ability scores for two groups, across a wide ranges of various psychometric properties (i.e., difficulty, reliability, observed variance, and number of items), and computing an ideal index of discriminating power. Simulation results indicated that true score variance had only limited ability to predict discriminating power (explained about 10 % of variance in replicable ability scores). Furthermore, the ability varied across tests with wide ranges of psychometric variables, such as difficulty, observed variance, reliability, and number of items. Discriminating power depends upon a complicated interaction of psychometric properties that is not well estimated solely by a test’s true score variance. PMID:20455603

  2. Psychometric function of jittered rate pitch discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The impact of jitter on rate pitch discrimination (JRPD) is still a matter of debate. Previous studies have used adaptive procedures to assess pitch discrimination abilities of jittered rate pulses (Dobie and Dillier, 1985; Chen et al., 2005) or have used jitter detection thresholds (Fearn, 2001). Previous studies were conducted in a relatively small number of subjects using either a single-electrode cochlear implant (Dobie and Dillier, 1985, n = 2) or the Nucleus multi-channel devices (Fearn, 2001, n = 3; Chen et al., 2005, n = 5). The successful application of an adaptive procedure requires a monotone psychometric function to achieve asymptotic results. The underlying psychometric function of rate jitter has not been investigated so far. In order to close this knowledge gap, the present study determines psychometric functions by measuring of JRPD with a fixed stimulus paradigm. A rather large range of temporal, Gaussian distributed jitter standard deviation 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ms was applied to electrical pulse patterns. Since the shape of the underlying probability density function (PDF) may also effect JRPD, a uniform PDF was alternatively applied. 7 CI users (8 ears, high-level performers with open-speech perception, MED-EL Pulsar/Sonata devices, Innsbruck, Austria) served as subjects for the experiment. JRPD was assessed with a two-stage forced choice procedure. Gross results showed decreasing JRPD with increasing amounts of jitter independent of the applied jitter distribution. In conclusion, pulse rate jitter affects JRPD and therefore should be considered in current coding strategies. PMID:24821551

  3. A Psychometric Review of Measures Assessing Discrimination Against Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted. PMID:26566991

  4. Tailoring a psychophysical discrimination experiment upon assessment of the psychometric function: Predictions and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardi, Andrea; Tabarelli, Davide; Ricci, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    Decision making is a widespread research topic and plays a crucial role in neuroscience as well as in other research and application fields of, for example, biology, medicine and economics. The most basic implementation of decision making, namely binary discrimination, is successfully interpreted by means of signal detection theory (SDT), a statistical model that is deeply linked to physics. An additional, widespread tool to investigate discrimination ability is the psychometric function, which measures the probability of a given response as a function of the magnitude of a physical quantity underlying the stimulus. However, the link between psychometric functions and binary discrimination experiments is often neglected or misinterpreted. Aim of the present paper is to provide a detailed description of an experimental investigation on a prototypical discrimination task and to discuss the results in terms of SDT. To this purpose, we provide an outline of the theory and describe the implementation of two behavioural experiments in the visual modality: upon the assessment of the so-called psychometric function, we show how to tailor a binary discrimination experiment on performance and decisional bias, and to measure these quantities on a statistical base. Attention is devoted to the evaluation of uncertainties, an aspect which is also often overlooked in the scientific literature.

  5. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC).

    PubMed

    Brohan, Elaine; Clement, Sarah; Rose, Diana; Sartorius, Norman; Slade, Mike; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-06-30

    Mental illness is associated with unfair treatment in a number of areas of life. There is currently no psychometrically validated measure that has been developed to specifically focus on such experienced discrimination. This study aimed to finalise the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) and establish its psychometric properties. The DISC was further developed using (1) service user and interviewer focus groups; (2) reading ease testing; and (3) cognitive debriefing interviews. The revised scale then underwent psychometric testing to establish the following properties: reliability; validity; precision; acceptability; and feasibility. The final 22-item DISC demonstrated good psychometric properties (n=86) including inter-rater reliability (weighted kappa range: 0.62-0.95), internal consistency (α=0.78) and test-retest reliability (n=46) (weighted kappa range: 0.56-0.89). Feasibility, validity and acceptability were also established. In conclusion, the 22-item DISC is recommended for use in measuring experienced stigma and discrimination. Additional work to develop a measure of anticipated stigma is recommended. PMID:23582210

  6. Joint Entropy for Space and Spatial Frequency Domains Estimated from Psychometric Functions of Achromatic Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Vladímir de Aquino; Souza, Givago da Silva; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    We used psychometric functions to estimate the joint entropy for space discrimination and spatial frequency discrimination. Space discrimination was taken as discrimination of spatial extent. Seven subjects were tested. Gábor functions comprising unidimensionalsinusoidal gratings (0.4, 2, and 10 cpd) and bidimensionalGaussian envelopes (1°) were used as reference stimuli. The experiment comprised the comparison between reference and test stimulithat differed in grating's spatial frequency or envelope's standard deviation. We tested 21 different envelope's standard deviations around the reference standard deviation to study spatial extent discrimination and 19 different grating's spatial frequencies around the reference spatial frequency to study spatial frequency discrimination. Two series of psychometric functions were obtained for 2%, 5%, 10%, and 100% stimulus contrast. The psychometric function data points for spatial extent discrimination or spatial frequency discrimination were fitted with Gaussian functions using the least square method, and the spatial extent and spatial frequency entropies were estimated from the standard deviation of these Gaussian functions. Then, joint entropy was obtained by multiplying the square root of space extent entropy times the spatial frequency entropy. We compared our results to the theoretical minimum for unidimensional Gábor functions, 1/4π or 0.0796. At low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts, joint entropy reached levels below the theoretical minimum, suggesting non-linear interactions between two or more visual mechanisms. We concluded that non-linear interactions of visual pathways, such as the M and P pathways, could explain joint entropy values below the theoretical minimum at low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts. These non-linear interactions might be at work at intermediate and high contrasts at all spatial frequencies once there was a substantial decrease in joint

  7. Racial discrimination and health: a systematic review of scales with a focus on their psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Joao Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller; Faerstein, Eduardo; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2010-04-01

    The literature addressing the use of the race variable to study causes of racial inequities in health is characterized by a dense discussion on the pitfalls in interpreting statistical associations as causal relationships. In contrast, fewer studies have addressed the use of racial discrimination scales to estimate discrimination effects on health, and none of them provided a thorough assessment of the scales' psychometric properties. Our aim was to systematically review self-reported racial discrimination scales to describe their development processes and to provide a synthesis of their psychometric properties. A computer-based search in PubMed, LILACS, PsycInfo, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science was conducted without any type of restriction, using search queries containing free and controlled vocabulary. After initially identifying 3060 references, 24 scales were included in the review. Despite the fact that discrimination stands as topic of international relevance, 23 (96%) scales were developed within the United States. Most studies (67%, N = 16) were published in the last 12 years, documenting initial attempts at scale development, with a dearth of investigations on scale refinements or cross-cultural adaptations. Psychometric properties were acceptable; sixteen of all scales presented reliability scores above 0.7, 19 out of 20 instruments confirmed at least 75% of all previously stated hypotheses regarding the constructs under consideration, and conceptual dimensional structure was supported by means of any type of factor analysis in 17 of 21 scales. However, independent researchers, apart from the original scale developers, have rarely examined such scales. The use of racial terminology and how it may influence self-reported experiences of discrimination has not yet been thoroughly examined. The need to consider other types of unfair treatment as concurrently important health-damaging exposures, and the idea of a universal instrument which would permit cross

  8. The Influence of Temporal Resolution Power and Working Memory Capacity on Psychometric Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troche, Stefan J.; Rammsayer, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    According to the temporal resolution power (TRP) hypothesis, higher TRP as reflected by better performance on psychophysical timing tasks accounts for faster speed of information processing and increased efficiency of information processing leading to better performance on tests of psychometric intelligence. An alternative explanation of…

  9. Psychometric and discriminative properties of the Teen Addiction Severity Index (Brazilian Portuguese version).

    PubMed

    Sartes, Laisa Marcorela A; De Micheli, Denise; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia O

    2009-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the internal consistency of the Brazilian Portuguese version of Teen Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI) and validated its "substance use" area. Evaluating 100 psychoactive substance abusers/dependent adolescents (SUD) and 108 adolescents without such diagnosis (NON-SUD), we found good correlations between the classification by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, used as "gold standard") and the severity (r = 0.73) and composite (r = 0.72) scores of the T-ASI. The area under the ROC curve was 0.88, showing a satisfactory correct classification rate. The internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, was considered good regarding the substance use (0.89), legal (0.81), and psychiatric (0.80) areas of the T-ASI. The Brazilian Portuguese version of T-ASI presented good internal consistency and a valid substance use area. A comparison between the groups regarding the answers to each question in all the areas was conducted in order to identify which questions in the T-ASI discriminate SUD from NON-SUD adolescents, to have a basis for the proposal of a shorter version of the instrument. PMID:19377864

  10. A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale in HIV/AIDS Research

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Klostermann, Keith; Trabold, Nicole; Xue, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified that reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales are reported according to study population, and several cross-population trends were identified. In general, the SRPS and RC subscale exhibited sound psychometric properties across multiple study populations and research settings. By contrast, the DMD subscale had relatively weak psychometric properties, especially when used with specific populations and research settings. Factors that influenced the psychometric properties of the various scales and subscales included the study population, mean age of the sample, number of items retained in the scale, and modifications to the original scales. We conclude with recommendations for (a) the application and use of the SRPS and subscales, (b) reporting of psychometric properties of the scales in the literature, and (c) areas for future research. PMID:25331613

  11. Spectral parameter power series representation for Hill's discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Khmelnytskaya, K.V.; Rosu, H.C.

    2010-11-15

    We establish a series representation of the Hill discriminant based on the spectral parameter power series (SPPS) recently introduced by Kravchenko. We also show the invariance of the Hill discriminant under a Darboux transformation and employing the Mathieu case the feasibility of this type of series for numerical calculations of the eigenspectrum.

  12. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  13. Teaching for Change: The Difference, Power, and Discrimination Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Jun, Ed.; Li, Judith, Ed.; Roper, Larry D., Ed.; Shaw, Susan M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past three decades, American higher education has witnessed a shift in demographics which has created a more diverse student body. However, many university campuses remain unsupportive or even hostile to minority faculty and students. This anthology introduces to readers the Difference, Power, and Discrimination (DPD) Program, a…

  14. Forging Harmony in the Social Organism: Industry and the Power of Psychometric Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the initiating role of the steel industry in educational selection by means of psychometric techniques used in the psycho-physiological laboratory associated with a vocational school in Luxembourg founded in 1914. It first considers the origins of, and initial meanings bestowed upon, this first (and perhaps also last)…

  15. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alexandra; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Miller, William G; De Zutter, Lieven; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of Campylobacter in food. Campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and Campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), flagellin gene A restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaA-RFLP), antimicrobial resistance profiling (AMRp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for C. jejuni, the determination of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) class. Discriminatory power was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (SID) and the congruence was measured by the adjusted Rand index and adjusted Wallace coefficient. MLST was individually the most discriminative typing method for both C. jejuni (SID=0.981) and C. coli (SID=0.957). The most discriminative combination with a SID of 0.992 for both C. jejuni and C. coli was obtained by combining MLST with flaA-RFLP. The combination of MLST with flaA-RFLP is an easy and feasible typing method for short-term monitoring of Campylobacter in broiler meat carcass. PMID:26996762

  16. Assessing the Discriminating Power of Item and Test Scores in the Linear Factor-Analysis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2012-01-01

    Model-based attempts to rigorously study the broad and imprecise concept of "discriminating power" are scarce, and generally limited to nonlinear models for binary responses. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores which are analyzed or obtained using Spearman's factor-analytic…

  17. Prestimulus Alpha Power Influences Tactile Temporal Perceptual Discrimination and Confidence in Decisions.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that prestimulus alpha-band activity substantially influences perception of near-threshold stimuli. Here, we studied the influence of prestimulus alpha power fluctuations on temporal perceptual discrimination of suprathreshold tactile stimuli and subjects' confidence regarding their perceptual decisions. We investigated how prestimulus alpha-band power influences poststimulus decision-making variables. We presented electrical stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) to human subjects, and determined the SOA for which temporal perceptual discrimination varied on a trial-by-trial basis between perceiving 1 or 2 stimuli, prior to recording brain activity with magnetoencephalography. We found that low prestimulus alpha power in contralateral somatosensory and occipital areas predicts the veridical temporal perceptual discrimination of 2 stimuli. Additionally, prestimulus alpha power was negatively correlated with confidence ratings in correctly perceived trials, but positively correlated for incorrectly perceived trials. Finally, poststimulus event-related fields (ERFs) were modulated by prestimulus alpha power and reflect the result of a decisional process rather than physical stimulus parameters around ∼150 ms. These findings provide new insights into the link between spontaneous prestimulus alpha power fluctuations, temporal perceptual discrimination, decision making, and decisional confidence. The results suggest that prestimulus alpha power modulates perception and decisions on a continuous scale, as reflected in confidence ratings. PMID:25331603

  18. Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w0-wa parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and Inverse Tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  19. Machine Learning for Power System Disturbance and Cyber-attack Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Raymond Charles; Beaver, Justin M; Buckner, Mark A; Morris, Thomas; Adhikari, Uttam; Pan, Shengyi

    2014-01-01

    Power system disturbances are inherently complex and can be attributed to a wide range of sources, including both natural and man-made events. Currently, the power system operators are heavily relied on to make decisions regarding the causes of experienced disturbances and the appropriate course of action as a response. In the case of cyber-attacks against a power system, human judgment is less certain since there is an overt attempt to disguise the attack and deceive the operators as to the true state of the system. To enable the human decision maker, we explore the viability of machine learning as a means for discriminating types of power system disturbances, and focus specifically on detecting cyber-attacks where deception is a core tenet of the event. We evaluate various machine learning methods as disturbance discriminators and discuss the practical implications for deploying machine learning systems as an enhancement to existing power system architectures.

  20. A Discriminant Analysis of Attitudes Related to the Nuclear Power Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girondi, Alfred J.

    1983-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a test instrument for measuring selected attitudes toward nuclear power, determine if attitudinal differences existed between selected groups of individuals, describe group differences in attitude, and classify group members as either anti- or pronuclear. Results, based on discriminant analysis, are reported and…

  1. Discrimination Power of Polynomial-Based Descriptors for Graphs by Using Functional Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang; Stefu, Monica; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrimination power of graph measures that are based on graph-theoretical matrices. The paper generalizes the work of [M. Dehmer, M. Moosbrugger. Y. Shi, Encoding structural information uniquely with polynomial-based descriptors by employing the Randić matrix, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 268(2015), 164–168]. We demonstrate that by using the new functional matrix approach, exhaustively generated graphs can be discriminated more uniquely than shown in the mentioned previous work. PMID:26479495

  2. Discrimination Power of Polynomial-Based Descriptors for Graphs by Using Functional Matrices.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang; Stefu, Monica; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrimination power of graph measures that are based on graph-theoretical matrices. The paper generalizes the work of [M. Dehmer, M. Moosbrugger. Y. Shi, Encoding structural information uniquely with polynomial-based descriptors by employing the Randić matrix, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 268(2015), 164-168]. We demonstrate that by using the new functional matrix approach, exhaustively generated graphs can be discriminated more uniquely than shown in the mentioned previous work. PMID:26479495

  3. Discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability measures for CHF assessment.

    PubMed

    Pecchia, Leandro; Melillo, Paolo; Sansone, Mario; Bracale, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) for discriminating normal subjects versus chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. We analyzed 1914.40 h of ECG of 83 patients of which 54 are normal and 29 are suffering from CHF with New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification I, II, and III, extracted by public databases. Following guidelines, we performed time and frequency analysis in order to measure HRV features. To assess the discrimination power of HRV features, we designed a classifier based on the classification and regression tree (CART) method, which is a nonparametric statistical technique, strongly effective on nonnormal medical data mining. The best subset of features for subject classification includes square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD), total power, high-frequencies power, and the ratio between low- and high-frequencies power (LF/HF). The classifier we developed achieved sensitivity and specificity values of 79.3 % and 100 %, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrated that it is possible to achieve sensitivity and specificity of 89.7 % and 100 %, respectively, by introducing two nonstandard features ΔAVNN and ΔLF/HF, which account, respectively, for variation over the 24 h of the average of consecutive normal intervals (AVNN) and LF/HF. Our results are comparable with other similar studies, but the method we used is particularly valuable because it allows a fully human-understandable description of classification procedures, in terms of intelligible "if … then …" rules. PMID:21075731

