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Sample records for discriminating power psychometric

  1. Limitations of True Score Variance to Measure Discriminating Power: Psychometric Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung Suk; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2010-01-01

    Demonstrating a specific cognitive deficit usually involves comparing patients’ performance on two or more tests. The psychometric confound occurs if the psychometric properties of these tests lead patients to show greater cognitive deficits in one domain. One way to avoid the psychometric confound is to use tests with a similar level of discriminating power, which is a test’s ability to index true individual differences in classic psychometric theory. One suggested way to measure discriminating power is to calculate true score variance (Chapman & Chapman, 1978). Despite the centrality of these formulations, there is no systematic examination of the relationship between the observable property of true score variance and the latent property of discriminating power. We simulated administrations of free response tests and forced choice tests by creating different replicable ability scores for two groups, across a wide ranges of various psychometric properties (i.e., difficulty, reliability, observed variance, and number of items), and computing an ideal index of discriminating power. Simulation results indicated that true score variance had only limited ability to predict discriminating power (explained about 10 % of variance in replicable ability scores). Furthermore, the ability varied across tests with wide ranges of psychometric variables, such as difficulty, observed variance, reliability, and number of items. Discriminating power depends upon a complicated interaction of psychometric properties that is not well estimated solely by a test’s true score variance. PMID:20455603

  2. Psychometric function of jittered rate pitch discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The impact of jitter on rate pitch discrimination (JRPD) is still a matter of debate. Previous studies have used adaptive procedures to assess pitch discrimination abilities of jittered rate pulses (Dobie and Dillier, 1985; Chen et al., 2005) or have used jitter detection thresholds (Fearn, 2001). Previous studies were conducted in a relatively small number of subjects using either a single-electrode cochlear implant (Dobie and Dillier, 1985, n = 2) or the Nucleus multi-channel devices (Fearn, 2001, n = 3; Chen et al., 2005, n = 5). The successful application of an adaptive procedure requires a monotone psychometric function to achieve asymptotic results. The underlying psychometric function of rate jitter has not been investigated so far. In order to close this knowledge gap, the present study determines psychometric functions by measuring of JRPD with a fixed stimulus paradigm. A rather large range of temporal, Gaussian distributed jitter standard deviation 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ms was applied to electrical pulse patterns. Since the shape of the underlying probability density function (PDF) may also effect JRPD, a uniform PDF was alternatively applied. 7 CI users (8 ears, high-level performers with open-speech perception, MED-EL Pulsar/Sonata devices, Innsbruck, Austria) served as subjects for the experiment. JRPD was assessed with a two-stage forced choice procedure. Gross results showed decreasing JRPD with increasing amounts of jitter independent of the applied jitter distribution. In conclusion, pulse rate jitter affects JRPD and therefore should be considered in current coding strategies. PMID:24821551

  3. A Psychometric Review of Measures Assessing Discrimination Against Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted. PMID:26566991

  4. Tailoring a psychophysical discrimination experiment upon assessment of the psychometric function: Predictions and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardi, Andrea; Tabarelli, Davide; Ricci, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    Decision making is a widespread research topic and plays a crucial role in neuroscience as well as in other research and application fields of, for example, biology, medicine and economics. The most basic implementation of decision making, namely binary discrimination, is successfully interpreted by means of signal detection theory (SDT), a statistical model that is deeply linked to physics. An additional, widespread tool to investigate discrimination ability is the psychometric function, which measures the probability of a given response as a function of the magnitude of a physical quantity underlying the stimulus. However, the link between psychometric functions and binary discrimination experiments is often neglected or misinterpreted. Aim of the present paper is to provide a detailed description of an experimental investigation on a prototypical discrimination task and to discuss the results in terms of SDT. To this purpose, we provide an outline of the theory and describe the implementation of two behavioural experiments in the visual modality: upon the assessment of the so-called psychometric function, we show how to tailor a binary discrimination experiment on performance and decisional bias, and to measure these quantities on a statistical base. Attention is devoted to the evaluation of uncertainties, an aspect which is also often overlooked in the scientific literature.

  5. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC).

    PubMed

    Brohan, Elaine; Clement, Sarah; Rose, Diana; Sartorius, Norman; Slade, Mike; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-06-30

    Mental illness is associated with unfair treatment in a number of areas of life. There is currently no psychometrically validated measure that has been developed to specifically focus on such experienced discrimination. This study aimed to finalise the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) and establish its psychometric properties. The DISC was further developed using (1) service user and interviewer focus groups; (2) reading ease testing; and (3) cognitive debriefing interviews. The revised scale then underwent psychometric testing to establish the following properties: reliability; validity; precision; acceptability; and feasibility. The final 22-item DISC demonstrated good psychometric properties (n=86) including inter-rater reliability (weighted kappa range: 0.62-0.95), internal consistency (α=0.78) and test-retest reliability (n=46) (weighted kappa range: 0.56-0.89). Feasibility, validity and acceptability were also established. In conclusion, the 22-item DISC is recommended for use in measuring experienced stigma and discrimination. Additional work to develop a measure of anticipated stigma is recommended. PMID:23582210

  6. Joint Entropy for Space and Spatial Frequency Domains Estimated from Psychometric Functions of Achromatic Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Vladímir de Aquino; Souza, Givago da Silva; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    We used psychometric functions to estimate the joint entropy for space discrimination and spatial frequency discrimination. Space discrimination was taken as discrimination of spatial extent. Seven subjects were tested. Gábor functions comprising unidimensionalsinusoidal gratings (0.4, 2, and 10 cpd) and bidimensionalGaussian envelopes (1°) were used as reference stimuli. The experiment comprised the comparison between reference and test stimulithat differed in grating's spatial frequency or envelope's standard deviation. We tested 21 different envelope's standard deviations around the reference standard deviation to study spatial extent discrimination and 19 different grating's spatial frequencies around the reference spatial frequency to study spatial frequency discrimination. Two series of psychometric functions were obtained for 2%, 5%, 10%, and 100% stimulus contrast. The psychometric function data points for spatial extent discrimination or spatial frequency discrimination were fitted with Gaussian functions using the least square method, and the spatial extent and spatial frequency entropies were estimated from the standard deviation of these Gaussian functions. Then, joint entropy was obtained by multiplying the square root of space extent entropy times the spatial frequency entropy. We compared our results to the theoretical minimum for unidimensional Gábor functions, 1/4π or 0.0796. At low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts, joint entropy reached levels below the theoretical minimum, suggesting non-linear interactions between two or more visual mechanisms. We concluded that non-linear interactions of visual pathways, such as the M and P pathways, could explain joint entropy values below the theoretical minimum at low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts. These non-linear interactions might be at work at intermediate and high contrasts at all spatial frequencies once there was a substantial decrease in joint

  7. Racial discrimination and health: a systematic review of scales with a focus on their psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Joao Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller; Faerstein, Eduardo; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2010-04-01

    The literature addressing the use of the race variable to study causes of racial inequities in health is characterized by a dense discussion on the pitfalls in interpreting statistical associations as causal relationships. In contrast, fewer studies have addressed the use of racial discrimination scales to estimate discrimination effects on health, and none of them provided a thorough assessment of the scales' psychometric properties. Our aim was to systematically review self-reported racial discrimination scales to describe their development processes and to provide a synthesis of their psychometric properties. A computer-based search in PubMed, LILACS, PsycInfo, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science was conducted without any type of restriction, using search queries containing free and controlled vocabulary. After initially identifying 3060 references, 24 scales were included in the review. Despite the fact that discrimination stands as topic of international relevance, 23 (96%) scales were developed within the United States. Most studies (67%, N = 16) were published in the last 12 years, documenting initial attempts at scale development, with a dearth of investigations on scale refinements or cross-cultural adaptations. Psychometric properties were acceptable; sixteen of all scales presented reliability scores above 0.7, 19 out of 20 instruments confirmed at least 75% of all previously stated hypotheses regarding the constructs under consideration, and conceptual dimensional structure was supported by means of any type of factor analysis in 17 of 21 scales. However, independent researchers, apart from the original scale developers, have rarely examined such scales. The use of racial terminology and how it may influence self-reported experiences of discrimination has not yet been thoroughly examined. The need to consider other types of unfair treatment as concurrently important health-damaging exposures, and the idea of a universal instrument which would permit cross

  8. The Influence of Temporal Resolution Power and Working Memory Capacity on Psychometric Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troche, Stefan J.; Rammsayer, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    According to the temporal resolution power (TRP) hypothesis, higher TRP as reflected by better performance on psychophysical timing tasks accounts for faster speed of information processing and increased efficiency of information processing leading to better performance on tests of psychometric intelligence. An alternative explanation of…

  9. Psychometric and discriminative properties of the Teen Addiction Severity Index (Brazilian Portuguese version).

    PubMed

    Sartes, Laisa Marcorela A; De Micheli, Denise; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia O

    2009-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the internal consistency of the Brazilian Portuguese version of Teen Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI) and validated its "substance use" area. Evaluating 100 psychoactive substance abusers/dependent adolescents (SUD) and 108 adolescents without such diagnosis (NON-SUD), we found good correlations between the classification by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, used as "gold standard") and the severity (r = 0.73) and composite (r = 0.72) scores of the T-ASI. The area under the ROC curve was 0.88, showing a satisfactory correct classification rate. The internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, was considered good regarding the substance use (0.89), legal (0.81), and psychiatric (0.80) areas of the T-ASI. The Brazilian Portuguese version of T-ASI presented good internal consistency and a valid substance use area. A comparison between the groups regarding the answers to each question in all the areas was conducted in order to identify which questions in the T-ASI discriminate SUD from NON-SUD adolescents, to have a basis for the proposal of a shorter version of the instrument. PMID:19377864

  10. A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale in HIV/AIDS Research

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Klostermann, Keith; Trabold, Nicole; Xue, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified that reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales are reported according to study population, and several cross-population trends were identified. In general, the SRPS and RC subscale exhibited sound psychometric properties across multiple study populations and research settings. By contrast, the DMD subscale had relatively weak psychometric properties, especially when used with specific populations and research settings. Factors that influenced the psychometric properties of the various scales and subscales included the study population, mean age of the sample, number of items retained in the scale, and modifications to the original scales. We conclude with recommendations for (a) the application and use of the SRPS and subscales, (b) reporting of psychometric properties of the scales in the literature, and (c) areas for future research. PMID:25331613

  11. Spectral parameter power series representation for Hill's discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Khmelnytskaya, K.V.; Rosu, H.C.

    2010-11-15

    We establish a series representation of the Hill discriminant based on the spectral parameter power series (SPPS) recently introduced by Kravchenko. We also show the invariance of the Hill discriminant under a Darboux transformation and employing the Mathieu case the feasibility of this type of series for numerical calculations of the eigenspectrum.

  12. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  13. Teaching for Change: The Difference, Power, and Discrimination Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Jun, Ed.; Li, Judith, Ed.; Roper, Larry D., Ed.; Shaw, Susan M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past three decades, American higher education has witnessed a shift in demographics which has created a more diverse student body. However, many university campuses remain unsupportive or even hostile to minority faculty and students. This anthology introduces to readers the Difference, Power, and Discrimination (DPD) Program, a…

  14. Forging Harmony in the Social Organism: Industry and the Power of Psychometric Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the initiating role of the steel industry in educational selection by means of psychometric techniques used in the psycho-physiological laboratory associated with a vocational school in Luxembourg founded in 1914. It first considers the origins of, and initial meanings bestowed upon, this first (and perhaps also last)…

  15. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alexandra; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Miller, William G; De Zutter, Lieven; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of Campylobacter in food. Campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and Campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), flagellin gene A restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaA-RFLP), antimicrobial resistance profiling (AMRp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for C. jejuni, the determination of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) class. Discriminatory power was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (SID) and the congruence was measured by the adjusted Rand index and adjusted Wallace coefficient. MLST was individually the most discriminative typing method for both C. jejuni (SID=0.981) and C. coli (SID=0.957). The most discriminative combination with a SID of 0.992 for both C. jejuni and C. coli was obtained by combining MLST with flaA-RFLP. The combination of MLST with flaA-RFLP is an easy and feasible typing method for short-term monitoring of Campylobacter in broiler meat carcass. PMID:26996762

  16. Assessing the Discriminating Power of Item and Test Scores in the Linear Factor-Analysis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2012-01-01

    Model-based attempts to rigorously study the broad and imprecise concept of "discriminating power" are scarce, and generally limited to nonlinear models for binary responses. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores which are analyzed or obtained using Spearman's factor-analytic…

  17. Prestimulus Alpha Power Influences Tactile Temporal Perceptual Discrimination and Confidence in Decisions.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that prestimulus alpha-band activity substantially influences perception of near-threshold stimuli. Here, we studied the influence of prestimulus alpha power fluctuations on temporal perceptual discrimination of suprathreshold tactile stimuli and subjects' confidence regarding their perceptual decisions. We investigated how prestimulus alpha-band power influences poststimulus decision-making variables. We presented electrical stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) to human subjects, and determined the SOA for which temporal perceptual discrimination varied on a trial-by-trial basis between perceiving 1 or 2 stimuli, prior to recording brain activity with magnetoencephalography. We found that low prestimulus alpha power in contralateral somatosensory and occipital areas predicts the veridical temporal perceptual discrimination of 2 stimuli. Additionally, prestimulus alpha power was negatively correlated with confidence ratings in correctly perceived trials, but positively correlated for incorrectly perceived trials. Finally, poststimulus event-related fields (ERFs) were modulated by prestimulus alpha power and reflect the result of a decisional process rather than physical stimulus parameters around ∼150 ms. These findings provide new insights into the link between spontaneous prestimulus alpha power fluctuations, temporal perceptual discrimination, decision making, and decisional confidence. The results suggest that prestimulus alpha power modulates perception and decisions on a continuous scale, as reflected in confidence ratings. PMID:25331603

  18. Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w0-wa parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and Inverse Tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  19. Machine Learning for Power System Disturbance and Cyber-attack Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Raymond Charles; Beaver, Justin M; Buckner, Mark A; Morris, Thomas; Adhikari, Uttam; Pan, Shengyi

    2014-01-01

    Power system disturbances are inherently complex and can be attributed to a wide range of sources, including both natural and man-made events. Currently, the power system operators are heavily relied on to make decisions regarding the causes of experienced disturbances and the appropriate course of action as a response. In the case of cyber-attacks against a power system, human judgment is less certain since there is an overt attempt to disguise the attack and deceive the operators as to the true state of the system. To enable the human decision maker, we explore the viability of machine learning as a means for discriminating types of power system disturbances, and focus specifically on detecting cyber-attacks where deception is a core tenet of the event. We evaluate various machine learning methods as disturbance discriminators and discuss the practical implications for deploying machine learning systems as an enhancement to existing power system architectures.

  20. A Discriminant Analysis of Attitudes Related to the Nuclear Power Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girondi, Alfred J.

    1983-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a test instrument for measuring selected attitudes toward nuclear power, determine if attitudinal differences existed between selected groups of individuals, describe group differences in attitude, and classify group members as either anti- or pronuclear. Results, based on discriminant analysis, are reported and…

  1. Discrimination Power of Polynomial-Based Descriptors for Graphs by Using Functional Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang; Stefu, Monica; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrimination power of graph measures that are based on graph-theoretical matrices. The paper generalizes the work of [M. Dehmer, M. Moosbrugger. Y. Shi, Encoding structural information uniquely with polynomial-based descriptors by employing the Randić matrix, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 268(2015), 164–168]. We demonstrate that by using the new functional matrix approach, exhaustively generated graphs can be discriminated more uniquely than shown in the mentioned previous work. PMID:26479495

  2. Discrimination Power of Polynomial-Based Descriptors for Graphs by Using Functional Matrices.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang; Stefu, Monica; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrimination power of graph measures that are based on graph-theoretical matrices. The paper generalizes the work of [M. Dehmer, M. Moosbrugger. Y. Shi, Encoding structural information uniquely with polynomial-based descriptors by employing the Randić matrix, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 268(2015), 164-168]. We demonstrate that by using the new functional matrix approach, exhaustively generated graphs can be discriminated more uniquely than shown in the mentioned previous work. PMID:26479495

  3. Discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability measures for CHF assessment.

    PubMed

    Pecchia, Leandro; Melillo, Paolo; Sansone, Mario; Bracale, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) for discriminating normal subjects versus chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. We analyzed 1914.40 h of ECG of 83 patients of which 54 are normal and 29 are suffering from CHF with New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification I, II, and III, extracted by public databases. Following guidelines, we performed time and frequency analysis in order to measure HRV features. To assess the discrimination power of HRV features, we designed a classifier based on the classification and regression tree (CART) method, which is a nonparametric statistical technique, strongly effective on nonnormal medical data mining. The best subset of features for subject classification includes square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD), total power, high-frequencies power, and the ratio between low- and high-frequencies power (LF/HF). The classifier we developed achieved sensitivity and specificity values of 79.3 % and 100 %, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrated that it is possible to achieve sensitivity and specificity of 89.7 % and 100 %, respectively, by introducing two nonstandard features ΔAVNN and ΔLF/HF, which account, respectively, for variation over the 24 h of the average of consecutive normal intervals (AVNN) and LF/HF. Our results are comparable with other similar studies, but the method we used is particularly valuable because it allows a fully human-understandable description of classification procedures, in terms of intelligible "if … then …" rules. PMID:21075731

  4. Coding region SNP analysis to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    The high population frequencies of three control region haplotypes contribute to the low discrimination power of the dog mtDNA control region. It also diminishes the evidential power of a match with one of these haplotypes in forensic casework. A mitochondrial genome study of 214 Belgian dogs suggested 26 polymorphic coding region sites that successfully resolved dogs with the three most frequent control region haplotypes. In this study, three SNP assays were developed to determine the identity of the 26 informative sites. The control region of 132 newly sampled dogs was sequenced and added to the study of 214 dogs. The assays were applied to 58 dogs of the haplotypes of interest, which confirmed their suitability for enhancing dog mtDNA discrimination power. In the Belgian population study of 346 dogs, the set of 26 sites divided the dogs into 25 clusters of mtGenome sequences with substantially lower population frequency estimates than their control region sequences. In case of a match with one of the three control region haplotypes, using these three SNP assays in conjunction with control region sequencing would augment the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis from 92.9% to 97.0%. PMID:25299153

  5. Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability measures for chronic heart failure detection.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Paolo; Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors performed a retrospective analysis on four public Holter databases, analyzing the data of 72 normal subjects and 44 patients suffering from CHF. To assess the discrimination power of HRV measures, an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of HRV measures was adopted and classifiers based on Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method was developed, which is a non-parametric statistical technique. It was found that the best combination of features is: Total spectral power of all NN intervals up to 0.4 Hz (TOTPWR), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all 5-min segments of a 24-h recording (SDANN). The classifiers based on this combination achieved a specificity rate and a sensitivity rate of 100.00 and 89.74%, respectively. The results are comparable with other similar studies, but the method used is particularly valuable because it provides an easy to understand description of classification procedures, in terms of intelligible "if … then …" rules. Finally, the rules obtained by CART are consistent with previous clinical studies. PMID:21203855

  6. Measuring Psychometric Functions with the Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion decision model (Ratcliff, 1978) was used to examine discrimination for a range of perceptual tasks: numerosity discrimination, number discrimination, brightness discrimination, motion discrimination, speed discrimination, and length discrimination. The model produces a measure of the quality of the information that drives decision processes, a measure termed “drift rate” in the model. As drift rate varies across experimental conditions that differ in difficulty, a psychometric function that plots drift rate against difficulty can be constructed. Psychometric functions for the tasks in this article usually plot accuracy against difficulty, but for some levels of difficulty, accuracy can be at ceiling. The diffusion model extends the range of difficulty that can be evaluated because drift rates depend on response times (RTs) as well as accuracy and when RTs decrease across conditions that are all at ceiling in accuracy, then drift rates will distinguish among the conditions. Signal detection theory assumes that the variable driving performance is the z-transform of the accuracy value and somewhat surprisingly, this closely matches drift rate extracted from the diffusion model when accuracy is not at ceiling, but not sometimes when accuracy is high. Even though the functions are similar in the middle of the range, the interpretations of the variability in the models (e.g., perceptual variability, decision process variability) are incompatible. PMID:24446719

  7. Robust Pilot Decontamination Based on Joint Angle and Power Domain Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Haifan; Cottatellucci, Laura; Gesbert, David; Muller, Ralf R.; He, Gaoning

    2016-06-01

    We address the problem of noise and interference corrupted channel estimation in massive MIMO systems. Interference, which originates from pilot reuse (or contamination), can in principle be discriminated on the basis of the distributions of path angles and amplitudes. In this paper we propose novel robust channel estimation algorithms exploiting path diversity in both angle and power domains, relying on a suitable combination of the spatial filtering and amplitude based projection. The proposed approaches are able to cope with a wide range of system and topology scenarios, including those where, unlike in previous works, interference channel may overlap with desired channels in terms of multipath angles of arrival or exceed them in terms of received power. In particular we establish analytically the conditions under which the proposed channel estimator is fully decontaminated. Simulation results confirm the overall system gains when using the new methods.

  8. The discriminant power of RNA features for pre-miRNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational discovery of microRNAs (miRNA) is based on pre-determined sets of features from miRNA precursors (pre-miRNA). Some feature sets are composed of sequence-structure patterns commonly found in pre-miRNAs, while others are a combination of more sophisticated RNA features. In this work, we analyze the discriminant power of seven feature sets, which are used in six pre-miRNA prediction tools. The analysis is based on the classification performance achieved with these feature sets for the training algorithms used in these tools. We also evaluate feature discrimination through the F-score and feature importance in the induction of random forests. Results Small or non-significant differences were found among the estimated classification performances of classifiers induced using sets with diversification of features, despite the wide differences in their dimension. Inspired in these results, we obtained a lower-dimensional feature set, which achieved a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 95%. These estimates are within 0.1% of the maximal values obtained with any feature set (SELECT, Section “Results and discussion”) while it is 34 times faster to compute. Even compared to another feature set (FS2, see Section “Results and discussion”), which is the computationally least expensive feature set of those from the literature which perform within 0.1% of the maximal values, it is 34 times faster to compute. The results obtained by the tools used as references in the experiments carried out showed that five out of these six tools have lower sensitivity or specificity. Conclusion In miRNA discovery the number of putative miRNA loci is in the order of millions. Analysis of putative pre-miRNAs using a computationally expensive feature set would be wasteful or even unfeasible for large genomes. In this work, we propose a relatively inexpensive feature set and explore most of the learning aspects implemented in current ab-initio pre-miRNA prediction

  9. Automated identification of RNA 3D modules with discriminative power in RNA structural alignments.

    PubMed

    Theis, Corinna; Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Gorodkin, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Recent progress in predicting RNA structure is moving towards filling the 'gap' in 2D RNA structure prediction where, for example, predicted internal loops often form non-canonical base pairs. This is increasingly recognized with the steady increase of known RNA 3D modules. There is a general interest in matching structural modules known from one molecule to other molecules for which the 3D structure is not known yet. We have created a pipeline, metaRNAmodules, which completely automates extracting putative modules from the FR3D database and mapping of such modules to Rfam alignments to obtain comparative evidence. Subsequently, the modules, initially represented by a graph, are turned into models for the RMDetect program, which allows to test their discriminative power using real and randomized Rfam alignments. An initial extraction of 22 495 3D modules in all PDB files results in 977 internal loop and 17 hairpin modules with clear discriminatory power. Many of these modules describe only minor variants of each other. Indeed, mapping of the modules onto Rfam families results in 35 unique locations in 11 different families. The metaRNAmodules pipeline source for the internal loop modules is available at http://rth.dk/resources/mrm. PMID:24005040

  10. Dog mitochondrial genome sequencing to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2014-09-01

    A Belgian dog population sample and several population studies worldwide have confirmed that only a limited number of mtDNA control region haplotypes is observed in the majority of dogs. The high population frequency of these haplotypes negatively impacts both the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis and the evidential value of a match with one of these haplotypes in casework. Variation within the mtDNA coding region was explored to improve the discrimination power of dog mtDNA analysis. In the current study, the entire mitochondrial genome of 161 dogs was sequenced applying a quality assured strategy and resulted in a total of 119 different mitochondrial genome sequences. Our research was focused on those dogs with the six most common control region haplotypes from a previous Belgian population study. We identified 33 informative SNPs that successfully divide the six most common control region haplotypes into 32 clusters of mitochondrial genome sequences. Determining the identity of these 33 polymorphic sites in addition to control region sequencing in case of a match with one of these 6 control region haplotypes could augment the exclusion probability of forensic dog mtDNA analysis from 92.5% to 97.5%. PMID:24905334

  11. The Discriminating Power of Items that Measure More than One Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckase, Mark D.

    The work presented in this paper defined conceptually the concepts of multidimensional discrimination and information, derived mathematical expressions for the concepts for a particular multidimensional item response theory (IRT) model, and applied the concepts to actual test data. Multidimensional discrimination was defined as a function of the…

  12. The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphry, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the role of the unit in physics in order to clarify the role of the unit in psychometrics. Based on this examination, metrological conventions are used to formulate the relationship between discrimination and the unit of a scale in item response theory. Seminal literature in two lines of item response…

  13. Psychometric Properties of Self-Appraisals of Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, George C., III

    The research literature on the psychometric properties of self-appraisals of work performance summarizes many results in terms of leniency, variability, halo, and construct validity. Comparisons with appraisals tend to show more leniency, less variability, more bias, and less discriminant validity. Different factor structures are found among self-…

  14. Psychometric Properties of Teacher SKAMP Ratings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Desiree W.; Bussing, Regina; Fernandez, Melanie; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Swanson, James M.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the basic psychometric properties of the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham Scale (SKAMP), a measure intended to assess functional impairment related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in a sample of 1,205 elementary students. Reliability, factor structure, and convergent, discriminant and predictive validity…

  15. UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Dale Kevin

    merit investigated included: 1) wavelength accuracy, 2) wavelength precision, 3) wavelength resolution stability, 4) photometric accuracy, 5) photometric precision, 6) photometric linearity, 7) photometric noise, and 8) short-term baseline stability. In addition, intrinsic instrument polarization effects were investigated to determine the impact of these properties on spectral interpretation and data quality. Finally, a set of recommendations were developed which describe instrument performance characteristics for microscope and spectrometer features and functions, and specific instrument parameters that must be controlled in order to acquire high quality data from an ultraviolet-visible forensic microscope spectrophotometer system for increased discrimination power.

  16. Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which…

  17. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Heather E; Strong, David R

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia-the reduced capacity to experience pleasure-is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995 )-a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences-in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 585, M age = 14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that (a) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like "seeing smiling faces" or "smelling flowers") provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (b) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs, weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  18. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Healther E.; Strong, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia—the reduced capacity to experience pleasure—is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995)—a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences—in adolescents. Adolescents (N=585; M age=14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that: (1) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like “seeing smiling faces” or “smelling flowers”) provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (2) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs; weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  19. Being a Successful Adolescent at School and with Peers. The Discriminative Power of a Typological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steca, Patrizia; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni Maria; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to explore the utility of the resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes in discriminating adolescents with respect to their academic and social functioning and success. One-hundred and twelve male and 95 female Italian adolescents (mean age = 17 years old) participated in the study and filled out a…

  20. The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Kevin; Ratliff, Thomas N.; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Building on prior work surrounding negative work-related experiences, such as workplace bullying and sexual harassment, we examine the extent to which organizational context is meaningful for the subjective experience of sex discrimination. Data draw on the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, which provides a key indicator of…

  1. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. PMID:25462882

  2. Sex differences in discriminative power of volleyball game-related statistics.

    PubMed

    João, Paulo Vicente; Leite, Nuno; Mesquita, Isabel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2010-12-01

    To identify sex differences in volleyball game-related statistics, the game-related statistics of several World Championships in 2007 (N=132) were analyzed using the software VIS from the International Volleyball Federation. Discriminant analysis was used to identify the game-related statistics which better discriminated performances by sex. Analysis yielded an emphasis on fault serves (SC = -.40), shot spikes (SC = .40), and reception digs (SC = .31). Specific robust numbers represent that considerable variability was evident in the game-related statistics profile, as men's volleyball games were better associated with terminal actions (errors of service), and women's volleyball games were characterized by continuous actions (in defense and attack). These differences may be related to the anthropometric and physiological differences between women and men and their influence on performance profiles. PMID:21319626

  3. Development and examination of the psychometric properties of the Learning Experience Scale in nursing.

    PubMed

    Takase, Miyuki; Imai, Takiko; Uemura, Chizuru

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties of the Learning Experience Scale. A survey method was used to collect data from a total of 502 nurses. Data were analyzed by factor analysis and the known-groups technique to examine the construct validity of the scale. In addition, internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha, and stability was examined by test-retest correlation. Factor analysis showed that the Learning Experience Scale consisted of five factors: learning from practice, others, training, feedback, and reflection. The scale also had the power to discriminate between nurses with high and low levels of nursing competence. The internal consistency and the stability of the scale were also acceptable. The Learning Experience Scale is a valid and reliable instrument, and helps organizations to effectively design learning interventions for nurses. PMID:26373632

  4. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P

    2004-05-27

    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  5. Corrected Article: Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models [Phys. Rev. D 78, 043528 (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2009-12-01

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w0-wa parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and inverse tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  6. Corrected Article: Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models [Phys. Rev. D 78, 043528 (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2009-12-15

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w{sub 0}-w{sub a} parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and inverse tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women in a German Sample.

    PubMed

    Velten, Julia; Scholten, Saskia; Graham, Cynthia A; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Sexual Excitation Sexual/Inhibition Inventory for Women (SESII-W) is a self-report questionnaire for assessing propensities of sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) in women. According to the dual control model of sexual response, these two factors differ between individuals and influence the occurrence of sexual arousal in given situations. Extreme levels of SE and SI are postulated to be associated with sexual problems or risky sexual behaviors. Psychometric evaluation of the original scale yielded two higher order and eight lower order factors as well as satisfactory to good construct validity and reliability. The present study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the SESII-W utilizing a large convenience sample of 2206 women. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory overall model fit, with support for the five lower order factors of SE (Arousability, Sexual Power Dynamics, Smell, Partner Characteristics, Setting) and the three lower order factors of SI (Relationship Importance, Arousal Contingency, and Concerns about Sexual Function). Additionally, the scale demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and test-retest-reliability. The German SESII-W is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure for assessing SE and SI in women. Hence, its use can be recommended for future research in Germany that investigates women's sexual behaviors and experiences. PMID:26025455

  8. The utility of placing recollection in opposition to familiarity in early discrimination of healthy aging and very mild dementia of the Alzheimer’s type

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.; Moynan, Sarah C.; Duchek, Janet M.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the ability to control familiarity-based information in a memory exclusion paradigm in healthy young, older adults, and early-stage DAT individuals. We compared the predictive power of memory exclusion performance to standard psychometric performance in discriminating between healthy aging and the earliest detectable form of DAT and between APOe4-present and APOe4-absent genotype in healthy control individuals. Participants responded “yes” to words that were previously semantically encoded, and “no” to other words. The number of targets and distractors on the read “distractor” list was manipulated to investigate the degree to which aging and DAT influence the ability to recollect specific details of study episodes in the face of distractor familiarity due to repetition. Memory exclusion performance (as reflected by d′) decreased across participant groups (young > healthy old control > very mild DAT). Logistic regression analyses showed that d′ increased the discriminative power for healthy older adults vs. very mild DAT individuals above and beyond standard psychometric measures. Memory exclusion d′ was also lower for healthy control individuals with APOe4 allele, compared to those without the APOe4 allele after partialing out baseline psychometric performance. Discussion focuses on the importance of attentional control systems in memory retrieval and the utility of the opposition paradigm for early discrimination between healthy and pathological aging. PMID:20063946

  9. On the model discriminating power of mu to e conversion in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Okada, Yashuiro; Tuzon, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) charged lepton decays provide a highly sensitive probe of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), due to the un-observably small branching fractions ({approx}10{sup -50}) predicted for these modes in the SM (minimally extended to include massive neutrinos). Searches for SM forbidden muon processes, such as {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {mu} {yields} e{bar e}e, and {mu} {yields} e conversion in nuclei, have provided so far the strongest constraints on LFV new physics. This statement can be characterized in a model-independent way as a lower bound on the scale associated to a set of dimension six effective operators parameterizing new physics beyond the SM. It is a well known fact that while the decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma} is only sensitive to a transition magnetic dipole operator, both {mu} {yields} e{bar e}e and {mu} {yields} e conversion in nuclei are sensitive to transition charge radii operators as well as purely contact four-fermion interactions induced by physics beyond the SM. In other words, different LFV decays have different sensitivities to underlying LFV mechanisms (effective operators). This leads naturally to ask the question whether one could infer the relative strength of these different operators in a completely phenomenological and model-independent way. This would allow one to discriminate among different underlying models of LFV and thus would provide valuable input for model building. In Ref. [1] it was pointed out that in principle, by combining the rates of {mu} {yields} e{gamma} and {mu} {yields} e conversion on different target nuclei, one could discriminate underlying models. In this work we go back to this issue with the aim to: quantify the theoretical uncertainty induced by the hadronization process; and quantify the experimental precision required to realistically infer useful information on the underlying LFV mechanisms. We organize our discussion as follows: in Section 2 we review the derivation of the {mu

  10. Multiple binary classifications via linear discriminant analysis for improved controllability of a powered prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Levi J; Scheme, Erik J; Englehart, Kevin B; Hudgins, Bernard S

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a novel pattern recognition based myoelectric control system that uses parallel binary classification and class specific thresholds. The system was designed with an intuitive configuration interface, similar to existing conventional myoelectric control systems. The system was assessed quantitatively with a classification error metric and functionally with a clothespin test implemented in a virtual environment. For each case, the proposed system was compared to a state-of-the-art pattern recognition system based on linear discriminant analysis and a conventional myoelectric control scheme with mode switching. These assessments showed that the proposed control system had a higher classification error ( p < 0.001) but yielded a more controllable myoelectric control system ( p < 0.001) as measured through a clothespin usability test implemented in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the system was computationally simple and applicable for real-time embedded implementation. This work provides the basis for a clinically viable pattern recognition based myoelectric control system which is robust, easily configured, and highly usable. PMID:20071277

  11. Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS): Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P.; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M.; García-Fernández, José M.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8–11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS. PMID:25072402

  12. Discriminating power of microsatellites in cranberry organelles for taxonomic studies in Vaccinium and Ericaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, which have not been previously developed or explored in the Ericaceae family or Vaccinium genus, can be powerful tools for determining evolutionary relationships between taxa. In this study, 30 chloroplast and 23 mitochondria, and ...

  13. Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation: Results of the Initial Psychometric Study.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of social cognition in treatment trials remains problematic due to poor and limited psychometric data for many tasks. As part of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, the psychometric properties of 8 tasks were assessed. One hundred and seventy-nine stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls completed the battery at baseline and a 2-4-week retest period at 2 sites. Tasks included the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task (BLERT), Penn Emotion Recognition Task (ER-40), Relationships Across Domains (RAD), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (Eyes), The Awareness of Social Inferences Test (TASIT), Hinting Task, and Trustworthiness Task. Tasks were evaluated on: (i) test-retest reliability, (ii) utility as a repeated measure, (iii) relationship to functional outcome, (iv) practicality and tolerability, (v) sensitivity to group differences, and (vi) internal consistency. The BLERT and Hinting task showed the strongest psychometric properties across all evaluation criteria and are recommended for use in clinical trials. The ER-40, Eyes Task, and TASIT showed somewhat weaker psychometric properties and require further study. The AIHQ, RAD, and Trustworthiness Task showed poorer psychometric properties that suggest caution for their use in clinical trials. PMID:25943125

  14. Revealing discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts: Line-intensity correlation analysis from laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yonghoon; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Han, Song-Hee; Yoo, Jonghyun; Jeong, Sungho

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results.

  15. Measuring anxiety in late life: a psychometric examination of the geriatric anxiety inventory and geriatric anxiety scale.

    PubMed

    Gould, Christine E; Segal, Daniel L; Yochim, Brian P; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J; Beaudreau, Sherry A

    2014-12-01

    We examined the psychometric properties, internal scale reliability and validity, of two geriatric anxiety measures: the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS). We also determined the extent to which memory ability influenced the psychometric properties of these measures. Older adult participants (N=110; M age=75 years) completed self-report, clinician-rated and diagnostic psychiatric measures and a neuropsychiatric battery. GAI and GAS scores had good internal consistency, adequate reliability, and strong convergent validity. GAI scores had better discriminant validity than GAS scores relative to a health rating. Both measures had strong associations with depression scores. Psychometric properties were decreased in participants with average delayed memory recall compared with those with superior recall. Both measures had good psychometric support, particularly in those with strong memory abilities. Psychometric performance characteristics indicate that the GAI and GAS may be good alternatives to anxiety measures not designed specifically for older adults. PMID:25271176

  16. Chemical vapor discrimination using a compact and low-power array of piezoresistive microcantilevers.

    PubMed

    Loui, Albert; Ratto, Timothy V; Wilson, Thomas S; McCall, Scott K; Mukerjee, Erik V; Love, Adam H; Hart, Bradley R

    2008-05-01

    A compact and low-power microcantilever-based sensor array has been developed and used to detect various chemical vapor analytes. In contrast to earlier micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) array sensors, this device uses the static deflection of piezoresistive cantilevers due to the swelling of glassy polyolefin coatings during sorption of chemical vapors. To maximize the sensor response to a variety of chemical analytes, the polymers are selected based on their Hildebrand solubility parameters to span a wide range of chemical properties. We utilize a novel microcontact spotting method to reproducibly coat a single side of each cantilever in the array with the polymers. To demonstrate the utility of the sensor array we have reproducibly detected 11 chemical vapors, representing a breadth of chemical properties, in real time and over a wide range of vapor concentrations. We also report the detection of the chemical warfare agents (CWAs) VX and sulfur mustard (HD), representing the first published report of CWA vapor detection by a polymer-based, cantilever sensor array. Comparisons of the theoretical polymer/vapor partition coefficient to the experimental cantilever deflection responses show that, while general trends can be reasonably predicted, a simple linear relationship does not exist. PMID:18427681

  17. A psychometric evaluation of the digital logic concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.

  18. Psychometric Study of the Clinical Treatment Planning Simulations (CTPS) for Assessing Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Janet Elizabeth; Hebert, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychometric properties of four clinical treatment planning simulations (CTPS) developed by interdisciplinary mental health experts to examine clinical judgment in treatment planning processes of practitioners. Found that scoring reliability was high and simulations demonstrated adequate content, discriminant, and predictive validity.…

  19. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  20. Stochastic and Historical Resonances of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William P., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Humphry's article, "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics," offers fundamental clarifications of measurement concepts that Fisher hopes will find a wide audience. In particular, parameterizing discrimination while preserving statistical sufficiency will indeed provide greater flexibility in accounting "for the effects of empirical…

  1. Psychometric Qualities of the German Version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesel, Dorothee; Wessa, Michele; Flor, Herta

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the psychometric properties of the German version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS; A. Ehlers, R. Steil, H. Winter, & E. B. Foa, 1996) were evaluated in a sample of 143 trauma survivors. To investigate convergent and discriminant validity of this questionnaire, the authors assessed posttraumatic stress disorder…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task: An Italian Multicentre Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Lavinia; Del Giudice, Marco; Fossati, Andrea; Manaresi, Francesca; Perinetti, Barbara Actis; Colle, Livia; Veglia, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a multicentre study of the psychometric properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task in a sample of 230 Italian children aged 4 to 8 years. The task's internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were investigated; in addition, multiple discriminant analysis was used to explore the contribution of individual…

  3. Psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test.

    PubMed

    Frankl, My; Philips, Björn; Berggraf, Lene; Ulvenes, Pål; Johansson, Robert; Wennberg, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to make the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test, using the Swedish translation - a test developed to screen the ability to experience, express and regulate emotions. Data was collected from a clinical sample (N = 82) of patients with depression and/or anxiety participating in randomized controlled trial of Internet-based affect-focused treatment, and a university student sample (N = 197). The internal consistency for the total score was satisfactory (Clinical sample α = 0.88/Student sample α = 0.84) as well as for all the affective domains, except Anger/Assertion (α = 0.44/0.36), Sadness/Grief (α = 0.24/0.46) and Attachment/Closeness (α = 0.67/0.69). Test retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC > 0.77) for the total score and for all the affective domains except for Sadness/Grief (ICC = 0.04). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a six-factor solution and did only moderately match the test's original affective domains. An empirical cut-off between the clinical and the university student sample were calculated and yielded a cut-off of 72 points. As expected, the Affect Phobia test showed negative significant correlations in the clinical group with measures on depression (rxy  = -0.229; p < 0.01) and anxiety (rxy  = -0.315; p < 0.05). The conclusion is that the psychometric properties are satisfactory for the total score of the Affect Phobia Test but not for some of the test's affective domains. Consequently the domains should not be used as subscales. The test can discriminate between individuals who seek help for psychological problems and those who do not. PMID:27461917

  4. Functional MR imaging of semantic information processing and learning-related effects using psychometrically controlled stimulation paradigms.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, M; Bellemann, M E; Kammer, T; Gückel, F; Kischka, U; Maier, S; Schwartz, A; Brix, G

    1996-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with carefully designed, psychometrically optimized stimulation procedures, was used to investigate the relation between brain activation and the processing of word associations. A semantic discrimination task of word-pair similarity was performed by normal subjects (n = 17) within a clinical 1.5-Tesla whole-body MRI system. A color similarity task of psychometrically equivalent difficulty, as indicated by behavioral data acquired online during fMRI, served as active control condition. Comparisons between tasks dramatically improved results compared to comparisons between task and resting condition. The language paradigm selectively activated left frontal and left fronto-temporal areas. Cortical activation during the semantic task decreased significantly over three runs of the same word list and was paralleled by decreased reaction times. No such changes were observed in the active control condition indicating selective learning of the language task only. When combined with psychological activation schemes and the acquisition of behavioral data, fMRI represents a powerful tool for the study of brain-behavior interaction. PMID:8924044

  5. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  6. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  7. Software Use in Psychometric Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Research on psychometric methods is heavily dependent on software. The quality, availability, and documentation of such software are critical to the advancement of the field. In 2000, an ad hoc committee of NCME recommended that NCME adopt policies that promote greater availability and better documentation of software. This article follows the ad…

  8. How useful are psychometric scores in predicting recidivism for treated sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Georgia D; Wakeling, Helen C; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Rakestrow, Janine

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychometric test scores, psychometric test profiles, and sexual and/or violent reconviction. A sample of 3,402 convicted sexual offenders who attended a probation service-run sexual offender treatment programme in the community completed a battery of psychometric tests pre- and posttreatment. Using Cox regression, posttreatment scores on measures of self-esteem, an ability to relate to fictional characters, and recognition of risk factors were, individually, predictive of recidivism. When psychometric tests were grouped into dynamic risk domains, only the pretreatment scores of the domain labelled socioaffective functioning (SAF) predicted recidivism and added predictive power to a static risk assessment. The number of risk domains that were dysfunctional pretreatment also predicted recidivism outcome; however, this did not add predictive power to a static risk assessment tool. Possible explanations for the superiority of pre- over posttreatment scores in predicting reconviction are discussed, and directions for further research considered. PMID:21518697

  9. Age discrimination in the workplace: validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS).

    PubMed

    Furunes, Trude; Mykletun, Reidar J

    2010-02-01

    Due to population ageing, older workers will make up a larger proportion of the workforce. However, recent reports show an increase in perceived age discrimination among older employees. Previous research found that age discrimination may result in negative feelings, such as uselessness, powerlessness and lower self-esteem. This study develops and validates a scale for monitoring age discrimination in the workplace. The validation study draws on three datasets, from Norway, Sweden and Finland respectively. The study provides a psychometric contribution to the study of the behavioral component of ageism. PMID:19694986

  10. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users. PMID:24469338

  11. The Gender Gap and Discriminating Power in the National Curriculum Key Stage Three Science Assessments in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Peter F. W.; Skinner, Nigel G.; Riall, Robin A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of gender differences in science achievement in England and Wales. Finds that the most pronounced gender differences in favor of males occurred in the higher-level papers taken by more able students, especially in physics. Also, more discriminating questions exhibited larger gender gaps in favor of males. Contains 21 references.…

  12. Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…

  13. Psychometric Properties of Eating Disorder Instruments in Black and White Young Women: Internal Consistency, Temporal Stability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Boyd, Clarissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major instruments in the eating disorder field have documented psychometric support only in predominantly White samples. The current study examined the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and discriminant validity of a variety of eating disorder measures in Black (n = 97) and White (n = 179) female undergraduates.…

  14. Military Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that while a certain level of fairness is necessary in considering the equity of compulsory military service, the most important issue is that of "winning the war." Also asserts that sex, age, and race discrimination are more important than social class discrimination in military service. (Author/GC)

  15. Psychometric Properties of IRT Proficiency Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…

  16. QUEST - A Bayesian adaptive psychometric method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. B.; Pelli, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    An adaptive psychometric procedure that places each trial at the current most probable Bayesian estimate of threshold is described. The procedure takes advantage of the common finding that the human psychometric function is invariant in form when expressed as a function of log intensity. The procedure is simple, fast, and efficient, and may be easily implemented on any computer.

  17. Sample entropy reveals high discriminative power between young and elderly adults in short fMRI data sets

    PubMed Central

    Sokunbi, Moses O.

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have placed Sample entropy on the same data length constraint of 10m–20m (m: pattern length) as approximate entropy, even though Sample entropy is largely independent of data length and displays relative consistency over a broader range of possible parameters (r, tolerance value; m, pattern length; N, data length) under circumstances where approximate entropy does not. This is particularly erroneous for some fMRI experiments where the working data length is less than 100 volumes (when m = 2). We therefore investigated whether Sample entropy is able to effectively discriminate fMRI data with data length, N less than 10m (where m = 2) and r = 0.30, from a small group of 10 younger and 10 elderly adults, and the whole cohort of 43 younger and 43 elderly adults, that are significantly (p < 0.001) different in age. Ageing has been defined as a loss of entropy; where signal complexity decreases with age. For the small group analysis, the results of the whole brain analyses show that Sample entropy portrayed a good discriminatory ability for data lengths, 85 ≤ N ≤ 128, with an accuracy of 85% at N = 85 and 80% at N = 128, at q < 0.05. The regional analyses show that Sample entropy discriminated more brain regions at N = 128 than N = 85 and some regions common to both data lengths. As data length, N increased from 85 to 128, the noise level decreased. This was reflected in the accuracy of the whole brain analyses and the number of brain regions discriminated in the regional analyses. The whole brain analyses suggest that Sample entropy is relatively independent of data length, while the regional analyses show that fMRI data with length of 85 volumes is consistent with our hypothesis of a loss of entropy with ageing. In the whole cohort analysis, Sample entropy discriminated regionally between the younger and elderly adults only at N = 128. The whole cohort analysis at N = 85 was indicative of the ageing process but this indication was not significant (p

  18. Genetic Discrimination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care ... genetic discrimination. April 25, 2007, Statement of Administration Policy, Office of Management and Budget Official Statement from the Office of ...

  19. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  20. High-Resolution Melting Analysis as a Powerful Tool to Discriminate and Genotype Pseudomonas savastanoi Pathovars and Strains

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Andrea; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Tegli, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi is a serious pathogen of Olive, Oleander, Ash, and several other Oleaceae. Its epiphytic or endophytic presence in asymptomatic plants is crucial for the spread of Olive and Oleander knot disease, as already ascertained for P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv) on Olive and for pv. nerii (Psn) on Oleander, while no information is available for pv. fraxini (Psf) on Ash. Nothing is known yet about the distribution on the different host plants and the real host range of these pathovars in nature, although cross-infections were observed following artificial inoculations. A multiplex Real-Time PCR assay was recently developed to simultaneously and quantitatively discriminate in vitro and in planta these P. savastanoi pathovars, for routine culture confirmation and for epidemiological and diagnostical studies. Here an innovative High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA)-based assay was set up to unequivocally discriminate Psv, Psn and Psf, according to several single nucleotide polymorphisms found in their Type Three Secretion System clusters. The genetic distances among 56 P. savastanoi strains belonging to these pathovars were also evaluated, confirming and refining data previously obtained by fAFLP. To our knowledge, this is the first time that HRMA is applied to a bacterial plant pathogen, and one of the few multiplex HRMA-based assays developed so far. This protocol provides a rapid, sensitive, specific tool to differentiate and detect Psv, Psn and Psf strains, also in vivo and against other related bacteria, with lower costs than conventional multiplex Real-Time PCR. Its application is particularly suitable for sanitary certification programs for P. savastanoi, aimed at avoiding the spreading of this phytopathogen through asymptomatic plants. PMID:22295075

  1. Object discrimination reversal as a method to assess cognitive impairment in nonhuman primate enhanced pre- and postnatal developmental (ePPND) studies: statistical power analysis.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Gregg D; Bowman, Christopher J; Hurtt, Mark E; Grantham, Lonnie E

    2012-10-01

    An important aspect of the enhanced pre- and postnatal developmental (ePPND) toxicity study in nonhuman primates (NHP) is that it combines in utero and postnatal assessments in a single study. However, it is unclear if NHP ePPND studies are suitable to perform all of the evaluations incorporated into rodent PPND studies. To understand the value of including cognitive assessment in a NHP ePPND toxicity study, we performed a power analysis of object discrimination reversal task data using a modified Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (ODR-WGTA) from two NHP ePPND studies. ODR-WGTA endpoints evaluated were days to learning and to first reversal, and number of reversals. With α = 0.05 and a one-sided t-test, a sample of seven provided 80% power to predict a 100% increase in all three of the ODR-WGTA endpoints; a sample of 25 provided 80% power to predict a 50% increase. Similar power analyses were performed with data from the Cincinnati Water Maze (CWM) and passive avoidance tests from three rat PPND toxicity studies. Groups of 5 and 15 in the CWM and passive avoidance test, respectively, provided 80% power to detect a 100% change. While the power of the CWM is not far superior to the NHP ODR-WGTA, a clear advantage is the routine use of larger sample size, with a group of 20 rats the CWM provides ~90% power to detect a 50% change. Due to the limitations on the number of animals, the ODR-WGTA may not be suitable for assessing cognitive impairment in NHP ePPND studies. PMID:22930561

  2. Twelve tips for assessment psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Lee; Roberts, Martin; Zahra, Daniel; Burr, Steven

    2016-03-01

    It is incumbent on medical schools to show, both to regulatory bodies and to the public at large, that their graduating students are "fit for purpose" as tomorrow's doctors. Since students graduate by virtue of passing assessments, it is vital that schools quality assure their assessment procedures, standards, and outcomes. An important part of this quality assurance process is the appropriate use of psychometric analyses. This begins with development of an empowering, evidence-based culture in which assessment validity can be demonstrated. Preparation prior to an assessment requires the establishment of appropriate rules, test blueprinting and standard setting. When an assessment has been completed, the reporting of test results should consider reliability, assessor, demographic, and long-term analyses across multiple levels, in an integrated way to ensure the information conveyed to all stakeholders is meaningful. PMID:26474218

  3. Psychometric functions for informational masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfi, Robert A.; Kistler, Doris J.; Callahan, Michael R.; Wightman, Frederic L.

    2003-12-01

    The term informational masking has traditionally been used to refer to elevations in signal threshold resulting from masker uncertainty. In the present study, the method of constant stimuli was used to obtain complete psychometric functions (PFs) from 44 normal-hearing listeners in conditions known to produce varying amounts of informational masking. The listener's task was to detect a pure-tone signal in the presence of a broadband noise masker (low masker uncertainty) and in the presence of multitone maskers with frequencies and amplitudes that varied at random from one presentation to the next (high masker uncertainty). Relative to the broadband noise condition, significant reductions were observed in both the slope and the upper asymptote of the PF for multitone maskers producing large amounts of informational masking. Slope was affected more for some listeners and conditions while asymptote was affected more for others; consequently, neither parameter alone was highly predictive of individual thresholds or the amount of informational masking. Mean slopes and asymptotes varied nonmonotonically with the number of masker components in a manner similar to mean thresholds, particularly when the estimated effect of energetic masking on thresholds was subtracted out. As in past studies, the threshold data were well described by a model in which trial-by-trial judgments are based on a weighted sum of levels in dB at the output of independent auditory filters. The psychometric data, however, complicated the model's interpretation in two ways: First, they suggested that, depending on the listener and condition, the weights can either reflect a fixed influence of masker components on each trial or the effect of occasionally mistaking a masker component for the signal from trial to trial. Second, they indicated that in either case the variance of the underlying decision variable as estimated from PF slope is not by itself great enough to account for the observed changes

  4. Social support for healthy behaviors: scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D; Schoffman, Danielle E; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C; Taylor, C Barr; Kiernan, Nancy E; Perri, Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N = 267; mean BMI 32.1 ± 3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) "never" or "rarely" experienced support from friends or family. Using nonparametric classification methods, we identified two subscales-support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity-that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who "never" experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who "never" experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend vs. family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  5. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  6. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  7. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  8. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in an Israeli Sample.

    PubMed

    Shkalim, Eleanor

    2015-10-01

    The current study cross-culturally evaluated the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)/MMPI-2-Restructured Form Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in psychiatric settings in Israel with a sample of 100 men and 133 women. Participants were administered the MMPI-2 and were rated by their therapists on a 188-item Patient Description Form. Results indicated that in most instances the RC Scales demonstrated equivalent or better internal consistencies and improved intercorrelation patterns relative to their clinical counterparts. Furthermore, external analyses revealed comparable or improved convergent validity (with the exceptions of Antisocial Behavior [RC4] and Ideas of Persecution [RC6] among men), and mostly greater discriminant validity. Overall, the findings indicate that consistent with previous findings, the RC Scales generally exhibit comparable to improved psychometric properties over the Clinical Scales. Implications of the results, limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25354670

  10. Reliability, validity, and psychometric development of the pornography consumption inventory in a sample of hypersexual men.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rory C; Li, Desiree S; Gilliland, Randy; Stein, Judith A; Fong, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the psychometric evaluation of the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI), which was developed to assess motivations for pornography use among hypersexual men. Initial factor structure and item analysis were conducted in a sample of men (N = 105) seeking to reduce their pornography consumption (Study 1), yielding a 4-factor solution. In a second sample of treatment-seeking hypersexual men (N = 107), the authors further investigated the properties of the PCI using confirmatory factor analytic procedures, reliability indices, and explored PCI associations with several other constructs to establish convergent and discriminant validity. These studies demonstrate psychometric evidence for the PCI items that measure tendencies of hypersexual men to use pornography (a) for sexual pleasure; (b) to escape, cope, or avoid uncomfortable emotional experiences or stress; (c) to satisfy sexual curiosity; and (d) to satisfy desires for excitement, novelty, and variety. PMID:21961444

  11. Assessing leadership decision-making styles: psychometric properties of the Leadership Judgement Indicator.

    PubMed

    Faraci, Palmira; Lock, Michael; Wheeler, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Leadership Judgement Indicator, an unconventional instrument devoted to measurement of leaders' judgments and preferred styles, ie, directive, consultative, consensual, or delegative, when dealing with a range of decision-making scenarios. After forward-translation and back-translation, its psychometric properties were estimated for 299 managers at various levels, who were asked to put themselves in the position of leader and to rate the appropriateness of certain ways of responding to challenge. Differences between several groups of managers, ranked in order of seniority, provided evidence for discriminant validity. Internal consistency was adequate. The findings show that the Italian adaptation of the Leadership Judgement Indicator has promising psychometric qualities, suggesting its suitability for use to improve outcomes in both organizational and selection settings. PMID:24204179

  12. The Impact of Escape Alternative Position Change in Multiple-Choice Test on the Psychometric Properties of a Test and Its Items Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamadneh, Iyad Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact changing of escape alternative position in multiple-choice test on the psychometric properties of a test and it's items parameters (difficulty, discrimination & guessing), and estimation of examinee ability. To achieve the study objectives, a 4-alternative multiple choice type achievement test…

  13. Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability. PMID:21593059

  14. Discrimination alleged.

    PubMed

    1998-12-25

    The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination found probable cause to believe that Dr. [name removed] denied [name removed] reproductive services because [name removed] is gay, which [name removed] associates with being at high risk for HIV. [Name removed] claimed that the doctor refused to bank and transport his semen for artificial insemination. [Name removed], the father of one, tested negative and possesses no risk of infecting the would-be mother. The Commission will hold a conciliation session to try and resolve the dispute. If the session is not successful, the Commission will conduct an evidentiary hearing. PMID:11366047

  15. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D 2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  16. Adolescent coping scales: a critical psychometric review.