  4. Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability measures for chronic heart failure detection.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Paolo; Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors performed a retrospective analysis on four public Holter databases, analyzing the data of 72 normal subjects and 44 patients suffering from CHF. To assess the discrimination power of HRV measures, an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of HRV measures was adopted and classifiers based on Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method was developed, which is a non-parametric statistical technique. It was found that the best combination of features is: Total spectral power of all NN intervals up to 0.4 Hz (TOTPWR), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all 5-min segments of a 24-h recording (SDANN). The classifiers based on this combination achieved a specificity rate and a sensitivity rate of 100.00 and 89.74%, respectively. The results are comparable with other similar studies, but the method used is particularly valuable because it provides an easy to understand description of classification procedures, in terms of intelligible "if … then …" rules. Finally, the rules obtained by CART are consistent with previous clinical studies. PMID:21203855

  5. Coding region SNP analysis to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    The high population frequencies of three control region haplotypes contribute to the low discrimination power of the dog mtDNA control region. It also diminishes the evidential power of a match with one of these haplotypes in forensic casework. A mitochondrial genome study of 214 Belgian dogs suggested 26 polymorphic coding region sites that successfully resolved dogs with the three most frequent control region haplotypes. In this study, three SNP assays were developed to determine the identity of the 26 informative sites. The control region of 132 newly sampled dogs was sequenced and added to the study of 214 dogs. The assays were applied to 58 dogs of the haplotypes of interest, which confirmed their suitability for enhancing dog mtDNA discrimination power. In the Belgian population study of 346 dogs, the set of 26 sites divided the dogs into 25 clusters of mtGenome sequences with substantially lower population frequency estimates than their control region sequences. In case of a match with one of the three control region haplotypes, using these three SNP assays in conjunction with control region sequencing would augment the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis from 92.9% to 97.0%. PMID:25299153

  6. Measuring Psychometric Functions with the Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion decision model (Ratcliff, 1978) was used to examine discrimination for a range of perceptual tasks: numerosity discrimination, number discrimination, brightness discrimination, motion discrimination, speed discrimination, and length discrimination. The model produces a measure of the quality of the information that drives decision processes, a measure termed “drift rate” in the model. As drift rate varies across experimental conditions that differ in difficulty, a psychometric function that plots drift rate against difficulty can be constructed. Psychometric functions for the tasks in this article usually plot accuracy against difficulty, but for some levels of difficulty, accuracy can be at ceiling. The diffusion model extends the range of difficulty that can be evaluated because drift rates depend on response times (RTs) as well as accuracy and when RTs decrease across conditions that are all at ceiling in accuracy, then drift rates will distinguish among the conditions. Signal detection theory assumes that the variable driving performance is the z-transform of the accuracy value and somewhat surprisingly, this closely matches drift rate extracted from the diffusion model when accuracy is not at ceiling, but not sometimes when accuracy is high. Even though the functions are similar in the middle of the range, the interpretations of the variability in the models (e.g., perceptual variability, decision process variability) are incompatible. PMID:24446719

  7. Robust Pilot Decontamination Based on Joint Angle and Power Domain Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Haifan; Cottatellucci, Laura; Gesbert, David; Muller, Ralf R.; He, Gaoning

    2016-06-01

    We address the problem of noise and interference corrupted channel estimation in massive MIMO systems. Interference, which originates from pilot reuse (or contamination), can in principle be discriminated on the basis of the distributions of path angles and amplitudes. In this paper we propose novel robust channel estimation algorithms exploiting path diversity in both angle and power domains, relying on a suitable combination of the spatial filtering and amplitude based projection. The proposed approaches are able to cope with a wide range of system and topology scenarios, including those where, unlike in previous works, interference channel may overlap with desired channels in terms of multipath angles of arrival or exceed them in terms of received power. In particular we establish analytically the conditions under which the proposed channel estimator is fully decontaminated. Simulation results confirm the overall system gains when using the new methods.

  8. The discriminant power of RNA features for pre-miRNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational discovery of microRNAs (miRNA) is based on pre-determined sets of features from miRNA precursors (pre-miRNA). Some feature sets are composed of sequence-structure patterns commonly found in pre-miRNAs, while others are a combination of more sophisticated RNA features. In this work, we analyze the discriminant power of seven feature sets, which are used in six pre-miRNA prediction tools. The analysis is based on the classification performance achieved with these feature sets for the training algorithms used in these tools. We also evaluate feature discrimination through the F-score and feature importance in the induction of random forests. Results Small or non-significant differences were found among the estimated classification performances of classifiers induced using sets with diversification of features, despite the wide differences in their dimension. Inspired in these results, we obtained a lower-dimensional feature set, which achieved a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 95%. These estimates are within 0.1% of the maximal values obtained with any feature set (SELECT, Section “Results and discussion”) while it is 34 times faster to compute. Even compared to another feature set (FS2, see Section “Results and discussion”), which is the computationally least expensive feature set of those from the literature which perform within 0.1% of the maximal values, it is 34 times faster to compute. The results obtained by the tools used as references in the experiments carried out showed that five out of these six tools have lower sensitivity or specificity. Conclusion In miRNA discovery the number of putative miRNA loci is in the order of millions. Analysis of putative pre-miRNAs using a computationally expensive feature set would be wasteful or even unfeasible for large genomes. In this work, we propose a relatively inexpensive feature set and explore most of the learning aspects implemented in current ab-initio pre-miRNA prediction

  9. Automated identification of RNA 3D modules with discriminative power in RNA structural alignments.

    PubMed

    Theis, Corinna; Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Gorodkin, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Recent progress in predicting RNA structure is moving towards filling the 'gap' in 2D RNA structure prediction where, for example, predicted internal loops often form non-canonical base pairs. This is increasingly recognized with the steady increase of known RNA 3D modules. There is a general interest in matching structural modules known from one molecule to other molecules for which the 3D structure is not known yet. We have created a pipeline, metaRNAmodules, which completely automates extracting putative modules from the FR3D database and mapping of such modules to Rfam alignments to obtain comparative evidence. Subsequently, the modules, initially represented by a graph, are turned into models for the RMDetect program, which allows to test their discriminative power using real and randomized Rfam alignments. An initial extraction of 22 495 3D modules in all PDB files results in 977 internal loop and 17 hairpin modules with clear discriminatory power. Many of these modules describe only minor variants of each other. Indeed, mapping of the modules onto Rfam families results in 35 unique locations in 11 different families. The metaRNAmodules pipeline source for the internal loop modules is available at http://rth.dk/resources/mrm. PMID:24005040

  10. Dog mitochondrial genome sequencing to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2014-09-01

    A Belgian dog population sample and several population studies worldwide have confirmed that only a limited number of mtDNA control region haplotypes is observed in the majority of dogs. The high population frequency of these haplotypes negatively impacts both the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis and the evidential value of a match with one of these haplotypes in casework. Variation within the mtDNA coding region was explored to improve the discrimination power of dog mtDNA analysis. In the current study, the entire mitochondrial genome of 161 dogs was sequenced applying a quality assured strategy and resulted in a total of 119 different mitochondrial genome sequences. Our research was focused on those dogs with the six most common control region haplotypes from a previous Belgian population study. We identified 33 informative SNPs that successfully divide the six most common control region haplotypes into 32 clusters of mitochondrial genome sequences. Determining the identity of these 33 polymorphic sites in addition to control region sequencing in case of a match with one of these 6 control region haplotypes could augment the exclusion probability of forensic dog mtDNA analysis from 92.5% to 97.5%. PMID:24905334

  11. Psychometric Properties of Self-Appraisals of Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, George C., III

    The research literature on the psychometric properties of self-appraisals of work performance summarizes many results in terms of leniency, variability, halo, and construct validity. Comparisons with appraisals tend to show more leniency, less variability, more bias, and less discriminant validity. Different factor structures are found among self-…

  12. Psychometric Properties of Teacher SKAMP Ratings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Desiree W.; Bussing, Regina; Fernandez, Melanie; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Swanson, James M.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the basic psychometric properties of the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham Scale (SKAMP), a measure intended to assess functional impairment related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in a sample of 1,205 elementary students. Reliability, factor structure, and convergent, discriminant and predictive validity…

  13. The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphry, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the role of the unit in physics in order to clarify the role of the unit in psychometrics. Based on this examination, metrological conventions are used to formulate the relationship between discrimination and the unit of a scale in item response theory. Seminal literature in two lines of item response…

  14. The Discriminating Power of Items that Measure More than One Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckase, Mark D.

    The work presented in this paper defined conceptually the concepts of multidimensional discrimination and information, derived mathematical expressions for the concepts for a particular multidimensional item response theory (IRT) model, and applied the concepts to actual test data. Multidimensional discrimination was defined as a function of the…

  15. UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Dale Kevin

    merit investigated included: 1) wavelength accuracy, 2) wavelength precision, 3) wavelength resolution stability, 4) photometric accuracy, 5) photometric precision, 6) photometric linearity, 7) photometric noise, and 8) short-term baseline stability. In addition, intrinsic instrument polarization effects were investigated to determine the impact of these properties on spectral interpretation and data quality. Finally, a set of recommendations were developed which describe instrument performance characteristics for microscope and spectrometer features and functions, and specific instrument parameters that must be controlled in order to acquire high quality data from an ultraviolet-visible forensic microscope spectrophotometer system for increased discrimination power.

  16. Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which…

  17. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Healther E.; Strong, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia—the reduced capacity to experience pleasure—is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995)—a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences—in adolescents. Adolescents (N=585; M age=14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that: (1) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like “seeing smiling faces” or “smelling flowers”) provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (2) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs; weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  18. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Heather E; Strong, David R

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia-the reduced capacity to experience pleasure-is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995 )-a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences-in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 585, M age = 14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that (a) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like "seeing smiling faces" or "smelling flowers") provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (b) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs, weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  19. Being a Successful Adolescent at School and with Peers. The Discriminative Power of a Typological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steca, Patrizia; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni Maria; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to explore the utility of the resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes in discriminating adolescents with respect to their academic and social functioning and success. One-hundred and twelve male and 95 female Italian adolescents (mean age = 17 years old) participated in the study and filled out a…

  20. The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Kevin; Ratliff, Thomas N.; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Building on prior work surrounding negative work-related experiences, such as workplace bullying and sexual harassment, we examine the extent to which organizational context is meaningful for the subjective experience of sex discrimination. Data draw on the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, which provides a key indicator of…

  1. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. PMID:25462882

  2. Sex differences in discriminative power of volleyball game-related statistics.

    PubMed

    João, Paulo Vicente; Leite, Nuno; Mesquita, Isabel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2010-12-01

    To identify sex differences in volleyball game-related statistics, the game-related statistics of several World Championships in 2007 (N=132) were analyzed using the software VIS from the International Volleyball Federation. Discriminant analysis was used to identify the game-related statistics which better discriminated performances by sex. Analysis yielded an emphasis on fault serves (SC = -.40), shot spikes (SC = .40), and reception digs (SC = .31). Specific robust numbers represent that considerable variability was evident in the game-related statistics profile, as men's volleyball games were better associated with terminal actions (errors of service), and women's volleyball games were characterized by continuous actions (in defense and attack). These differences may be related to the anthropometric and physiological differences between women and men and their influence on performance profiles. PMID:21319626

  3. Development and examination of the psychometric properties of the Learning Experience Scale in nursing.

    PubMed

    Takase, Miyuki; Imai, Takiko; Uemura, Chizuru

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties of the Learning Experience Scale. A survey method was used to collect data from a total of 502 nurses. Data were analyzed by factor analysis and the known-groups technique to examine the construct validity of the scale. In addition, internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha, and stability was examined by test-retest correlation. Factor analysis showed that the Learning Experience Scale consisted of five factors: learning from practice, others, training, feedback, and reflection. The scale also had the power to discriminate between nurses with high and low levels of nursing competence. The internal consistency and the stability of the scale were also acceptable. The Learning Experience Scale is a valid and reliable instrument, and helps organizations to effectively design learning interventions for nurses. PMID:26373632

  4. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P

    2004-05-27

    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women in a German Sample.

    PubMed

    Velten, Julia; Scholten, Saskia; Graham, Cynthia A; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Sexual Excitation Sexual/Inhibition Inventory for Women (SESII-W) is a self-report questionnaire for assessing propensities of sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) in women. According to the dual control model of sexual response, these two factors differ between individuals and influence the occurrence of sexual arousal in given situations. Extreme levels of SE and SI are postulated to be associated with sexual problems or risky sexual behaviors. Psychometric evaluation of the original scale yielded two higher order and eight lower order factors as well as satisfactory to good construct validity and reliability. The present study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the SESII-W utilizing a large convenience sample of 2206 women. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory overall model fit, with support for the five lower order factors of SE (Arousability, Sexual Power Dynamics, Smell, Partner Characteristics, Setting) and the three lower order factors of SI (Relationship Importance, Arousal Contingency, and Concerns about Sexual Function). Additionally, the scale demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and test-retest-reliability. The German SESII-W is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure for assessing SE and SI in women. Hence, its use can be recommended for future research in Germany that investigates women's sexual behaviors and experiences. PMID:26025455

  6. The utility of placing recollection in opposition to familiarity in early discrimination of healthy aging and very mild dementia of the Alzheimer’s type

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.; Moynan, Sarah C.; Duchek, Janet M.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the ability to control familiarity-based information in a memory exclusion paradigm in healthy young, older adults, and early-stage DAT individuals. We compared the predictive power of memory exclusion performance to standard psychometric performance in discriminating between healthy aging and the earliest detectable form of DAT and between APOe4-present and APOe4-absent genotype in healthy control individuals. Participants responded “yes” to words that were previously semantically encoded, and “no” to other words. The number of targets and distractors on the read “distractor” list was manipulated to investigate the degree to which aging and DAT influence the ability to recollect specific details of study episodes in the face of distractor familiarity due to repetition. Memory exclusion performance (as reflected by d′) decreased across participant groups (young > healthy old control > very mild DAT). Logistic regression analyses showed that d′ increased the discriminative power for healthy older adults vs. very mild DAT individuals above and beyond standard psychometric measures. Memory exclusion d′ was also lower for healthy control individuals with APOe4 allele, compared to those without the APOe4 allele after partialing out baseline psychometric performance. Discussion focuses on the importance of attentional control systems in memory retrieval and the utility of the opposition paradigm for early discrimination between healthy and pathological aging. PMID:20063946

  7. Corrected Article: Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models [Phys. Rev. D 78, 043528 (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2009-12-01

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w0-wa parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and inverse tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  8. Corrected Article: Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models [Phys. Rev. D 78, 043528 (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2009-12-15

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w{sub 0}-w{sub a} parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and inverse tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  9. On the model discriminating power of mu to e conversion in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Okada, Yashuiro; Tuzon, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) charged lepton decays provide a highly sensitive probe of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), due to the un-observably small branching fractions ({approx}10{sup -50}) predicted for these modes in the SM (minimally extended to include massive neutrinos). Searches for SM forbidden muon processes, such as {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {mu} {yields} e{bar e}e, and {mu} {yields} e conversion in nuclei, have provided so far the strongest constraints on LFV new physics. This statement can be characterized in a model-independent way as a lower bound on the scale associated to a set of dimension six effective operators parameterizing new physics beyond the SM. It is a well known fact that while the decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma} is only sensitive to a transition magnetic dipole operator, both {mu} {yields} e{bar e}e and {mu} {yields} e conversion in nuclei are sensitive to transition charge radii operators as well as purely contact four-fermion interactions induced by physics beyond the SM. In other words, different LFV decays have different sensitivities to underlying LFV mechanisms (effective operators). This leads naturally to ask the question whether one could infer the relative strength of these different operators in a completely phenomenological and model-independent way. This would allow one to discriminate among different underlying models of LFV and thus would provide valuable input for model building. In Ref. [1] it was pointed out that in principle, by combining the rates of {mu} {yields} e{gamma} and {mu} {yields} e conversion on different target nuclei, one could discriminate underlying models. In this work we go back to this issue with the aim to: quantify the theoretical uncertainty induced by the hadronization process; and quantify the experimental precision required to realistically infer useful information on the underlying LFV mechanisms. We organize our discussion as follows: in Section 2 we review the derivation of the {mu

  10. Multiple binary classifications via linear discriminant analysis for improved controllability of a powered prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Levi J; Scheme, Erik J; Englehart, Kevin B; Hudgins, Bernard S

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a novel pattern recognition based myoelectric control system that uses parallel binary classification and class specific thresholds. The system was designed with an intuitive configuration interface, similar to existing conventional myoelectric control systems. The system was assessed quantitatively with a classification error metric and functionally with a clothespin test implemented in a virtual environment. For each case, the proposed system was compared to a state-of-the-art pattern recognition system based on linear discriminant analysis and a conventional myoelectric control scheme with mode switching. These assessments showed that the proposed control system had a higher classification error ( p < 0.001) but yielded a more controllable myoelectric control system ( p < 0.001) as measured through a clothespin usability test implemented in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the system was computationally simple and applicable for real-time embedded implementation. This work provides the basis for a clinically viable pattern recognition based myoelectric control system which is robust, easily configured, and highly usable. PMID:20071277

  11. Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS): Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P.; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M.; García-Fernández, José M.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8–11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS. PMID:25072402

  12. Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation: Results of the Initial Psychometric Study.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of social cognition in treatment trials remains problematic due to poor and limited psychometric data for many tasks. As part of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, the psychometric properties of 8 tasks were assessed. One hundred and seventy-nine stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls completed the battery at baseline and a 2-4-week retest period at 2 sites. Tasks included the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task (BLERT), Penn Emotion Recognition Task (ER-40), Relationships Across Domains (RAD), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (Eyes), The Awareness of Social Inferences Test (TASIT), Hinting Task, and Trustworthiness Task. Tasks were evaluated on: (i) test-retest reliability, (ii) utility as a repeated measure, (iii) relationship to functional outcome, (iv) practicality and tolerability, (v) sensitivity to group differences, and (vi) internal consistency. The BLERT and Hinting task showed the strongest psychometric properties across all evaluation criteria and are recommended for use in clinical trials. The ER-40, Eyes Task, and TASIT showed somewhat weaker psychometric properties and require further study. The AIHQ, RAD, and Trustworthiness Task showed poorer psychometric properties that suggest caution for their use in clinical trials. PMID:25943125

  13. Discriminating power of microsatellites in cranberry organelles for taxonomic studies in Vaccinium and Ericaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, which have not been previously developed or explored in the Ericaceae family or Vaccinium genus, can be powerful tools for determining evolutionary relationships between taxa. In this study, 30 chloroplast and 23 mitochondria, and ...