    PubMed

    Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigrun; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2008-12-01

    Individual coping is identified as an important factor in relation to health and well-being. Although several coping scales have been developed, key terms of coping such as nature and a number of primary and secondary factors (dimensions) are obscure. Coping scales, such as those that have been developed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), have been criticized for poor psychometric properties, yet the critique so far does not evaluate development of the scales against best test-theoretical practice. The present study reviews six adolescent coping scales against ten detailed psychometric criteria in relation to statistical choices throughout the process of scale development. All six scales measured poorly on several criteria. Best practice had not been followed throughout their development and they suffered serious psychometric limitations. These findings indicate that there still is empirical research to be pursued in search of latent constructs and possible dimensions of coping through the implementation of EFA. PMID:18489531

  17. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  18. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  19. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  20. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  1. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  2. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  3. A Population-Based Psychometric Validation Study of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew Version

    PubMed Central

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana; Levine, Stephen Z.; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew version (SDQ-H), used in the Israel Survey on Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The SDQ-H was administered to a representative sample of 611 adolescents and their mothers. Structural validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) inventory was used as “gold standard” to test convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and normative scores were established. Agreement was found with the original factor structure, except for the Peer problem scale. Concurrent and discriminant validity varied from fair to very good for most scales. Total Difficulties scores showed better discriminant validity for the adolescents’ than the mothers’ report for internalizing disorders, and the opposite for externalizing disorders. Internal consistency for the Total Difficulties was 0.77 and for the Hyperactivity scale it was 0.73. It was lower for the other scales, particularly for the Peer problems scale. The findings suggest reasonable psychometric properties of the SDQ-H. Comparisons with other translated SDQ versions are presented. PMID:21423458

  4. The Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS): initial development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Walther, Michael R; Flessner, Christopher A; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin picking (MIDAS), a measure designed to assess "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. Data were collected from 92 participants who completed an anonymous internet-based survey. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution. Factors 1 ("focused" picking scale) and 2 ("automatic" picking scale) each consisted of 6 items, and preliminary data demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good construct validity, and good discriminant validity. The MIDAS provides researchers with a reliable and valid assessment of "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. PMID:18725154

  5. Psychometric properties of the feedback orientation scale among South African salespersons.

    PubMed

    Lilford, Neil; Caruana, Albert; Pitt, Leyland

    2014-02-01

    Feedback to employees is an important management tool, and the literature demonstrates that it has a positive effect on learning, motivation, and job performance. This study investigates in a non-U.S. context the psychometric properties of the Feedback Orientation Scale. Data were gathered from a sample of 202 salespersons from a large South African firm within the industrial fuels and lubricants sector. Confirmatory Factor Analysis provided evidence for the intended dimensionality, reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. PMID:24765714

  6. Psychometric Measurement Models and Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…

  7. Emotional Considerations in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Psychometric Quantification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannito, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…

  8. The Psychometric Evaluation of Educational Intranets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaik, Paul Van; Ling, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A major determinant of the success of educational intranet sites is their usability. In addition to measures of task performance and navigation behavior, psychometric instruments are used to evaluate usability and the quality of human-computer interaction more generally. However, there is a lack of validated instruments for the evaluation of…

  9. Psychometric Intelligence Dissociates Implicit and Explicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Guido F.; Mackintosh, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that performance on implicit learning tasks is unrelated to psychometric intelligence was examined in a sample of 605 German pupils. Performance in artificial grammar learning, process control, and serial learning did not correlate with various measures of intelligence when participants were given standard implicit instructions.…

  10. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  11. Psychometric Needs Assessment. Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scissons, Edward H.

    The Psychometric Needs Assessment (PNA) model was designed to provide a means of describing a target population and various sub-populations contained therein. The specific purpose of such description is to provide a guide to determination of the continuing educational programming needs of professionals. Major attributes of the PNA model are the…

  12. Psychometric Analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    The Appreciative Advising Inventory is an instrument created for use in academic advising. The inventory helps the advisor get to know and understand the student, which in turn allows the advisor to better assist the student. This research provides a psychometric analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory to measure its validity and…

  13. What Is Embodiment? A Psychometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Matthew R.; Schuur, Friederike; Kammers, Marjolein P. M.; Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    What is it like to have a body? The present study takes a psychometric approach to this question. We collected structured introspective reports of the rubber hand illusion, to systematically investigate the structure of bodily self-consciousness. Participants observed a rubber hand that was stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their…

  14. Looking Back and Looking Ahead in Psychometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliksen, Harold

    A presentation of the 40-year history of psychometrics is given with comments about needed trends for the future. Computers have radically changed the time required for data processing. In testing, many promising developments, such as Kristof's reliability for vector variables, latent class and latent struction models, one-factor ration scale in…

  15. Psychometrics of the SDQ in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumert, Heather Marie

    2013-01-01

    With the recent influx of Latinos into the United States, it is essential to understand how their backgrounds and cultures will affect the way they view their children's emotional, social, and educational development. Researchers continue to evaluate the psychometrics of various screening instruments in order to ensure a reliable and valid…

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…

  17. Psychometric validation of the depression and family functioning scale.

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie; François, Clément; Danchenko, Natalya; Nelson, Lauren; Williams, Nicole; Yarr, Stuart; DiBenedetti, Dana; Lançon, Christrophe

    2016-04-01

    Objective A new patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure developed to assess the impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on partner and family interactions and quality of relationships, the Depression and Family Functioning Scale (DFFS), was analyzed to establish its reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Methods Data from a multi-center, prospective, 2-year observational study were analyzed to assess the psychometric properties of the DFFS in patients with MDD (nBaseline = 478; nMonth2 = 433). Measures administered to assess validity included the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12). Reliability (Cronbach's alphas and intra-class correlations), construct validity (factor analysis and correlations), discriminating ability (analyses of variance), and responsiveness (standardized effect size estimates) were evaluated. Results Principal components analyses indicated a single underlying dimension, confirmed by highly satisfactory Cronbach's alphas (αBaseline = 0.85, αMonth2 = 0.89). The DFFS demonstrated satisfactory test-re-test reliability in patients with the same SDS family life/home responsibilities ratings at baseline and month 2 (intraclass correlation = 0.75). Correlations with other measures showed convergent and divergent validity; e.g., the DFFS correlated better with SF-12 mental component scores (rBaseline = -0.35, rMonth2 = -0.49) than with SF-12 physical component scores (rBaseline = -0.05, rMonth2 = -0.31). Hypothesis tests were generally as predicted; many were statistically significant, substantiating DFFS discriminating ability. Standardized effect size estimates of responsiveness ranged from 0.44-0.84, demonstrating that the items were capable of detecting change. Conclusions The psychometric analyses support the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the DFFS and its usefulness for assessing the impact of depression on family

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for DSM-IV Among Four Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christina M.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Norton, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous studies have established the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV revealing excellent diagnostic specificity and sensitivity as well as good test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity (Newman et al., 2002). Recent analyses with other measures of anxiety symptoms have revealed differences across racial or national groups. Given that the GAD-Q-IV was tested primarily on Caucasian (78%) participants, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV across four racial groups: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian. A student sample of 585 undergraduate psychology students completed the GAD-Q-IV as well as other measures of anxiety symptoms. A clinical replication sample was obtained from 188 clinical participants who completed the GAD-Q-IV as part of a larger psychotherapy study. Results indicated excellent and very similar factor structures in the student sample, and similar psychometric properties across both samples across the racial groups. Implications for the use of the GAD-Q-IV across racial groups are discussed. PMID:20830629

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Instrument.

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Howard, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Translation of instruments needs to ensure equivalence between the source and the target language to establish the psychometric properties of the translated version. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) instrument. The 12-item English version of the SDSCA was translated into Arabic using back translation on a sample of 140 Lebanese participants with Type 2 diabetes. Construct validity was measured using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation. Multitrait scaling analysis was used to test for item convergent and discriminant validity based on item-scale correlations. Conceptual and content validity were examined by an expert panel in diabetes. Internal consistency reliability R was assessed using interitem correlations. The average interitem correlation for the four subscales ranged between--.05 for Diet and .66 for Glucose Testing. Factor analysis identified four factors which accounted for 60% of the variance. The preliminary results of Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities-Arabic Version (SDSCA-Ar) are comparable to the psychometric properties the original SDSCA. SDSCA-Ar is a valid measure of diabetes self-care in Lebanese patients with diabetes. PMID:27025000

  20. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Measurement Invariance and Psychometric Properties among Portuguese Youths.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Andershed, Henrik; Rijo, Daniel; Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) among a mixed-gender sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72), in a school context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor first-order structure. Cross-gender measurement invariance and cross-sample measurement invariance using a forensic sample of institutionalized males were also confirmed. The Portuguese version of the YPI demonstrated generally adequate psychometric properties of internal consistency, mean inter-item correlation, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity of statistically significant associations with conduct disorder symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex. In terms of known-groups validity, males scored higher than females, and males from the school sample scored lower than institutionalized males. The use of the YPI among the Portuguese male and female youth population is psychometrically justified, and it can be a useful measure to identify adolescents with high levels of psychopathic traits. PMID:27571095

  1. Psychometric and EEG changes after carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Pietro; Ortelli, Paola; Zanon, Antonio; Schiff, Sami; Montagnese, Sara; Avruscio, Giampietro; Del Piccolo, Franco; Mapelli, Daniela; Puato, Massimo; Rattazzi, Marcello; Amodio, Piero; Pauletto, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    The influence of carotid stenosis and its surgical treatment on brain function is still poorly defined. We therefore performed a study to assess psychometric and quantified EEG findings after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-nine non-demented patients (aged 72 ± 7 years) with severe carotid stenosis (≥ 70%) eligible for CEA were studied. Forty patients (group A) had unilateral stenosis, and 29 patients (group B) had bilateral stenosis. Before and 5 months after CEA all the patients were evaluated by the Trail Making Test A, the Symbol Digit Test, and spectral EEG analysis. At baseline, compared to group A, group B patients performed slowly the Trail Making Test A (Z: 1.45 ± 1.4 vs. 0.76 ± 1.3; p <  0.05), but not the Symbol Digit Test (Z: 0.83 ± 1.38 vs. 0.64 ± 1.26; p = 0.59). Altogether, the patients with at least one abnormal psychometric test were 29% (group A: 26%; group B: 33%, p = 0.56). The EEG did not differ significantly between patients of group A compared to group B. After CEA, psychometric tests improved (mean Z score from 0.73 ± 1.12 to 0.45 ± 1.15, p <  0.05). The improvement was similar in group A and B. The EEG mean dominant frequency improved only in group B patients and it was related to the improvement in psychometric tests (r = 0.43, p = 0.05). Low psychometric performance was detectable in about 1/ 3 of non-demented patients with severe carotid stenosis. CEA improved mental performance and, in patients with severe bilateral stenosis, accelerated the EEG frequency. PMID:25034456

  2. Design of one-dimensional power spectrum using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for discrimination of paper-based kraft tapes.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes. PMID:26461031

  3. Assessing personality traits by questionnaire: psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire and correlations with psychopathology and hostility

    PubMed Central

    Hyphantis, T; Antoniou, K; Floros, DG; Valma, V; Pappas, AI; Douzenis, A; Assimakopoulos, K; Iconomou, G; Kafetzopoulos, E; Garyfallos, G; Kuhlman, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) was developed in an attempt to define the basic factors of personality or temperament. We aimed to assess the factor structure and the psychometric properties of its Greek version and to explore its relation to psychopathological symptoms and hostility features. Methods: ZKPQ was translated into Greek using back-translation and was administered to 1,462 participants (475 healthy participants, 619 medical patients, 177 psychiatric patients and 191 opiate addicts). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed. Symptoms Distress Check-List (SCL-90R) and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ) were administered to test criterion validity. Results: Five factors were identified, largely corresponding to the original version’s respective factors. Retest reliabilities were acceptable (rli’s: 0.79-0.89) and internal consistency was adequate for Neuroticism-Anxiety (0.87), Impulsive Sensation Seeking (0.80), Aggression-Hostility (0.77) and Activity (0.72), and lower for Sociability (0.64). Most components were able to discriminate psychiatric patients and opiate addicts from healthy participants. Opiate addicts exhibited higher rates on Impulsive Sensation Seeking compared to healthy participants. Neuroticism-Anxiety (p<0.001) and Impulsive Sensation Seeking (p<0.001) were significantly associated with psychological distress and Aggression-Hostility was the most powerful correlate of Total Hostility (p<0.001), and Neuroticism-Anxiety was the stronger correlate of introverted hostility (p<0.001), further supporting the instrument’s concurrent validity. Conclusions: Present findings support the applicability of the Greek version of ZKPQ within the Greek population. Future studies could improve its psychometric properties by finding new items, especially for the Sociability scale. PMID:25031514

  4. [The Beck Anxiety Inventory. Psychometric properties of a French translation].

    PubMed

    Freeston, M H; Ladouceur, R; Thibodeau, N; Gagnon, F; Rhéaume, J

    1994-01-01

    The Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) is a 21-item checklist developed with large clinical samples to measure anxiety symptoms associated with DSM III-R (APA, 1987) anxiety disorders. Administration and scoring are rapid; the patient rates symptom intensity during the last seven days on a 0 to 3 scale. The BAI adequately covers the major cognitive, affective, and physiological symptoms of anxiety. Care was taken during scale construction to eliminate items that would be confounded with depression items. The authors demonstrate excellent reliability and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity with other measures of anxiety and depression as well as criterion-related validity with in patient samples (Beck et al., 1988). The properties of the BAI have been further studied by Beck and collaborators as well as by other groups of researchers. Since its appearance in 1988 the BAI has quickly been adopted by clinical researchers in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Five studies present psychometric data on a French translation of the BAI. The translation process involved alternative versions by three translators, a panel of experts, and pilot testing on a group of 20 volunteers. The first study with university students (N = 72) indicated good internal consistence (Cronbach's alpha = .85) and stability (r = .63) at four weeks. The second study (N = 91) demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity significant positive: correlations with measures of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, irrational beliefs, and depression; significant negative correlations with assertiveness and self-esteem, and non-significant correlations with two measures of social desirability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8174510

  5. Psychometric validation of the State Scale of Dissociation (SSD).

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christa; Mace, Chris J

    2002-03-01

    Although dissociative phenomena are often transient features of mental states, existing measures of dissociation are designed to measure enduring traits. A new present-state self-report measure, sensitive to changes in dissociative states, was therefore developed and psychometrically validated. Fifty-six items were formulated to measure state features, and sorted according to seven subscales: derealization, depersonalization, identity confusion, identity alteration, conversion, amnesia and hypermnesia. The State Scale of Dissociation (SSD) was administered with other psychiatric scales (DES, BDI, BAI, SCI-PANSS) to 130 participants with DSM-IV major depressive disorder schizophrenia, alcohol withdrawal, dissociative disorders and controls. In these sample populations, the SSD was demonstrated as a valid and reliable measure of changes in and the severity of dissociative states. Discriminant validity, content, concurrent, predictive, internal criterion-related, internal construct and convergent validities, and internal consistency and split-half reliability were confirmed statistically. Clinical observations of dissociative states, and their comorbidity with symptoms of depression and psychotic illness, were confirmed empirically. The SSD, an acceptable, valid and reliable scale measuring state features of dissociation at the time of completion, was obtained. This is a prerequisite for further investigation of correlations between changes in dissociative states and concurrent physiological parameters. PMID:12006198

  6. Turkish Version of the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Yuncu, Ozgur Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are interrelated with all layers of cognitions, and they may be part of the treatment once they are accessed, identified, labeled, and changed. From both a research and a clinical perspective, it is of utmost importance to disentangle cognitive distortions from similar constructs. Recently, the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest), a brief and comprehensive measure, was developed to assess both the frequency and the intensity of cognitive distortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CD-Quest in a psychiatric outpatient sample. Demographic and clinical data of the participants were analyzed by descriptive statistics. For group comparisons, Student's t-test was applied. An exploratory principal components factor analysis was performed, followed by an oblique rotation. To assess the internal consistency of the scale Cronbach's α was computed. The correlation coefficient was calculated for test-retest reliability over a 4-week period. For concurrent validity, bivariate Pearson correlation analyses were conducted with the measures of mood severity and negatively biased cognitions. The results revealed that the scale had excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, unidimensional factor structure, and evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity. PMID:26351580

  7. Auditory Consonant Trigrams: A Psychometric Update†.

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Rowland, Jared A; Miskey, Holly M

    2016-02-01

    The Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) test was developed to evaluate immediate memory in the absence of rehearsal. There are few psychometric studies of the measure and a lack of normative data using samples from the United States or Veterans. ACT data were examined for 184 participants who passed the Word Memory Test, denied a history of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and consented for research purposes only. Reliability and construct validity were examined and normative data developed using a healthy subsample. Cronbach's α for the ACT total score was 0.79. Regression analyses suggested that years of education, estimated premorbid IQ, psychomotor speed, working memory, and impulsivity had the strongest relationships with performance on the ACT. Performance was unrelated to posttraumatic stress disorder and remote mild TBI, but the presence of major depressive disorder was associated with lower total scores. These results demonstrate the ACT has adequate psychometric properties. PMID:26645315

  8. Fast adaptive estimation of multidimensional psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    DiMattina, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recently in vision science there has been great interest in understanding the perceptual representations of complex multidimensional stimuli. Therefore, it is becoming very important to develop methods for performing psychophysical experiments with multidimensional stimuli and efficiently estimating psychometric models that have multiple free parameters. In this methodological study, I analyze three efficient implementations of the popular Ψ method for adaptive data collection, two of which are novel approaches to psychophysical experiments. Although the standard implementation of the Ψ procedure is intractable in higher dimensions, I demonstrate that my implementations generalize well to complex psychometric models defined in multidimensional stimulus spaces and can be implemented very efficiently on standard laboratory computers. I show that my implementations may be of particular use for experiments studying how subjects combine multiple cues to estimate sensory quantities. I discuss strategies for speeding up experiments and suggest directions for future research in this rapidly growing area at the intersection of cognitive science, neuroscience, and machine learning. PMID:26200886

  9. A Psychometric Evaluation of an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Clinical Competency Framework

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Randell E.; Nemire, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the psychometric properties of the clinical competency framework known as the System of Universal Clinical Competency Evaluation in the Sunshine State (SUCCESS), including its internal consistency and content, construct, and criterion validity. Methods. Sub-competency items within each hypothesized competency pair were subjected to principal components factor analysis to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. Varimax rotation was conducted for each competency pair (eg, competency 1 vs competency 2, competency 1 vs competency 3, competency 2 vs competency 3). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach alpha. Results. Of the initial 78 pairings, 44 (56%) demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity. Five pairs of competencies were unidimensional. Of the 34 pairs where at least 1 competency was multidimensional, most (91%) were from competencies 7, 11, and 12, indicating modifications were warranted in those competencies. After reconfiguring the competencies, 76 (94%) of the 81 pairs resulted in 2 factors as required. A unidimensional factor emerged when all 13 of the competencies were entered into a factor analysis. The internal consistency of all of the competencies was satisfactory. Conclusion. Psychometric evaluation shows the SUCCESS framework demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for most competencies. However, it also provides guidance where improvements are needed as part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:25861100

  10. Psychometric Characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sady, Maegan D.; Vaughan, Christopher G.; Gioia, Gerard A.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric characteristics of the Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) were examined in both concussed (n = 633) and uninjured (n = 1,273) 5 to 18 year olds. Parent- and self-report forms were created with developmentally appropriate wording and content. Factor analyses identified physical, cognitive, emotional, and sleep factors; that did not load strongly or discriminate between groups were eliminated. Internal consistency was strong for the total scales (α = 0.8–0.9). Test–retest reliability for the self-report forms was moderate to strong (intraclass coeffecients, ICCs = 0.65–0.89). Parent and self-report concordance was moderate (r = .44–.65), underscoring the importance of both perspectives. Convergent validity with another symptom measure was good (r = .8). Classification analyses indicated greater discriminability from parent report, but caveats to this are presented. With strong psychometric characteristics, the four versions of the PCSI capture important postconcussion symptoms and can be utilized to track recovery from pediatric concussion and guide treatment recommendations. PMID:24739735

  11. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460895

  12. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Cross-Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals (CCCHP)

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs’ cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. Methods The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Results Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs’ cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension’s Cronbach’s α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. Conclusions The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs’ cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive

  13. Psychometric properties of a novel knowledge assessment tool of mechanical ventilation for emergency medicine residents in the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prior descriptions of the psychometric properties of validated knowledge assessment tools designed to determine Emergency medicine (EM) residents understanding of physiologic and clinical concepts related to mechanical ventilation are lacking. In this setting, we have performed this study to describe the psychometric and performance properties of a novel knowledge assessment tool that measures EM residents’ knowledge of topics in mechanical ventilation. Methods: Results from a multicenter, prospective, survey study involving 219 EM residents from 8 academic hospitals in northeastern United States were analyzed to quantify reliability, item difficulty, and item discrimination of each of the 9 questions included in the knowledge assessment tool for 3 weeks, beginning in January 2013. Results: The response rate for residents completing the knowledge assessment tool was 68.6% (214 out of 312 EM residents). Reliability was assessed by both Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.6293) and the Spearman-Brown coefficient (0.6437). Item difficulty ranged from 0.39 to 0.96, with a mean item difficulty of 0.75 for all 9 questions. Uncorrected item discrimination values ranged from 0.111 to 0.556. Corrected item-total correlations were determined by removing the question being assessed from analysis, resulting in a range of item discrimination from 0.139 to 0.498. Conclusion: Reliability, item difficulty and item discrimination were within satisfactory ranges in this study, demonstrating acceptable psychometric properties of this knowledge assessment tool. This assessment indicates that this knowledge assessment tool is sufficiently rigorous for use in future research studies or for assessment of EM residents for evaluative purposes. PMID:26924540

  14. A psychometric analysis of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) using item response theory.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Andrew; Petrides, K V

    2010-09-01

    Trait emotional intelligence refers to a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. In 2 studies, we sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Petrides, 2009) using item response theory (IRT). Study 1 (N= 1,119, 455 men) showed that most items had good discrimination and threshold parameters and high item information values. At the global level, the TEIQue-SF showed very good precision across most of the latent trait range. Study 2 (N= 866, 432 men) used similar IRT techniques in a new sample based on the latest version of the TEIQue-SF (version 1.50). Results replicated Study 1, with the instrument showing good psychometric properties at the item and global level. Overall, the 2 studies suggest the TEIQue-SF can be recommended when a rapid assessment of trait emotional intelligence is required. PMID:20706931

  15. Psychometric properties of WLEIS as a measure of emotional intelligence in the Portuguese and Spanish medical students.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vânia Sofia; Guerrero, Eloísa; Chambel, Maria José; González-Rico, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The psychometric properties of Wong and Law's (2002) Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) were analyzed. Participants were 954 medical students: 481 from the University of Extremadura (Spain) and 473 from the University of Lisbon (Portugal). Following Messicks' validation framework, we analyzed the scale's response process, internal structure and relationship with other variables (i.e., engagement). Descriptive statistics, scale reliability, item characteristics, and exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the distribution of the sixteen items across four factors. Convergent validity analyzed through the ρvc (η) index showed that all the factors were in the 50% criterion. The factors shared, on average, 23% of the variance showing adequate discriminant validity. Furthermore, the correlations among EI dimensions and engagement were all positive and significant. Overall, the WLEIS demonstrated good psychometric properties. Thus, this study ensures that WLEIS is a valid instrument in Portugal and Spain to evaluate EI in medical students. PMID:27376749

  16. Psychometric Evaluation and Discussions of English Language Learners' Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…

  17. Psychometric Intelligence and Adaptive Competence in Rural Phillippine Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, A. Timothy; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Psychometric intelligence and adaptive competence constructs were compared in five- to seven-year-old children in a rural Phillippine barrio. Individualized psychometric subtests of intelligence, indigenous with respect to content, and a form for obtaining adults' ratings of children's adaptive competencies, were developed. (Author/LMO)

  18. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Huberty, Jennifer; Pettee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychometric properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale (CPAS). Methods: Girls in third to fifth grades (n = 932) completed the CPAS before and after a physical activity intervention. Psychometric measures included internal consistency, factor analysis, and concurrent validity. Results: Three CPAS factors emerged:…

  20. Modified Test Administration Using Assistive Technology: Preliminary Psychometric Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschausky, Seth; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Asbell, Shana; Kaufman, Jacqueline; Ayyangar, Rita; Donders, Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of test presentation and response formats that were modified to be accessible with the use of assistive technology (AT). First, the stability of psychometric properties was examined in 60 children, ages 6 to 12, with no significant physical or communicative impairments. Population-specific…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Self-Report Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Hyuk; Min, Seongho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the reliability and validity of the self-report Korean version of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Kr) in the community sample. Methods The SDQ-Kr was administered to a large sample of school children and adolescents (n=2814) and youth attendees of a psychiatric clinic (n=385) aged 11-16 years. To examine temporal stability, the same questionnaire was administered to a subsample of 167 school youths five to six weeks after the initial assessment. To examine the reliability, we calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficients for internal consistency and Pearson's correlations for test-retest stability. In order to evaluate the factorial structure of the SDQ-Kr items, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with varimax rotation. Finally, discriminant validity was examined by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves employing the area under the curve (AUC) as an index of discriminant ability. Results Although the internal consistency of some subscales of the SDQ-Kr was somewhat less satisfactory (alpha coefficients; 0.28-0.54) than the English original, coefficients for the total difficulties scores approached sufficient levels (coefficients; 0.69). Other psychometric properties including discriminant validity (AUC for total difficulties and four subscales >0.7) were comparable to those obtained in other language studies. Conclusion The self-report SDQ-Kr exhibited a low level of reliability, indicating that some items need to be further evaluated and revised to improve the psychometric properties. We suggest that the total difficulties score could be used with more confidence for screening possible mental health problems in youths. PMID:26508960

  2. Auditory Discrimination of Frequency Ratios: The Octave Singularity

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Damien; Micheyl, Christophe; Semal, Catherine; Dauman, René; Demany, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity to frequency ratios is essential for the perceptual processing of complex sounds and the appreciation of music. This study assessed the effect of ratio simplicity on ratio discrimination for pure tones presented either simultaneously or sequentially. Each stimulus consisted of four 100-ms pure tones, equally spaced in terms of frequency ratio and presented at a low intensity to limit interactions in the auditory periphery. Listeners had to discriminate between a reference frequency ratio of 0.97 octave (about 1.96:1) and target frequency ratios, which were larger than the reference. In the simultaneous condition, the obtained psychometric functions were nonmonotonic: as the target frequency ratio increased from 0.98 octave to 1.04 octaves, discrimination performance initially increased, then decreased, and then increased again; performance was better when the target was exactly one octave (2:1) than when the target was slightly larger. In the sequential condition, by contrast, the psychometric functions were monotonic and there was no effect of frequency ratio simplicity. A control experiment verified that the nonmonotonicity observed in the simultaneous condition did not originate from peripheral interactions between the tones. Our results indicate that simultaneous octaves are recognized as “special” frequency intervals by a mechanism that is insensitive to the sign (positive or negative) of deviations from the octave, whereas this is apparently not the case for sequential octaves. PMID:23088507

  3. Discrimination in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarsky, Irving

    Intended as a guide on discrimination problems and issues for students and practitioners in the area of employment relations, this book interrelates historical, religious, economic, medical, and sociological factors surrounding racial, religious, national, sex, age, and physical and mental discrimination to explain discrimination in employment.…

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (OAV)

    PubMed Central

    Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2010-01-01

    Background The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC). It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327), ketamine (n = 162), and MDMA (n = 102) induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST), and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the “oceanic boundlessness” and “visionary restructuralization” factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups. Conclusions/Significance The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable

  5. Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, MUR; Pingali, Usharani; Shobha, JC

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. Materials and Methods: The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of zolpidem (5 mg) and caffeine (500 mg) versus placebo were studied in 24 healthy participants in a randomized, double-blind three-way crossover design. Results: Psychometric tests were performed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 h after administration of study medication. The effects of zolpidem and caffeine on the psychomotor performance were most pronounced 1 h after administration. At this time, a significant impairment of performance in the simple reaction test (SRT), choice discrimination test (CDT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), digit vigilance test (DVT), and card sorting test (CST) was observed with zolpidem. In contrast, caffeine showed a significant improvement in performance in CDT and DVT only. Conclusion: The results suggest that the tests of the computerized system are more sensitive and reliable then the pencil and paper tests in detecting the effects of central acting agents and are suitable for use in clinical areas to conduct studies with patients. PMID:24250201

  6. Psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Relationship Inventory with a homeless sample.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, K L; Fournier, L

    1997-06-01

    This paper examined the psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Relationship Inventory with a sample of homeless men who were first-time shelter users. The measure, based on social exchange theory and equity theory, has two subscales, one for support and the other for conflict. As yet, few measurements have been developed to assess conflict from within social networks. As part of a larger longitudinal study a sample of 166 first-time shelter users was administered the inventory. A student sample also filled out the inventory for comparison purposes. Internal consistency for both subscales was good, .90 for Support and .83 for Conflict. Weak interitem correlations were prevalent among many items in the Conflict subscale. A nearly zero correlation was found between scores on the Support and Conflict subscales, suggesting independence. An exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation confirmed a dual factor structure. Analyses of variance and Scheffé contrast tests detected no statistically significant differences between age groups on either the Support or the Conflict subscales. A multiple regression analysis indicated that, when controlling for age, scores on the Support scale discriminated the homeless and student samples, while scores on the Conflict subscale do not. The Support subscale indicates excellent psychometric qualities, while the Conflict subscale should be refined. PMID:9198389

  7. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the internalized homophobia scale.

    PubMed

    Gençöz, Tülin; Yüksel, Murat

    2006-10-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Internalized Homophobia Scale (IHS; Herek, Cogan, Gillis, & Glunt, 1997) in gay men living in Turkey. Participants were 132 men in romantic, intimate, or sexual relationships with men, and they identified themselves as homosexual (n=112) or bisexual (n=20). Alpha and split-half reliability coefficients revealed good internal consistency of the scale. Consistent with the original scale, the construct validity revealed a single factor for the scale. Regarding convergent validity, the IHS had significant correlations with psychological problems, particularly with symptoms of depression and anxiety; the scale also had a significant positive correlation with negative affect and a negative correlation with self-esteem. Regarding discriminant validity, the IHS had very low correlations with positive affect and hostility attitudes. The association between internalized homophobia and psychological problems remained significant even after controlling for the variance explained by self-esteem, negative affect, and positive affect. Hence, the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of IHS appear quite promising. PMID:17031586

  8. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Gambling Severity Index-Chinese version (PGSI-C).

    PubMed

    Loo, Jasmine M Y; Oei, Tian P S; Raylu, Namrata

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese 9-item Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) derived from the 31-item Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) originally developed by Ferris and Wynne (2001). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n = 386; Group A data) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 387; Group B data) on the Chinese student and community data (Mean age = 25.36 years) showed that a unifactorial model fitted the data with good reliability score (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77). The concurrent validity of the PGSI-C was good in terms of the Chinese data matching the expected correlation between PGSI-C and other variables or scales such as SOGS, gambling frequency, gambling urge, gambling cognitions, depression, anxiety, and stress. The scale also reported good discriminant and predictive validity. In sum, the PGSI-C has good psychometric properties and can be used among Chinese communities to identify at-risk problem gamblers. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:20924655

  9. Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire: Psychometric analysis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeremy P.; Carson, Cody S.; Shrestha, Srijana; Kunik, Mark E.; Armento, Maria E.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Amspoker, Amber B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assist researchers and clinicians considering using the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) with older-adult samples, the current study analyzed the psychometrics of SCSRFQ scores in two older-adult samples. Method Adults age 55 or older who had formerly participated in studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety and/or depression were recruited to complete questionnaires. In Study 1 (N = 66), the authors assessed the relations between the SCSRFQ and other measures of religiousness/spirituality, mental health, and demographic variables, using bivariate correlations and nonparametric tests. In Study 2 (N = 223), the authors also conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the SCSRFQ, as well as an Item Response Theory analysis. Results The SCSRFQ was moderately to highly positively correlated with all measures of religiousness/spirituality. Relations with mental health were weak and differed across samples. Ethnic minorities scored higher than White participants on the SCSRFQ, but only in Study 2. Factor analyses showed that a single-factor model fit the SCSRFQ best. According to Item Response Theory analysis, SCSRFQ items discriminated well between participants with low-to-moderate levels of the construct but provided little information at higher levels. Conclusion Although the SCSRFQ scores had adequate psychometric characteristics, the measure’s usefulness may be limited in samples of older adults. PMID:24892461

  10. Psychometric properties of a new measure to assess autism spectrum disorder in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Marle, Peter D; Rhoades, Camille S; Monaghan, Patricia; Segal, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary psychometric properties of a new 45-item scale, the Coolidge Autistic Symptoms Survey (CASS), designed to differentiate between children within the autism spectrum (including Asperger's Disorder) and purportedly normal children, in anticipation of DSM-5 changes, in which a single diagnostic category is proposed: autism spectrum disorder. The final sample (N = 72) consisted of 19 children diagnosed with Asperger's Disorder, 19 children who were considered loners by their parents (without an autism diagnosis), and 34 purportedly normal children. The CASS and the 200-item, DSM-IV-TR aligned, Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory were completed by a parent. The CASS had excellent internal scale reliability (α= .97) and test-retest (r = .91) reliability. ANOVA revealed the CASS was able to discriminate significantly among the 3 groups of children. Further research with the CASS appears warranted. PMID:23330630

  11. Psychometric Properties of Three Instruments to Measure Fatigue With Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Anne M.; Eckhardt, Ann L.; Fennessy, Michelle M.; Jones, Jessica; Kruse, Donna; VanderZwan, Kathryn J.; Ryan, Catherine J.; Zerwic, Julie J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of three questionnaires to measure fatigue with myocardial infarction. The Fatigue Symptom Inventory Interference Scale, Profile of Moods States Fatigue subscale (POMS-F), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) Vitality Scale were completed during hospitalization (n = 116) and 30 days after hospital admission (n = 49). Moderate to strong correlations were found among each of these fatigue scales and between each fatigue scale and measures of other variables to include vigor, depressed mood, anxiety, and physical functioning. POMS-F scores decreased significantly at Time 2, but this decline in fatigue was not validated on the other fatigue scales. Patients’ Time 1 scores reflected significantly more fatigue compared to published scores for healthy adults. The ability to discriminate between groups suggests that the instruments may be useful for identifying patients with cardiovascular risk factors who report clinically significant fatigue. PMID:20685901

  12. Psychometric Validation of the Self-Efficacy for Restricting Dietary Salt in Hemodialysis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Cutaia, Maya N.; Ren, Dianxu; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Snetselaar, Linda; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The development and progression of left ventricular hypertrophy is a consequence of multiple comorbid conditions associated with end-stage renal disease and large variations in interdialytic weight gains. The literature suggests that dietary sodium restriction alone significantly reduces interdialytic weight gains. A total of 124 hemodialysis participants in an ongoing randomized control trial participated in the validation in which psychometric properties of a self-efficacy survey were a secondary analysis. We evaluated the internal consistency, construct validity, and convergent validity of the instrument. The overall Cronbach α was 0.93. Three factors extracted explain 67.8% of the variance of the white and African American participants. The Self-Efficacy Survey has adequate internal consistency and construct and convergent validity. Future research is needed to evaluate the stability and discriminant validity of the instrument. PMID:26213444

  13. [Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction].

    PubMed

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil Llario, Ma Dolores; Gómez Martínez, Sandra; Gil Juliá, Beatriz

    2010-11-01

    Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing cyber-sex addiction. Cyber-sex addiction is a «new pathology» whose prevalence has grown rapidly in recent years. Therefore, it is important to have validated assessment instruments. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Internet Sex Screening Test (ISST) for its use in a Spanish population. The instrument was administered to 1239 Spanish college students. The results yielded five components that account for 47.5% of the variance. Internal consistency was .88 and temporal stability was .84. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent and discriminant validity and was related to other behaviors such as the use of pornography, internet addiction, number of hours online and sexual frequency. Therefore, this tool is proposed as an appropriate measure to assess cyber-sex addiction. PMID:21044551

  14. Psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the political skill inventory.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo

    2012-02-01

    Ferris and colleagues defined political skill in organizations as "the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives." In this study, the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Political Skill Inventory were investigated, supporting construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities. The results suggested that the Chinese translation retained a four-factor structure. Political skill was positively correlated with self-monitoring, conscientiousness, political savvy, emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and proactive personality, and was negatively correlated with trait anxiety and external locus of control. After controlling for age, sex, and job tenure, political skill was predictive of task performance, work contribution, and interpersonal help. PMID:22489389

  15. Penn State Worry Questionnaire: structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version*

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jie; Wang, Chun; Li, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a measure of worry phenomena and has been demonstrated valid in cross-cultural populations. The present study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of PSWQ (Ch-PSWQ) in a Chinese college sample (n=1243). Exploratory factor analysis of the Ch-PSWQ revealed a two-factor solution (engagement of worry and absence of worry). Confirmatory factor analysis and model comparison supported that the model of one factor with method effect provided the best fit to the data. The Ch-PSWQ and its factors evidenced good internal consistency and both convergent and discriminate validity. The present study supports the opinion that the second factor of PSWQ not only contains the component of evaluating pathological worry, but also might represent other traits. PMID:19283876

  16. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves. PMID:26971117

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Functional Capacity Card Sort for Caregivers of People With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Herge, E Adel; Copolillo, Albert E; Leiby, Benjamin E; Gitlin, Laura N

    2016-07-01

    Caregiver appraisal influences care decisions and may place the person with dementia at risk. The Functional Capacity Card Sort (FCCS) was developed to determine caregiver appraisal. The objective of this study was to examine FCCS psychometric properties and utility, using data from a cross-sectional study (N = 86). The FCCS had moderately positive association (convergent validity) with a related activities of daily living (ADL) index (r = .43, p < .0001), weak negative association (discriminant validity) with an unrelated neuropsychiatric symptom index (r = -.14, p = .16), and strong caregiver agreement (interrater reliability) in ranking cards from high to low function, Kendall's W(5, 72) = 0.83, p = .0001. When compared with occupational therapy assessment, the FCCS distinguished caregiver concordant estimation (17%), underestimation (22%), and overestimation (61%) of function. The FCCS is a valid and reliable tool used in conjunction with formal assessment to identify caregiver over- or underestimation, which has implications for patient safety and caregiver education. PMID:27618848

  18. Factor structure and psychometric properties of a brief measure of dysfunctional individuation.

    PubMed

    Stey, Paul C; Hill, Patrick L; Lapsley, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Individuation is widely considered a fundamental developmental task of adolescence. It is a process through which the adolescent seeks to define new boundaries between his or her self and others, and the failure to do so has been shown to have serious consequences. Given its importance for understanding developmental transitions, it is surprising that there are few assessments of dysfunctional individuation. Over three studies, we provide evidence of a promising new measure of this important construct: the 10-item Dysfunctional Individuation Scale (DIS). Using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, we demonstrate that the DIS possesses a strong one-factor structure and excellent psychometric properties. Furthermore, we document the convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity of the DIS through its relationships with indices of individuation, adjustment, and clinically relevant symptoms. Finally, we examine the incremental validity of the DIS over neuroticism as a predictor of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). PMID:24379446

  19. [Psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Schneider, Nora; Bürger, Arne; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holzhausen, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The present study examines the psychometric properties of the German version of the Eating Disorder Inventory EDI-2 (1997) in 371 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity were examined and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Internal consistency was high for the group of patients and satisfactory for both control groups. Associations with other clinical instruments point in the expected direction and support the external validity of the EDI-2. The EDI-2 differentiated very well between the group of eating disorder patients (n=71) and the female (n=150) and male control groups (n=150). A discriminant analysis demonstrated that 86.0% of the cases were correctly classified, and a confirmatory factor analysis largely supported the six-factor structure generated by the German version of the EDI-2 (Thiel et al., 1997). PMID:20464663

  20. Discriminative imaging using a LWIR polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Barry; Carrie, Iain; Craig, Robert; Parsons, John

    2008-10-01

    The phenomenon of polarisation causes smooth man-made objects, such as metal and glass, to have a different polarisation signature to that of natural vegetation. Therefore, polarisation has the potential to discriminate man-made objects from background clutter. Polarimetric information, combined with conventional thermal imaging, provides a powerful means of reducing false alarms in applications such as situational awareness, detection of low signature targets and disturbed earth. The paper presents results of discriminative imaging algorithms that were designed to augment polarimetric signatures. Recent results from a LWIR polarimetric imager are presented and these show the merit of discriminative imaging techniques when applied to polarimetric thermal imagers.

  1. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  2. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  3. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  4. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  5. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 705.4 Section 705.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments which have restricted the availability...

  6. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY..., and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation and changes in compensation; (4)...

  7. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employment discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY..., and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation and changes in compensation; (4)...

  8. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employment discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY..., and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation and changes in compensation; (4)...

  9. Legal and Psychometric Criteria for Evaluating Teacher Certification Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Green, Preston C., III

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes conceptualizations of sound teacher certification practices espoused by the courts and psychometricians, compares these conceptualizations, and provides suggestions for teacher certification testing programs that are legally and psychometrically defensible. (SLD)

  10. Psychometric Intelligence and Visual Focused Attention: Relationships in Nonsearch Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Manuel J.; Alvarez, Antonio A.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between general intelligence and the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli appearing in the same visual field as an attended target was studied for 167 college students. Results indicate that psychometric intelligence does not tap visual focused attention. (SLD)

  11. 18 CFR 1313.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1313.130 Section 1313.130 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 1313.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1313.130 Section 1313.130 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a)...

  13. 18 CFR 1313.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 1313.149 Section 1313.149 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.149 Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. Except...

  14. 18 CFR 1313.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1313.130 Section 1313.130 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a)...

  15. The psychometric refinement of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corkins, James

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) and then recommend revisions. The MCI was administered to a sample of 303 undergraduate engineering students enrolled in a materials engineering course taught by an instructor unrelated to this study. The MCI demonstrated adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha was .73) and strong discriminatory power (Ferguson's delta was 0.96). A pretest MCI was given only two days into the course and was able to predict the final course grade (r = .30, p < .001). Convergent validity was also established by significantly correlating a post-test version of the MCI with the final course grade (r = .50, p < .001). Nineteen of the thirty items on the MCI met the criterion for index of item congruency, demonstrating somewhat mixed reviews by content experts. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the initial MCI structure failed to support a six-factor model. A revision was made to the structure of the MCI, whereby an exploratory and subsequent confirmatory factor analysis yielded a refined six-factor structure that did provide a strong fit by the empirical data [chi-squared (194) = 196.03, p = .426; and root mean square error approximation (RMSEA) was .007; and comparative fit index (CFI) was .996]. The Cronbach's alpha of the refined-MCI was 0.75, suggesting 'good' reliability. The six factors could only be interpreted by an integration of cognitive processes with content. Those six factors were labeled: (1) compare and contrast ductile and brittle material, (2) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from stretching, (3) understand and analyze the structure and properties of glass, (4) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from bending, (5) understand and analyze the structure and properties of metals, and (6) synthesize and apply graphs and proportions with relation to various materials engineering concepts. Results related to

  16. Assessing metacognitive skills in waking and sleep: a psychometric analysis of the Metacognitive, Affective, Cognitive Experience (MACE) questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Sullivan, Kieran T

    2012-03-01

    The Metacognitive, Affective, Cognitive Experience (MACE) questionnaire was designed to assess metacognition across sleep and waking (Kahan & LaBerge, 1996). The present research evaluates the psychometric properties of the MACE. Data from two recent studies (N=185) were used to assess the inter-item consistency, test-retest reliability, and factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of the MACE. Results show that the MACE is a reliable measure with good construct validity. Exploratory factor analyses revealed one self-regulation and two monitoring factors. One monitoring factor emphasized monitoring internal conditions; the other emphasized monitoring external conditions. This factor structure is consistent with the Metacognitive Model (Nelson & Narens, 1990). Tests of convergent and discriminant validity suggest that the MACE is assessing metacognition and is appropriately related to similar constructs such as mindfulness and self-consciousness. The implication of these findings as well as suggestions for research and clinical applications of the MACE are discussed. PMID:22197150

  17. The time course of pattern discrimination in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Harauzov, A K; Shelepin, Y E; Noskov, Y A; Vasilev, P P; Foreman, N P

    2016-08-01

    In electrophysiological experiments on visual pattern discrimination, decision difficulty was manipulated either via the physical characteristics of the test stimuli, or by changing the instruction given to the observer. Visual stimuli were rectangular matrices each composed of 100 Gabor patches having different orientations. Matrices differed in the number of Gabor patches with vertical, or horizontal, orientation. The observers' task was either to discriminate the dominant orientation or to detect collinear elements in the matrix. Relating task difficulty to performance, in the first experimental paradigm (detection of orientation) we obtained the conventional S-like psychometric function but in the second (detection of collinearity) the psychometric function showed a complicated U-curve. Matching between electrophysiological and psychophysical data and image statistical functions allowed us to establish the relative timing of the cortical processes underlying perception and decision making in relation to textural features. In the first 170ms after stimulus onset coding of the low-level properties of the image takes place. In the time interval 170-400ms, ERP amplitude correlated only with complex image properties, but not with task difficulty. The first effects arising from decision difficulty were observable at 400ms after stimulus onset, and therefore this is probably the earliest electrophysiological signature of the decision making processes, in the given experimental paradigm. PMID:27291935

  18. Factorial, Convergent, and Discriminant Validity of TIMSS Math and Science Motivation Measures: A Comparison of Arab and Anglo-Saxon Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Leung, Kim Chau; Xu, Man K.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Parker, Philip

    2013-01-01

    For the international Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS2007) math and science motivation scales (self-concept, positive affect, and value), we evaluated the psychometric properties (factor structure, method effects, gender differences, and convergent and discriminant validity) in 4 Arab-speaking countries (Saudi Arabia,…

  19. Psychometric properties of an insomnia-specific measure of worry: the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Frojmark, Markus; Harvey, Allison G; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Norell-Clarke, Annika; Linton, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire (APSQ), with a focus on factorial validity and internal consistency as well as discriminative, convergent, and association with sleep parameters and daytime impairment. Among a randomly selected sample from the general population (N = 5,000), 2,333 participants completed a survey on nighttime symptoms, daytime symptoms, health outcomes, and psychological processes. The study sample consisted of 1800 participants who did not fulfill criteria for another sleep disorder than insomnia. A two-factor solution, accounting for 70.7% of the variance, was extracted from the 10 APSQ items. One six-item factor determined worries about the consequences of poor sleep (α = .91); the second factor, with four items, assessed worries about the uncontrollability of sleep (α = .86). The two factors were significantly intercorrelated (ρ = .65) and significantly associated with the total APSQ (ρs = .97 and .76, respectively). The APSQ and the two subscales showed discriminant validity between three sleep status groups (normal sleep, poor sleep, and insomnia disorder; R(2) = .33-.41). The APSQ and the subscales demonstrated convergent validity with measures on cognitive arousal, sleep-related beliefs, anxiety, and depression. They also were significantly correlated with sleep parameters and daytime impairment. The findings suggest that the APSQ is a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing worry in insomnia. PMID:21337216

  20. How possible is the development of an operational psychometric method to assess the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s allele? Equivocal preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective The s allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene has been found to be associated with neuroticism-related traits, affective temperaments and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. The aim of the current study was to develop a psychometric tool that could at least partially substitute for laboratory testing and could predict the presence of the s allele. Methods The study included 138 women of Caucasian origin, mean 32.20 ± 1.02 years old. All subjects completed the Hungarian standardised version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) instrument and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR using PCR. The statistical analysis included the calculation of the Index of Discrimination (D), Discriminant Function Analysis, creation of scales on the basis of the above and then item analysis and calculation of sensitivity and specificity. Results Four indices were eventually developed, but their psychometric properties were relatively poor and their joint application did not improve the outcome. Conclusions We could not create a scale that predicts the 5-HTTLPR genotype with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, therefore we could not substitute a psychometric scale for laboratory genetic testing in predicting genotype, and also possibly affective disorder characterisation and treatment. PMID:20459664

  1. The CDC AIDS Survey: A Psychometric Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin

    The latent structure, reliability, and item discrimination of 33 items on a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) instrument representing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were assessed. The study sample included 311 adolescents ranging from ages 12 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics of the…

  2. Psychometric Properties of a Digital Citizenship Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Zubairi, Ainol Madziah; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul; Trayek, Fuad A. A.; Ibrahim, Mohd Burhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold, i.e. to examine the extent to which students' self-reported use of digital technology constituted meaningful and interpretable dimensions of the digital citizenship construct, and to test the adequacy of the construct in terms of its reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and measurement…

  3. Justice and Reverse Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alan H.

    Defining reverse discrimination as hiring or admissions decisions based on normally irrelevant criteria, this book develops principles of rights, compensation, and equal opportunity applicable to the reverse discrimination issue. The introduction defines the issue and discusses deductive and inductive methodology as applied to reverse…

  4. Reverse Discrimination: Recent Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhilber, August W.

    This paper discusses reverse discrimination cases with particular emphasis on Bakke v. Regents of University of California and those cases which preceded it. A brief history is given of court cases used by opponents and proponents in the discussion of reverse discrimination. Legal theory and a discussion of court cases that preceded Bakke follow.…

  5. Qubit state discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Deconinck, Matthieu E.

    2010-06-15

    We show how one can solve the problem of discriminating between qubit states. We use the quantum state discrimination duality theorem and the Bloch sphere representation of qubits, which allows for an easy geometric and analytical representation of the optimal guessing strategies.

  6. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  7. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  8. [Negative symptoms: clinical and psychometric aspects].

    PubMed

    Adida, M; Azorin, J-M; Belzeaux, R; Fakra, E

    2015-12-01

    Recent investigations performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis have suggested that negative symptoms are multidimensional, including evidence for at least two distinct negative symptom subdomains: diminished expression and amotivation. Guidance for selection of instruments for measurement of negative symptoms is rapidly evolving. As there are continuing advances in the description of negative symptoms, new instruments are under development, and new data on the performance of instruments emerge from clinical trials. The Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) are considered to be reliable and valid measures for negative symptom trials but differ with respect to their domain coverage, use of informants, integration of global scores, administration time and comprehensiveness of their structured interviews. In response to the 2005 NIMH - MATRICS consensus statement, work groups are field testing and refining two new measures, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Both address the five currently recognized domains of negative symptoms, differentiate appetitive from consummatory aspects of anhedonia and address desire for social relationships. Thus far, both have exhibited promising psychometric properties. PMID:26776385

  9. The Psychometric Structure of Items Assessing Autogynephilia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kevin J; Rosenthal, A M; Bailey, J Michael

    2015-07-01

    Autogynephilia, or paraphilic sexual arousal in a man to the thought or image of himself as a woman, manifests in a variety of different behaviors and fantasies. We examined the psychometric structure of 22 items assessing five known types of autogynephilia by subjecting them to exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 149 autogynephilic men. Results of oblique factor analyses supported the ability to distinguish five group factors with suitable items. Results of hierarchical factor analyses suggest that the five group factors were strongly underlain by a general factor of autogynephilia. Because the general factor accounted for a much greater amount of the total variance of the 22 items than did the group factors, the types of autogynephilia that a man has seem less important than the degree to which he has autogynephilia. However, the five types of autogynephilia remain conceptually useful because meaningful distinctions were found among them, including differential rates of endorsement and differential ability to predict other relevant variables like gender dysphoria. Factor-derived scales and subscales demonstrated good internal consistency reliabilities, and validity, with large differences found between autogynephilic men and heterosexual male controls. Future research should attempt to replicate our findings, which were mostly exploratory. PMID:25277693

  10. Neurological soft signs in psychometrically identified schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Kaczorowski, Jessica A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2009-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often exhibit structural brain abnormalities, as well as neurological soft signs (NSS), consistent with its conceptualization as a neurodevelopmental disorder. NSS are mild, presumably nonlocalizing, neurological impairments that are inferred from performance deficits in domains such as sensory integration, motor coordination, and motor sequencing. The vulnerability for schizophrenia is presumed to be expressed across a broad continuum of impairment referred to as schizotypy. It is hypothesized that nondisordered people along the schizotypy continuum should exhibit elevated rates of NSS. The present study examined the relation of psychometrically identified positive and negative schizotypy with NSS using the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a nonclinically ascertained sample of young adults (n=177). As hypothesized, negative, but not positive, schizotypy was related to increased NSS in tasks that assessed fine and gross motor coordination, motor sequencing, eye movement abnormalities, and memory recall. However, positive schizotypy was associated with increased NSS in tasks related to sensory integration dysfunction. In general, the positivexnegative schizotypy interaction term was unrelated to individual NSS tasks. The findings support: a) the theory that the vulnerability for schizophrenia is expressed across a broad continuum of subclinical and clinical impairment referred to as schizotypy; b) the multidimensional structure of schizotypy; and c) the notion that schizotypy is an appropriate construct for understanding the etiology and development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. PMID:19651490

  11. Core dimensions of recovery: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah E; Ellis, Pete M; Siegert, Richard J; Walkey, Frank H

    2014-07-01

    Core recovery dimensions lie between the large general factor of recovery and its underlying components. Identifying these could enhance recovery frameworks, practice and research. In contrast to existing conceptually based taxonomies, we sought to empirically identify the core dimensions of recovery through further psychometric analysis of a robust eleven factor (sub-scale) consumer recovery outcome measure, My Voice, My Life. We subjected the sub-scale scores of 504 consumers to further principal components analyses, beginning with a single unrotated factor and progressing through two to nine factors with varimax rotation. We found the five-factor solution to provide an orderly intermediate configuration with the eleven recovery factors having either aligned and/or disengaged through the process to result in the following core dimensions: (1) Belonging and relating (encompassing the individual factors of spirituality, culture, and relationships); (2) Being and doing (encompassing the individual factors of physical health, day-to-day life, and quality of life); (3) Thinking and feeling (encompassing the individual factors of recovery, mental health, and hope and empowerment); (4) Resources (which maintained its independence); and (5) Satisfaction with Services (which also maintained its independence). We compare this empirical configuration with conceptually based taxonomies. PMID:23588506

  12. Quadratic negative evidence discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.N.; Redgate, T.; Anderson, K.K.; Rohay, A.C.; Ryan, F.M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper develops regional discrimination methods which use information inherent in phase magnitudes that are unmeasurable due to small amplitudes and/or high noise levels. The methods are enhancements to teleseismic techniques proposed by, and are extended to regional discrimination. Events observed at teleseismic distances are effectively identified with the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant because relative to the pressure wave energy (m{sub b}) of an event, an earthquake generates more shear wave energy (M{sub s}) than does an explosion. For some teleseismic events, the M{sub s} magnitude is difficult to measure and is known only to be below a threshold . With M{sub s} unmeasurable, the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant cannot be formed. However, if the M{sub s} is sufficiently small relative to a measured m{sub b}, then the event is still likely to be an explosion. The methods presented in this report are developed for a single seismic station, and make use of empirical evidence in the regional L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant. The L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant is analogous to the teleseismic M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant.

  13. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  14. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  15. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  16. Distinct serum proteome profiles associated with collagen-induced arthritis and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation in CD38⁻/⁻ mice: The discriminative power of protein species or proteoforms.