  14. Revealing discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts: Line-intensity correlation analysis from laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yonghoon; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Han, Song-Hee; Yoo, Jonghyun; Jeong, Sungho

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results.

  15. Measuring anxiety in late life: a psychometric examination of the geriatric anxiety inventory and geriatric anxiety scale.

    PubMed

    Gould, Christine E; Segal, Daniel L; Yochim, Brian P; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J; Beaudreau, Sherry A

    2014-12-01

    We examined the psychometric properties, internal scale reliability and validity, of two geriatric anxiety measures: the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS). We also determined the extent to which memory ability influenced the psychometric properties of these measures. Older adult participants (N=110; M age=75 years) completed self-report, clinician-rated and diagnostic psychiatric measures and a neuropsychiatric battery. GAI and GAS scores had good internal consistency, adequate reliability, and strong convergent validity. GAI scores had better discriminant validity than GAS scores relative to a health rating. Both measures had strong associations with depression scores. Psychometric properties were decreased in participants with average delayed memory recall compared with those with superior recall. Both measures had good psychometric support, particularly in those with strong memory abilities. Psychometric performance characteristics indicate that the GAI and GAS may be good alternatives to anxiety measures not designed specifically for older adults. PMID:25271176

  16. A psychometric evaluation of the digital logic concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.

  17. Chemical vapor discrimination using a compact and low-power array of piezoresistive microcantilevers.

    PubMed

    Loui, Albert; Ratto, Timothy V; Wilson, Thomas S; McCall, Scott K; Mukerjee, Erik V; Love, Adam H; Hart, Bradley R

    2008-05-01

    A compact and low-power microcantilever-based sensor array has been developed and used to detect various chemical vapor analytes. In contrast to earlier micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) array sensors, this device uses the static deflection of piezoresistive cantilevers due to the swelling of glassy polyolefin coatings during sorption of chemical vapors. To maximize the sensor response to a variety of chemical analytes, the polymers are selected based on their Hildebrand solubility parameters to span a wide range of chemical properties. We utilize a novel microcontact spotting method to reproducibly coat a single side of each cantilever in the array with the polymers. To demonstrate the utility of the sensor array we have reproducibly detected 11 chemical vapors, representing a breadth of chemical properties, in real time and over a wide range of vapor concentrations. We also report the detection of the chemical warfare agents (CWAs) VX and sulfur mustard (HD), representing the first published report of CWA vapor detection by a polymer-based, cantilever sensor array. Comparisons of the theoretical polymer/vapor partition coefficient to the experimental cantilever deflection responses show that, while general trends can be reasonably predicted, a simple linear relationship does not exist. PMID:18427681

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task: An Italian Multicentre Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Lavinia; Del Giudice, Marco; Fossati, Andrea; Manaresi, Francesca; Perinetti, Barbara Actis; Colle, Livia; Veglia, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a multicentre study of the psychometric properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task in a sample of 230 Italian children aged 4 to 8 years. The task's internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were investigated; in addition, multiple discriminant analysis was used to explore the contribution of individual…

  19. Psychometric Study of the Clinical Treatment Planning Simulations (CTPS) for Assessing Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Janet Elizabeth; Hebert, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychometric properties of four clinical treatment planning simulations (CTPS) developed by interdisciplinary mental health experts to examine clinical judgment in treatment planning processes of practitioners. Found that scoring reliability was high and simulations demonstrated adequate content, discriminant, and predictive validity.…

  20. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  1. Stochastic and Historical Resonances of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William P., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Humphry's article, "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics," offers fundamental clarifications of measurement concepts that Fisher hopes will find a wide audience. In particular, parameterizing discrimination while preserving statistical sufficiency will indeed provide greater flexibility in accounting "for the effects of empirical…

  2. Psychometric Qualities of the German Version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesel, Dorothee; Wessa, Michele; Flor, Herta

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the psychometric properties of the German version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS; A. Ehlers, R. Steil, H. Winter, & E. B. Foa, 1996) were evaluated in a sample of 143 trauma survivors. To investigate convergent and discriminant validity of this questionnaire, the authors assessed posttraumatic stress disorder…

  3. Psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test.

    PubMed

    Frankl, My; Philips, Björn; Berggraf, Lene; Ulvenes, Pål; Johansson, Robert; Wennberg, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to make the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test, using the Swedish translation - a test developed to screen the ability to experience, express and regulate emotions. Data was collected from a clinical sample (N = 82) of patients with depression and/or anxiety participating in randomized controlled trial of Internet-based affect-focused treatment, and a university student sample (N = 197). The internal consistency for the total score was satisfactory (Clinical sample α = 0.88/Student sample α = 0.84) as well as for all the affective domains, except Anger/Assertion (α = 0.44/0.36), Sadness/Grief (α = 0.24/0.46) and Attachment/Closeness (α = 0.67/0.69). Test retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC > 0.77) for the total score and for all the affective domains except for Sadness/Grief (ICC = 0.04). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a six-factor solution and did only moderately match the test's original affective domains. An empirical cut-off between the clinical and the university student sample were calculated and yielded a cut-off of 72 points. As expected, the Affect Phobia test showed negative significant correlations in the clinical group with measures on depression (rxy  = -0.229; p < 0.01) and anxiety (rxy  = -0.315; p < 0.05). The conclusion is that the psychometric properties are satisfactory for the total score of the Affect Phobia Test but not for some of the test's affective domains. Consequently the domains should not be used as subscales. The test can discriminate between individuals who seek help for psychological problems and those who do not. PMID:27461917

  4. Functional MR imaging of semantic information processing and learning-related effects using psychometrically controlled stimulation paradigms.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, M; Bellemann, M E; Kammer, T; Gückel, F; Kischka, U; Maier, S; Schwartz, A; Brix, G

    1996-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with carefully designed, psychometrically optimized stimulation procedures, was used to investigate the relation between brain activation and the processing of word associations. A semantic discrimination task of word-pair similarity was performed by normal subjects (n = 17) within a clinical 1.5-Tesla whole-body MRI system. A color similarity task of psychometrically equivalent difficulty, as indicated by behavioral data acquired online during fMRI, served as active control condition. Comparisons between tasks dramatically improved results compared to comparisons between task and resting condition. The language paradigm selectively activated left frontal and left fronto-temporal areas. Cortical activation during the semantic task decreased significantly over three runs of the same word list and was paralleled by decreased reaction times. No such changes were observed in the active control condition indicating selective learning of the language task only. When combined with psychological activation schemes and the acquisition of behavioral data, fMRI represents a powerful tool for the study of brain-behavior interaction. PMID:8924044

  5. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  6. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  7. Software Use in Psychometric Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Research on psychometric methods is heavily dependent on software. The quality, availability, and documentation of such software are critical to the advancement of the field. In 2000, an ad hoc committee of NCME recommended that NCME adopt policies that promote greater availability and better documentation of software. This article follows the ad…

  8. How useful are psychometric scores in predicting recidivism for treated sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Georgia D; Wakeling, Helen C; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Rakestrow, Janine

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychometric test scores, psychometric test profiles, and sexual and/or violent reconviction. A sample of 3,402 convicted sexual offenders who attended a probation service-run sexual offender treatment programme in the community completed a battery of psychometric tests pre- and posttreatment. Using Cox regression, posttreatment scores on measures of self-esteem, an ability to relate to fictional characters, and recognition of risk factors were, individually, predictive of recidivism. When psychometric tests were grouped into dynamic risk domains, only the pretreatment scores of the domain labelled socioaffective functioning (SAF) predicted recidivism and added predictive power to a static risk assessment. The number of risk domains that were dysfunctional pretreatment also predicted recidivism outcome; however, this did not add predictive power to a static risk assessment tool. Possible explanations for the superiority of pre- over posttreatment scores in predicting reconviction are discussed, and directions for further research considered. PMID:21518697

  9. Age discrimination in the workplace: validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS).

    PubMed

    Furunes, Trude; Mykletun, Reidar J

    2010-02-01

    Due to population ageing, older workers will make up a larger proportion of the workforce. However, recent reports show an increase in perceived age discrimination among older employees. Previous research found that age discrimination may result in negative feelings, such as uselessness, powerlessness and lower self-esteem. This study develops and validates a scale for monitoring age discrimination in the workplace. The validation study draws on three datasets, from Norway, Sweden and Finland respectively. The study provides a psychometric contribution to the study of the behavioral component of ageism. PMID:19694986

  10. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users. PMID:24469338

  11. The Gender Gap and Discriminating Power in the National Curriculum Key Stage Three Science Assessments in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Peter F. W.; Skinner, Nigel G.; Riall, Robin A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of gender differences in science achievement in England and Wales. Finds that the most pronounced gender differences in favor of males occurred in the higher-level papers taken by more able students, especially in physics. Also, more discriminating questions exhibited larger gender gaps in favor of males. Contains 21 references.…

  12. Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…

  13. Psychometric Properties of Eating Disorder Instruments in Black and White Young Women: Internal Consistency, Temporal Stability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Boyd, Clarissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major instruments in the eating disorder field have documented psychometric support only in predominantly White samples. The current study examined the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and discriminant validity of a variety of eating disorder measures in Black (n = 97) and White (n = 179) female undergraduates.…

  14. Military Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that while a certain level of fairness is necessary in considering the equity of compulsory military service, the most important issue is that of "winning the war." Also asserts that sex, age, and race discrimination are more important than social class discrimination in military service. (Author/GC)

  15. Psychometric Properties of IRT Proficiency Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…

  16. QUEST - A Bayesian adaptive psychometric method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. B.; Pelli, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    An adaptive psychometric procedure that places each trial at the current most probable Bayesian estimate of threshold is described. The procedure takes advantage of the common finding that the human psychometric function is invariant in form when expressed as a function of log intensity. The procedure is simple, fast, and efficient, and may be easily implemented on any computer.

  17. Sample entropy reveals high discriminative power between young and elderly adults in short fMRI data sets

    PubMed Central

    Sokunbi, Moses O.

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have placed Sample entropy on the same data length constraint of 10m–20m (m: pattern length) as approximate entropy, even though Sample entropy is largely independent of data length and displays relative consistency over a broader range of possible parameters (r, tolerance value; m, pattern length; N, data length) under circumstances where approximate entropy does not. This is particularly erroneous for some fMRI experiments where the working data length is less than 100 volumes (when m = 2). We therefore investigated whether Sample entropy is able to effectively discriminate fMRI data with data length, N less than 10m (where m = 2) and r = 0.30, from a small group of 10 younger and 10 elderly adults, and the whole cohort of 43 younger and 43 elderly adults, that are significantly (p < 0.001) different in age. Ageing has been defined as a loss of entropy; where signal complexity decreases with age. For the small group analysis, the results of the whole brain analyses show that Sample entropy portrayed a good discriminatory ability for data lengths, 85 ≤ N ≤ 128, with an accuracy of 85% at N = 85 and 80% at N = 128, at q < 0.05. The regional analyses show that Sample entropy discriminated more brain regions at N = 128 than N = 85 and some regions common to both data lengths. As data length, N increased from 85 to 128, the noise level decreased. This was reflected in the accuracy of the whole brain analyses and the number of brain regions discriminated in the regional analyses. The whole brain analyses suggest that Sample entropy is relatively independent of data length, while the regional analyses show that fMRI data with length of 85 volumes is consistent with our hypothesis of a loss of entropy with ageing. In the whole cohort analysis, Sample entropy discriminated regionally between the younger and elderly adults only at N = 128. The whole cohort analysis at N = 85 was indicative of the ageing process but this indication was not significant (p

  18. Genetic Discrimination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care ... genetic discrimination. April 25, 2007, Statement of Administration Policy, Office of Management and Budget Official Statement from the Office of ...

  19. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  20. High-Resolution Melting Analysis as a Powerful Tool to Discriminate and Genotype Pseudomonas savastanoi Pathovars and Strains

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Andrea; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Tegli, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi is a serious pathogen of Olive, Oleander, Ash, and several other Oleaceae. Its epiphytic or endophytic presence in asymptomatic plants is crucial for the spread of Olive and Oleander knot disease, as already ascertained for P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv) on Olive and for pv. nerii (Psn) on Oleander, while no information is available for pv. fraxini (Psf) on Ash. Nothing is known yet about the distribution on the different host plants and the real host range of these pathovars in nature, although cross-infections were observed following artificial inoculations. A multiplex Real-Time PCR assay was recently developed to simultaneously and quantitatively discriminate in vitro and in planta these P. savastanoi pathovars, for routine culture confirmation and for epidemiological and diagnostical studies. Here an innovative High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA)-based assay was set up to unequivocally discriminate Psv, Psn and Psf, according to several single nucleotide polymorphisms found in their Type Three Secretion System clusters. The genetic distances among 56 P. savastanoi strains belonging to these pathovars were also evaluated, confirming and refining data previously obtained by fAFLP. To our knowledge, this is the first time that HRMA is applied to a bacterial plant pathogen, and one of the few multiplex HRMA-based assays developed so far. This protocol provides a rapid, sensitive, specific tool to differentiate and detect Psv, Psn and Psf strains, also in vivo and against other related bacteria, with lower costs than conventional multiplex Real-Time PCR. Its application is particularly suitable for sanitary certification programs for P. savastanoi, aimed at avoiding the spreading of this phytopathogen through asymptomatic plants. PMID:22295075

  1. Object discrimination reversal as a method to assess cognitive impairment in nonhuman primate enhanced pre- and postnatal developmental (ePPND) studies: statistical power analysis.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Gregg D; Bowman, Christopher J; Hurtt, Mark E; Grantham, Lonnie E

    2012-10-01

    An important aspect of the enhanced pre- and postnatal developmental (ePPND) toxicity study in nonhuman primates (NHP) is that it combines in utero and postnatal assessments in a single study. However, it is unclear if NHP ePPND studies are suitable to perform all of the evaluations incorporated into rodent PPND studies. To understand the value of including cognitive assessment in a NHP ePPND toxicity study, we performed a power analysis of object discrimination reversal task data using a modified Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (ODR-WGTA) from two NHP ePPND studies. ODR-WGTA endpoints evaluated were days to learning and to first reversal, and number of reversals. With α = 0.05 and a one-sided t-test, a sample of seven provided 80% power to predict a 100% increase in all three of the ODR-WGTA endpoints; a sample of 25 provided 80% power to predict a 50% increase. Similar power analyses were performed with data from the Cincinnati Water Maze (CWM) and passive avoidance tests from three rat PPND toxicity studies. Groups of 5 and 15 in the CWM and passive avoidance test, respectively, provided 80% power to detect a 100% change. While the power of the CWM is not far superior to the NHP ODR-WGTA, a clear advantage is the routine use of larger sample size, with a group of 20 rats the CWM provides ~90% power to detect a 50% change. Due to the limitations on the number of animals, the ODR-WGTA may not be suitable for assessing cognitive impairment in NHP ePPND studies. PMID:22930561

  2. Twelve tips for assessment psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Lee; Roberts, Martin; Zahra, Daniel; Burr, Steven

    2016-03-01

    It is incumbent on medical schools to show, both to regulatory bodies and to the public at large, that their graduating students are "fit for purpose" as tomorrow's doctors. Since students graduate by virtue of passing assessments, it is vital that schools quality assure their assessment procedures, standards, and outcomes. An important part of this quality assurance process is the appropriate use of psychometric analyses. This begins with development of an empowering, evidence-based culture in which assessment validity can be demonstrated. Preparation prior to an assessment requires the establishment of appropriate rules, test blueprinting and standard setting. When an assessment has been completed, the reporting of test results should consider reliability, assessor, demographic, and long-term analyses across multiple levels, in an integrated way to ensure the information conveyed to all stakeholders is meaningful. PMID:26474218

  3. Psychometric functions for informational masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfi, Robert A.; Kistler, Doris J.; Callahan, Michael R.; Wightman, Frederic L.