    PubMed

    Rosal-Vela, Antonio; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Postigo, Jorge; Iglesias, Marcos; Longobardo, Victoria; Lario, Antonio; Merino, Jesús; Merino, Ramón; Zubiaur, Mercedes; Sancho, Jaime

    2015-10-01

    Collagen-type-II-induced arthritis (CIA) is an autoimmune disease, which involves a complex host systemic response including inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. CIA is milder in CD38(-/-) than in wild-type (WT) mice. ProteoMiner-equalized serum samples were subjected to 2D-DiGE and MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses to identify proteins that changed in their relative abundances in CD38(-/-) versus WT mice either with arthritis (CIA(+) ), with no arthritis (CIA(-) ), or with inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-treated mice). Multivariate analyses revealed that a multiprotein signature (n = 28) was able to discriminate CIA(+) from CIA(-) mice, and WT from CD38(-/-) mice within each condition. Likewise, a distinct multiprotein signature (n = 16) was identified which differentiated CIA(+) CD38(-/-) mice from CIA(+) WT mice, and lastly, a third multiprotein signature (n = 18) indicated that CD38(-/-) and WT mice could be segregated in response to CFA treatment. Further analyses showed that the discriminative power to distinguish these groups was reached at protein species level and not at the protein level. Hence, the need to identify and quantify proteins at protein species level to better correlate proteome changes with disease processes. It is crucial for plasma proteomics at the low-abundance protein species level to apply the ProteoMiner enrichment. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001788, PXD001799 and PXD002071 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001788, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001799 and http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002071). PMID:26175002

  17. Inequality, discrimination, and the power of the status quo: Direct evidence for a motivation to see the way things are as the way they should be.

    PubMed

    Kay, Aaron C; Gaucher, Danielle; Peach, Jennifer M; Laurin, Kristin; Friesen, Justin; Zanna, Mark P; Spencer, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    How powerful is the status quo in determining people's social ideals? The authors propose (a) that people engage in injunctification, that is, a motivated tendency to construe the current status quo as the most desirable and reasonable state of affairs (i.e., as the most representative of how things should be); (b) that this tendency is driven, at least in part, by people's desire to justify their sociopolitical systems; and (c) that injunctification has profound implications for the maintenance of inequality and societal change. Four studies, across a variety of domains, provided supportive evidence. When the motivation to justify the sociopolitical system was experimentally heightened, participants injunctified extant (a) political power (Study 1), (b) public funding policies (Study 2), and (c) unequal gender demographics in the political and business spheres (Studies 3 and 4, respectively). It was also demonstrated that this motivated phenomenon increased derogation of those who act counter to the status quo (Study 4). Theoretical implications for system justification theory, stereotype formation, affirmative action, and the maintenance of inequality are discussed. PMID:19685999

  18. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  19. Harassment, Bias, and Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welliver, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a new principle which has been added to the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics regarding discrimination, harassment, and bias. An example is presented which illustrates a violation of a professional colleague's rights. (LRW)

  20. Reverse age discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labini, Francesco Sylos; Zapperi, Stefano

    2007-09-01

    Brilliant scientists of all ages should be able to thrive at universities. Mandatory retirement is, therefore, a form of age discrimination, but its removal or postponement can come at a cost to younger faculty members, as observed in Italy.

  1. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  2. Multiplicities of dihedral discriminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Daniel C.

    1992-04-01

    Given the discriminant {d_k} of a quadratic field k, the number of cyclic relative extensions N\\vert k of fixed odd prime degree p with dihedral absolute Galois group of order 2p, which share a common conductor f, is called the multiplicity of the dihedral discriminant {d_N} = {f^{2(p - 1)}}d_k^p . In this paper, general formulas for multiplicities of dihedral discriminants are derived by analyzing the p-rank of the ring class group mod f of k. For the special case p = 3,{d_k} = - 3 , an elementary proof is given additionally. The theory is illustrated by a discussion of all known discriminants of multiplicity ≥ 5 of totally real and complex cubic fields.

  3. Psychometric properties of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas J; MacGillivray, Steve A; Reid, Ian C; Cameron, Isobel M

    2015-01-01

    Effective management of depression is predicated upon reliable assessment. The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) is a depression severity scale with both self-rated (QIDS-SR16) and clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) versions. Although widely used in research, the psychometric properties of the QIDS16 have not been systematically reviewed. We performed a systematic review of studies of the psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change) of the QIDS-SR16 or QIDS-C16. Six databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CinAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Findings were summarised, bias assessed and correlations with reference standards were pooled. 37 studies (17,118 participants) were included in the review. Both versions of the QIDS16 were unidimensional. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.69 to 0.89 for the QIDS-SR16 and 0.65 to 0.87 for the QIDS-C16. The QIDS-SR16 correlated moderately to highly with several depression severity scales. Seven studies were pooled where QIDS-SR16 was correlated with the HRSD-17 (r = 0.76, CI 0.69, 0.81) in patients diagnosed with depression. Four studies examined convergent validity with the QIDS-C16. Four studies examined discriminant validity, for the QIDS-SR16 alone. Eighteen studies had at least one author who was a co-author of the original QIDS16 study. Most studies were conducted in the USA (n = 26). The QIDS-SR16 and the QIDS-C16 are unidimensional rating scales with acceptable internal consistency. To justify the use of the QIDS16 scale in clinical practice, more research is needed on convergent and discriminant validity, and in populations outside the USA. PMID:25300442

  4. Effects of stimulus order on discrimination processes in comparative and equality judgements: data and models.

    PubMed

    Dyjas, Oliver; Ulrich, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    In typical discrimination experiments, participants are presented with a constant standard and a variable comparison stimulus and their task is to judge which of these two stimuli is larger (comparative judgement). In these experiments, discrimination sensitivity depends on the temporal order of these stimuli (Type B effect) and is usually higher when the standard precedes rather than follows the comparison. Here, we outline how two models of stimulus discrimination can account for the Type B effect, namely the weighted difference model (or basic Sensation Weighting model) and the Internal Reference Model. For both models, the predicted psychometric functions for comparative judgements as well as for equality judgements, in which participants indicate whether they perceived the two stimuli to be equal or not equal, are derived and it is shown that the models also predict a Type B effect for equality judgements. In the empirical part, the models' predictions are evaluated. To this end, participants performed a duration discrimination task with comparative judgements and with equality judgements. In line with the models' predictions, a Type B effect was observed for both judgement types. In addition, a time-order error, as indicated by shifts of the psychometric functions, and differences in response times were observed only for the equality judgement. Since both models entail distinct additional predictions, it seems worthwhile for future research to unite the two models into one conceptual framework. PMID:24295428

  5. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  6. Development and Validation of a Racial Discrimination Measure for Cambodian American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sangalang, Cindy C.; Chen, Angela C. C.; Kulis, Stephen S.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the majority of studies examining experiences of racial discrimination among youth use measures initially developed for African American and Latino adults or college students. Few studies have attended to the ways in which discrimination experiences may be unique for Asian American youth, particularly subgroups such as Southeast Asians. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to describe the development of a racial discrimination measure using community-based participatory research with Cambodian American adolescents and (b) to psychometrically test the measure with respect to validity and reliability. This research used mixed-methods and comprised 3 phases. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative focus group research to assess community-identified needs. Phase 2 included quantitative survey development with community members and resulted in an 18-item measure assessing the frequency of ethnicity-based discrimination. Phase 3 involved psychometric testing of the measure’s validity and reliability (n = 423). Exploratory factor analysis procedures yielded a 3-factor structure describing peer, school, and police discrimination from all items, capturing 96% of the combined variance. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the data demonstrated good fit with the 3-factor structure (CFI = .98; RMSEA = .054), with factor loadings ranging from .59 to .96 and all estimates statistically significant at the p < .05 level. Correlational analyses of racial discrimination subfactors and depression supported concurrent validity. In sum, this measure can be used to examine the degree and sources of racial discrimination reported by Cambodian American adolescents and potentially other adolescents of Southeast Asian descent living in diverse urban communities. PMID:26388972

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Cardiovascular Risk and Disease Management Knowledge Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Rosneck, James S; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John; Josephson, Richard; Noe, Donald A; Waechter, Donna

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This paper describes the systematic construction and psychometric analysis of a knowledge assessment instrument for phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients measuring risk modification disease management knowledge and behavioral outcomes derived from national standards relevant to secondary prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. METHODS First, using adult curriculum based on disease specific learning outcomes and competencies, a systematic test item development process was completed by clinical staff. Second, a panel of educational and clinical experts used an iterative process to identify test content domain and arrive at consensus in selecting items meeting criteria. Third, the resulting 31 question instrument the Cardiac Knowledge Assessment Tool (CKAT) was piloted in CR patients to insure utility of application. Validity and reliability analysis were performed on 3,638 adult pre test administrations with additional focused analyses on 1,999 individuals completing both pre and post treatment administrations within 6 months. RESULTS Evidence of CKAT content validity was substantiated with 85% agreement among content experts. Evidence of construct validity was demonstrated via factor analysis identifying key underlying factors. Estimates of internal consistency, e.g. Cronbach’s Alpha = .852 and a Spearman-Brown split-half reliability = .817 on pre testing, supports test reliability. Item analysis, using point biserial correlation, measured relationships between performance on single items and total score (p<.01). Analyses utilizing item difficulty and item discrimination indices further verified item stability and validity of the CKAT. CONCLUSIONS A knowledge instrument specifically designed for an adult CR population was systematically developed and tested in a large representative patient population, satisfying psychometric parameters including validity and reliability. PMID:23612037

  8. On the psychometric properties of the aggressiveness-IAT for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Gunnar; Gollwitzer, Mario; Banse, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In research on aggression, implicit association tests (IATs) have been constructed to elucidate automatic processes involved in aggressiveness. Despite an increasing number of applications of the "Aggressiveness-IAT" in basic and applied research, the psychometric properties of this method for measuring an automatic aggressive self-concept have not been comprehensively investigated. Although the Aggressiveness-IAT has been used both as a cross-situationally consistent trait measure and as a measure to indicate situational changes, prior studies have not tested to what extent it reliably captures a stable trait vs. an occasion-specific aggressive self-concept. The present research scrutinizes the psychometric properties of the Aggressiveness-IAT by addressing two issues. First, we tested the reliability, consistency, and occasion specificity of the Aggressiveness-IAT in a longitudinal panel study with four waves and 574 Austrian school children/adolescents by applying latent-state trait (LST) theory. Second, we validated latent trait scores of the IAT vis-à-vis other measures either clearly related to aggression or not. Results demonstrate that 20-30% of the variance in children's and adolescents' IAT scores is situation-unspecific (i.e., "stable"), whereas 36-50% are situation-specific. Regarding its construct validity, the Aggressiveness-IAT is correlated with explicit measures of aggression and related constructs, but it is not associated with discriminant variables (e.g., school achievement). Implications for using the Aggressiveness-IAT are discussed in the light of these findings. Aggr. Behav. 41:84-95 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539876

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Hebrew Translation of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13)

    PubMed Central

    Magnezi, Racheli; Glasser, Saralee

    2014-01-01

    Objective “Patient activation” reflects involvement in managing ones health. This cross-sectional study assessed the psychometric properties of the Hebrew translation (PAM-H) of the PAM-13. Methods A nationally representative sample of 203 Hebrew-speaking Israeli adults answered the PAM-H, PHQ-9 depression scale, SF-12, and Self-efficacy Scale via telephone. Results Mean PAM-H scores were 70.7±15.4. Rasch analysis indicated that the PAM-H is a good measure of activation. There were no differences in PAM-H scores based on gender, age or education. Subjects with chronic disease scored lower than those without. Scores correlated with the Self-efficacy Scale (0.47), Total SF-12 (0.39) and PHQ-9 (−0.35, P<0.0001), indicating concurrent validity. Discriminant validity was reflected by a significant difference in the mean PAM-H score of those who scored below 10 (72.1±14.8) on the PHQ-9 (not depressed) compared to those scoring ≥10 (i.e. probable depression) (59.2±15.8; t 3.75; P = 0.001). Conclusion The PAM-H psychometric properties indicate its usefulness with the Hebrew-speaking Israeli population. Practice Implications PAM-H can be useful for assessing programs aimed at effecting changes in patient compliance, health behaviors, etc. Researchers in Israel should use a single translation of the PAM-13 so that findings can be compared, increasing understanding of patient activation. PMID:25411841

  10. Entanglement in channel discrimination with restricted measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, William; Piani, Marco; Watrous, John

    2010-09-15

    We study the power of measurements implementable with local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) measurements in the setting of quantum channel discrimination. More precisely, we consider discrimination procedures that attempt to identify an unknown channel, chosen uniformly from two known alternatives, that take the following form: (i) the input to the unknown channel is prepared in a possibly entangled state with an ancillary system, (ii) the unknown channel is applied to the input system, and (iii) an LOCC measurement is performed on the output and ancillary systems, resulting in a guess for which of the two channels was given. The restriction of the measurement in such a procedure to be an LOCC measurement is of interest because it isolates the entanglement in the initial input-ancillary systems as a resource in the setting of channel discrimination. We prove that there exist channel discrimination problems for which restricted procedures of this sort can be at either of the two extremes: they may be optimal within the set of all discrimination procedures (and simultaneously outperform all strategies that make no use of entanglement), or they may be no better than unentangled strategies (and simultaneously suboptimal within the set of all discrimination procedures).

  11. Measuring Beneficiary Knowledge of the Medicare Program: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bann, Carla M.; Terrell, Sherry A.; McCormack, Lauren A.; Berkman, Nancy D.

    2003-01-01

    Reliable measures of Medicare beneficiaries' program knowledge are necessary for credible program monitoring, evaluation, and public accountability. This study developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of two possible measures of beneficiary knowledge. One measure was based on self-reported knowledge, the other was a true/false quiz which requires beneficiaries to demonstrate their knowledge. We used data from the 1998 and 1999 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of the indices. Overall, based on both content considerations and the psychometric analyses, the true/false quiz proved to be the more accurate and useful measure of beneficiaries' knowledge. PMID:14628404

  12. Fatalism Revisited: Further Psychometric Testing Across Two Studies.

    PubMed

    Heiney, Sue P; Gullatte, Mary; Hayne, Pearman D; Powe, Barbara; Habing, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Cancer fatalism may impact outcomes, particularly for African American (AA) women with breast cancer (BrCa). We examined the psychometrics of the modified Powe Fatalism Inventory in sample of AA women with BrCa from two studies. Only the predetermination and God's will items satisfy the conditions to be classified as a strong subscale. Our analysis identified that five items had strong psychometric properties for measuring fatalism for AA women with BrCa. However, these items do not include all the defining attributes of fatalism. A strong measure of fatalism strengthens our understanding of how this concept influences AA patient outcomes. PMID:26661622

  13. The Psychometric Properties of the Persian Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1 in Episodic and Chronic Migraines

    PubMed Central

    Zandifar, Alireza; Masjedi, Samaneh Sadat; Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Asgari, Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Navid; Banihashemi, Mahboobeh; Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbani, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Gholamrezaei, Ali; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background. Migraine-specific quality of life (MSQ) is a valid and reliable questionnaire. Linguistic validation of Persian MSQ questionnaire, analysis of psychometric properties between chronic and episodic migraine patients, and capability of MSQ to differentiate between chronic and episodic migraines were the aims of this study. Method. Participants were selected from four different neurology clinics that were diagnosed as chronic or episodic migraine patients. Baseline data included information from MSQ v. 2.1, MIGSEV, SF-36, and symptoms questionnaire. At the third week from the baseline, participants filled out MSQ and MIGSEV. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and test-retest reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficients) were used to assess reliability. Convergent and discriminant validities were also assessed. Results. A total of 106 participants were enrolled. Internal consistencies of MSQ among all patients, chronic and episodic migraines, were 0.92, 0.91, and 0.92, respectively. Test-retest correlation of MSQ dimensions between visits 1 and 2 varied from 0.41 to 0.50. Convergent, item discriminant, and discriminant validities were approved. In all visits MSQ scores were lower in chronic migraine than episodic migraine; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Persian translation of MSQ is consistent with original version of MSQ in terms of psychometric properties in both chronic and episodic migraine patients. PMID:24068887

  14. Discrimination in the Forest Industry: A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eylon, Dafna; Langton, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    A case study of a female chief executive officer denied membership in an industry-related social club helps students understand discrimination and the interaction of personal and organizational goals. The exercise creates awareness of ways to respond to discrimination and of gender and power issues in the workplace. (SK)

  15. Discrimination of frequency variance for tonal sequencesa)

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Andrew J.; Viemeister, Neal F.; Stellmack, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Real-world auditory stimuli are highly variable across occurrences and sources. The present study examined the sensitivity of human listeners to differences in global stimulus variability. In a two-interval, forced-choice task, variance discrimination was measured using sequences of five 100-ms tone pulses. The frequency of each pulse was sampled randomly from a distribution that was Gaussian in logarithmic frequency. In the non-signal interval, the sampled distribution had a variance of σSTAN2, while in the signal interval, the variance of the sequence was σSIG2 (with σSIG2 > σSTAN2). The listener's task was to choose the interval with the larger variance. To constrain possible decision strategies, the mean frequency of the sampling distribution of each interval was randomly chosen for each presentation. Psychometric functions were measured for various values of σSTAN2. Although the performance was remarkably similar across listeners, overall performance was poorer than that of an ideal observer (IO) which perfectly compares interval variances. However, like the IO, Weber's Law behavior was observed, with a constant ratio of (σSIG2-σSTAN2) to σSTAN2 yielding similar performance. A model which degraded the IO with a frequency-resolution noise and a computational noise provided a reasonable fit to the real data. PMID:25480064

  16. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent. PMID:24356350

  17. Homework Emotion Regulation Scale: Psychometric Properties for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Homework Emotion Regulation Scale (HERS) using 796 middle school students in China. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) supported the existence of two distinct yet related subscales for the HERS: Emotion Management and Cognitive Reappraisal. Concerning the…

  18. Psychometric Assessment and Reporting Practices: Incongruence between Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaney, Kathleen L.; Tkatchouk, Masha; Gabriel, Stephanie M.; Maraun, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the current study is twofold: (a) to investigate the rates at which researchers assess and report on the psychometric properties of the measures they use in their research and (b) to examine whether or not researchers appear to be generally employing sound/unsound rationales when it comes to how they conduct test evaluations. Based on a…

  19. Validity on Trial: Psychometric and Legal Conceptualizations of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Parker, Polly

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric literature is replete with comprehensive discussions of test validity, test validation, and the characteristics of quality assessment programs. The most authoritative source for guidance regarding sound test development and evaluation practices is the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. However, the Standards are…

  20. Computer Use in Psychometric Assessment: Evaluating Benefits and Potential Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of computer technology has created many possiblities for computer applications in the area of psychological testing and assessment. The ways that computers can be used in psychometric assessment, the benefits of such use, and problems that may be encountered with these uses are discussed. (Author/BL)

  1. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  2. Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

  3. Psychometric and related deficits in preventive alcohol intervention programming.

    PubMed

    Duryea, E J

    1992-02-01

    The 1991 study by Collins and Cellucci ignores some important research principles needed for sound educational inquiry. Psychometric properties of evaluation instruments cannot be omitted from even field tests of small scale. Selected other omissions need review since other researchers may replicate such errors. PMID:1565741

  4. A Review of the Psychometric Properties of Retell Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    This narrative synthesis reviews the psychometric properties of commercially and publicly available retell instruments used to assess the reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Eleven instruments met selection criteria and were systematically coded for data related to the administration procedures, scoring procedures, and technical…

  5. Psychometric Characteristics of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca G.; Wilson, Janie H.; Pugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale, the first scale to measure professor-student rapport. The scale was found to have adequate test-retest and internal-consistency reliability. In addition to these findings, measures used to determine convergent validity included the Working…

  6. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Bereavement Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason M.; Nam, Ilsung; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a routinely administered assessment of grieving, few studies have empirically examined the psychometric properties of the Core Bereavement Items (CBI). The present study investigated the factor structure, internal reliability, and concurrent validity of the CBI in a large, diverse sample of bereaved young adults (N = 1,366).…

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Denchik, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS). Data from 576 college women were collected in three studies. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered two factors: Body Evaluation and Unwanted Explicit Sexual Advances; confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor…

  8. Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence: Psychometric g and Executive Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crinella, Francis M.; Yu, Jen

    1999-01-01

    Presents three lines of evidence that fail to support R. Sternberg's theory of general intelligence ("g"): (1) animal problem solving studies; (2) studies of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; and (3) studies of patients with frontal lobe damage. Discusses differences between psychometric "g" and practical intelligence. (SLD)

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Concept Assessment Kit-Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnert, Linda; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Educational and Industrial Testing Service Concept Assessment Kit-Conservation (EITS Kit). Presented are an overview of the concept of conservation, a description of the EITS Kit, and results of the study. (MT)

  10. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  11. Preliminary Psychometric Data for the "Academic Coping Strategies Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the psychometric characteristics of the "Academic Coping Strategies Scale" (ACSS), which was designed to assess college students' coping strategies within the context of a specific academic stressor. This article will present results of analyses of factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  12. Psychometric Analysis of the Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Connor, Carol McDonald; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometrics of the "Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Screening Test" (DELV-S) test using confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, and differential item functioning (DIF). Responses from 1,764 students in kindergarten through second grade were used in the study, with results indicating that the…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Leadership Practices Inventory--Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.; Kouzes, James M.

    1993-01-01

    In follow-up studies using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), data from over 36,000 business managers and their subordinates were used to reexamine psychometric properties of the instrument and to explore gender, functional field, ethnic, and cross-cultural differences. Factor analysis supports a five-factor scale, with gender differences…

  14. Development and Initial Psychometrics of Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…

  15. The Construct of Psychophysiological Reactivity: Statistical and Psychometric Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Keith B.; Obradovic, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review major statistical and psychometric issues impacting the study of psychophysiological reactivity and discuss their implications for applied developmental researchers. We first cover traditional approaches such as the observed difference score (DS) and the observed residual score (RS), including a review of…

  16. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Career Clusters Interest Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prime, Dominic R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric support of the Career Clusters Interest Survey (CCIS) that provides subscales scores for the 16 Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE) career clusters in a sample of 203 college students. Reliability of the subscales was supported with respect to internal consistency and 2-week stability…

  18. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the scores on the Epistemic Belief Inventory were examined using an exploratory factor analysis (principal axis factor) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on a total sample of 1,242 elementary school teachers. Results of the EFA supported the hypothesized five-factor model but the items had loaded on different…

  19. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  20. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-01-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…

  1. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  2. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  4. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, R. Lindsey; Keller, Melody L.; Piacentini, John; Bergman, Andrea J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on selective mutism (SM) has been limited by the absence of standardized, psychometrically sound assessment measures. The purpose of our investigation was to present two studies that examined the factor structure and initial reliability and validity of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a 17-item parent report measure of failure to…

  5. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMand, Alexandra; Johnson, Cynthia; Foldes, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory (BAMBI). In a sample of 273 well-characterized children with ASD, we explored the factor structure of the BAMBI, determined the internal consistency of a newly derived factor structure and provide an empirically derived cut-off for…

  7. The Revised Commitment Inventory: Psychometrics and Use with Unmarried Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    The Commitment Inventory measures interpersonal commitment (dedication) and constraint commitment. Since it was first published, substantial revisions have been made, but there are no published data on the psychometric properties of the new version. Furthermore, little information is available on measuring commitment for unmarried couples. This…

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale in Polio Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Volunteer Functions Inventory with Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Joseph; Lo, T. Wing; Liu, Elaine S. C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report an evaluation of the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Volunteer Functions Inventory on a sample of university student volunteers. Reliabilities were high for four out of the six scales of the Inventory (Values, Career, Social, and Understanding) in terms of internal consistency. Items in these four scales also…

  10. Psychometric Properties of Characteristics of Teacher Professional Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soine, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    This primary purpose of the study was to expand the work of Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, and Yoon (2001) by creating and psychometrically testing an instrument designed to measure teachers' perceptions of characteristics of professional development. Elementary teachers (n = 406) from five school districts in Washington State participating in a…

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.; Horowitz, June A.; Carlson, Karen L.; Duffy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article presents the psychometric evaluation of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale (CATS), an instrument to be used as a screening measure with middle school students. Methods: A 70-item scale was initially derived from qualitative data obtained from focus groups comprised of middle school students. A diverse sample of…

  12. Psychometric Analysis of Computer Science Help-Seeking Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajares, Frank; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Oberman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop scales to assess instrumental help seeking, executive help seeking, perceived benefits of help seeking, and avoidance of help seeking and to examine their psychometric properties by conducting factor and reliability analyses. As this is the first attempt to examine the latent structures underlying the…

  13. A quantitative confidence signal detection model: 1. Fitting psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yongwoo; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual thresholds are commonly assayed in the laboratory and clinic. When precision and accuracy are required, thresholds are quantified by fitting a psychometric function to forced-choice data. The primary shortcoming of this approach is that it typically requires 100 trials or more to yield accurate (i.e., small bias) and precise (i.e., small variance) psychometric parameter estimates. We show that confidence probability judgments combined with a model of confidence can yield psychometric parameter estimates that are markedly more precise and/or markedly more efficient than conventional methods. Specifically, both human data and simulations show that including confidence probability judgments for just 20 trials can yield psychometric parameter estimates that match the precision of those obtained from 100 trials using conventional analyses. Such an efficiency advantage would be especially beneficial for tasks (e.g., taste, smell, and vestibular assays) that require more than a few seconds for each trial, but this potential benefit could accrue for many other tasks. PMID:26763777

  14. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  15. Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

    2010-01-01

    School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Teachers' Attitude toward Inclusion Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…

  17. Psychometric Properties of Measures of Team Diversity with Likert Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lifang; Marcoulides, George A.; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Certain diversity among team members is beneficial to the growth of an organization. Multiple measures have been proposed to quantify diversity, although little is known about their psychometric properties. This article proposes several methods to evaluate the unidimensionality and reliability of three measures of diversity. To approximate the…

  18. A Psychometric Evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carrie H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (SWVI-R), an instrument comprised of 12 scales measuring the relative importance placed on the following work-related value dimensions: Achievement, Coworkers, Creativity, Income, Independence, Lifestyle, Mental Challenge, Prestige, Security, Supervision,…

  19. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Measure of Intuitive Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive eating is characterized by eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues and is associated with psychological well-being. This study reports on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) with data collected in 4 studies from 1,260 college…

  20. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Saving Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Muroff, Jordana; Lewin, Adam B.; Geller, Daniel; Ross, Abigail; McCarthy, Katherine; Morgan, Jessica; Murphy, Tanya K.; Frost, Randy; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Children's Saving Inventory (CSI), a parent-rated measure designed to assess child hoarding behaviors. Subjects included 123 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and their parents. Trained clinicians administered the…

  1. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  2. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions. PMID:20169800

  3. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version of General Oral Health Assessment Index-Tml

    PubMed Central

    Appukuttan, DP; Vinayagavel, M; Balasundaram, A; Damodaran, LK; Shivaraman, P; Gunasshegaran, K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml). Subjects and Methods: Linguistic adaptation involved forward and backward blind translation process. Reliability was analyzed using test-retest, Cronbach alpha, and split half reliability. Inter-item and item-total correlation were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Convenience sampling was done, and 265 consecutive patients aged 20–70 years attending the outpatient department were recruited. Subjects were requested to fill a self-reporting questionnaire along with Tamil GOHAI version. Clinical examination was done on the same visit. Concurrent validity was measured by assessing the relationship between GOHAI scores and self-perceived oral health and general health status, satisfaction with oral health, need for dental treatment and esthetic satisfaction. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the GOHAI scores with the objectively assessed clinical parameters. Exploratory factor analysis was done to examine the factor structure. Results: Mean GOHAI-Tml was 52.7 (6.8, range 22–60, median 54). The mean number of negative impacts was 2 (2.4, range 0–11, median 1). The Spearman rank correlation for test-retest ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 (P < 0.001) for all the 12 items between visits. The Cronbach alpha for 265 samples was 0.8 suggesting good internal consistency and homogeneity between items. Item scale correlation ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 (P < 0.001). Concurrent and discriminant validity was established. Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of four factors which together accounted for 66.4% (7.9/12) variance. Conclusion: GOHAI-Tml has shown acceptable

  4. Psychometric validation of the Confidence in Performing Sexual Intercourse Questionnaire and Difficulty in Performing Sexual Intercourse Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R P; Seftel, A; Rosen, R C; Althof, S; Shen, W; Shih, T; Sontag, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform psychometric testing of two new patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs), the Confidence in Performing Sexual Intercourse Questionnaire (CPSIQ) and the Difficulty in Performing Sexual Intercourse Questionnaire (DPSIQ). The new PROs were administered at non-drug, run-in, baseline and end point in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) participating in a randomized clinical trial of ED treatment (Study 1, n=291) and two times within 2 weeks to men with ED participating in a web-based survey (Study 2, n=71). Psychometric tests included factor analysis, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness. Analysis of data from Study 1 participants (74% ≤65 years, 83% Caucasian and 75% with moderate ED) suggested one-factor solutions for both PROs with Cronbach's α >0.88. CPSIQ and DPSIQ total scores discriminated between ED severity groups showed worsening after a 4-week non-drug, run-in period, and showed improvement after 12 weeks of ED treatment (all, P<0.05). Intraclass correlation coefficients calculated for the CPSIQ and DPSIQ, using data from Study 2 participants (82% ≤65 years, 90% Caucasian and 66% with mild ED), were 0.56 and 0.83, respectively. The CPSIQ and DPSIQ show potential for augmenting existing treatment outcome measures used in the evaluation of ED treatment. PMID:24335748

  5. Psychometric properties of the Children’s Revised Impact of Events Scale (CRIES) with Bangladeshi children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deeba, Farah; Prvan, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Identification of possible cases suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important, especially in developing countries where traumatic events are typically prevalent. The Children’s Revised Impact of Events Scale is a reliable and valid measure that has two brief versions (13 items and 8 items) to assess reactions to traumatic events among young people. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of both versions of the CRIES in a sample of 1,342 children and adolescents aged 9–17 years (M = 12.3 years, SD = 2.12) recruited from six districts of Bangladesh. A sub-group of 120 children from four schools was re-tested on the measures within 3.5 weeks. Confirmatory factor analysis supported factor structures similar to those found in other studies for both versions of the CRIES. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis showed gender and age-group differences within the sample, supporting established age and gender differences in prevalence of PTSD symptoms. Analyses also indicated moderate to excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability and clear discriminant and convergent validity. These data support use of both the CRIES-13 and CRIES-8 to provide quick and psychometrically sound assessment of symptoms of PTSD among children and adolescents from Bangla-speaking communities. PMID:25237597

  6. A New Look at the Psychometrics of the Parenting Scale through the Lens of Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Michael F.; Xu, Shu; Smith Slep, Amy M.; Bulling, Lisanne; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    The psychometrics of the Parenting Scale's Overreactivity and Laxness subscales were evaluated using item response theory (IRT) techniques. The IRT analyses were based on two community samples of cohabiting parents of 3- to 8-year-old children, combined to yield an N of 852 families. The results supported the utility of the Overreactivity and Laxness subscales, particularly in discriminating among parents in the mid to upper reaches of each construct. The original versions of the Overreactivity and Laxness subscales were more reliable than alternative, shorter versions identified in replicated factor analyses from previously published research and in IRT analyses in the present research. Moreover, in several cases, the original versions of these subscales, in comparison with the shortened versions, exhibited greater six-month stabilities and correlations with child externalizing behavior and couple relationship satisfaction. Reliability was greater for the Laxness than for the Overreactivity subscale. Item performance on each subscale was highly variable. Together, the present findings are generally supportive of the psychometrics of the Parenting Scale, particularly for clinical research and practice. They also suggest areas for further development. PMID:24828855

  7. Psychometric properties of a brief version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, Ryan C T; Chapman, L Kevin; Williams, Monnica T

    2016-05-01

    The reliable and valid assessment of chronic worry in African Americans is vital when attempting to draw cross-cultural comparisons between African Americans and other ethnic groups. As such, the current study examined the psychometric properties of a brief version of a gold standard assessment of chronic worry, specifically the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (PSWQ-A; Hopko et al., 2003) in a college sample of African Americans (n = 100) and European Americans (n = 121). Results indicated that the PSWQ-A total score has good internal consistency and convergent validity with another measure of anxiety, but less than favorable discriminant validity with a measure of depression in African American and European American students. Also, the 1-factor solution for the 8-item PSWQ-A had excellent model fit in our full sample and was partially invariant between ethnic groups. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that the PSWQ-A is a psychometrically sound option for assessing chronic worry and suggests that this brief measure may enhance the time efficiency and clinical utility of research and clinical assessments in ethnically diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26375429

  8. Psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) with substance abusers in outpatient and residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Voluse, Andrew C; Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Dum, Mariam; Sobell, Mark B; Simco, Edward R

    2012-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT), an 11-item self-report questionnaire developed to screen individuals for drug problems, are evaluated. The measure, developed in Sweden and evaluated there with individuals with severe drug problems, has not been evaluated with less severe substance abusers or with clinical populations in the United States. Participants included 35 drug abusers in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program, 79 drug abusers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, and 39 alcohol abusers from both treatment settings who did not report a drug abuse problem. The DUDIT was found to be a psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measure with high convergent validity (r=.85) when compared with the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10), and to have a Cronbach's alpha of .94. In addition, a single component accounted for 64.91% of total variance, and the DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of .90 and .85, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 8. Additionally, the DUDIT showed good discriminant validity as it significantly differentiated drug from alcohol abusers. These findings support the DUDIT as a reliable and valid drug abuse screening instrument that measures a unidimensional construct. Further research is warranted with additional clinical populations. PMID:21937169

  9. Justice and Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1976-01-01

    Although this article does not necessarily recommend policies of reverse discrimination, arguments indicating that such policies are not contradictory to accepted concepts of justice are presented. The necessity of dispersing any consequent injury to society as a whole rather than to individuals is stressed. (RW)

  10. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  11. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  12. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  13. Discrimination and Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    This response to Chandler et al. (EC 604 147) suggests that generalization of social competence training be viewed from both functional and topographical perspectives which have scientific and practice biases, respectively. The paper proposes a generalization-discrimination continuum along which behaviors may be placed for optimum utility. (DB)

  14. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  15. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  16. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  17. Discriminant Analysis: A Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three topics related to interpretation of discriminant analyses (DA's): (1) partial F ratios and partial Wilks's lambdas for predictor variables in standard, step-down, and stepwise DA's; (2) relation of goals of classification to definition/evaluation of classification rules; and (3) significance tests for total hit rates in internal…

  18. Development and Psychometric Assessment of a Multidimensional Measure of Internalized HIV Stigma in a sample of HIV-positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Hays, Ron D.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Mahajan, Anish P.; Spritzer, Karen L.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for a psychometrically sound measure of the stigma experienced by diverse persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a multidimentional measure of internalized HIV stigma that captures stigma related to treatment and other aspects of the disease among sociodemographically diverse PLHA. We developed a 28-item measure of internalized HIV stigma composed of four scales based on previous qualitative work. Internal consistency reliability estimates in a sample of 202 PLHA was 0.93 for the overall measure, and exceeded 0.85 for three of the four stigma scales. Items discriminated well across scales, and correlations of the scales with shame, social support, and mental health supported construct validity. This measure should prove useful to investigators examining in the role of stigma in HIV treatment and health outcomes, and evaluating interventions designed to mitigate the impacts of stigma on PLHA. PMID:18389363

  19. Utilization of the supports intensity scale with psychiatric populations: psychometric properties and utility for service delivery planning.

    PubMed

    Jenaro, Cristina; Cruz, Maribel; Perez, María Del Carmen; Flores, Noelia E; Vega, Vanessa

    2011-10-01

    In agreement with the new paradigm of supports, this study examines the adequacy and psychometric properties of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) in a sample of 182 participants with severe mental illness (mean Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF] score = 60.2). The measure focuses on identifying the profile and intensities of support needs and on the planning and service delivery rather than on weaknesses and limitations. Internal consistency indexes ranged from .83 to .97; interrater reliability indexes ranged from .67 to .98. Intercorrelations among SIS subscales supported its construct validity. SIS scores correlated to GAF scores and length of disease. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 60.9% of participants. Therefore, the SIS demonstrated adequate reliability and validity, and it can be used by nursing professionals to plan for required supports in this population. PMID:21978811

  20. Examining Individual Differences in Interpersonal Influence: On the Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Opinion Leadership Scale (GOLS).

    PubMed

    Batinic, Bernad; Appel, Markus; Gnambs, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Opinion leadership describes an individual's tendency to informally influence others' attitudes and overt behaviors. In contrast to contemporary views of opinion leadership as a highly domain-specific trait, this paper introduces a multi-faceted personality trait, generalized opinion leadership (GOL) that characterizes exceptionally influential individuals independent of a specific subject area. Two studies report on the psychometric properties of a scale to assess GOL. Study 1 is based on three independent samples (N = 1,575, N = 1,275, and N = 231) and demonstrates the factorial structure of the instrument and its measurement invariance across sex, age, and educational levels. Study 2 (N = 310) analyzes multitrait-multiinformant data to highlight the scale's discriminant validity with regard to innovativeness and trendsetting. PMID:25706916

  1. Examination of the psychometric properties of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II in African American college students.

    PubMed

    Weigold, Ingrid K; Weigold, Arne; Russell, Elizabeth J; Drakeford, Naomi M

    2014-12-01

    Personal growth initiative (PGI), an individual's active and intentional desire to engage in the growth process, has been an important construct in studies of physical and mental health around the world. However, there is a dearth of research examining this construct in African American samples. In addition, PGI has recently undergone a revision of both its theory and measure; the resulting Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II) has been validated for use only with European American and international college student samples. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the PGIS-II in a sample of African American college students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded results consistent with previous studies, and the PGIS-II showed evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for three of its four factors. In addition, the PGIS-II was significantly related to aspects of Black racial identity, suggesting that it is a viable construct in this population. PMID:24569534

  2. Assessment of risk for substance use disorder consequent to consumption of illegal drugs: psychometric validation of the neurobehavior disinhibition trait.

    PubMed

    Mezzich, Ada C; Tarter, Ralph E; Feske, Ulrike; Kirisci, Levent; McNamee, Rebecca L; Day, Bang-Shiuh

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the trait neurobehavior disinhibition (ND), which consists of affect, behavior, and cognitive indicators of self-regulation, is a significant predictor of substance use disorder (SUD) between childhood and young adulthood. The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the ND trait in 278 boys evaluated at ages 10-12 and 16 years. ND score significantly predicted SUD and outcomes that commonly manifest in tandem with SUD by age 19, such as violence, arrests, committing crime while intoxicated, and concussion injury. In addition to predictive validity, the ND trait was found to have good construct, discriminative, and concurrent validity, as well as good test-retest and internal reliability. The ND trait may be useful for detecting youths at high risk for developing SUD and related outcomes. PMID:18072833

  3. A psychometric evaluation of the Personality Assessment Inventory - short form clinical scales in an inpatient psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samuel J; Siefert, Caleb J; Shorey, Hal S; Antonius, Daniel; Shiva, Andrew; Kehl-Fie, Kendra; Blais, Mark A

    2009-12-30

    Few studies have assessed the psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory short-form (PAI-SF) clinical scales, and none have conducted these evaluations using participants from psychiatric inpatient units. The present study evaluated item-level tests of scaling assumptions of the PAI-SF using a large (N=503) clinical sample of participants who completed the PAI during their admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Internal consistency reliability was high across scales, and tests of item-scale convergence and discrimination generally confirmed hypothesized item groupings. Scale-level correlations supported unique variance being measured by each scale. Finally, agreement between the PAI short- and full-form scales was found to be high. The results are discussed with regards to scale interpretation. PMID:19879654

  4. Tactual discrimination of softness.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M A; LaMotte, R H

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the ability of humans to tactually discriminate the softness of objects, using novel elastic objects with deformable and rigid surfaces. For objects with deformable surfaces, we cast transparent rubber specimens with variable compliances. For objects with rigid surfaces ("spring cells") we fabricated telescoping hollow cylinders with the inner cylinder supported by several springs. To measure the human discriminability and to isolate the associated information-processing mechanisms, we performed psychophysical experiments under three conditions: 1) active touch with the normal finger, where both tactile and kinesthetic information was available to the subject: 2) active touch with local cutaneous anesthesia, so that only kinesthetic information was available; and 3) passive touch, where a computer-controlled mechanical stimulator brought down the compliant specimens onto the passive fingerpad of the subject, who therefore had only tactile information. 2. We first characterized the mechanical behavior of the human fingerpad and the test objects by determining the relationship between the depth and force of indentation during constant-velocity indentations by a rigid probe. The fingerpad exhibited a pronounced nonlinear behavior in the indentation depth versus force trace such that compliance, as indicated by the local slope of the trace, decreased with increases in indentation depth. The traces for all the rubber specimens were approximately linear, indicating a constant but distinct value of compliance for each specimen. The fingerpad was more compliant than each of the rubber specimens. 3. All the human subjects showed excellent softness discriminability in ranking the rubber specimens by active touch, and the subjective perception of softness correlated one-to-one with the objectively measured compliance. The ability of subjects to discriminate the compliance of spring cells was consistently poorer compared with that of the rubber specimens. 4

  5. Optimal discrimination index and discrimination efficiency for essay questions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of multiple choice questions are often indiscriminately applied to essay type questions also. Optimal discrimination index under normality condition for essay question is independently derived. Satisfactory region for discrimination index of essay questions with passing mark at 50% of the total is between 0.12 and 0.31 instead of 0.40 or more in the case for multiple-choice questions. Optimal discrimination index for essay question is shown to increase proportional to the range of scores. Discrimination efficiency as the ratio of the observed discrimination index over the optimal discrimination index is defined. Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of essay questions are provided. PMID:24518584

  6. Modeling the Discrimination Power of Physics Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesic, Vanes

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of tailoring physics instruction in accordance with the needs and abilities of the students it is useful to explore the knowledge structure of students of different ability levels. In order to precisely differentiate the successive, characteristic states of student achievement it is necessary to use test items that possess…

  7. Affirmative Action, or Reverse Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Ike

    1996-01-01

    Determines the impact of affirmative action programs in response to charges that they are policies of reverse discrimination. Reviewing affirmative action programs submitted by Michigan State departments, researchers determined no reverse discrimination was apparent based on low numbers of reverse discrimination complaints filed by whites. (GR)

  8. Quotas Are Not Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Gabrielle K.

    1975-01-01

    The findings of the Morrow v. Crisler and NAACP v. Allen civil rights cases are discussed. It is concluded from these employment discrimination cases that quotas are not reverse discrimination because no one has the right to continue to receive the benefits of racial discrimination at the expense of others. (LBH)

  9. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  10. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  11. Psychometric properties of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality in a PTSD sample.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erika J; Harrington, Kelly M; Miller, Mark W

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1996) in 280 individuals who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The SNAP validity, trait, temperament, and personality disorder (PD) scales were compared with scales on the Brief Form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2002). In a subsample of 86 veterans, the SNAP PD, trait, and temperament scales were also evaluated in comparison to the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE; Loranger, 1999), a semistructured diagnostic interview. Results revealed that the SNAP scales have good convergent validity, as evidenced by their pattern of associations with related measures of personality and PD. However, evidence for their discriminant validity in relationship to other measures of personality and PD was more mixed, and test scores on the SNAP trait and temperament scales left much unexplained variance in IPDE-assessed PDs. The diagnostic scoring of the SNAP PD scales greatly inflated prevalence estimates of PDs relative to the IPDE and showed poor agreement with the IPDE. In contrast, the dimensional SNAP scores yielded far stronger associations with continuous scores on the IPDE. The SNAP scales also largely evidenced expected patterns of association with a measure of PTSD severity. Overall, findings support the use of this measure in this population and contribute to our conceptualization of the association between temperament, PTSD, and Axis II psychopathology. PMID:21767029

  12. The Psychometric Properties of Classroom Response System Data: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-03-01

    Classroom response systems (often referred to as "clickers") have slowly gained adoption over the recent decade; however, critics frequently doubt their pedagogical value starting with the validity of the gathered responses: There is concern that students simply "click" random answers. This case study looks at different measures of response reliability, starting from a global look at correlations between formative clicker responses and summative examination performance to how clicker questions are used in context. It was found that clicker performance is a moderate indicator of course performance as a whole, and that while the psychometric properties of clicker items are more erratic than those of examination data, they still have acceptable internal consistency and include items with high discrimination. It was also found that clicker responses and item properties do provide highly meaningful feedback within a lecture context, i.e., when their position and function within lecture sessions are taken into consideration. Within this framework, conceptual questions provide measurably more meaningful feedback than items that require calculations.

  13. An Independent Psychometric Evaluation of the PROMS Measure of Music Perception Skills.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) is a recently developed measure of perceptual music skills which has been shown to have promising psychometric properties. In this paper we extend the evaluation of its brief version to three kinds of validity using an individual difference approach. The brief PROMS displays good discriminant validity with working memory, given that it does not correlate with backward digit span (r = .04). Moreover, it shows promising criterion validity (association with musical training (r = .45), musicianship status (r = .48), and self-rated musical talent (r = .51)). Finally, its convergent validity, i.e. relation to an unrelated measure of music perception skills, was assessed by correlating the brief PROMS to harmonic closure judgment accuracy. Two independent samples point to good convergent validity of the brief PROMS (r = .36; r = .40). The same association is still significant in one of the samples when including self-reported music skill in a partial correlation (rpartial = .30; rpartial = .17). Overall, the results show that the brief version of the PROMS displays a very good pattern of construct validity. Especially its tuning subtest stands out as a valuable part for music skill evaluations in Western samples. We conclude by briefly discussing the choice faced by music cognition researchers between different musical aptitude measures of which the brief PROMS is a well evaluated example. PMID:27398805

  14. Brazilian version of food cravings questionnaires: Psychometric properties and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Queiroz de Medeiros, Anna C; Campos Pedrosa, Lucia F; Hutz, Claudio Simon; Yamamoto, Maria E

    2016-10-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires, State (FCQ-State) and Trait (FCQ-Trait), are commonly used to assess food-craving behavior. This study aimed to develop and validate the Brazilian version of these questionnaires, and to explore potential gender differences in the trait version scores. Data were collected from (n = 611) undergraduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the questionnaires structure, and construct validity was assessed. The FCQ-State-Br and FCQ-Trait-Br presented good psychometric properties, adequate model fit, and internal consistency, in general and by gender. A conservation of original structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaires was verified in the Brazilian versions. A good performance in the evaluations concerning the discriminant and convergent validity seem to corroborate these structures. Overweight individuals showed an increase in food-craving behavior. In females, this increase occurred in the guilt dimension, whereas in males, the increase was in the lack of control dimension. In addition, female dieters presented higher scores on the guilt dimension compared with female non-dieters. FCQ-State-Br and FCQ-Trait-Br constitute valid instruments for measuring food-craving behavior in the Brazilian population. Moreover, these findings suggest that food cravings may be an important aspect to be considered in clinical management of overweight individuals, and may require a sex-specific approach. PMID:27288149

  15. The interpersonal shame inventory for Asian Americans: scale development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y Joel; Kim, Bryan S K; Nguyen, Chi P; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saw, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the development and psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Shame Inventory (ISI), a culturally salient and clinically relevant measure of interpersonal shame for Asian Americans. Across 4 studies involving Asian American college students, the authors provided evidence for this new measure's validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with 2 correlated factors: external shame (arising from concerns about others' negative evaluations) and family shame (arising from perceptions that one has brought shame to one's family), corresponding to 2 subscales: ISI-E and ISI-F, respectively. Evidence for criterion-related, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity was demonstrated by testing the associations between external shame and family shame and immigration/international status, generic state shame, face concerns, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. External shame and family shame also exhibited differential relations with other variables. Mediation findings were consistent with a model in which family shame mediated the effects of thwarted belongingness on suicide ideation. Further, the ISI subscales demonstrated high alpha coefficients and test-retest reliability. These findings are discussed in light of the conceptual, methodological, and clinical contributions of the ISI. PMID:24188650

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality in a PTSD Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Erika J.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Miller, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1996) in 280 individuals who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The SNAP validity, trait, temperament, and personality disorder (PD) scales were compared with scales on the Brief Form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2002). In a subsample of 86 veterans, the SNAP PD, trait, and temperament scales were also evaluated in comparison to the International Personality Disorder Exam (IPDE; Loranger, 1999), a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Results revealed that the SNAP scales have good convergent validity, as evidenced by their pattern of associations with related measures of personality and PD. However evidence for their discriminant validity in relationship to other measures of personality and PD was more mixed and test scores on the SNAP trait and temperament scales left much unexplained variance in IPDE-assessed PDs. The diagnostic scoring of the SNAP PD scales greatly inflated prevalence estimates of PDs relative to the IPDE and showed poor agreement with the IPDE. In contrast, the dimensional SNAP scores yielded far stronger associations with continuous scores on the IPDE. The SNAP scales also largely evidenced expected patterns of association with a measure of PTSD severity. Overall, findings support the use of this measure in this population and contribute to our conceptualization of the association between temperament, PTSD, and Axis II psychopathology. PMID:21767029

  17. [A short form of the positions on nursing diagnosis scale: development and psychometric testing].

    PubMed

    Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; O'Ferrall-González, Cristina; Gabaldón-Bravo, Eva Maria; González-Domínguez, Maria Eugenia; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Frandsen, Anna J; Martínez-Sabater, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND) is a scale that uses the semantic differential technique to measure nurses' attitudes towards the nursing diagnosis concept. The aim of this study was to develop a shortened form of the Spanish version of this scale and evaluate its psychometric properties and efficiency. A double theoretical-empirical approach was used to obtain a short form of the PND, the PND-7-SV, which would be equivalent to the original. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct (exploratory factor analysis, known-groups technique and discriminant validity) and criterion-related validity (concurrent validity), sensitivity to change and efficiency of the PND-7-SV were assessed in a sample of 476 Spanish nursing students. The results endorsed the utility of the PND-7-SV to measure attitudes toward nursing diagnosis in an equivalent manner to the complete form of the scale and in a shorter time. PMID:24601134

  18. Psychometric properties of the Chinese-version Quality of Nursing Work Life Scale.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Wen; Dai, Yu-Tzu; McCreary, Linda L; Yao, Grace; Brooks, Beth A

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we developed and tested the psychometric properties of the Chinese-version Quality of Nursing Work Life Scale along seven subscales: supportive milieu with security and professional recognition, work arrangement and workload, work/home life balance, head nurse's/supervisor's management style, teamwork and communication, nursing staffing and patient care, and milieu of respect and autonomy. An instrument-development procedure with three phases was conducted in seven hospitals in 2010-2011. Phase I comprised translation and the cultural-adaptation process, phase II comprised a pilot study, and phase III comprised a field-testing process. Purposive sampling was used in the pilot study (n = 150) and the large field study (n = 1254). Five new items were added, and 85.7% of the original items were retained in the 41 item Chinese version. Principal component analysis revealed that a model accounted for 56.6% of the variance with acceptable internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity. This study gave evidence of reliability and validity of the 41 item Chinese-version Quality of Nursing Work Life Scale. PMID:24635946

  19. The revised Stress Measurement of Female Marriage Immigrants in Korea: Evaluation of the psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Hee; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-one item Stress Measurement of Female Marriage Immigrants (SMFMI) was developed to assess stress of female marriage immigrants in Korea. This study reports the psychometric properties of a revised SMFMI (SMFMI-R) for application with female marriage immigrants to Korea who were raising children. Participants were 190 female marriage immigrants from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and other Asian countries, who were recruited using convenience sampling between November 2013 and December 2013. Survey questionnaires were translated into study participants' native languages (Chinese, Vietnamese, and English). Principal component analysis yielded nineteen items in four factors (family, parenting, cultural, and economic stress), explaining 63.5% of the variance, which was slightly better than the original scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate fit for the four-factor model. Based on classic test theory and item response theory, strong support was provided for item discrimination, item difficulty, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.923). SMFMI-R scores were negatively associated with Korean proficiency and subjective economic status. The SMFMI-R is a valid, reliable, and comprehensive measure of stress for female marriage immigrants and can provide useful information to develop intervention programs for those who may be at risk for emotional stress. PMID:26480245

  20. The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II: Development, Factor Structure, and Psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Silvia, Paul J.; Winterstein, Beate P.; Breen, William E.; Terhar, Daniel; Steger, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Given curiosity’s fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being, we sought to refine the measurement of trait curiosity with an improved version of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI; Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004). A preliminary pool of 36 items was administered to 311 undergraduate students, who also completed measures of emotion, emotion regulation, personality, and well-being. Factor analyses indicated a two factor model—motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences (Stretching; 5 items) and a willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life (Embracing; 5 items). In two additional samples (ns = 150 and 119), we cross-validated this factor structure and provided initial evidence for construct validity. This includes positive correlations with personal growth, openness to experience, autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, psychological flexibility, positive affect, and positive social relations, among others. Applying item response theory (IRT) to these samples (n = 578), we showed that the items have good discrimination and a desirable breadth of difficulty. The item information functions and test information function were centered near zero, indicating that the scale assesses the mid-range of the latent curiosity trait most reliably. The findings thus far provide good evidence for the psychometric properties of the 10-item CEI-II. PMID:20160913

  1. Psychometric properties of the emotion awareness questionnaire for children in a French-speaking population.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Magali; Luminet, Olivier; Van Broeck, Nady; Bodart, Eddy; Mikolajczak, Moira

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the French version of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ30; Rieffe et al., 2008). The EAQ30 was administered to 707 French-speaking children aged 8 to 16 years old. The original 6-factor structure was replicated in our data. The internal consistency coefficients of the EAQ30 subscales were satisfactory. We found small significant differences for gender and age. Regarding convergent validity, we found positive correlations between EAQ30 scores and emotional intelligence and negative correlations between EAQ30 scores and alexithymia. There was preliminary evidence of discriminant validity, with EAQ30 scores being weakly related to school performance, and concurrent validity, with EAQ30 scores being negatively related to somatic complaints, depression, and anxiety. Finally, except for 1 dimension, EAQ30 scores were not susceptible to social desirability. Although some weaknesses of the scale remain to be addressed, these findings support the use of the EAQ30 for research and clinical purposes. PMID:20552506

  2. The Psychometric Properties of Classroom Response System Data: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    Classroom response systems (often referred to as "clickers") have slowly gained adoption over the recent decade; however, critics frequently doubt their pedagogical value starting with the validity of the gathered responses: There is concern that students simply "click" random answers. This case study looks at different measures of response reliability, starting from a global look at correlations between formative clicker responses and summative examination performance to how clicker questions are used in context. It was found that clicker performance is a moderate indicator of course performance as a whole, and that while the psychometric properties of clicker items are more erratic than those of examination data, they still have acceptable internal consistency and include items with high discrimination. It was also found that clicker responses and item properties do provide highly meaningful feedback within a lecture context, i.e., when their position and function within lecture sessions are taken into consideration. Within this framework, conceptual questions provide measurably more meaningful feedback than items that require calculations.