    2003-12-01

    The term informational masking has traditionally been used to refer to elevations in signal threshold resulting from masker uncertainty. In the present study, the method of constant stimuli was used to obtain complete psychometric functions (PFs) from 44 normal-hearing listeners in conditions known to produce varying amounts of informational masking. The listener's task was to detect a pure-tone signal in the presence of a broadband noise masker (low masker uncertainty) and in the presence of multitone maskers with frequencies and amplitudes that varied at random from one presentation to the next (high masker uncertainty). Relative to the broadband noise condition, significant reductions were observed in both the slope and the upper asymptote of the PF for multitone maskers producing large amounts of informational masking. Slope was affected more for some listeners and conditions while asymptote was affected more for others; consequently, neither parameter alone was highly predictive of individual thresholds or the amount of informational masking. Mean slopes and asymptotes varied nonmonotonically with the number of masker components in a manner similar to mean thresholds, particularly when the estimated effect of energetic masking on thresholds was subtracted out. As in past studies, the threshold data were well described by a model in which trial-by-trial judgments are based on a weighted sum of levels in dB at the output of independent auditory filters. The psychometric data, however, complicated the model's interpretation in two ways: First, they suggested that, depending on the listener and condition, the weights can either reflect a fixed influence of masker components on each trial or the effect of occasionally mistaking a masker component for the signal from trial to trial. Second, they indicated that in either case the variance of the underlying decision variable as estimated from PF slope is not by itself great enough to account for the observed changes

  4. Social support for healthy behaviors: scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D; Schoffman, Danielle E; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C; Taylor, C Barr; Kiernan, Nancy E; Perri, Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N = 267; mean BMI 32.1 ± 3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) "never" or "rarely" experienced support from friends or family. Using nonparametric classification methods, we identified two subscales-support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity-that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who "never" experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who "never" experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend vs. family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  5. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  6. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  7. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  8. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in an Israeli Sample.

    PubMed

    Shkalim, Eleanor

    2015-10-01

    The current study cross-culturally evaluated the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)/MMPI-2-Restructured Form Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in psychiatric settings in Israel with a sample of 100 men and 133 women. Participants were administered the MMPI-2 and were rated by their therapists on a 188-item Patient Description Form. Results indicated that in most instances the RC Scales demonstrated equivalent or better internal consistencies and improved intercorrelation patterns relative to their clinical counterparts. Furthermore, external analyses revealed comparable or improved convergent validity (with the exceptions of Antisocial Behavior [RC4] and Ideas of Persecution [RC6] among men), and mostly greater discriminant validity. Overall, the findings indicate that consistent with previous findings, the RC Scales generally exhibit comparable to improved psychometric properties over the Clinical Scales. Implications of the results, limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25354670

  10. Assessing leadership decision-making styles: psychometric properties of the Leadership Judgement Indicator.

    PubMed

    Faraci, Palmira; Lock, Michael; Wheeler, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Leadership Judgement Indicator, an unconventional instrument devoted to measurement of leaders' judgments and preferred styles, ie, directive, consultative, consensual, or delegative, when dealing with a range of decision-making scenarios. After forward-translation and back-translation, its psychometric properties were estimated for 299 managers at various levels, who were asked to put themselves in the position of leader and to rate the appropriateness of certain ways of responding to challenge. Differences between several groups of managers, ranked in order of seniority, provided evidence for discriminant validity. Internal consistency was adequate. The findings show that the Italian adaptation of the Leadership Judgement Indicator has promising psychometric qualities, suggesting its suitability for use to improve outcomes in both organizational and selection settings. PMID:24204179

  11. Reliability, validity, and psychometric development of the pornography consumption inventory in a sample of hypersexual men.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rory C; Li, Desiree S; Gilliland, Randy; Stein, Judith A; Fong, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the psychometric evaluation of the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI), which was developed to assess motivations for pornography use among hypersexual men. Initial factor structure and item analysis were conducted in a sample of men (N = 105) seeking to reduce their pornography consumption (Study 1), yielding a 4-factor solution. In a second sample of treatment-seeking hypersexual men (N = 107), the authors further investigated the properties of the PCI using confirmatory factor analytic procedures, reliability indices, and explored PCI associations with several other constructs to establish convergent and discriminant validity. These studies demonstrate psychometric evidence for the PCI items that measure tendencies of hypersexual men to use pornography (a) for sexual pleasure; (b) to escape, cope, or avoid uncomfortable emotional experiences or stress; (c) to satisfy sexual curiosity; and (d) to satisfy desires for excitement, novelty, and variety. PMID:21961444

  12. The Impact of Escape Alternative Position Change in Multiple-Choice Test on the Psychometric Properties of a Test and Its Items Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamadneh, Iyad Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact changing of escape alternative position in multiple-choice test on the psychometric properties of a test and it's items parameters (difficulty, discrimination & guessing), and estimation of examinee ability. To achieve the study objectives, a 4-alternative multiple choice type achievement test…

  13. Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability. PMID:21593059

  14. Discrimination alleged.

    PubMed

    1998-12-25

    The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination found probable cause to believe that Dr. [name removed] denied [name removed] reproductive services because [name removed] is gay, which [name removed] associates with being at high risk for HIV. [Name removed] claimed that the doctor refused to bank and transport his semen for artificial insemination. [Name removed], the father of one, tested negative and possesses no risk of infecting the would-be mother. The Commission will hold a conciliation session to try and resolve the dispute. If the session is not successful, the Commission will conduct an evidentiary hearing. PMID:11366047

  15. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D 2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  16. Adolescent coping scales: a critical psychometric review.

    PubMed

    Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigrun; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2008-12-01

    Individual coping is identified as an important factor in relation to health and well-being. Although several coping scales have been developed, key terms of coping such as nature and a number of primary and secondary factors (dimensions) are obscure. Coping scales, such as those that have been developed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), have been criticized for poor psychometric properties, yet the critique so far does not evaluate development of the scales against best test-theoretical practice. The present study reviews six adolescent coping scales against ten detailed psychometric criteria in relation to statistical choices throughout the process of scale development. All six scales measured poorly on several criteria. Best practice had not been followed throughout their development and they suffered serious psychometric limitations. These findings indicate that there still is empirical research to be pursued in search of latent constructs and possible dimensions of coping through the implementation of EFA. PMID:18489531

  17. A Population-Based Psychometric Validation Study of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew Version

    PubMed Central

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana; Levine, Stephen Z.; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew version (SDQ-H), used in the Israel Survey on Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The SDQ-H was administered to a representative sample of 611 adolescents and their mothers. Structural validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) inventory was used as “gold standard” to test convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and normative scores were established. Agreement was found with the original factor structure, except for the Peer problem scale. Concurrent and discriminant validity varied from fair to very good for most scales. Total Difficulties scores showed better discriminant validity for the adolescents’ than the mothers’ report for internalizing disorders, and the opposite for externalizing disorders. Internal consistency for the Total Difficulties was 0.77 and for the Hyperactivity scale it was 0.73. It was lower for the other scales, particularly for the Peer problems scale. The findings suggest reasonable psychometric properties of the SDQ-H. Comparisons with other translated SDQ versions are presented. PMID:21423458

  18. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  19. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  20. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  1. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  2. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  3. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  4. The Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS): initial development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Walther, Michael R; Flessner, Christopher A; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin picking (MIDAS), a measure designed to assess "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. Data were collected from 92 participants who completed an anonymous internet-based survey. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution. Factors 1 ("focused" picking scale) and 2 ("automatic" picking scale) each consisted of 6 items, and preliminary data demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good construct validity, and good discriminant validity. The MIDAS provides researchers with a reliable and valid assessment of "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. PMID:18725154

  5. Psychometric properties of the feedback orientation scale among South African salespersons.

    PubMed

    Lilford, Neil; Caruana, Albert; Pitt, Leyland

    2014-02-01

    Feedback to employees is an important management tool, and the literature demonstrates that it has a positive effect on learning, motivation, and job performance. This study investigates in a non-U.S. context the psychometric properties of the Feedback Orientation Scale. Data were gathered from a sample of 202 salespersons from a large South African firm within the industrial fuels and lubricants sector. Confirmatory Factor Analysis provided evidence for the intended dimensionality, reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. PMID:24765714

  6. What Is Embodiment? A Psychometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Matthew R.; Schuur, Friederike; Kammers, Marjolein P. M.; Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    What is it like to have a body? The present study takes a psychometric approach to this question. We collected structured introspective reports of the rubber hand illusion, to systematically investigate the structure of bodily self-consciousness. Participants observed a rubber hand that was stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their…

  7. Looking Back and Looking Ahead in Psychometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliksen, Harold

    A presentation of the 40-year history of psychometrics is given with comments about needed trends for the future. Computers have radically changed the time required for data processing. In testing, many promising developments, such as Kristof's reliability for vector variables, latent class and latent struction models, one-factor ration scale in…

  8. Psychometric Measurement Models and Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…

  9. Emotional Considerations in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Psychometric Quantification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannito, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…

  11. Psychometric Analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    The Appreciative Advising Inventory is an instrument created for use in academic advising. The inventory helps the advisor get to know and understand the student, which in turn allows the advisor to better assist the student. This research provides a psychometric analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory to measure its validity and…

  12. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  13. Psychometrics of the SDQ in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumert, Heather Marie

    2013-01-01

    With the recent influx of Latinos into the United States, it is essential to understand how their backgrounds and cultures will affect the way they view their children's emotional, social, and educational development. Researchers continue to evaluate the psychometrics of various screening instruments in order to ensure a reliable and valid…

  14. Psychometric Needs Assessment. Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scissons, Edward H.

    The Psychometric Needs Assessment (PNA) model was designed to provide a means of describing a target population and various sub-populations contained therein. The specific purpose of such description is to provide a guide to determination of the continuing educational programming needs of professionals. Major attributes of the PNA model are the…

  15. The Psychometric Evaluation of Educational Intranets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaik, Paul Van; Ling, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A major determinant of the success of educational intranet sites is their usability. In addition to measures of task performance and navigation behavior, psychometric instruments are used to evaluate usability and the quality of human-computer interaction more generally. However, there is a lack of validated instruments for the evaluation of…

  16. Psychometric Intelligence Dissociates Implicit and Explicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Guido F.; Mackintosh, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that performance on implicit learning tasks is unrelated to psychometric intelligence was examined in a sample of 605 German pupils. Performance in artificial grammar learning, process control, and serial learning did not correlate with various measures of intelligence when participants were given standard implicit instructions.…

  17. Psychometric validation of the depression and family functioning scale.

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie; François, Clément; Danchenko, Natalya; Nelson, Lauren; Williams, Nicole; Yarr, Stuart; DiBenedetti, Dana; Lançon, Christrophe

    2016-04-01

    Objective A new patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure developed to assess the impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on partner and family interactions and quality of relationships, the Depression and Family Functioning Scale (DFFS), was analyzed to establish its reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Methods Data from a multi-center, prospective, 2-year observational study were analyzed to assess the psychometric properties of the DFFS in patients with MDD (nBaseline = 478; nMonth2 = 433). Measures administered to assess validity included the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12). Reliability (Cronbach's alphas and intra-class correlations), construct validity (factor analysis and correlations), discriminating ability (analyses of variance), and responsiveness (standardized effect size estimates) were evaluated. Results Principal components analyses indicated a single underlying dimension, confirmed by highly satisfactory Cronbach's alphas (αBaseline = 0.85, αMonth2 = 0.89). The DFFS demonstrated satisfactory test-re-test reliability in patients with the same SDS family life/home responsibilities ratings at baseline and month 2 (intraclass correlation = 0.75). Correlations with other measures showed convergent and divergent validity; e.g., the DFFS correlated better with SF-12 mental component scores (rBaseline = -0.35, rMonth2 = -0.49) than with SF-12 physical component scores (rBaseline = -0.05, rMonth2 = -0.31). Hypothesis tests were generally as predicted; many were statistically significant, substantiating DFFS discriminating ability. Standardized effect size estimates of responsiveness ranged from 0.44-0.84, demonstrating that the items were capable of detecting change. Conclusions The psychometric analyses support the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the DFFS and its usefulness for assessing the impact of depression on family

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for DSM-IV Among Four Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christina M.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Norton, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous studies have established the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV revealing excellent diagnostic specificity and sensitivity as well as good test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity (Newman et al., 2002). Recent analyses with other measures of anxiety symptoms have revealed differences across racial or national groups. Given that the GAD-Q-IV was tested primarily on Caucasian (78%) participants, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV across four racial groups: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian. A student sample of 585 undergraduate psychology students completed the GAD-Q-IV as well as other measures of anxiety symptoms. A clinical replication sample was obtained from 188 clinical participants who completed the GAD-Q-IV as part of a larger psychotherapy study. Results indicated excellent and very similar factor structures in the student sample, and similar psychometric properties across both samples across the racial groups. Implications for the use of the GAD-Q-IV across racial groups are discussed. PMID:20830629

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Instrument.

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Howard, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Translation of instruments needs to ensure equivalence between the source and the target language to establish the psychometric properties of the translated version. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) instrument. The 12-item English version of the SDSCA was translated into Arabic using back translation on a sample of 140 Lebanese participants with Type 2 diabetes. Construct validity was measured using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation. Multitrait scaling analysis was used to test for item convergent and discriminant validity based on item-scale correlations. Conceptual and content validity were examined by an expert panel in diabetes. Internal consistency reliability R was assessed using interitem correlations. The average interitem correlation for the four subscales ranged between--.05 for Diet and .66 for Glucose Testing. Factor analysis identified four factors which accounted for 60% of the variance. The preliminary results of Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities-Arabic Version (SDSCA-Ar) are comparable to the psychometric properties the original SDSCA. SDSCA-Ar is a valid measure of diabetes self-care in Lebanese patients with diabetes. PMID:27025000

  20. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Measurement Invariance and Psychometric Properties among Portuguese Youths.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Andershed, Henrik; Rijo, Daniel; Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) among a mixed-gender sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72), in a school context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor first-order structure. Cross-gender measurement invariance and cross-sample measurement invariance using a forensic sample of institutionalized males were also confirmed. The Portuguese version of the YPI demonstrated generally adequate psychometric properties of internal consistency, mean inter-item correlation, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity of statistically significant associations with conduct disorder symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex. In terms of known-groups validity, males scored higher than females, and males from the school sample scored lower than institutionalized males. The use of the YPI among the Portuguese male and female youth population is psychometrically justified, and it can be a useful measure to identify adolescents with high levels of psychopathic traits. PMID:27571095

  1. Psychometric and EEG changes after carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Pietro; Ortelli, Paola; Zanon, Antonio; Schiff, Sami; Montagnese, Sara; Avruscio, Giampietro; Del Piccolo, Franco; Mapelli, Daniela; Puato, Massimo; Rattazzi, Marcello; Amodio, Piero; Pauletto, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The influence of carotid stenosis and its surgical treatment on brain function is still poorly defined. We therefore performed a study to assess psychometric and quantified EEG findings after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-nine non-demented patients (aged 72 ± 7 years) with severe carotid stenosis (≥ 70%) eligible for CEA were studied. Forty patients (group A) had unilateral stenosis, and 29 patients (group B) had bilateral stenosis. Before and 5 months after CEA all the patients were evaluated by the Trail Making Test A, the Symbol Digit Test, and spectral EEG analysis. At baseline, compared to group A, group B patients performed slowly the Trail Making Test A (Z: 1.45 ± 1.4 vs. 0.76 ± 1.3; p <  0.05), but not the Symbol Digit Test (Z: 0.83 ± 1.38 vs. 0.64 ± 1.26; p = 0.59). Altogether, the patients with at least one abnormal psychometric test were 29% (group A: 26%; group B: 33%, p = 0.56). The EEG did not differ significantly between patients of group A compared to group B. After CEA, psychometric tests improved (mean Z score from 0.73 ± 1.12 to 0.45 ± 1.15, p <  0.05). The improvement was similar in group A and B. The EEG mean dominant frequency improved only in group B patients and it was related to the improvement in psychometric tests (r = 0.43, p = 0.05). Low psychometric performance was detectable in about 1/ 3 of non-demented patients with severe carotid stenosis. CEA improved mental performance and, in patients with severe bilateral stenosis, accelerated the EEG frequency. PMID:25034456

  2. Design of one-dimensional power spectrum using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for discrimination of paper-based kraft tapes.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes. PMID:26461031

  3. Assessing personality traits by questionnaire: psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire and correlations with psychopathology and hostility

    PubMed Central

    Hyphantis, T; Antoniou, K; Floros, DG; Valma, V; Pappas, AI; Douzenis, A; Assimakopoulos, K; Iconomou, G; Kafetzopoulos, E; Garyfallos, G; Kuhlman, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) was developed in an attempt to define the basic factors of personality or temperament. We aimed to assess the factor structure and the psychometric properties of its Greek version and to explore its relation to psychopathological symptoms and hostility features. Methods: ZKPQ was translated into Greek using back-translation and was administered to 1,462 participants (475 healthy participants, 619 medical patients, 177 psychiatric patients and 191 opiate addicts). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed. Symptoms Distress Check-List (SCL-90R) and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ) were administered to test criterion validity. Results: Five factors were identified, largely corresponding to the original version’s respective factors. Retest reliabilities were acceptable (rli’s: 0.79-0.89) and internal consistency was adequate for Neuroticism-Anxiety (0.87), Impulsive Sensation Seeking (0.80), Aggression-Hostility (0.77) and Activity (0.72), and lower for Sociability (0.64). Most components were able to discriminate psychiatric patients and opiate addicts from healthy participants. Opiate addicts exhibited higher rates on Impulsive Sensation Seeking compared to healthy participants. Neuroticism-Anxiety (p<0.001) and Impulsive Sensation Seeking (p<0.001) were significantly associated with psychological distress and Aggression-Hostility was the most powerful correlate of Total Hostility (p<0.001), and Neuroticism-Anxiety was the stronger correlate of introverted hostility (p<0.001), further supporting the instrument’s concurrent validity. Conclusions: Present findings support the applicability of the Greek version of ZKPQ within the Greek population. Future studies could improve its psychometric properties by finding new items, especially for the Sociability scale. PMID:25031514

  4. [The Beck Anxiety Inventory. Psychometric properties of a French translation].

    PubMed

    Freeston, M H; Ladouceur, R; Thibodeau, N; Gagnon, F; Rhéaume, J

    1994-01-01

    The Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) is a 21-item checklist developed with large clinical samples to measure anxiety symptoms associated with DSM III-R (APA, 1987) anxiety disorders. Administration and scoring are rapid; the patient rates symptom intensity during the last seven days on a 0 to 3 scale. The BAI adequately covers the major cognitive, affective, and physiological symptoms of anxiety. Care was taken during scale construction to eliminate items that would be confounded with depression items. The authors demonstrate excellent reliability and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity with other measures of anxiety and depression as well as criterion-related validity with in patient samples (Beck et al., 1988). The properties of the BAI have been further studied by Beck and collaborators as well as by other groups of researchers. Since its appearance in 1988 the BAI has quickly been adopted by clinical researchers in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Five studies present psychometric data on a French translation of the BAI. The translation process involved alternative versions by three translators, a panel of experts, and pilot testing on a group of 20 volunteers. The first study with university students (N = 72) indicated good internal consistence (Cronbach's alpha = .85) and stability (r = .63) at four weeks. The second study (N = 91) demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity significant positive: correlations with measures of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, irrational beliefs, and depression; significant negative correlations with assertiveness and self-esteem, and non-significant correlations with two measures of social desirability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8174510

  5. Psychometric validation of the State Scale of Dissociation (SSD).

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christa; Mace, Chris J

    2002-03-01

    Although dissociative phenomena are often transient features of mental states, existing measures of dissociation are designed to measure enduring traits. A new present-state self-report measure, sensitive to changes in dissociative states, was therefore developed and psychometrically validated. Fifty-six items were formulated to measure state features, and sorted according to seven subscales: derealization, depersonalization, identity confusion, identity alteration, conversion, amnesia and hypermnesia. The State Scale of Dissociation (SSD) was administered with other psychiatric scales (DES, BDI, BAI, SCI-PANSS) to 130 participants with DSM-IV major depressive disorder schizophrenia, alcohol withdrawal, dissociative disorders and controls. In these sample populations, the SSD was demonstrated as a valid and reliable measure of changes in and the severity of dissociative states. Discriminant validity, content, concurrent, predictive, internal criterion-related, internal construct and convergent validities, and internal consistency and split-half reliability were confirmed statistically. Clinical observations of dissociative states, and their comorbidity with symptoms of depression and psychotic illness, were confirmed empirically. The SSD, an acceptable, valid and reliable scale measuring state features of dissociation at the time of completion, was obtained. This is a prerequisite for further investigation of correlations between changes in dissociative states and concurrent physiological parameters. PMID:12006198

  6. Turkish Version of the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Yuncu, Ozgur Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are interrelated with all layers of cognitions, and they may be part of the treatment once they are accessed, identified, labeled, and changed. From both a research and a clinical perspective, it is of utmost importance to disentangle cognitive distortions from similar constructs. Recently, the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest), a brief and comprehensive measure, was developed to assess both the frequency and the intensity of cognitive distortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CD-Quest in a psychiatric outpatient sample. Demographic and clinical data of the participants were analyzed by descriptive statistics. For group comparisons, Student's t-test was applied. An exploratory principal components factor analysis was performed, followed by an oblique rotation. To assess the internal consistency of the scale Cronbach's α was computed. The correlation coefficient was calculated for test-retest reliability over a 4-week period. For concurrent validity, bivariate Pearson correlation analyses were conducted with the measures of mood severity and negatively biased cognitions. The results revealed that the scale had excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, unidimensional factor structure, and evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity. PMID:26351580

  7. A Psychometric Evaluation of an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Clinical Competency Framework

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Randell E.; Nemire, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the psychometric properties of the clinical competency framework known as the System of Universal Clinical Competency Evaluation in the Sunshine State (SUCCESS), including its internal consistency and content, construct, and criterion validity. Methods. Sub-competency items within each hypothesized competency pair were subjected to principal components factor analysis to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. Varimax rotation was conducted for each competency pair (eg, competency 1 vs competency 2, competency 1 vs competency 3, competency 2 vs competency 3). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach alpha. Results. Of the initial 78 pairings, 44 (56%) demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity. Five pairs of competencies were unidimensional. Of the 34 pairs where at least 1 competency was multidimensional, most (91%) were from competencies 7, 11, and 12, indicating modifications were warranted in those competencies. After reconfiguring the competencies, 76 (94%) of the 81 pairs resulted in 2 factors as required. A unidimensional factor emerged when all 13 of the competencies were entered into a factor analysis. The internal consistency of all of the competencies was satisfactory. Conclusion. Psychometric evaluation shows the SUCCESS framework demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for most competencies. However, it also provides guidance where improvements are needed as part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:25861100

  8. Psychometric Characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sady, Maegan D.; Vaughan, Christopher G.; Gioia, Gerard A.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) were examined in both concussed (n = 633) and uninjured (n = 1,273) 5 to 18 year olds. Parent- and self-report forms were created with developmentally appropriate wording and content. Factor analyses identified physical, cognitive, emotional, and sleep factors; that did not load strongly or discriminate between groups were eliminated. Internal consistency was strong for the total scales (α = 0.8–0.9). Test–retest reliability for the self-report forms was moderate to strong (intraclass coeffecients, ICCs = 0.65–0.89). Parent and self-report concordance was moderate (r = .44–.65), underscoring the importance of both perspectives. Convergent validity with another symptom measure was good (r = .8). Classification analyses indicated greater discriminability from parent report, but caveats to this are presented. With strong psychometric characteristics, the four versions of the PCSI capture important postconcussion symptoms and can be utilized to track recovery from pediatric concussion and guide treatment recommendations. PMID:24739735

  9. Auditory Consonant Trigrams: A Psychometric Update†.

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Rowland, Jared A; Miskey, Holly M

    2016-02-01

    The Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) test was developed to evaluate immediate memory in the absence of rehearsal. There are few psychometric studies of the measure and a lack of normative data using samples from the United States or Veterans. ACT data were examined for 184 participants who passed the Word Memory Test, denied a history of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and consented for research purposes only. Reliability and construct validity were examined and normative data developed using a healthy subsample. Cronbach's α for the ACT total score was 0.79. Regression analyses suggested that years of education, estimated premorbid IQ, psychomotor speed, working memory, and impulsivity had the strongest relationships with performance on the ACT. Performance was unrelated to posttraumatic stress disorder and remote mild TBI, but the presence of major depressive disorder was associated with lower total scores. These results demonstrate the ACT has adequate psychometric properties. PMID:26645315

  10. Fast adaptive estimation of multidimensional psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    DiMattina, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recently in vision science there has been great interest in understanding the perceptual representations of complex multidimensional stimuli. Therefore, it is becoming very important to develop methods for performing psychophysical experiments with multidimensional stimuli and efficiently estimating psychometric models that have multiple free parameters. In this methodological study, I analyze three efficient implementations of the popular Ψ method for adaptive data collection, two of which are novel approaches to psychophysical experiments. Although the standard implementation of the Ψ procedure is intractable in higher dimensions, I demonstrate that my implementations generalize well to complex psychometric models defined in multidimensional stimulus spaces and can be implemented very efficiently on standard laboratory computers. I show that my implementations may be of particular use for experiments studying how subjects combine multiple cues to estimate sensory quantities. I discuss strategies for speeding up experiments and suggest directions for future research in this rapidly growing area at the intersection of cognitive science, neuroscience, and machine learning. PMID:26200886

  11. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460895

  12. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Cross-Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals (CCCHP)

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs’ cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. Methods The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Results Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs’ cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension’s Cronbach’s α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. Conclusions The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs’ cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive

  13. Psychometric properties of a novel knowledge assessment tool of mechanical ventilation for emergency medicine residents in the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prior descriptions of the psychometric properties of validated knowledge assessment tools designed to determine Emergency medicine (EM) residents understanding of physiologic and clinical concepts related to mechanical ventilation are lacking. In this setting, we have performed this study to describe the psychometric and performance properties of a novel knowledge assessment tool that measures EM residents’ knowledge of topics in mechanical ventilation. Methods: Results from a multicenter, prospective, survey study involving 219 EM residents from 8 academic hospitals in northeastern United States were analyzed to quantify reliability, item difficulty, and item discrimination of each of the 9 questions included in the knowledge assessment tool for 3 weeks, beginning in January 2013. Results: The response rate for residents completing the knowledge assessment tool was 68.6% (214 out of 312 EM residents). Reliability was assessed by both Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.6293) and the Spearman-Brown coefficient (0.6437). Item difficulty ranged from 0.39 to 0.96, with a mean item difficulty of 0.75 for all 9 questions. Uncorrected item discrimination values ranged from 0.111 to 0.556. Corrected item-total correlations were determined by removing the question being assessed from analysis, resulting in a range of item discrimination from 0.139 to 0.498. Conclusion: Reliability, item difficulty and item discrimination were within satisfactory ranges in this study, demonstrating acceptable psychometric properties of this knowledge assessment tool. This assessment indicates that this knowledge assessment tool is sufficiently rigorous for use in future research studies or for assessment of EM residents for evaluative purposes. PMID:26924540

  14. A psychometric analysis of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) using item response theory.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Andrew; Petrides, K V

    2010-09-01

    Trait emotional intelligence refers to a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. In 2 studies, we sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Petrides, 2009) using item response theory (IRT). Study 1 (N= 1,119, 455 men) showed that most items had good discrimination and threshold parameters and high item information values. At the global level, the TEIQue-SF showed very good precision across most of the latent trait range. Study 2 (N= 866, 432 men) used similar IRT techniques in a new sample based on the latest version of the TEIQue-SF (version 1.50). Results replicated Study 1, with the instrument showing good psychometric properties at the item and global level. Overall, the 2 studies suggest the TEIQue-SF can be recommended when a rapid assessment of trait emotional intelligence is required. PMID:20706931

  15. Psychometric properties of WLEIS as a measure of emotional intelligence in the Portuguese and Spanish medical students.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vânia Sofia; Guerrero, Eloísa; Chambel, Maria José; González-Rico, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The psychometric properties of Wong and Law's (2002) Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) were analyzed. Participants were 954 medical students: 481 from the University of Extremadura (Spain) and 473 from the University of Lisbon (Portugal). Following Messicks' validation framework, we analyzed the scale's response process, internal structure and relationship with other variables (i.e., engagement). Descriptive statistics, scale reliability, item characteristics, and exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the distribution of the sixteen items across four factors. Convergent validity analyzed through the ρvc (η) index showed that all the factors were in the 50% criterion. The factors shared, on average, 23% of the variance showing adequate discriminant validity. Furthermore, the correlations among EI dimensions and engagement were all positive and significant. Overall, the WLEIS demonstrated good psychometric properties. Thus, this study ensures that WLEIS is a valid instrument in Portugal and Spain to evaluate EI in medical students. PMID:27376749

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Huberty, Jennifer; Pettee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychometric properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale (CPAS). Methods: Girls in third to fifth grades (n = 932) completed the CPAS before and after a physical activity intervention. Psychometric measures included internal consistency, factor analysis, and concurrent validity. Results: Three CPAS factors emerged:…

  17. Psychometric Intelligence and Adaptive Competence in Rural Phillippine Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, A. Timothy; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Psychometric intelligence and adaptive competence constructs were compared in five- to seven-year-old children in a rural Phillippine barrio. Individualized psychometric subtests of intelligence, indigenous with respect to content, and a form for obtaining adults' ratings of children's adaptive competencies, were developed. (Author/LMO)

  18. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the…

  19. Psychometric Evaluation and Discussions of English Language Learners' Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…

  20. Modified Test Administration Using Assistive Technology: Preliminary Psychometric Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschausky, Seth; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Asbell, Shana; Kaufman, Jacqueline; Ayyangar, Rita; Donders, Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of test presentation and response formats that were modified to be accessible with the use of assistive technology (AT). First, the stability of psychometric properties was examined in 60 children, ages 6 to 12, with no significant physical or communicative impairments. Population-specific…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Self-Report Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Hyuk; Min, Seongho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the reliability and validity of the self-report Korean version of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Kr) in the community sample. Methods The SDQ-Kr was administered to a large sample of school children and adolescents (n=2814) and youth attendees of a psychiatric clinic (n=385) aged 11-16 years. To examine temporal stability, the same questionnaire was administered to a subsample of 167 school youths five to six weeks after the initial assessment. To examine the reliability, we calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficients for internal consistency and Pearson's correlations for test-retest stability. In order to evaluate the factorial structure of the SDQ-Kr items, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with varimax rotation. Finally, discriminant validity was examined by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves employing the area under the curve (AUC) as an index of discriminant ability. Results Although the internal consistency of some subscales of the SDQ-Kr was somewhat less satisfactory (alpha coefficients; 0.28-0.54) than the English original, coefficients for the total difficulties scores approached sufficient levels (coefficients; 0.69). Other psychometric properties including discriminant validity (AUC for total difficulties and four subscales >0.7) were comparable to those obtained in other language studies. Conclusion The self-report SDQ-Kr exhibited a low level of reliability, indicating that some items need to be further evaluated and revised to improve the psychometric properties. We suggest that the total difficulties score could be used with more confidence for screening possible mental health problems in youths. PMID:26508960

  2. Auditory Discrimination of Frequency Ratios: The Octave Singularity

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Damien; Micheyl, Christophe; Semal, Catherine; Dauman, René; Demany, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity to frequency ratios is essential for the perceptual processing of complex sounds and the appreciation of music. This study assessed the effect of ratio simplicity on ratio discrimination for pure tones presented either simultaneously or sequentially. Each stimulus consisted of four 100-ms pure tones, equally spaced in terms of frequency ratio and presented at a low intensity to limit interactions in the auditory periphery. Listeners had to discriminate between a reference frequency ratio of 0.97 octave (about 1.96:1) and target frequency ratios, which were larger than the reference. In the simultaneous condition, the obtained psychometric functions were nonmonotonic: as the target frequency ratio increased from 0.98 octave to 1.04 octaves, discrimination performance initially increased, then decreased, and then increased again; performance was better when the target was exactly one octave (2:1) than when the target was slightly larger. In the sequential condition, by contrast, the psychometric functions were monotonic and there was no effect of frequency ratio simplicity. A control experiment verified that the nonmonotonicity observed in the simultaneous condition did not originate from peripheral interactions between the tones. Our results indicate that simultaneous octaves are recognized as “special” frequency intervals by a mechanism that is insensitive to the sign (positive or negative) of deviations from the octave, whereas this is apparently not the case for sequential octaves. PMID:23088507

  3. Discrimination in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarsky, Irving

    Intended as a guide on discrimination problems and issues for students and practitioners in the area of employment relations, this book interrelates historical, religious, economic, medical, and sociological factors surrounding racial, religious, national, sex, age, and physical and mental discrimination to explain discrimination in employment.…

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (OAV)

    PubMed Central

    Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2010-01-01

    Background The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC). It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327), ketamine (n = 162), and MDMA (n = 102) induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST), and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the “oceanic boundlessness” and “visionary restructuralization” factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups. Conclusions/Significance The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable

  5. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the internalized homophobia scale.

    PubMed

    Gençöz, Tülin; Yüksel, Murat

    2006-10-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Internalized Homophobia Scale (IHS; Herek, Cogan, Gillis, & Glunt, 1997) in gay men living in Turkey. Participants were 132 men in romantic, intimate, or sexual relationships with men, and they identified themselves as homosexual (n=112) or bisexual (n=20). Alpha and split-half reliability coefficients revealed good internal consistency of the scale. Consistent with the original scale, the construct validity revealed a single factor for the scale. Regarding convergent validity, the IHS had significant correlations with psychological problems, particularly with symptoms of depression and anxiety; the scale also had a significant positive correlation with negative affect and a negative correlation with self-esteem. Regarding discriminant validity, the IHS had very low correlations with positive affect and hostility attitudes. The association between internalized homophobia and psychological problems remained significant even after controlling for the variance explained by self-esteem, negative affect, and positive affect. Hence, the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of IHS appear quite promising. PMID:17031586

  6. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Gambling Severity Index-Chinese version (PGSI-C).