  3. An Independent Psychometric Evaluation of the PROMS Measure of Music Perception Skills

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Roel M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) is a recently developed measure of perceptual music skills which has been shown to have promising psychometric properties. In this paper we extend the evaluation of its brief version to three kinds of validity using an individual difference approach. The brief PROMS displays good discriminant validity with working memory, given that it does not correlate with backward digit span (r = .04). Moreover, it shows promising criterion validity (association with musical training (r = .45), musicianship status (r = .48), and self-rated musical talent (r = .51)). Finally, its convergent validity, i.e. relation to an unrelated measure of music perception skills, was assessed by correlating the brief PROMS to harmonic closure judgment accuracy. Two independent samples point to good convergent validity of the brief PROMS (r = .36; r = .40). The same association is still significant in one of the samples when including self-reported music skill in a partial correlation (rpartial = .30; rpartial = .17). Overall, the results show that the brief version of the PROMS displays a very good pattern of construct validity. Especially its tuning subtest stands out as a valuable part for music skill evaluations in Western samples. We conclude by briefly discussing the choice faced by music cognition researchers between different musical aptitude measures of which the brief PROMS is a well evaluated example. PMID:27398805

  4. The Interpersonal Shame Inventory for Asian Americans: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Y. Joel; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Nguyen, Chi P.; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saw, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the development and psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Shame Inventory (ISI), a culturally salient and clinically relevant measure of interpersonal shame for Asian Americans. Across 4 studies involving Asian American college students, the authors provided evidence for this new measure’s validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with 2 correlated factors: external shame (arising from concerns about others’ negative evaluations) and family shame (arising from perceptions that one has brought shame to one’s family), corresponding to 2 subscales: ISI-E and ISI-F, respectively. Evidence for criterion-related, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity was demonstrated by testing the associations between external shame and family shame and immigration/international status, generic state shame, face concerns, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. External shame and family shame also exhibited differential relations with other variables. Mediation findings were consistent with a model in which family shame mediated the effects of thwarted belongingness on suicide ideation. Further, the ISI subscales demonstrated high alpha coefficients and test–retest reliability. These findings are discussed in light of the conceptual, methodological, and clinical contributions of the ISI. PMID:24188650

  5. Development and psychometric testing of the nursing culture assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Kennerly, Susan M; Yap, Tracey L; Hemmings, Annette; Beckett, Gulbahar; Schafer, John C; Borchers, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    A valid and reliable nursing culture assessment tool aimed at capturing general aspects of nursing culture is needed for use in health care settings to assess and then reshape indicated troubled areas of the nursing culture. This article summarizes the Nursing Culture Assessment Tool's (NCAT) development and reports on a cross-sectional, exploratory investigation of its psychometric properties. The research aims were to test the tool's psychometric properties; discover its dimensionality; and refine the item structure to best represent the construct of nursing culture, an occupational subset of organizational culture. Empirical construct validity was tested using a sample of licensed nurses and nursing assistants (n = 340). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and logistical regression yielded a 6-factor, 19-item solution. Evidence supports the tool's validity for assessing nursing culture as a basis for shaping the culture into one that supports change, thereby accelerating, improving, and advancing nursing best practices and care outcomes. PMID:22523245

  6. The Eastland Prostate Cancer Survey: instrument development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Eastland, Taryn Y; Dancy, Barbara L

    2013-03-01

    African-American (AA) women could be instrumental in communicating positive prostate screening behavior to the significant males in their lives. However, little is known about AA women's prostate cancer attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, intentions, behaviors, and knowledge regarding prostate cancer screening. This study describes the development and psychometric testing of the Eastland Prostate Cancer Survey (EPCS). A nonexperimental, correlational study with 200 AA women was used to test the psychometric properties of the six-subscale EPCS with 66 items. Construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability for the EPCS were acceptable and resulted in an eight-subscale EPCS with 56 items. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from 0.69 to 0.92. The EPCS is a culturally sensitive, gender-relevant instrument that could be used by community health providers to develop community health programs aimed at engaging AA women in the promotion of prostate cancer screening for AA men. PMID:23288607

  7. Psychometric analysis of five measures of spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Thomas P

    2012-02-01

    This study analyzed psychometric properties of five measures of spatial ability on 96 young adults, with supplementary analysis for three of the measures on another sample of 71 young adults. Two measures were taken from the widely cited Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests and three other measures were taken from a relatively new source originally intended as laboratory demonstrations. Previous research provided limited information on the psychometric properties of the measures. All five measures yielded adequate reliability and loaded on a single factor. Three measures yielded markedly skewed distributions. Two measures showed clear sex differences with men scoring higher but this difference seemed contaminated by a speed factor; three measures did not show a sex difference. Recommendations for use of the measures in future studies are provided. PMID:22582677

  8. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  9. Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.

  10. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred. PMID:18057571

  11. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian G; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S; Andersen, Emil; Back, Silja K; Lansner, Jon; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Nielsen, Anna P; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2016-10-01

    We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non-taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable and converged satisfactorily with established non-affective verbal tests. Immediate recall (IMR) for positive words exceeded IMR for negative words in the healthy sample. Relatedly, individuals with SAD showed a significantly larger decrease in positive recall from summer to winter than healthy controls. Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory. PMID:26401886

  12. The Yale Craving Scale: Development and psychometric properties

    PubMed Central

    Rojewski, Alana M.; Morean, Meghan E.; Toll, Benjamin A.; McKee, Sherry A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Green, Barry G.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current study presents a psychometric evaluation of the Yale Craving Scale (YCS), a novel measure of craving for cigarettes and alcohol, respectively. The YCS is the first craving measure to use a generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) as the scoring format, which facilitates between-group comparisons of subjective craving and eliminates ceiling effects by assessing the full range of imaginable sensation intensities. Methods Psychometric evaluations of the YCS for use with cigarettes (YCS Smoking) and alcohol (YCS Drinking) included assessments of latent factor structure, internal consistency, ceiling effects, and test-criterion relationships. Study samples included 493 treatment-seeking smokers and 213 heavy drinkers. Results Factor analyses of the 5-item YCS Smoking and Drinking scores confirmed a 1-factor scale. The YCS Smoking and Drinking scores evidenced: (1) good internal consistency, (2) scalar measurement invariance within several subgroups (e.g., smoking/drinking status; nicotine/alcohol dependence), (3) convergent relationships with extant craving measures, and (4) concurrent relationships with smoking/drinking outcomes. Conclusions These results suggest that the YCS represents a psychometrically sound scale for assessing smoking and drinking urges in dependent populations. PMID:26183404

  13. Psychometric tests for assessment of brain function after solvent exposure.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, K; Jeppesen, H J; Sabroe, S

    1993-11-01

    Psychometric testing is a key issue in neuropsychological toxicology assessment. Evaluation of methods for assessing general intellectual impairment is necessary as conventional neurology has been shown to be insensitive to the neurotoxic effects of solvents and metals. This study presents an analysis of a psychometric test battery from an investigation of psycho-organic syndrome in a historical cohort of 96 metal degreasers with long-term exposure to solvents, particularly trichloroethylene. The neuropsychological test battery was a combination of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Luria, and tests developed in Scandinavia. Linear regression analysis showed a significant dose-response relation between increasing cumulative solvent exposure and impaired psychometric test performance in 9 out of 15 tests. Multivariate analysis, however, suggests that much of the variance was due to confounding variables, especially age, and to a lesser degree, primary intellectual function and word blindness. After control for confounding factors the strongest association with solvent exposure occurred for the following three tests: acoustic-motor function, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), and the visual gestalt test. PMID:8266931

  14. Assessment of Minimal HE (with emphasis on computerized psychometric tests)

    PubMed Central

    Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing since it cannot by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric (paper-pencil or computerized or a combination) and neuro-physiological techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries like the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) have been validated in several countries but do not have US normative values. Computerized tests such as the inhibitory control test (ICT), cognitive drug research system and Scan test have proven useful to diagnose MHE and predict outcomes. The specificity and sensitivity of these tests are similar to the recommended gold standards. Neuro-physiological tests such as the EEG and its interpretations, evoked potentials and Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike and the testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort and local expertise. PMID:22321464

  15. Genetic discrimination and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Natowicz, M R; Alper, J K; Alper, J S

    1992-01-01

    The use of genetic tests can lead to genetic discrimination, discrimination based solely on the nature of an individual's genotype. Instances of the discriminatory uses of genetic tests by employers and insurance companies have already been reported. The recently enacted Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), together with other federal and state laws, can be used to combat some forms of this discrimination. In this article we define and characterize genetic discrimination, discuss the applicability of the various relevant federal and state laws, including the ADA, in the areas of employment and insurance discrimination, explore the limitations of these laws, and, finally, suggest some means of overcoming these limitations. PMID:1342778

  16. Frequency discriminating laser

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.D.

    1987-10-20

    A laser is described for discriminating between a higher gain transition and a lower gain transition to permit the laser to lase at the lower gain transition. It consists of: a laser cavity, including more than two mirrors each of which is highly transmissive at the frequency of the higher gain transition, one of which is partially reflective at the frequency of the lower gain transition, and all but the one of which are highly reflective at the frequency of the lower gain transition; an active laser medium disposed within the cavity; and means for pumping the active laser medium.

  17. Organizational readiness for implementing change: a psychometric assessment of a new measure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Organizational readiness for change in healthcare settings is an important factor in successful implementation of new policies, programs, and practices. However, research on the topic is hindered by the absence of a brief, reliable, and valid measure. Until such a measure is developed, we cannot advance scientific knowledge about readiness or provide evidence-based guidance to organizational leaders about how to increase readiness. This article presents results of a psychometric assessment of a new measure called Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC), which we developed based on Weiner’s theory of organizational readiness for change. Methods We conducted four studies to assess the psychometric properties of ORIC. In study one, we assessed the content adequacy of the new measure using quantitative methods. In study two, we examined the measure’s factor structure and reliability in a laboratory simulation. In study three, we assessed the reliability and validity of an organization-level measure of readiness based on aggregated individual-level data from study two. In study four, we conducted a small field study utilizing the same analytic methods as in study three. Results Content adequacy assessment indicated that the items developed to measure change commitment and change efficacy reflected the theoretical content of these two facets of organizational readiness and distinguished the facets from hypothesized determinants of readiness. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in the lab and field studies revealed two correlated factors, as expected, with good model fit and high item loadings. Reliability analysis in the lab and field studies showed high inter-item consistency for the resulting individual-level scales for change commitment and change efficacy. Inter-rater reliability and inter-rater agreement statistics supported the aggregation of individual level readiness perceptions to the organizational level of analysis

  18. Discrimination of Direction in Fast Frequency-Modulated Tones by Rats

    PubMed Central

    King, Isabella; Felsheim, Christian; Ostwald, Joachim; von der Behrens, Wolfger

    2006-01-01

    Fast frequency modulations (FM) are an essential part of species-specific auditory signals in animals as well as in human speech. Major parameters characterizing non-periodic frequency modulations are the direction of frequency change in the FM sweep (upward/downward) and the sweep speed, i.e., the speed of frequency change. While it is well established that both parameters are represented in the mammalian central auditory pathway, their importance at the perceptual level in animals is unclear. We determined the ability of rats to discriminate between upward and downward modulated FM-tones as a function of sweep speed in a two-alternative-forced-choice-paradigm. Directional discrimination in logarithmic FM-sweeps was reduced with increasing sweep speed between 20 and 1,000 octaves/s following a psychometric function. Average threshold sweep speed for FM directional discrimination was 96 octaves/s. This upper limit of perceptual FM discrimination fits well the upper limit of preferred sweep speeds in auditory neurons and the upper limit of neuronal direction selectivity in the rat auditory cortex and midbrain, as it is found in the literature. Influences of additional stimulus parameters on FM discrimination were determined using an adaptive testing-procedure for efficient threshold estimation based on a maximum likelihood approach. Directional discrimination improved with extended FM sweep range between two and five octaves. Discrimination performance declined with increasing lower frequency boundary of FM sweeps, showing an especially strong deterioration when the boundary was raised from 2 to 4 kHz. This deterioration corresponds to a frequency-dependent decline in direction selectivity of FM-encoding neurons in the rat auditory cortex, as described in the literature. Taken together, by investigating directional discrimination of FM sweeps in the rat we found characteristics at the perceptual level that can be related to several aspects of FM encoding in the

  19. 18 CFR 358.4 - Non-discrimination requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-discrimination requirements. 358.4 Section 358.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT §...

  20. Discriminative sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  1. Validation of the Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS) in scrupulous and nonscrupulous patients: Revision of factor structure and psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Jonathan D; Fradkin, Isaac

    2016-06-01

    Scrupulosity, or obsessive-compulsive symptoms related to religiosity or religion, is a common presentation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and it is important to elucidate its phenomenology and measurement. Today, the most widespread questionnaire for the assessment of scrupulosity is the Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS). The current study examines the psychometric properties of the PIOS in outpatient, treatment-seeking patients. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis suggested an unsatisfactory fit for previously suggested factor structures. A follow-up exploratory factor analysis suggested that a bifactor model was the most suitable solution. In addition, the scores of the PIOS and its revised subscales were found to have moderate-good concurrent validity; however, its scores discriminated poorly between patients with scrupulous obsessions and patients with OCD and other repugnant obsessions. Group differences and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses both indicated that the PIOS is more suitable in discriminating scrupulous obsessions in Christian patients but not in other religious groups (i.e., Jews, nonreligious patients). Additional analyses revealed that the co-occurrence of scrupulous and other repugnant obsessions is also moderated by religious affiliation. These results raise questions in terms of grouping scrupulosity with other repugnant obsessions and suggest for the need of culturally sensitive instruments of scrupulosity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372375

  2. [Psychometric properties of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-2) in a Spanish sample of partner-violent men].

    PubMed

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Amor, Pedro J

    2012-02-01

    Intimate partner violence is a complex problem that requires the update of the available assessment tools. The aim of the study is to test the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-2) in partner-violent men. Its structure and other psychometric properties are analyzed in 173 convicted offenders from Brians-2 and Alhaurín de la Torre penitentiaries. Discriminant validity is also assessed by comparing offenders with 108 males from the general population. The internal consistency for the 39 items of perpetration is .88 (varying from .59 to .83 among the subscales). The validity data indicate that the scale is useful to discriminate between batterers and general population in physical and psychological violence, although there is an overlap between different types of violence, and it is difficult to compare self-reports with external criteria such court decisions. The results of confirmatory factorial analysis do not support the original five-factor structure. Using exploratory factorial analysis, four components with good internal consistency were identified: Physical (.86), Sexual (.75), and Psychological Violence (.82), and Negotiation (.83). Recommendations for use and a reference guide of rating scores in samples of offenders are suggested. PMID:22269377

  3. Psychometric properties of the mini-social phobia inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a large online treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Fogliati, Vincent J; Terides, Matthew D; Gandy, Milena; Staples, Lauren G; Johnston, Luke; Karin, Eyal; Rapee, Ronald M; Titov, Nickolai; Dear, Blake F

    2016-04-01

    The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) is a brief, three-item measure designed as a screening tool for social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study investigated the Mini-SPIN's psychometric properties in a series of trials of Internet-delivered treatment. Participants were 993 people seeking Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for a range of anxiety and mood disorders. Participants completed the Mini-SPIN, and were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Version 5.0.0 (MINI). They also completed measures of depression, general anxiety, panic, neuroticism and general impairment. The Mini-SPIN's ability to discriminate between people with and without SAD, within a large sample of people seeking treatment for a range of psychological disorders, was assessed at initial assessment and three-month follow-up. The Mini-SPIN's criterion group validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness to treatment were also examined. Results demonstrated that the Mini-SPIN has an excellent ability to discriminate between those with and without SAD in a highly comorbid clinical sample, and also has good criterion group validity. The Mini-SPIN also exhibited excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and was responsive to treatment. These results highlight the Mini-SPIN's potential as an efficient and reliable measure of SAD in heterogenous populations. PMID:27046641

  4. Secondary Psychometric Examination of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Classical Testing, Item Response Theory, and Differential Item Functioning.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Riemann, Bradley C

    2015-12-01

    The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a promising measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms but has received minimal psychometric attention. We evaluated the utility and reliability of DOCS scores. The study included 832 students and 300 patients with OCD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the originally proposed four-factor structure. DOCS total and subscale scores exhibited good to excellent internal consistency in both samples (α = .82 to α = .96). Patient DOCS total scores reduced substantially during treatment (t = 16.01, d = 1.02). DOCS total scores discriminated between students and patients (sensitivity = 0.76, 1 - specificity = 0.23). The measure did not exhibit gender-based differential item functioning as tested by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests. Expected response options for each item were plotted as a function of item response theory and demonstrated that DOCS scores incrementally discriminate OCD symptoms ranging from low to extremely high severity. Incremental differences in DOCS scores appear to represent unbiased and reliable differences in true OCD symptom severity. PMID:25422521

  5. Exploring the psychometric properties and construct validity of the MCMI-III anxiety and avoidant personality scales.

    PubMed

    Blais, Mark A; Holdwick, Daniel J; McLean, Renee Y S; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2003-12-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI; Millon, 1983) is a commonly used self-report instrument designed to aid in the assessment of Axis I and Axis II disorders. Concerns have been expressed regarding the procedures used in the normative research for the current version of the MCMI (MCMI-III; Millon, 1994) leading to a call for additional validity research on the MCMI-III (Retzlaff, 1996). In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the MCMI-III's Anxiety and Avoidant personality scales in a sample of patients diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) anxiety disorders. Our results suggest that the MCMI-III Avoidant scale is reliable (r =.89) and it was found to demonstrate appropriate convergent and divergent validity with other self-report measures. The MCMI-III Anxiety scale also showed adequate reliability (r =.78); however, our findings raise some concerns about the discriminant validity of this scale. A scale composed of the MCMI-III core anxiety items was found to have better discriminant validity. These findings are consistent with those reported by other researchers regarding the relationship between self-report measures of anxiety, avoidance, and depression. We conclude that the MCMI-III measures of anxiety and avoidance are consistent with other measures of these constructs and may provide valuable clinical information in this regard. PMID:14638448

  6. Racial discrimination & health: pathways & evidence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Mohammed, Selina A; Williams, David R

    2007-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the existing empirical research of the multiple ways by which discrimination can affect health. Institutional mechanisms of discrimination such as restricting marginalized groups to live in undesirable residential areas can have deleterious health consequences by limiting socio-economic status (SES) and creating health-damaging conditions in residential environments. Discrimination can also adversely affect health through restricting access to desirable services such as medical care and creating elevated exposure to traditional stressors such as unemployment and financial strain. Central to racism is an ideology of inferiority that can adversely affect non-dominant groups because some members of marginalized populations will accept as true the dominant society's ideology of their group's inferiority. Limited empirical research indicates that internalized racism is inversely related to health. In addition, the existence of these negative stereotypes can lead dominant group members to consciously and unconsciously discriminate against the stigmatized. An overview of the growing body of research examining the ways in which psychosocial stress generated by subjective experiences of discrimination can affect health is also provided. We review the evidence from the United States and other societies that suggest that the subjective experience of discrimination can adversely affect health and health enhancing behaviours. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between discrimination and health requires improved assessment of the phenomenon of discrimination and increased attention to identifying the psychosocial and biological pathways that may link exposure to discrimination to health status. PMID:18032807

  7. INSTRUMENTS MEASURING PERCEIVED RACISM/RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis. PMID:25626225

  8. Introducing Psychometrical Validation of Questionnaires in CALL Research: The Case of Measuring Attitude towards CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, M.; Desmet, P.

    2009-01-01

    The great majority of questionnaires measuring non-observable constructs such as attitude towards CALL are often developed from a specific point of view and are seldom followed by psychometrical validation. Psychometrical properties of the questionnaire, such as construct validity and reliability, then remain unanswered too often, laying a heavy…

  9. Psychometric Comparisons of Three Measures for Assessing Motor Functions in Preschoolers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Y-P.; Su, C-Y.; Huang, M-H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficit in motor performance is common in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). A motor function measure with sound psychometric properties is indispensable for clinical and research use. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of three commonly used clinical measures for assessing motor function in…

  10. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Collaborative Computer-Intensive Projects in an Undergraduate Psychometrics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchard, Kimberly A.; Pace, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate psychometrics classes often use computer-intensive active learning projects. However, little research has examined active learning or computer-intensive projects in psychometrics courses. We describe two computer-intensive collaborative learning projects used to teach the design and evaluation of psychological tests. Course…

  12. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian Version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Akbarzadeh, Sanaz; Akbarzedeh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) is a measurement tool to evaluate high school students' anger. Its psychometric features have been tested in the USA, Australia, Japan, Guatemala, and Italy. This study investigates the factor structure and psychometric quality of the Persian version of the MSAI-R using data from an…

  13. Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS): Further Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Paul K.; Haan, Mary N.; Gonzalez, Hector

    2004-01-01

    The Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales were devised to be a broad set of psychometrically matched measures with equivalent Spanish and English versions. Study 1 in this report used item response theory methods to refine scales. Results strongly supported psychometric matching across English and Spanish versions and, for most…

  14. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  15. A Psychometric Review of Norm-Referenced Tests Used to Assess Phonological Error Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…

  16. The Dutch Memory Compensation Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Regression-Based Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Hoogenhout, Esther M.; Dixon, Roger A.; De Groot, Renate H. M.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    The Memory Compensation Questionnaire (MCQ) is a psychometrically sound instrument that assesses the variety and extent to which an individual compensates for actual or perceived memory losses. Until now, only an English version of the MCQ has been psychometrically evaluated. The aim of the present study was to establish a Dutch version of the MCQ…

  17. Psychometrics and Its Discontents: An Historical Perspective on the Discourse of the Measurement Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be…

  18. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in a…

  19. The Mini-BESTest: a review of psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Silvia; Bravini, Elisabetta; Vercelli, Stefano; Massazza, Giuseppe; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    The Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) has been identified as the most comprehensive balance measure for community-dwelling adults and elderly individuals. It can be used to assess balance impairments in several other conditions, mainly Parkinson's disease and stroke. Despite increasing use of the Mini-BESTest since it was first published 5 years ago, no systematic review synthesizing its psychometric properties is available. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the psychometric properties of the Mini-BESTest when administered to patients with balance deficits because of different diseases. A literature search was performed on articles published before July 2015 in journals indexed by MEDLINE and Scopus databases. The search produced 98 papers, 24 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. Most papers (n=19) focused on patients affected by neurological diseases, mainly Parkinson's disease. In 21 papers, the psychometric characteristics were analyzed using Classical Test Theory methods and in only three papers was Rasch analysis carried out. This review shows the interest of researchers in the Mini-BESTest despite the short time frame since its first publication. The Mini-BESTest is used widely in both clinical practice and research. The results support the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of this instrument and it can be considered a standard balance measure. However, it would be valuable to learn more about how this scale performs in different diseases causing balance deficits and to better define the minimal clinically important difference for each disease. PMID:26795715

  20. Gaussian discriminating strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  1. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  2. Regional Body-Wave Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Rodgers, A; Mayeda, K; Taylor, S

    2000-07-28

    Monitoring the world for potential nuclear explosions requires identifying them by their expected seismic signatures and discriminating them from earthquakes and other sources of seismic waves. Large events (approximately m{sub b} > 4.0) can often be successfully identified by the M{sub s}:m{sub b} discriminant. In order to monitor small events (approximately m{sub b}, < 4.0) short-period regional waveform data recorded within 2000 km will be needed because of poor signal-to-noise at large distances and/or long-periods. Many studies have shown that short-period (0.5-10 Hz) regional body wave phases (e.g. Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg and coda) have excellent discrimination power down to very small magnitudes when used at various nuclear tests sites. In order to broaden the application of these regional body wave techniques, we are developing size-, distance- and location-based corrections to apply to the regional data to allow wider data comparison and better discrimination performance. Building on prior work (e.g. Taylor et al. 1999, Rodgers and Walter, 2000), we are developing a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC) procedure. The procedure makes use of the very stable moment magnitude determinations from regional coda envelopes (see Mayeda et al, this Symposium) to provide an independent size estimate. Using a Brune (1970) style omega-squared source spectral model, we parameterize the source in terms of apparent stress and its scaling with moment. For the distance corrections we parameterize in terms of geometrical spreading, and frequency-dependent attenuation. In addition there are constants associated with velocities, densities and a phase- and frequency-dependent site effect. Using this relatively simple model we can remove much of the magnitude and distance trends from the regional data. We use a grid-search technique to explore the model space with more emphasis on removing the magnitude and distance trends than in fitting the observable spectra

  3. The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychometric properties include validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Establishing the psychometric properties of an instrument which measures three-dimensional human posture are essential prior to applying it in clinical practice or research. Methods This paper reports the findings of a systematic literature review which aimed to 1) identify non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) human posture-measuring instruments; and 2) assess the quality of reporting of the methodological procedures undertaken to establish their psychometric properties, using a purpose-build critical appraisal tool. Results Seventeen instruments were identified, of which nine were supported by research into psychometric properties. Eleven and six papers respectively, reported on validity and reliability testing. Rater qualification and reference standards were generally poorly addressed, and there was variable quality reporting of rater blinding and statistical analysis. Conclusions There is a lack of current research to establish the psychometric properties of non-invasive 3D human posture-measuring instruments. PMID:21569486

  4. Psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale in a Hong Kong Chinese community sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Johnson Ching-hong; Lau, Wai-yee; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a widely used self-report anxiety scale-the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the associated parent-report version (PSCAS)-in a Hong Kong Chinese community sample. While good psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS had been documented in Western cultural contexts (e.g., Australia), no systematic psychometric evaluation of the Chinese-translated SCAS and PSCAS has been published. In this study, psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS were examined with respect to four criteria: (a) factor structure, (b) descriptive statistics, (c) convergent validity with an anxiety cognition measure, and (d) internal consistency. Psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS for a Chinese community sample were found to be highly comparable with those published on Australian samples, thus providing a solid conceptual foundation for use of the Chinese version of SCAS and PSCAS. PMID:21353457

  5. Psychometrics and its discontents: an historical perspective on the discourse of the measurement tradition.

    PubMed

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be presently underway. We argue for caution, in that the psychometrics approach and the quantitative account of competencies that it reflects is based on a rich discussion regarding measurement and scaling that led to the establishment of this paradigm. Rather than reflecting a homogeneous discipline focused on core competencies devoid of consideration of context, the psychometric community has a history of discourse and debate within the field, with an acknowledgement that the techniques and instruments developed within psychometrics are heuristics that must be used pragmatically. PMID:26303112

  6. Psychometric properties of Spence and Robbins' measures of workaholism components.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ronald J; Richardsen, Astrid M; Martinussen, Monica

    2002-12-01

    There has been a recent increase in attention devoted to the study of workaholism. As with most new areas of study, issues of definition and measurement have not received their due. The present investigation examined some psychometric properties of Spence and Robbins' measures of the components of workaholism (1992), one of two measures that have received some attention. These measures were relatively stable in a sample of senior Norwegian managers (N = 87) over a 6-mo. period, had generally acceptable internal consistency reliability, and showed factor structures supportive of three components of workaholism. PMID:12585519

  7. The Chinese Mental Resilience Scale and its psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin-Yang; Kong, Ling-Ming; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Tao, Feng-Yan; Ma, Ai-Guo; Liu, Yun; Gao, Yu-Fang; Tu, De-Hua; Bai, Xiang-Hui; Su, Wei-Ji; Wang, Li-Jie; Lu, Fang; Song, Wen-Dang; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Meng, Xin-Zhen; Wang, Yi-Niu; Xie, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Li-Yi

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a Chinese Mental Resilience Scale. A total of 2500 healthy participants, in two representative samples of the Chinese population, were administered the scale. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlation analysis were used to obtain the relevant coefficients and verify the reliability and validity of the scale. Five factors were extracted: willpower, family support, optimism and self-confidence, problem solving, and interpersonal interaction, plus a lying subscale, which together accounted for 54 percent of the total variance. The Chinese Mental Resilience Scale demonstrated good psychometric properties. It can be used to evaluate the mental resilience level of general Chinese population. PMID:27357924

  8. Psychometric properties of Frustration Discomfort Scale in a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population. PMID:23045854

  9. Incremental hierarchical discriminant regression.

    PubMed

    Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents incremental hierarchical discriminant regression (IHDR) which incrementally builds a decision tree or regression tree for very high-dimensional regression or decision spaces by an online, real-time learning system. Biologically motivated, it is an approximate computational model for automatic development of associative cortex, with both bottom-up sensory inputs and top-down motor projections. At each internal node of the IHDR tree, information in the output space is used to automatically derive the local subspace spanned by the most discriminating features. Embedded in the tree is a hierarchical probability distribution model used to prune very unlikely cases during the search. The number of parameters in the coarse-to-fine approximation is dynamic and data-driven, enabling the IHDR tree to automatically fit data with unknown distribution shapes (thus, it is difficult to select the number of parameters up front). The IHDR tree dynamically assigns long-term memory to avoid the loss-of-memory problem typical with a global-fitting learning algorithm for neural networks. A major challenge for an incrementally built tree is that the number of samples varies arbitrarily during the construction process. An incrementally updated probability model, called sample-size-dependent negative-log-likelihood (SDNLL) metric is used to deal with large sample-size cases, small sample-size cases, and unbalanced sample-size cases, measured among different internal nodes of the IHDR tree. We report experimental results for four types of data: synthetic data to visualize the behavior of the algorithms, large face image data, continuous video stream from robot navigation, and publicly available data sets that use human defined features. PMID:17385628

  10. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  11. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  12. Perceived Weight Discrimination and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58–4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06–4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity. PMID:23894586