    PubMed

    Loo, Jasmine M Y; Oei, Tian P S; Raylu, Namrata

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese 9-item Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) derived from the 31-item Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) originally developed by Ferris and Wynne (2001). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n = 386; Group A data) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 387; Group B data) on the Chinese student and community data (Mean age = 25.36 years) showed that a unifactorial model fitted the data with good reliability score (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77). The concurrent validity of the PGSI-C was good in terms of the Chinese data matching the expected correlation between PGSI-C and other variables or scales such as SOGS, gambling frequency, gambling urge, gambling cognitions, depression, anxiety, and stress. The scale also reported good discriminant and predictive validity. In sum, the PGSI-C has good psychometric properties and can be used among Chinese communities to identify at-risk problem gamblers. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:20924655

  7. Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, MUR; Pingali, Usharani; Shobha, JC

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. Materials and Methods: The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of zolpidem (5 mg) and caffeine (500 mg) versus placebo were studied in 24 healthy participants in a randomized, double-blind three-way crossover design. Results: Psychometric tests were performed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 h after administration of study medication. The effects of zolpidem and caffeine on the psychomotor performance were most pronounced 1 h after administration. At this time, a significant impairment of performance in the simple reaction test (SRT), choice discrimination test (CDT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), digit vigilance test (DVT), and card sorting test (CST) was observed with zolpidem. In contrast, caffeine showed a significant improvement in performance in CDT and DVT only. Conclusion: The results suggest that the tests of the computerized system are more sensitive and reliable then the pencil and paper tests in detecting the effects of central acting agents and are suitable for use in clinical areas to conduct studies with patients. PMID:24250201

  8. Psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Relationship Inventory with a homeless sample.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, K L; Fournier, L

    1997-06-01

    This paper examined the psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Relationship Inventory with a sample of homeless men who were first-time shelter users. The measure, based on social exchange theory and equity theory, has two subscales, one for support and the other for conflict. As yet, few measurements have been developed to assess conflict from within social networks. As part of a larger longitudinal study a sample of 166 first-time shelter users was administered the inventory. A student sample also filled out the inventory for comparison purposes. Internal consistency for both subscales was good, .90 for Support and .83 for Conflict. Weak interitem correlations were prevalent among many items in the Conflict subscale. A nearly zero correlation was found between scores on the Support and Conflict subscales, suggesting independence. An exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation confirmed a dual factor structure. Analyses of variance and Scheffé contrast tests detected no statistically significant differences between age groups on either the Support or the Conflict subscales. A multiple regression analysis indicated that, when controlling for age, scores on the Support scale discriminated the homeless and student samples, while scores on the Conflict subscale do not. The Support subscale indicates excellent psychometric qualities, while the Conflict subscale should be refined. PMID:9198389

  9. Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire: Psychometric analysis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeremy P.; Carson, Cody S.; Shrestha, Srijana; Kunik, Mark E.; Armento, Maria E.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Amspoker, Amber B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assist researchers and clinicians considering using the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) with older-adult samples, the current study analyzed the psychometrics of SCSRFQ scores in two older-adult samples. Method Adults age 55 or older who had formerly participated in studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety and/or depression were recruited to complete questionnaires. In Study 1 (N = 66), the authors assessed the relations between the SCSRFQ and other measures of religiousness/spirituality, mental health, and demographic variables, using bivariate correlations and nonparametric tests. In Study 2 (N = 223), the authors also conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the SCSRFQ, as well as an Item Response Theory analysis. Results The SCSRFQ was moderately to highly positively correlated with all measures of religiousness/spirituality. Relations with mental health were weak and differed across samples. Ethnic minorities scored higher than White participants on the SCSRFQ, but only in Study 2. Factor analyses showed that a single-factor model fit the SCSRFQ best. According to Item Response Theory analysis, SCSRFQ items discriminated well between participants with low-to-moderate levels of the construct but provided little information at higher levels. Conclusion Although the SCSRFQ scores had adequate psychometric characteristics, the measure’s usefulness may be limited in samples of older adults. PMID:24892461

  10. Factor structure and psychometric properties of a brief measure of dysfunctional individuation.

    PubMed

    Stey, Paul C; Hill, Patrick L; Lapsley, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Individuation is widely considered a fundamental developmental task of adolescence. It is a process through which the adolescent seeks to define new boundaries between his or her self and others, and the failure to do so has been shown to have serious consequences. Given its importance for understanding developmental transitions, it is surprising that there are few assessments of dysfunctional individuation. Over three studies, we provide evidence of a promising new measure of this important construct: the 10-item Dysfunctional Individuation Scale (DIS). Using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, we demonstrate that the DIS possesses a strong one-factor structure and excellent psychometric properties. Furthermore, we document the convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity of the DIS through its relationships with indices of individuation, adjustment, and clinically relevant symptoms. Finally, we examine the incremental validity of the DIS over neuroticism as a predictor of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). PMID:24379446

  11. [Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction].

    PubMed

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil Llario, Ma Dolores; Gómez Martínez, Sandra; Gil Juliá, Beatriz

    2010-11-01

    Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction. Cyber-sex addiction is a «new pathology» whose prevalence has grown rapidly in recent years. Therefore, it is important to have validated assessment instruments. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Internet Sex Screening Test (ISST) for its use in a Spanish population. The instrument was administered to 1239 Spanish college students. The results yielded five components that account for 47.5% of the variance. Internal consistency was .88 and temporal stability was .84. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent and discriminant validity and was related to other behaviors such as the use of pornography, internet addiction, number of hours online and sexual frequency. Therefore, this tool is proposed as an appropriate measure to assess cyber-sex addiction. PMID:21044551

  12. Psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the political skill inventory.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo

    2012-02-01

    Ferris and colleagues defined political skill in organizations as "the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives." In this study, the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Political Skill Inventory were investigated, supporting construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities. The results suggested that the Chinese translation retained a four-factor structure. Political skill was positively correlated with self-monitoring, conscientiousness, political savvy, emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and proactive personality, and was negatively correlated with trait anxiety and external locus of control. After controlling for age, sex, and job tenure, political skill was predictive of task performance, work contribution, and interpersonal help. PMID:22489389

  13. Penn State Worry Questionnaire: structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version*

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jie; Wang, Chun; Li, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a measure of worry phenomena and has been demonstrated valid in cross-cultural populations. The present study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of PSWQ (Ch-PSWQ) in a Chinese college sample (n=1243). Exploratory factor analysis of the Ch-PSWQ revealed a two-factor solution (engagement of worry and absence of worry). Confirmatory factor analysis and model comparison supported that the model of one factor with method effect provided the best fit to the data. The Ch-PSWQ and its factors evidenced good internal consistency and both convergent and discriminate validity. The present study supports the opinion that the second factor of PSWQ not only contains the component of evaluating pathological worry, but also might represent other traits. PMID:19283876

  14. Psychometric properties of a new measure to assess autism spectrum disorder in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Marle, Peter D; Rhoades, Camille S; Monaghan, Patricia; Segal, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary psychometric properties of a new 45-item scale, the Coolidge Autistic Symptoms Survey (CASS), designed to differentiate between children within the autism spectrum (including Asperger's Disorder) and purportedly normal children, in anticipation of DSM-5 changes, in which a single diagnostic category is proposed: autism spectrum disorder. The final sample (N = 72) consisted of 19 children diagnosed with Asperger's Disorder, 19 children who were considered loners by their parents (without an autism diagnosis), and 34 purportedly normal children. The CASS and the 200-item, DSM-IV-TR aligned, Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory were completed by a parent. The CASS had excellent internal scale reliability (α= .97) and test-retest (r = .91) reliability. ANOVA revealed the CASS was able to discriminate significantly among the 3 groups of children. Further research with the CASS appears warranted. PMID:23330630

  15. Psychometric Properties of Three Instruments to Measure Fatigue With Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Anne M.; Eckhardt, Ann L.; Fennessy, Michelle M.; Jones, Jessica; Kruse, Donna; VanderZwan, Kathryn J.; Ryan, Catherine J.; Zerwic, Julie J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of three questionnaires to measure fatigue with myocardial infarction. The Fatigue Symptom Inventory Interference Scale, Profile of Moods States Fatigue subscale (POMS-F), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) Vitality Scale were completed during hospitalization (n = 116) and 30 days after hospital admission (n = 49). Moderate to strong correlations were found among each of these fatigue scales and between each fatigue scale and measures of other variables to include vigor, depressed mood, anxiety, and physical functioning. POMS-F scores decreased significantly at Time 2, but this decline in fatigue was not validated on the other fatigue scales. Patients’ Time 1 scores reflected significantly more fatigue compared to published scores for healthy adults. The ability to discriminate between groups suggests that the instruments may be useful for identifying patients with cardiovascular risk factors who report clinically significant fatigue. PMID:20685901

  16. Psychometric Validation of the Self-Efficacy for Restricting Dietary Salt in Hemodialysis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Cutaia, Maya N.; Ren, Dianxu; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Snetselaar, Linda; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The development and progression of left ventricular hypertrophy is a consequence of multiple comorbid conditions associated with end-stage renal disease and large variations in interdialytic weight gains. The literature suggests that dietary sodium restriction alone significantly reduces interdialytic weight gains. A total of 124 hemodialysis participants in an ongoing randomized control trial participated in the validation in which psychometric properties of a self-efficacy survey were a secondary analysis. We evaluated the internal consistency, construct validity, and convergent validity of the instrument. The overall Cronbach α was 0.93. Three factors extracted explain 67.8% of the variance of the white and African American participants. The Self-Efficacy Survey has adequate internal consistency and construct and convergent validity. Future research is needed to evaluate the stability and discriminant validity of the instrument. PMID:26213444

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Functional Capacity Card Sort for Caregivers of People With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Herge, E Adel; Copolillo, Albert E; Leiby, Benjamin E; Gitlin, Laura N

    2016-07-01

    Caregiver appraisal influences care decisions and may place the person with dementia at risk. The Functional Capacity Card Sort (FCCS) was developed to determine caregiver appraisal. The objective of this study was to examine FCCS psychometric properties and utility, using data from a cross-sectional study (N = 86). The FCCS had moderately positive association (convergent validity) with a related activities of daily living (ADL) index (r = .43, p < .0001), weak negative association (discriminant validity) with an unrelated neuropsychiatric symptom index (r = -.14, p = .16), and strong caregiver agreement (interrater reliability) in ranking cards from high to low function, Kendall's W(5, 72) = 0.83, p = .0001. When compared with occupational therapy assessment, the FCCS distinguished caregiver concordant estimation (17%), underestimation (22%), and overestimation (61%) of function. The FCCS is a valid and reliable tool used in conjunction with formal assessment to identify caregiver over- or underestimation, which has implications for patient safety and caregiver education. PMID:27618848

  18. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves. PMID:26971117

  19. [Psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Schneider, Nora; Bürger, Arne; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holzhausen, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The present study examines the psychometric properties of the German version of the Eating Disorder Inventory EDI-2 (1997) in 371 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity were examined and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Internal consistency was high for the group of patients and satisfactory for both control groups. Associations with other clinical instruments point in the expected direction and support the external validity of the EDI-2. The EDI-2 differentiated very well between the group of eating disorder patients (n=71) and the female (n=150) and male control groups (n=150). A discriminant analysis demonstrated that 86.0% of the cases were correctly classified, and a confirmatory factor analysis largely supported the six-factor structure generated by the German version of the EDI-2 (Thiel et al., 1997). PMID:20464663

  20. Discriminative imaging using a LWIR polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Barry; Carrie, Iain; Craig, Robert; Parsons, John

    2008-10-01

    The phenomenon of polarisation causes smooth man-made objects, such as metal and glass, to have a different polarisation signature to that of natural vegetation. Therefore, polarisation has the potential to discriminate man-made objects from background clutter. Polarimetric information, combined with conventional thermal imaging, provides a powerful means of reducing false alarms in applications such as situational awareness, detection of low signature targets and disturbed earth. The paper presents results of discriminative imaging algorithms that were designed to augment polarimetric signatures. Recent results from a LWIR polarimetric imager are presented and these show the merit of discriminative imaging techniques when applied to polarimetric thermal imagers.

  1. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  2. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  3. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  4. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  5. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  6. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY..., and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation and changes in compensation; (4)...

  7. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employment discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY..., and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation and changes in compensation; (4)...

  8. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employment discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY..., and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation and changes in compensation; (4)...

  9. Legal and Psychometric Criteria for Evaluating Teacher Certification Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Green, Preston C., III

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes conceptualizations of sound teacher certification practices espoused by the courts and psychometricians, compares these conceptualizations, and provides suggestions for teacher certification testing programs that are legally and psychometrically defensible. (SLD)

  10. Psychometric Intelligence and Visual Focused Attention: Relationships in Nonsearch Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Manuel J.; Alvarez, Antonio A.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between general intelligence and the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli appearing in the same visual field as an attended target was studied for 167 college students. Results indicate that psychometric intelligence does not tap visual focused attention. (SLD)

  11. 18 CFR 1313.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1313.130 Section 1313.130 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 1313.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1313.130 Section 1313.130 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a)...

  13. 18 CFR 1313.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 1313.149 Section 1313.149 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.149 Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. Except...

  14. 18 CFR 1313.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1313.130 Section 1313.130 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a)...

  15. The psychometric refinement of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corkins, James

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) and then recommend revisions. The MCI was administered to a sample of 303 undergraduate engineering students enrolled in a materials engineering course taught by an instructor unrelated to this study. The MCI demonstrated adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha was .73) and strong discriminatory power (Ferguson's delta was 0.96). A pretest MCI was given only two days into the course and was able to predict the final course grade (r = .30, p < .001). Convergent validity was also established by significantly correlating a post-test version of the MCI with the final course grade (r = .50, p < .001). Nineteen of the thirty items on the MCI met the criterion for index of item congruency, demonstrating somewhat mixed reviews by content experts. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the initial MCI structure failed to support a six-factor model. A revision was made to the structure of the MCI, whereby an exploratory and subsequent confirmatory factor analysis yielded a refined six-factor structure that did provide a strong fit by the empirical data [chi-squared (194) = 196.03, p = .426; and root mean square error approximation (RMSEA) was .007; and comparative fit index (CFI) was .996]. The Cronbach's alpha of the refined-MCI was 0.75, suggesting 'good' reliability. The six factors could only be interpreted by an integration of cognitive processes with content. Those six factors were labeled: (1) compare and contrast ductile and brittle material, (2) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from stretching, (3) understand and analyze the structure and properties of glass, (4) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from bending, (5) understand and analyze the structure and properties of metals, and (6) synthesize and apply graphs and proportions with relation to various materials engineering concepts. Results related to

  16. Assessing metacognitive skills in waking and sleep: a psychometric analysis of the Metacognitive, Affective, Cognitive Experience (MACE) questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Sullivan, Kieran T

    2012-03-01

    The Metacognitive, Affective, Cognitive Experience (MACE) questionnaire was designed to assess metacognition across sleep and waking (Kahan & LaBerge, 1996). The present research evaluates the psychometric properties of the MACE. Data from two recent studies (N=185) were used to assess the inter-item consistency, test-retest reliability, and factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of the MACE. Results show that the MACE is a reliable measure with good construct validity. Exploratory factor analyses revealed one self-regulation and two monitoring factors. One monitoring factor emphasized monitoring internal conditions; the other emphasized monitoring external conditions. This factor structure is consistent with the Metacognitive Model (Nelson & Narens, 1990). Tests of convergent and discriminant validity suggest that the MACE is assessing metacognition and is appropriately related to similar constructs such as mindfulness and self-consciousness. The implication of these findings as well as suggestions for research and clinical applications of the MACE are discussed. PMID:22197150

  17. The time course of pattern discrimination in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Harauzov, A K; Shelepin, Y E; Noskov, Y A; Vasilev, P P; Foreman, N P

    2016-08-01

    In electrophysiological experiments on visual pattern discrimination, decision difficulty was manipulated either via the physical characteristics of the test stimuli, or by changing the instruction given to the observer. Visual stimuli were rectangular matrices each composed of 100 Gabor patches having different orientations. Matrices differed in the number of Gabor patches with vertical, or horizontal, orientation. The observers' task was either to discriminate the dominant orientation or to detect collinear elements in the matrix. Relating task difficulty to performance, in the first experimental paradigm (detection of orientation) we obtained the conventional S-like psychometric function but in the second (detection of collinearity) the psychometric function showed a complicated U-curve. Matching between electrophysiological and psychophysical data and image statistical functions allowed us to establish the relative timing of the cortical processes underlying perception and decision making in relation to textural features. In the first 170ms after stimulus onset coding of the low-level properties of the image takes place. In the time interval 170-400ms, ERP amplitude correlated only with complex image properties, but not with task difficulty. The first effects arising from decision difficulty were observable at 400ms after stimulus onset, and therefore this is probably the earliest electrophysiological signature of the decision making processes, in the given experimental paradigm. PMID:27291935

  18. Factorial, Convergent, and Discriminant Validity of TIMSS Math and Science Motivation Measures: A Comparison of Arab and Anglo-Saxon Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Leung, Kim Chau; Xu, Man K.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Parker, Philip

    2013-01-01

    For the international Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS2007) math and science motivation scales (self-concept, positive affect, and value), we evaluated the psychometric properties (factor structure, method effects, gender differences, and convergent and discriminant validity) in 4 Arab-speaking countries (Saudi Arabia,…

  19. Psychometric properties of an insomnia-specific measure of worry: the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Frojmark, Markus; Harvey, Allison G; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Norell-Clarke, Annika; Linton, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire (APSQ), with a focus on factorial validity and internal consistency as well as discriminative, convergent, and association with sleep parameters and daytime impairment. Among a randomly selected sample from the general population (N = 5,000), 2,333 participants completed a survey on nighttime symptoms, daytime symptoms, health outcomes, and psychological processes. The study sample consisted of 1800 participants who did not fulfill criteria for another sleep disorder than insomnia. A two-factor solution, accounting for 70.7% of the variance, was extracted from the 10 APSQ items. One six-item factor determined worries about the consequences of poor sleep (α = .91); the second factor, with four items, assessed worries about the uncontrollability of sleep (α = .86). The two factors were significantly intercorrelated (ρ = .65) and significantly associated with the total APSQ (ρs = .97 and .76, respectively). The APSQ and the two subscales showed discriminant validity between three sleep status groups (normal sleep, poor sleep, and insomnia disorder; R(2) = .33-.41). The APSQ and the subscales demonstrated convergent validity with measures on cognitive arousal, sleep-related beliefs, anxiety, and depression. They also were significantly correlated with sleep parameters and daytime impairment. The findings suggest that the APSQ is a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing worry in insomnia. PMID:21337216

  20. How possible is the development of an operational psychometric method to assess the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s allele? Equivocal preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective The s allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene has been found to be associated with neuroticism-related traits, affective temperaments and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. The aim of the current study was to develop a psychometric tool that could at least partially substitute for laboratory testing and could predict the presence of the s allele. Methods The study included 138 women of Caucasian origin, mean 32.20 ± 1.02 years old. All subjects completed the Hungarian standardised version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) instrument and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR using PCR. The statistical analysis included the calculation of the Index of Discrimination (D), Discriminant Function Analysis, creation of scales on the basis of the above and then item analysis and calculation of sensitivity and specificity. Results Four indices were eventually developed, but their psychometric properties were relatively poor and their joint application did not improve the outcome. Conclusions We could not create a scale that predicts the 5-HTTLPR genotype with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, therefore we could not substitute a psychometric scale for laboratory genetic testing in predicting genotype, and also possibly affective disorder characterisation and treatment. PMID:20459664

  1. The CDC AIDS Survey: A Psychometric Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin

    The latent structure, reliability, and item discrimination of 33 items on a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) instrument representing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were assessed. The study sample included 311 adolescents ranging from ages 12 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics of the…

  2. Psychometric Properties of a Digital Citizenship Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Zubairi, Ainol Madziah; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul; Trayek, Fuad A. A.; Ibrahim, Mohd Burhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold, i.e. to examine the extent to which students' self-reported use of digital technology constituted meaningful and interpretable dimensions of the digital citizenship construct, and to test the adequacy of the construct in terms of its reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and measurement…

  3. Qubit state discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Deconinck, Matthieu E.

    2010-06-15

    We show how one can solve the problem of discriminating between qubit states. We use the quantum state discrimination duality theorem and the Bloch sphere representation of qubits, which allows for an easy geometric and analytical representation of the optimal guessing strategies.

  4. Justice and Reverse Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alan H.

    Defining reverse discrimination as hiring or admissions decisions based on normally irrelevant criteria, this book develops principles of rights, compensation, and equal opportunity applicable to the reverse discrimination issue. The introduction defines the issue and discusses deductive and inductive methodology as applied to reverse…

  5. Reverse Discrimination: Recent Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhilber, August W.

    This paper discusses reverse discrimination cases with particular emphasis on Bakke v. Regents of University of California and those cases which preceded it. A brief history is given of court cases used by opponents and proponents in the discussion of reverse discrimination. Legal theory and a discussion of court cases that preceded Bakke follow.…

  6. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  7. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  8. Neurological soft signs in psychometrically identified schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Kaczorowski, Jessica A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2009-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often exhibit structural brain abnormalities, as well as neurological soft signs (NSS), consistent with its conceptualization as a neurodevelopmental disorder. NSS are mild, presumably nonlocalizing, neurological impairments that are inferred from performance deficits in domains such as sensory integration, motor coordination, and motor sequencing. The vulnerability for schizophrenia is presumed to be expressed across a broad continuum of impairment referred to as schizotypy. It is hypothesized that nondisordered people along the schizotypy continuum should exhibit elevated rates of NSS. The present study examined the relation of psychometrically identified positive and negative schizotypy with NSS using the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a nonclinically ascertained sample of young adults (n=177). As hypothesized, negative, but not positive, schizotypy was related to increased NSS in tasks that assessed fine and gross motor coordination, motor sequencing, eye movement abnormalities, and memory recall. However, positive schizotypy was associated with increased NSS in tasks related to sensory integration dysfunction. In general, the positivexnegative schizotypy interaction term was unrelated to individual NSS tasks. The findings support: a) the theory that the vulnerability for schizophrenia is expressed across a broad continuum of subclinical and clinical impairment referred to as schizotypy; b) the multidimensional structure of schizotypy; and c) the notion that schizotypy is an appropriate construct for understanding the etiology and development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. PMID:19651490

  9. Core dimensions of recovery: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah E; Ellis, Pete M; Siegert, Richard J; Walkey, Frank H

    2014-07-01

    Core recovery dimensions lie between the large general factor of recovery and its underlying components. Identifying these could enhance recovery frameworks, practice and research. In contrast to existing conceptually based taxonomies, we sought to empirically identify the core dimensions of recovery through further psychometric analysis of a robust eleven factor (sub-scale) consumer recovery outcome measure, My Voice, My Life. We subjected the sub-scale scores of 504 consumers to further principal components analyses, beginning with a single unrotated factor and progressing through two to nine factors with varimax rotation. We found the five-factor solution to provide an orderly intermediate configuration with the eleven recovery factors having either aligned and/or disengaged through the process to result in the following core dimensions: (1) Belonging and relating (encompassing the individual factors of spirituality, culture, and relationships); (2) Being and doing (encompassing the individual factors of physical health, day-to-day life, and quality of life); (3) Thinking and feeling (encompassing the individual factors of recovery, mental health, and hope and empowerment); (4) Resources (which maintained its independence); and (5) Satisfaction with Services (which also maintained its independence). We compare this empirical configuration with conceptually based taxonomies. PMID:23588506

  10. [Negative symptoms: clinical and psychometric aspects].

    PubMed

    Adida, M; Azorin, J-M; Belzeaux, R; Fakra, E

    2015-12-01

    Recent investigations performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis have suggested that negative symptoms are multidimensional, including evidence for at least two distinct negative symptom subdomains: diminished expression and amotivation. Guidance for selection of instruments for measurement of negative symptoms is rapidly evolving. As there are continuing advances in the description of negative symptoms, new instruments are under development, and new data on the performance of instruments emerge from clinical trials. The Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) are considered to be reliable and valid measures for negative symptom trials but differ with respect to their domain coverage, use of informants, integration of global scores, administration time and comprehensiveness of their structured interviews. In response to the 2005 NIMH - MATRICS consensus statement, work groups are field testing and refining two new measures, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Both address the five currently recognized domains of negative symptoms, differentiate appetitive from consummatory aspects of anhedonia and address desire for social relationships. Thus far, both have exhibited promising psychometric properties. PMID:26776385

  11. The Psychometric Structure of Items Assessing Autogynephilia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kevin J; Rosenthal, A M; Bailey, J Michael

    2015-07-01

    Autogynephilia, or paraphilic sexual arousal in a man to the thought or image of himself as a woman, manifests in a variety of different behaviors and fantasies. We examined the psychometric structure of 22 items assessing five known types of autogynephilia by subjecting them to exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 149 autogynephilic men. Results of oblique factor analyses supported the ability to distinguish five group factors with suitable items. Results of hierarchical factor analyses suggest that the five group factors were strongly underlain by a general factor of autogynephilia. Because the general factor accounted for a much greater amount of the total variance of the 22 items than did the group factors, the types of autogynephilia that a man has seem less important than the degree to which he has autogynephilia. However, the five types of autogynephilia remain conceptually useful because meaningful distinctions were found among them, including differential rates of endorsement and differential ability to predict other relevant variables like gender dysphoria. Factor-derived scales and subscales demonstrated good internal consistency reliabilities, and validity, with large differences found between autogynephilic men and heterosexual male controls. Future research should attempt to replicate our findings, which were mostly exploratory. PMID:25277693

  12. Quadratic negative evidence discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.N.; Redgate, T.; Anderson, K.K.; Rohay, A.C.; Ryan, F.M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper develops regional discrimination methods which use information inherent in phase magnitudes that are unmeasurable due to small amplitudes and/or high noise levels. The methods are enhancements to teleseismic techniques proposed by, and are extended to regional discrimination. Events observed at teleseismic distances are effectively identified with the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant because relative to the pressure wave energy (m{sub b}) of an event, an earthquake generates more shear wave energy (M{sub s}) than does an explosion. For some teleseismic events, the M{sub s} magnitude is difficult to measure and is known only to be below a threshold . With M{sub s} unmeasurable, the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant cannot be formed. However, if the M{sub s} is sufficiently small relative to a measured m{sub b}, then the event is still likely to be an explosion. The methods presented in this report are developed for a single seismic station, and make use of empirical evidence in the regional L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant. The L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant is analogous to the teleseismic M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant.

  13. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  14. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  15. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  16. Distinct serum proteome profiles associated with collagen-induced arthritis and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation in CD38⁻/⁻ mice: The discriminative power of protein species or proteoforms.

    PubMed

    Rosal-Vela, Antonio; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Postigo, Jorge; Iglesias, Marcos; Longobardo, Victoria; Lario, Antonio; Merino, Jesús; Merino, Ramón; Zubiaur, Mercedes; Sancho, Jaime

    2015-10-01

    Collagen-type-II-induced arthritis (CIA) is an autoimmune disease, which involves a complex host systemic response including inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. CIA is milder in CD38(-/-) than in wild-type (WT) mice. ProteoMiner-equalized serum samples were subjected to 2D-DiGE and MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses to identify proteins that changed in their relative abundances in CD38(-/-) versus WT mice either with arthritis (CIA(+) ), with no arthritis (CIA(-) ), or with inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-treated mice). Multivariate analyses revealed that a multiprotein signature (n = 28) was able to discriminate CIA(+) from CIA(-) mice, and WT from CD38(-/-) mice within each condition. Likewise, a distinct multiprotein signature (n = 16) was identified which differentiated CIA(+) CD38(-/-) mice from CIA(+) WT mice, and lastly, a third multiprotein signature (n = 18) indicated that CD38(-/-) and WT mice could be segregated in response to CFA treatment. Further analyses showed that the discriminative power to distinguish these groups was reached at protein species level and not at the protein level. Hence, the need to identify and quantify proteins at protein species level to better correlate proteome changes with disease processes. It is crucial for plasma proteomics at the low-abundance protein species level to apply the ProteoMiner enrichment. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001788, PXD001799 and PXD002071 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001788, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001799 and http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002071). PMID:26175002

  17. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  18. Inequality, discrimination, and the power of the status quo: Direct evidence for a motivation to see the way things are as the way they should be.

    PubMed

    Kay, Aaron C; Gaucher, Danielle; Peach, Jennifer M; Laurin, Kristin; Friesen, Justin; Zanna, Mark P; Spencer, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    How powerful is the status quo in determining people's social ideals? The authors propose (a) that people engage in injunctification, that is, a motivated tendency to construe the current status quo as the most desirable and reasonable state of affairs (i.e., as the most representative of how things should be); (b) that this tendency is driven, at least in part, by people's desire to justify their sociopolitical systems; and (c) that injunctification has profound implications for the maintenance of inequality and societal change. Four studies, across a variety of domains, provided supportive evidence. When the motivation to justify the sociopolitical system was experimentally heightened, participants injunctified extant (a) political power (Study 1), (b) public funding policies (Study 2), and (c) unequal gender demographics in the political and business spheres (Studies 3 and 4, respectively). It was also demonstrated that this motivated phenomenon increased derogation of those who act counter to the status quo (Study 4). Theoretical implications for system justification theory, stereotype formation, affirmative action, and the maintenance of inequality are discussed. PMID:19685999

  19. Reverse age discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labini, Francesco Sylos; Zapperi, Stefano

    2007-09-01

    Brilliant scientists of all ages should be able to thrive at universities. Mandatory retirement is, therefore, a form of age discrimination, but its removal or postponement can come at a cost to younger faculty members, as observed in Italy.

  20. Harassment, Bias, and Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welliver, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a new principle which has been added to the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics regarding discrimination, harassment, and bias. An example is presented which illustrates a violation of a professional colleague's rights. (LRW)

  1. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  2. Multiplicities of dihedral discriminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Daniel C.

    1992-04-01

    Given the discriminant {d_k} of a quadratic field k, the number of cyclic relative extensions N\\vert k of fixed odd prime degree p with dihedral absolute Galois group of order 2p, which share a common conductor f, is called the multiplicity of the dihedral discriminant {d_N} = {f^{2(p - 1)}}d_k^p . In this paper, general formulas for multiplicities of dihedral discriminants are derived by analyzing the p-rank of the ring class group mod f of k. For the special case p = 3,{d_k} = - 3 , an elementary proof is given additionally. The theory is illustrated by a discussion of all known discriminants of multiplicity ≥ 5 of totally real and complex cubic fields.

  3. Effects of stimulus order on discrimination processes in comparative and equality judgements: data and models.

    PubMed

    Dyjas, Oliver; Ulrich, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    In typical discrimination experiments, participants are presented with a constant standard and a variable comparison stimulus and their task is to judge which of these two stimuli is larger (comparative judgement). In these experiments, discrimination sensitivity depends on the temporal order of these stimuli (Type B effect) and is usually higher when the standard precedes rather than follows the comparison. Here, we outline how two models of stimulus discrimination can account for the Type B effect, namely the weighted difference model (or basic Sensation Weighting model) and the Internal Reference Model. For both models, the predicted psychometric functions for comparative judgements as well as for equality judgements, in which participants indicate whether they perceived the two stimuli to be equal or not equal, are derived and it is shown that the models also predict a Type B effect for equality judgements. In the empirical part, the models' predictions are evaluated. To this end, participants performed a duration discrimination task with comparative judgements and with equality judgements. In line with the models' predictions, a Type B effect was observed for both judgement types. In addition, a time-order error, as indicated by shifts of the psychometric functions, and differences in response times were observed only for the equality judgement. Since both models entail distinct additional predictions, it seems worthwhile for future research to unite the two models into one conceptual framework. PMID:24295428

  4. Psychometric properties of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas J; MacGillivray, Steve A; Reid, Ian C; Cameron, Isobel M

    2015-01-01

    Effective management of depression is predicated upon reliable assessment. The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) is a depression severity scale with both self-rated (QIDS-SR16) and clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) versions. Although widely used in research, the psychometric properties of the QIDS16 have not been systematically reviewed. We performed a systematic review of studies of the psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change) of the QIDS-SR16 or QIDS-C16. Six databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CinAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Findings were summarised, bias assessed and correlations with reference standards were pooled. 37 studies (17,118 participants) were included in the review. Both versions of the QIDS16 were unidimensional. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.69 to 0.89 for the QIDS-SR16 and 0.65 to 0.87 for the QIDS-C16. The QIDS-SR16 correlated moderately to highly with several depression severity scales. Seven studies were pooled where QIDS-SR16 was correlated with the HRSD-17 (r = 0.76, CI 0.69, 0.81) in patients diagnosed with depression. Four studies examined convergent validity with the QIDS-C16. Four studies examined discriminant validity, for the QIDS-SR16 alone. Eighteen studies had at least one author who was a co-author of the original QIDS16 study. Most studies were conducted in the USA (n = 26). The QIDS-SR16 and the QIDS-C16 are unidimensional rating scales with acceptable internal consistency. To justify the use of the QIDS16 scale in clinical practice, more research is needed on convergent and discriminant validity, and in populations outside the USA. PMID:25300442

  5. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  6. Development and Validation of a Racial Discrimination Measure for Cambodian American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sangalang, Cindy C.; Chen, Angela C. C.; Kulis, Stephen S.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the majority of studies examining experiences of racial discrimination among youth use measures initially developed for African American and Latino adults or college students. Few studies have attended to the ways in which discrimination experiences may be unique for Asian American youth, particularly subgroups such as Southeast Asians. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to describe the development of a racial discrimination measure using community-based participatory research with Cambodian American adolescents and (b) to psychometrically test the measure with respect to validity and reliability. This research used mixed-methods and comprised 3 phases. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative focus group research to assess community-identified needs. Phase 2 included quantitative survey development with community members and resulted in an 18-item measure assessing the frequency of ethnicity-based discrimination. Phase 3 involved psychometric testing of the measure’s validity and reliability (n = 423). Exploratory factor analysis procedures yielded a 3-factor structure describing peer, school, and police discrimination from all items, capturing 96% of the combined variance. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the data demonstrated good fit with the 3-factor structure (CFI = .98; RMSEA = .054), with factor loadings ranging from .59 to .96 and all estimates statistically significant at the p < .05 level. Correlational analyses of racial discrimination subfactors and depression supported concurrent validity. In sum, this measure can be used to examine the degree and sources of racial discrimination reported by Cambodian American adolescents and potentially other adolescents of Southeast Asian descent living in diverse urban communities. PMID:26388972

  7. Entanglement in channel discrimination with restricted measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, William; Piani, Marco; Watrous, John

    2010-09-15

    We study the power of measurements implementable with local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) measurements in the setting of quantum channel discrimination. More precisely, we consider discrimination procedures that attempt to identify an unknown channel, chosen uniformly from two known alternatives, that take the following form: (i) the input to the unknown channel is prepared in a possibly entangled state with an ancillary system, (ii) the unknown channel is applied to the input system, and (iii) an LOCC measurement is performed on the output and ancillary systems, resulting in a guess for which of the two channels was given. The restriction of the measurement in such a procedure to be an LOCC measurement is of interest because it isolates the entanglement in the initial input-ancillary systems as a resource in the setting of channel discrimination. We prove that there exist channel discrimination problems for which restricted procedures of this sort can be at either of the two extremes: they may be optimal within the set of all discrimination procedures (and simultaneously outperform all strategies that make no use of entanglement), or they may be no better than unentangled strategies (and simultaneously suboptimal within the set of all discrimination procedures).

  8. On the psychometric properties of the aggressiveness-IAT for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Gunnar; Gollwitzer, Mario; Banse, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In research on aggression, implicit association tests (IATs) have been constructed to elucidate automatic processes involved in aggressiveness. Despite an increasing number of applications of the "Aggressiveness-IAT" in basic and applied research, the psychometric properties of this method for measuring an automatic aggressive self-concept have not been comprehensively investigated. Although the Aggressiveness-IAT has been used both as a cross-situationally consistent trait measure and as a measure to indicate situational changes, prior studies have not tested to what extent it reliably captures a stable trait vs. an occasion-specific aggressive self-concept. The present research scrutinizes the psychometric properties of the Aggressiveness-IAT by addressing two issues. First, we tested the reliability, consistency, and occasion specificity of the Aggressiveness-IAT in a longitudinal panel study with four waves and 574 Austrian school children/adolescents by applying latent-state trait (LST) theory. Second, we validated latent trait scores of the IAT vis-à-vis other measures either clearly related to aggression or not. Results demonstrate that 20-30% of the variance in children's and adolescents' IAT scores is situation-unspecific (i.e., "stable"), whereas 36-50% are situation-specific. Regarding its construct validity, the Aggressiveness-IAT is correlated with explicit measures of aggression and related constructs, but it is not associated with discriminant variables (e.g., school achievement). Implications for using the Aggressiveness-IAT are discussed in the light of these findings. Aggr. Behav. 41:84-95 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539876

  9. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Cardiovascular Risk and Disease Management Knowledge Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Rosneck, James S; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John; Josephson, Richard; Noe, Donald A; Waechter, Donna

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This paper describes the systematic construction and psychometric analysis of a knowledge assessment instrument for phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients measuring risk modification disease management knowledge and behavioral outcomes derived from national standards relevant to secondary prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. METHODS First, using adult curriculum based on disease specific learning outcomes and competencies, a systematic test item development process was completed by clinical staff. Second, a panel of educational and clinical experts used an iterative process to identify test content domain and arrive at consensus in selecting items meeting criteria. Third, the resulting 31 question instrument the Cardiac Knowledge Assessment Tool (CKAT) was piloted in CR patients to insure utility of application. Validity and reliability analysis were performed on 3,638 adult pre test administrations with additional focused analyses on 1,999 individuals completing both pre and post treatment administrations within 6 months. RESULTS Evidence of CKAT content validity was substantiated with 85% agreement among content experts. Evidence of construct validity was demonstrated via factor analysis identifying key underlying factors. Estimates of internal consistency, e.g. Cronbach’s Alpha = .852 and a Spearman-Brown split-half reliability = .817 on pre testing, supports test reliability. Item analysis, using point biserial correlation, measured relationships between performance on single items and total score (p<.01). Analyses utilizing item difficulty and item discrimination indices further verified item stability and validity of the CKAT. CONCLUSIONS A knowledge instrument specifically designed for an adult CR population was systematically developed and tested in a large representative patient population, satisfying psychometric parameters including validity and reliability. PMID:23612037

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Hebrew Translation of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13)

    PubMed Central

    Magnezi, Racheli; Glasser, Saralee

    2014-01-01

    Objective “Patient activation” reflects involvement in managing ones health. This cross-sectional study assessed the psychometric properties of the Hebrew translation (PAM-H) of the PAM-13. Methods A nationally representative sample of 203 Hebrew-speaking Israeli adults answered the PAM-H, PHQ-9 depression scale, SF-12, and Self-efficacy Scale via telephone. Results Mean PAM-H scores were 70.7±15.4. Rasch analysis indicated that the PAM-H is a good measure of activation. There were no differences in PAM-H scores based on gender, age or education. Subjects with chronic disease scored lower than those without. Scores correlated with the Self-efficacy Scale (0.47), Total SF-12 (0.39) and PHQ-9 (−0.35, P<0.0001), indicating concurrent validity. Discriminant validity was reflected by a significant difference in the mean PAM-H score of those who scored below 10 (72.1±14.8) on the PHQ-9 (not depressed) compared to those scoring ≥10 (i.e. probable depression) (59.2±15.8; t 3.75; P = 0.001). Conclusion The PAM-H psychometric properties indicate its usefulness with the Hebrew-speaking Israeli population. Practice Implications PAM-H can be useful for assessing programs aimed at effecting changes in patient compliance, health behaviors, etc. Researchers in Israel should use a single translation of the PAM-13 so that findings can be compared, increasing understanding of patient activation. PMID:25411841

  11. Measuring Beneficiary Knowledge of the Medicare Program: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bann, Carla M.; Terrell, Sherry A.; McCormack, Lauren A.; Berkman, Nancy D.

    2003-01-01

    Reliable measures of Medicare beneficiaries' program knowledge are necessary for credible program monitoring, evaluation, and public accountability. This study developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of two possible measures of beneficiary knowledge. One measure was based on self-reported knowledge, the other was a true/false quiz which requires beneficiaries to demonstrate their knowledge. We used data from the 1998 and 1999 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of the indices. Overall, based on both content considerations and the psychometric analyses, the true/false quiz proved to be the more accurate and useful measure of beneficiaries' knowledge. PMID:14628404

  12. Fatalism Revisited: Further Psychometric Testing Across Two Studies.

    PubMed

    Heiney, Sue P; Gullatte, Mary; Hayne, Pearman D; Powe, Barbara; Habing, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Cancer fatalism may impact outcomes, particularly for African American (AA) women with breast cancer (BrCa). We examined the psychometrics of the modified Powe Fatalism Inventory in sample of AA women with BrCa from two studies. Only the predetermination and God's will items satisfy the conditions to be classified as a strong subscale. Our analysis identified that five items had strong psychometric properties for measuring fatalism for AA women with BrCa. However, these items do not include all the defining attributes of fatalism. A strong measure of fatalism strengthens our understanding of how this concept influences AA patient outcomes. PMID:26661622

  13. The Psychometric Properties of the Persian Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1 in Episodic and Chronic Migraines

    PubMed Central

    Zandifar, Alireza; Masjedi, Samaneh Sadat; Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Asgari, Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Navid; Banihashemi, Mahboobeh; Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbani, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Gholamrezaei, Ali; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background. Migraine-specific quality of life (MSQ) is a valid and reliable questionnaire. Linguistic validation of Persian MSQ questionnaire, analysis of psychometric properties between chronic and episodic migraine patients, and capability of MSQ to differentiate between chronic and episodic migraines were the aims of this study. Method. Participants were selected from four different neurology clinics that were diagnosed as chronic or episodic migraine patients. Baseline data included information from MSQ v. 2.1, MIGSEV, SF-36, and symptoms questionnaire. At the third week from the baseline, participants filled out MSQ and MIGSEV. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and test-retest reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficients) were used to assess reliability. Convergent and discriminant validities were also assessed. Results. A total of 106 participants were enrolled. Internal consistencies of MSQ among all patients, chronic and episodic migraines, were 0.92, 0.91, and 0.92, respectively. Test-retest correlation of MSQ dimensions between visits 1 and 2 varied from 0.41 to 0.50. Convergent, item discriminant, and discriminant validities were approved. In all visits MSQ scores were lower in chronic migraine than episodic migraine; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Persian translation of MSQ is consistent with original version of MSQ in terms of psychometric properties in both chronic and episodic migraine patients. PMID:24068887

  14. Discrimination in the Forest Industry: A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eylon, Dafna; Langton, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    A case study of a female chief executive officer denied membership in an industry-related social club helps students understand discrimination and the interaction of personal and organizational goals. The exercise creates awareness of ways to respond to discrimination and of gender and power issues in the workplace. (SK)

  15. Discrimination of frequency variance for tonal sequencesa)

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Andrew J.; Viemeister, Neal F.; Stellmack, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Real-world auditory stimuli are highly variable across occurrences and sources. The present study examined the sensitivity of human listeners to differences in global stimulus variability. In a two-interval, forced-choice task, variance discrimination was measured using sequences of five 100-ms tone pulses. The frequency of each pulse was sampled randomly from a distribution that was Gaussian in logarithmic frequency. In the non-signal interval, the sampled distribution had a variance of σSTAN2, while in the signal interval, the variance of the sequence was σSIG2 (with σSIG2 > σSTAN2). The listener's task was to choose the interval with the larger variance. To constrain possible decision strategies, the mean frequency of the sampling distribution of each interval was randomly chosen for each presentation. Psychometric functions were measured for various values of σSTAN2. Although the performance was remarkably similar across listeners, overall performance was poorer than that of an ideal observer (IO) which perfectly compares interval variances. However, like the IO, Weber's Law behavior was observed, with a constant ratio of (σSIG2-σSTAN2) to σSTAN2 yielding similar performance. A model which degraded the IO with a frequency-resolution noise and a computational noise provided a reasonable fit to the real data. PMID:25480064

  16. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent. PMID:24356350

  17. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  18. Psychometric Analysis of Computer Science Help-Seeking Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajares, Frank; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Oberman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop scales to assess instrumental help seeking, executive help seeking, perceived benefits of help seeking, and avoidance of help seeking and to examine their psychometric properties by conducting factor and reliability analyses. As this is the first attempt to examine the latent structures underlying the…

  19. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  20. Preliminary Psychometric Data for the "Academic Coping Strategies Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the psychometric characteristics of the "Academic Coping Strategies Scale" (ACSS), which was designed to assess college students' coping strategies within the context of a specific academic stressor. This article will present results of analyses of factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  1. Psychometric Analysis of the Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Connor, Carol McDonald; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometrics of the "Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Screening Test" (DELV-S) test using confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, and differential item functioning (DIF). Responses from 1,764 students in kindergarten through second grade were used in the study, with results indicating that the…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Leadership Practices Inventory--Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.; Kouzes, James M.

    1993-01-01

    In follow-up studies using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), data from over 36,000 business managers and their subordinates were used to reexamine psychometric properties of the instrument and to explore gender, functional field, ethnic, and cross-cultural differences. Factor analysis supports a five-factor scale, with gender differences…

  3. Development and Initial Psychometrics of Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…

  4. The Construct of Psychophysiological Reactivity: Statistical and Psychometric Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Keith B.; Obradovic, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review major statistical and psychometric issues impacting the study of psychophysiological reactivity and discuss their implications for applied developmental researchers. We first cover traditional approaches such as the observed difference score (DS) and the observed residual score (RS), including a review of…

  5. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Career Clusters Interest Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prime, Dominic R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric support of the Career Clusters Interest Survey (CCIS) that provides subscales scores for the 16 Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE) career clusters in a sample of 203 college students. Reliability of the subscales was supported with respect to internal consistency and 2-week stability…

  7. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the scores on the Epistemic Belief Inventory were examined using an exploratory factor analysis (principal axis factor) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on a total sample of 1,242 elementary school teachers. Results of the EFA supported the hypothesized five-factor model but the items had loaded on different…

  8. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  9. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-01-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…

  10. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  11. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  13. Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

    2010-01-01

    School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Teachers' Attitude toward Inclusion Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…

  15. Homework Emotion Regulation Scale: Psychometric Properties for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Homework Emotion Regulation Scale (HERS) using 796 middle school students in China. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) supported the existence of two distinct yet related subscales for the HERS: Emotion Management and Cognitive Reappraisal. Concerning the…

  16. Psychometric Assessment and Reporting Practices: Incongruence between Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaney, Kathleen L.; Tkatchouk, Masha; Gabriel, Stephanie M.; Maraun, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the current study is twofold: (a) to investigate the rates at which researchers assess and report on the psychometric properties of the measures they use in their research and (b) to examine whether or not researchers appear to be generally employing sound/unsound rationales when it comes to how they conduct test evaluations. Based on a…

  17. Validity on Trial: Psychometric and Legal Conceptualizations of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Parker, Polly

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric literature is replete with comprehensive discussions of test validity, test validation, and the characteristics of quality assessment programs. The most authoritative source for guidance regarding sound test development and evaluation practices is the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. However, the Standards are…

  18. Computer Use in Psychometric Assessment: Evaluating Benefits and Potential Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of computer technology has created many possiblities for computer applications in the area of psychological testing and assessment. The ways that computers can be used in psychometric assessment, the benefits of such use, and problems that may be encountered with these uses are discussed. (Author/BL)

  19. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  20. Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

  1. Psychometric and related deficits in preventive alcohol intervention programming.

    PubMed

    Duryea, E J

    1992-02-01

    The 1991 study by Collins and Cellucci ignores some important research principles needed for sound educational inquiry. Psychometric properties of evaluation instruments cannot be omitted from even field tests of small scale. Selected other omissions need review since other researchers may replicate such errors. PMID:1565741

  2. A Review of the Psychometric Properties of Retell Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    This narrative synthesis reviews the psychometric properties of commercially and publicly available retell instruments used to assess the reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Eleven instruments met selection criteria and were systematically coded for data related to the administration procedures, scoring procedures, and technical…

  3. Psychometric Characteristics of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca G.; Wilson, Janie H.; Pugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale, the first scale to measure professor-student rapport. The scale was found to have adequate test-retest and internal-consistency reliability. In addition to these findings, measures used to determine convergent validity included the Working…

  4. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Bereavement Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason M.; Nam, Ilsung; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a routinely administered assessment of grieving, few studies have empirically examined the psychometric properties of the Core Bereavement Items (CBI). The present study investigated the factor structure, internal reliability, and concurrent validity of the CBI in a large, diverse sample of bereaved young adults (N = 1,366).…

  5. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Denchik, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS). Data from 576 college women were collected in three studies. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered two factors: Body Evaluation and Unwanted Explicit Sexual Advances; confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor…

  6. Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence: Psychometric g and Executive Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crinella, Francis M.; Yu, Jen

    1999-01-01

    Presents three lines of evidence that fail to support R. Sternberg's theory of general intelligence ("g"): (1) animal problem solving studies; (2) studies of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; and (3) studies of patients with frontal lobe damage. Discusses differences between psychometric "g" and practical intelligence. (SLD)

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Concept Assessment Kit-Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnert, Linda; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Educational and Industrial Testing Service Concept Assessment Kit-Conservation (EITS Kit). Presented are an overview of the concept of conservation, a description of the EITS Kit, and results of the study. (MT)

  8. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  9. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Measure of Intuitive Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive eating is characterized by eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues and is associated with psychological well-being. This study reports on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) with data collected in 4 studies from 1,260 college…

  10. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Saving Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Muroff, Jordana; Lewin, Adam B.; Geller, Daniel; Ross, Abigail; McCarthy, Katherine; Morgan, Jessica; Murphy, Tanya K.; Frost, Randy; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Children's Saving Inventory (CSI), a parent-rated measure designed to assess child hoarding behaviors. Subjects included 123 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and their parents. Trained clinicians administered the…