  13. Development and psychometric evaluation of scales to measure professional confidence in manual medicine: a Rasch measurement approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health professionals in athletic training, chiropractic, osteopathy, and physiotherapy fields, require high-level knowledge and skills in their assessment and management of patients. This is important when communicating with patients and applying a range of manual procedures. Prior to embarking on professional practice, it is imperative to acquire optimal situation-specific levels of self-confidence for a beginner practitioner in these areas. In order to foster this professional self-confidence within the higher education context, it is necessary to have valid and reliable scales that can measure and track levels and how they change. This study reports on the development and psychometric analysis of two new scales, Patient Communication Confidence Scale (PCCS) and the Clinical Skills Confidence Scale (CSCS), to measure confidence in these two areas for students in manual medicine programs. The Rasch measurement model was used to guide the development of the scales and establish their psychometric properties. Methods The responses to 269 returned questionnaires over two occasions were submitted to psychometric analysis, with various aspects of the scales examined including: item thresholds; item fit; Differential Item Functioning; targeting; item locations; item dependencies; and reliability. To provide further evidence of validity, scores were correlated with two existing valid scales. Results Analyses showed that the scales provided valid and reliable measures of confidence for this sample of persons. High Person Separation Indices (0.96 for PCCS; 0.93 for SCSC) provided statistical evidence of reliability, meaning the scales are able to discriminate amongst persons with different levels of confidence. For the PCCS, item categories were operating as required, and for the CSCS only two items’ thresholds were slightly disordered. Three tests of fit revealed good fit to the model (indicating the internal consistency of both scales) and results of the

  14. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  15. White Attitudes Toward Black Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, B. William

    1976-01-01

    Reviews several national surveys of white racial attitudes done between 1963 and 1974 by Harris and Associates, the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, and Potomac Associates, focusing on perceptions of discrimination and attitudes towards housing, jobs, education, the police, legislation, and reverse discrimination. (JM)

  16. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  17. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  18. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  19. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  20. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  1. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  2. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

  3. Competency Testing: Potential for Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Merle Steven

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the potential for discrimination inherent in competency-based testing and suggests some provisions which might be included in a fair competency-based program. Discussed are: (1) racial discrimination; (2) inadequate phase-in periods; (3) tests which are not reliable or have not been validated; (4) inadequate matching of the…

  4. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  5. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  6. Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…

  7. Vibrotactile discrimination of musical timbre.

    PubMed

    Russo, Frank A; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I

    2012-08-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched for F0, duration, and magnitude was above chance with white noise masking the sound output of the voice coils (Experiment 1), with additional masking to control for bone-conducted sound (Experiment 2), and among a group of deaf individuals (Experiment 4a). Hearing (Experiment 3) and deaf individuals (Experiment 4b) also successfully discriminated between dull and bright timbres varying only with regard to spectral centroid. We propose that, as with auditory discrimination of musical timbre, vibrotactile discrimination may involve the cortical integration of filtered output from frequency-tuned mechanoreceptors functioning as critical bands. PMID:22708743

  8. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    PubMed

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers. PMID:15355161

  9. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  10. Adolescent health promotion scale: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Yang, Rea-Jane; Liou, Yiing-Mei

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a newly devised instrument, the Adolescent Health Promotion scale (AHP), a 40-item Likert-type self-report instrument used to detect unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. Content validity was considered to be supported based on the findings of previous studies and the observations of a panel of 14 content experts. This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the instrument. The psychometric properties of the AHP, including item analysis, factor analysis, and reliability measures, were assessed based on the responses of 1,128 Taiwanese adolescents. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures and Bartlett's sphericity test showed that the samples met the criteria for factor analysis. Factor analysis yielded a six-factor instrument that explained 51.14% of the variance in the 40 items. The six factors were social support, life appreciation, health responsibility, nutritional behaviors, exercise behaviors, and stress management. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for the total scale was 0.932, and alpha coefficients for the subscales ranged from 0.75 to 0.88. The results of this study indicate that the AHP has good construct validity and reliability in Taiwanese and that its use by school health nurses to assess adolescent health promotion programs is warranted. PMID:12588427

  11. The psychometric testing of the Nursing Teamwork Survey in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Bragadóttir, Helga; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Smáradóttir, Sigríður Bríet; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Teamwork Survey-Icelandic (NTS-Icelandic), which was translated from US English to Icelandic. The Nursing Teamwork Survey, with 33 items, measures overall teamwork and five factors of teamwork: trust, team orientation, backup, shared mental models, and team leadership. The psychometric testing of the NTS-Icelandic was carried out on data from a pilot study and a national study. The sample for a pilot study included 123 nursing staff from five units, and the sample for a national study included 925 nursing staff from 27 inpatient units. The overall test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient in the pilot study was 0.693 (lower bound = 0.498, upper bound = 0.821) (p < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha reliability for the total scale and subscales ranged from 0.737 to 0.911. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the data from the national study with the five-factor model for nursing teamwork. The NTS-Icelandic tested valid and reliable in this study. Study findings support further use of the Nursing Teamwork Survey internationally. PMID:26878834

  12. The Ways of Coping Checklist: Revision and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Vitaliano, P P; Russo, J; Carr, J E; Maiuro, R D; Becker, J

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the "original" seven factored scales derived by Aldwin et al. from Folkman and Lazarus' Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL) versus a revised set of scales. Four psychometric properties were examined including the reproducibility of the factor structure of the original scales, the internal consistency reliabilities and intercorrelations of the original and the revised scales, the construct and concurrent validity of the scales, and their relationships to demographic factors. These properties were studied on three distressed samples: 83 psychiatric outpatients, 62 spouses of patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 425 medical students. The revised scales were consistently shown to be more reliable and to share substantially less variance than the original scales across all samples. In terms of construct validity, depression was positively related to the revised Wishful Thinking Scale and negatively related to the revised Problem-Focused Scale consistently across samples. Anxiety was also related to these scales, and in addition, it was positively related to the Seeks Social Support Scale across samples. The Mixed Scale was the only original scale that was consistently related to depression and anxiety across the three samples. Evidence for concurrent validity was provided by the fact that medical students in group therapy had significantly higher original and revised scale scores than students not participating in such groups. Both sets of scales were shown to be generally free of demographic biases. PMID:26776273

  13. PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT INVENTORY: PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSES OF ITS ARGENTINEAN VERSION.

    PubMed

    Stover, Juliana B; Solano, Alejandro Castro; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2015-12-01

    This psychometric analysis of the Argentinean version of the Personality Assessment Inventory employed a convenience sample of 998 non-clinical adults from Buenos Aires, Argentina, stratified by sex and age (50% men; M age = 40.4 yr., SD = 16.8; 50% women; M age = 40.7 yr., SD = 17.4; 69% were employed). For a criterion validity study, a second sample of 394 students at the University of Buenos Aires was selected (47% men; M age = 24 yr., SD = 3.7; 53% women; M age = 23.6 yr., SD = 3.4). Cronbach's αs ranged from .60 to .86, indicating adequate internal consistency. Following American, German, and Spanish studies, a first analysis on the 22 scales obtained a five-factor solution (65.3% of total variance), and a second analysis on 11 clinical scales isolated a two-factor solution (69.3% of total variance). Correlations with the Symptom Checklist-90-R provided support for criterion validity. Most of the scales and subscales showed sex differences and differences between American and Argentinean samples. Future research must add other psychometric indicators. PMID:26595301

  14. Nurse Competence Scale--psychometric testing in a Norwegian context.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Nordström, Gun

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to test the construct validity of the Nurse Competence Scale. The Nurse Competence Scale has been used in hospital settings for various purposes in several countries. Despite this, confirmatory factor analyses are scarcely reported. The present study is based on re-analyses of data from 2007 (i.e. psychometric testing) and 593 newly graduated nurses working in various contexts were included. Confirmatory as well as exploratory factor analyses (Principal Component Analysis) were carried out. The original 7-factor model of the Nurse Competence Scale (73 items) was not confirmed. The exploratory factor analyses resulted in a Norwegian Nurse Competence Scale consisting of 46 items in the following competence categories: Planning and delivery of care, Teaching functions, Professional leadership, Research utilization and nursing values and Professional awareness. The results underline the needs for psychometric testing of an instrument after translation processes. The instrument is suitable for describing and comparing nurse competence for various reasons. It may also be helpful in creating competence development programs at an individual as well as at an organizational level. Further studies with a broader sample are recommended. PMID:25434831

  15. The properties of self-report research measures: beyond psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Blount, Claire; Evans, Chris; Birch, Sarah; Warren, Fiona; Norton, Kingsley

    2002-06-01

    Self-report measures pertinent for personality disorder are widely used and many are available. Their relative merits are usually assessed on nomothetic psychometrics and acceptability to users is neglected. We report reactions of lay, patient and professional groups to the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-IV); Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III); the Borderline Syndrome Index (BSI); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). These were sent to 148 professionals, ex-patients and lay people for comment. Thirty-six per cent were returned. Pattern-coding by three raters revealed problematic themes across all measures, including inappropriate length, vague items and language, cultural assumptions and slang, state-bias and response-set. Measures can be depressing and upsetting for some participants (both patients and non-patients), hence administration of measures should be sensitive. Treatment may make people more self-aware, which may compromise validity for outcome research. This evaluation raises issues and concerns, which are missed in traditional psychometric evaluation. PMID:12396761

  16. Psychometric evaluation of Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire: Spanish version.

    PubMed

    Wells, J N; Bush, H A; Marshall, D

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of a culturally sensitive and theory-based instrument: the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire. This instrument was translated into Spanish and back-translated at a third- to fourth-grade reading level. The pilot group consisted of 70 Hispanic women who attended a class at a local church. Subsequent to pilot testing, another 40 Hispanic women who attended a class at the local health department comprised the study sample. The participants responded to the 15-item questionnaire, which is formatted as a Likert scale. Content validity of the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire was determined by a panel of experts. A factor analysis of this instrument showed five separate dimensions accounting for 71.82% of the instrument's variance. The three major components of self-regulation theory (schema, coping, and appraisal criteria) were found clustered within the first three dimensions after three items were discarded. The Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire demonstrated an internal consistency reliability coefficient of .7172. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of this questionnaire warrant further research. The instrument may support a better understanding of the Hispanic woman's practice of breast health behavior. Eventually, the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire may assist nurses in the formulation of culturally grounded interventions. PMID:11502042

  17. Relation between minimum-error discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Daowen; Li Lvjun

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} of ambiguous discrimination and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U} of unambiguous discrimination. It is known that for discriminating two states, the inequality Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} has been proved in the literature. The main technical results are as follows: (1) We show that, for discriminating more than two states, Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} may not hold again, but the infimum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E} is 1, and there is no supremum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E}, which implies that the failure probabilities of the two schemes for discriminating some states may be narrowly or widely gapped. (2) We derive two concrete formulas of the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U}, respectively, for ambiguous discrimination and unambiguous discrimination among arbitrary m simultaneously diagonalizable mixed quantum states with given prior probabilities. In addition, we show that Q{sub E} and Q{sub U} satisfy the relationship that Q{sub U{>=}}(m/m-1)Q{sub E}.

  18. The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form: Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ju-Ri; Lee, Eun-Ho; Lee, Sun-Woo; Jeong, Eu-gene; Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Dongsoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Experiencing traumatic events in childhood is related to various psychiatric problems in adulthood, and a comprehensive tool for measuring childhood trauma is necessary in this field. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties, and factor structure of the Korean version of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF). ETISR-SF measures the childhood trauma, including physical, and emotional sexual abuse, as well as general traumas. Methods A clinical and nonclinical samples comprising of 97 subjects from a local community, and 207 patients with the ETISR-SF, were assessed. Other tools, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to assess clinical symptoms. Additional data from 69 college students was used to examine the test-retest reliability. Results The original four-factor model was supported by the confirmatory factor analysis scale [χ2 (351, n=304)=3374.025, p<0.001, TLI=0.969, CFI=0.972, RMSEA=0.030]. The ETISR-SF was found to be a reliable instrument (Cronbach's α=0.869). Comparison of the ETISR-SF scores discriminated the clinical group from that of the control group. The measure showed good convergent and divergent validity, in that the scores were correlated higher with the scores on the CTQ-SF (0.691) than with the scores on the BDI or BAI (0.424, 0.397 respectively). The ETISR-SF was found to be temporally stable, showing the moderate to high correlation (0.844). Conclusion These findings suggest that the Korean version of the ETISR-SF appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of reported childhood trauma. PMID:22993521

  19. Development and psychometric testing of a breast cancer patient-profiling questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, Alessandra; Mazzocco, Ketti; Gandini, Sara; Munzone, Elisabetta; McVie, Gordon; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The advent of “personalized medicine” has been driven by technological advances in genomics. Concentration at the subcellular level of a patient’s cancer cells has meant inevitably that the “person” has been overlooked. For this reason, we think there is an urgent need to develop a truly personalized approach focusing on each patient as an individual, assessing his/her unique mental dimensions and tailoring interventions to his/her individual needs and preferences. The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the ALGA-Breast Cancer (ALGA-BC), a new multidimensional questionnaire that assesses the breast cancer patient’s physical and mental characteristics in order to provide physicians, prior to the consultation, with a patient’s profile that is supposed to facilitate subsequent communication, interaction, and information delivery between the doctor and the patient. Methods The specific validation processes used were: content and face validity, construct validity using factor analysis, reliability and internal consistency using test–retest reliability, and Cronbach’s alpha correlation coefficient. The exploratory analysis included 100 primary breast cancer patients and 730 healthy subjects. Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed eight key factors: global self-rated health, perceived physical health, anxiety, self-efficacy, cognitive closure, memory, body image, and sexual life. Test–retest reliability and internal consistency were good. Comparing patients with a sample of healthy subjects, we also observed a general ability of the ALGA-BC questionnaire to discriminate between the two. Conclusion The ALGA-BC questionnaire with 29 items is a valid instrument with which to obtain a patient’s profile that is supposed to help physicians achieve meaningful personalized care which supplements biological and genetic analyses. PMID:26064067

  20. Development and psychometric validation of the Mental, Physical, and Spiritual Well-Being Scale.

    PubMed

    Vella-Brodrick, D A; Allen, F C

    1995-10-01

    Due to the growing interest in holistic health and well-being, the Mental, Physical, and Spiritual Well-being Scale was developed. This well-being scale has 30 items and incorporates mental, physical, and spiritual subscales. An initial set of items was developed and 186 university students responded to these. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using principal components analysis with varimax rotation (N=100) to reduce the number of items in the scale. Three factors were extracted based on the eigenvalues, loading coefficients exceeding 0.3, and the screen test. Ten items from each of the three factors were selected, reducing the number of items from 66 to 30. Another factor analysis, performed on 129 employees of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and 229 students from Monash University, indicated three factors were representative of the mental, physical, and spiritual subscales. Test-retest reliabilities over 1 mo. ranged from 0.87 to 0.97 for the three subscales whilst internal consistency ranged from 0.75 to 0.85. Concurrent validity was examined using the General Health Questionnaire and the Spiritual Well-being Scale. The discriminant validity of the MPS was also explored using three activity groups nominated as highly physical (weight training) or highly mental (chess) or highly spiritual (prayer). Out of a total of 88 cases, 77.3% of these were correctly classified into their actual activity group based on their scores. Sample sizes were moderate and testing was of limited samples. More psychometric work is needed but preliminary findings indicate an accurate and reliable test. PMID:8559898

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale in Severely Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Paiva-Medeiros, Paula Francielle; Duarte-Guerra, Leorides Severo; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition worldwide and has frequent association with major depression. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was applied to obese patients in order to detect briefly and systematically depressive symptoms. The objectives were: to estimate the reliability of the MADRS and to investigate the criterion validity of MADRS. The best cut-off point to detect depressive symptoms was determined in comparison with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Diagnosis (SCID-I). The sample was recruited consecutively from the waiting list of a bariatric surgery service of the university clinic. Trained clinical psychologists applied the assessment instruments. The final sample was comprised of 374 class III obese adults (women 79.9 %, mean age 43.3 years [SD 11.6], mean body mass index 47.0 kg/m2 [SD 7.1]). The mean total score of the MADRS was 7.73 (SD 11.33) for the total sample, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .93. Women presented higher mean score than men (8.08 versus 6.33; p = .23). The best cut-off point was 13/14 in accordance with the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, yielding a sensitivity of .81 and specificity of .85. The overall ability to discriminate depression according to area under the curve was .87. The results showed that the MADRS is a reliable and valid scale to detect depressive symptoms among patients seeking treatment in preoperative period, displaying adequate psychometric properties. PMID:26364907

  2. The Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB): Feasibility and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Meterko, Mark; Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; McDonough, Christine M.; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E.; Chan, Leighton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and psychometric properties of eight scales covering two domains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB): physical function (PF) and behavioral health (BH) function. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community. Participants Adults unable to work due to a physical (n=497) or mental (n=476) disability. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Each disability group responded to a survey consisting of the relevant WD-FAB scales and existing measures of established validity. The WD-FAB scales were evaluated with regard to data quality (score distribution; percent “I don’t know” responses), efficiency of administration (number of items required to achieve reliability criterion; time required to complete the scale) by computerized adaptive testing (CAT), and measurement accuracy as tested by person fit. Construct validity was assessed by examining both convergent and discriminant correlations between the WD-FAB scales and scores on same-domain and cross-domain established measures. Results Data quality was good and CAT efficiency was high across both WD-FAB domains. Measurement accuracy was very good for the PF scales; BH scales demonstrated more variability. Construct validity correlations, both convergent and divergent, between all WD-FAB scales and established measures were in the expected direction and range of magnitude. Conclusions The data quality, CAT efficacy, person fit and construct validity of the WD-FAB scales were well supported and suggest that the WD-FAB could be used to assess physical and behavioral health function related to work disability. Variation in scale performance suggests the need for future work on item replenishment and refinement, particularly regarding the Self-Efficacy scale. PMID:25528263

  3. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  4. Assessing Negative Automatic Thoughts: Psychometric Properties of the Turkish Version of the Cognition Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Batmaz, Sedat; Ahmet Yuncu, Ozgur; Kocbiyik, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Beck’s theory of emotional disorder suggests that negative automatic thoughts (NATs) and the underlying schemata affect one’s way of interpreting situations and result in maladaptive coping strategies. Depending on their content and meaning, NATs are associated with specific emotions, and since they are usually quite brief, patients are often more aware of the emotion they feel. This relationship between cognition and emotion, therefore, is thought to form the background of the cognitive content specificity hypothesis. Researchers focusing on this hypothesis have suggested that instruments like the cognition checklist (CCL) might be an alternative to make a diagnostic distinction between depression and anxiety. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CCL in a psychiatric outpatient sample. Patients and Methods: A total of 425 psychiatric outpatients 18 years of age and older were recruited. After a structured diagnostic interview, the participants completed the hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS), the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ), and the CCL. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by an oblique rotation. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity analyses were undertaken. Results: The internal consistency of the CCL was excellent (Cronbach’s α = 0.95). The test-retest correlation coefficients were satisfactory (r = 0.80, P < 0.001 for CCL-D, and r = 0.79, P < 0.001 for CCL-A). The exploratory factor analysis revealed that a two-factor solution best fit the data. This bidimensional factor structure explained 51.27 % of the variance of the scale. The first factor consisted of items related to anxious cognitions, and the second factor of depressive cognitions. The CCL subscales significantly correlated with the ATQ (rs 0.44 for the CCL-D, and 0.32 for the CCL-A) as well as the other measures of

  5. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. Methods A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments. PMID:26151362

  6. Analysis and discrimination of single-layer white architectural paint samples.

    PubMed

    Wright, Diana M; Bradley, Maureen J; Mehltretter, Andria Hobbs

    2013-03-01

    Comparative analyses of 50 single-layer white architectural paints were conducted to determine the discrimination power using standard techniques and to provide a basis for assessing significance when paints with limited features are not discriminated. Utilizing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 68 undifferentiated pairs resulted, yielding a discrimination of 94.45%. Adding stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and backscatter electron (BSE) imaging, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the overall discrimination was 99.35%. The study included blind verification replicates, which resulted in the only pairs without indications of physical or chemical differences. The remaining groups of undifferentiated samples contained subtle differences by at least one technique, but were considered undifferentiated for the discrimination power evaluations. This study demonstrates a high degree of discrimination of single-layer white architectural paints using methods of analysis often encountered in forensic science laboratories. PMID:23489236

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of an Arabic language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Saarti, Stéphanie; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Khabbaz, Lydia Rabbaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients’ positive illness perceptions (IPs) significantly contribute to treatment success. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) is widely used in various diseases for assessing IPs. It was developed in English-speaking countries and studies on it in Arab countries are scarce. Objectives, Setting and design This observational cross-sectional study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the Brief IPQ English version into a modern Arabic language version and determine its psychometric properties in a sample of Lebanese cardiac disease patients. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Lebanon. Participants A convenience sample of 30 patients with cardiac disease were recruited during routine visits to cardiologists’ offices in Beirut, Lebanon. Inclusion criteria were at least one cardiac disease for at least 6 months with no acute episode or exacerbation of the disease during the 6 preceding months, age≥18 years, and the ability to read and comprehend Arabic. The pre-final version of the Brief IPQ Arabic version was tested for face and content validity. The meaning, comprehensibility, and acceptability were studied by individual interviews. For discriminant validity and internal consistency of the Brief IPQ Arabic version (Brief IPQ-Ar), 100 patients were recruited in a similar manner using the same inclusion criteria. To assess reproducibility, 30 patients, selected randomly from the 100 patients, filled the questionnaire a second time, 3–4 weeks after its first administration and under the same conditions. Main outcome measures Psychometric properties of the Brief IPQ-Ar among Lebanese patients suffering from cardiac diseases. Results Semantic equivalence between the Brief IPQ-Ar questions and patients’ descriptions was 100%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.717, which shows good internal consistency. Reproducibility was satisfactory (ICC values>0.776). Moreover, the Brief IPQ

  8. Perceptions of Race/Ethnicity-Based Discrimination: A Review of Measures and Evaluation of their Usefulness for the Health Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kressin, Nancy R.; Raymond, Kristal L.; Manze, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Background To assess discrimination in health care, reliable, valid, and comprehensive measures of racism/discrimination are needed. Objective To review literature on measures of perceived race/ethnicity-based discrimination and evaluate their characteristics and usefulness in assessing discrimination from health care providers. Methods Literature review of measures of perceived race/ethnicity-based discrimination (1966–2007), using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Science Citation Index. Results We identified 34 measures of racism/discrimination; 16 specifically assessed dynamics in the health care setting. Few measures were theoretically based; most assessed only general dimensions of racism and focused specifically on the experiences of African American patients. Acceptable psychometric properties were documented for about half of the instruments. Conclusions Additional measures are needed for detailed assessments of perceived discrimination in the health care setting; they should be relevant for a wide variety of racial/ethnic groups, and they must assess how racism/discrimination affects health care decision making and treatments offered. PMID:18677066

  9. Attitudes toward science: measurement and psychometric properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes for its use in Spanish-speaking classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Marianela; Förster, Carla; González, Caterina; González-Pose, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Understanding attitudes toward science and measuring them remain two major challenges for science teaching. This article reviews the concept of attitudes toward science and their measurement. It subsequently analyzes the psychometric properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA), such as its construct validity, its discriminant and concurrent validity, and its reliability. The evidence presented suggests that TOSRA, in its Spanish-adapted version, has adequate construct validity regarding its theoretical referents, as well as good indexes of reliability. In addition, it determines the attitudes toward science of secondary school students in Santiago de Chile (n = 664) and analyzes the sex variable as a differentiating factor in such attitudes. The analysis by sex revealed low-relevance gender difference. The results are contrasted with those obtained in English-speaking countries. This TOSRA sample showed good psychometric parameters for measuring and evaluating attitudes toward science, which can be used in classrooms of Spanish-speaking countries or with immigrant populations with limited English proficiency.

  10. Health related quality of life in stem cell transplantation: clinical and psychometric validation of the questionnaire module, High Dose Chemotherapy (HDC-19).

    PubMed

    Andersson, I; Hjermstad, M; Stockelberg, D; Persson, L O

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the HDC-19, a module questionnaire for assessing symptoms and problems of patients undergoing stem cell transplantation (SCT) following high-dose chemotherapy (HDC). It consists of 19 questions and was developed for use in conjunction with EORTC QLQ-C30. Psychometric evaluations were performed according to guidelines recommended by the EORTC. The principal component analyses suggested that nine of the HDC-19 items could be reduced to four components (sexual functioning, future health perspectives, skin irritations and joint/muscle pain). Multitrait scaling analysis showed that most item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent (>0.40) and discriminant validity. Test-retest reliability coefficients between assessments at inclusion and admission were high, indicating that perceived health status remained virtually unchanged during this period. As expected, correlations between admission and one month after transplantation were considerably lower. The internal consistency of the multi-item scales was also satisfactory, (Cronbach's alpha 0.59-0.87). Overall, the known-groups comparisons showed smaller differences between designated groups than expected. As expected, changes in the HDC-19 mirrored changes in QLQ-C30 'global quality of life'. These results lend support to the validity of the HDC-19 as a supplementary questionnaire for assessing specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) issues relevant for SCT patients. PMID:18210301

  11. The development of a knowledge test of depression and its treatment for patients suffering from non-psychotic depression: a psychometric assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Adel; Violato, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Background To develop and psychometrically assess a multiple choice question (MCQ) instrument to test knowledge of depression and its treatments in patients suffering from depression. Methods A total of 63 depressed patients and twelve psychiatric experts participated. Based on empirical evidence from an extensive review, theoretical knowledge and in consultations with experts, 27-item MCQ knowledge of depression and its treatment test was constructed. Data collected from the psychiatry experts were used to assess evidence of content validity for the instrument. Results Cronbach's alpha of the instrument was 0.68, and there was an overall 87.8% agreement (items are highly relevant) between experts about the relevance of the MCQs to test patient knowledge on depression and its treatments. There was an overall satisfactory patients' performance on the MCQs with 78.7% correct answers. Results of an item analysis indicated that most items had adequate difficulties and discriminations. Conclusion There was adequate reliability and evidence for content and convergent validity for the instrument. Future research should employ a lager and more heterogeneous sample from both psychiatrist and community samples, than did the present study. Meanwhile, the present study has resulted in psychometrically tested instruments for measuring knowledge of depression and its treatment of depressed patients. PMID:19754944

  12. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination. PMID:19042289

  13. Lidar polarization discrimination of bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiaoying; Roy, Gilles; Bernier, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Standoff discrimination of bioaerosols based on lidar measurements of depolarized backscattered light is herein studied. Measurements were performed at four wavelengths (355, 532, 1064, and 1570 nm) over 25 pollens and 2 dusts under controlled environment at a distance of 100 m. Linear polarization measurements were performed. It is shown that discrimination between pollens can be achieved using the linear polarization of at most three of the four wavelengths, and statistical discrimination based on Mahalanobis distance is obtained for most of the 27 cases studied.

  14. A discriminant bispectrum feature for surface electromyogram signal classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinpu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Dingguo

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a discriminant bispectrum (DBS) feature extraction approach to surface electromyogram (sEMG) signal classification for prosthetic control. The proposed feature extraction method involves two steps: (1) the bispectrum matrix integration, and (2) the Fisher linear discriminant (FLD) projection. We compare DBS with other conventional features, such as autoregressive coefficients, root mean square, power spectral distribution and time domain statistics. First, the separability of the features is investigated by the visualization of feature distribution in the FLD subspace and quantitative measurement (Davies-Boulder clustering index). Then four linear and non-linear classifiers are used to evaluate the discriminative powers of the features in terms of classification accuracy (CA). The experimental results show that DBS has better performance than other features for identifying the motion patterns of sEMG signals, and the best CA result of DBS is 99.4%. PMID:19955011

  15. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  16. Covariance-enhanced discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    XU, PEIRONG; ZHU, JI; ZHU, LIXING; LI, YI

    2016-01-01

    Summary Linear discriminant analysis has been widely used to characterize or separate multiple classes via linear combinations of features. However, the high dimensionality of features from modern biological experiments defies traditional discriminant analysis techniques. Possible interfeature correlations present additional challenges and are often underused in modelling. In this paper, by incorporating possible interfeature correlations, we propose a covariance-enhanced discriminant analysis method that simultaneously and consistently selects informative features and identifies the corresponding discriminable classes. Under mild regularity conditions, we show that the method can achieve consistent parameter estimation and model selection, and can attain an asymptotically optimal misclassification rate. Extensive simulations have verified the utility of the method, which we apply to a renal transplantation trial.

  17. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  18. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence. PMID:14690714

  19. The Health and Functioning ICF-60: Development and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tutelyan, V A; Chatterji, S; Baturin, A K; Pogozheva, A V; Kishko, O N; Akolzina, S E

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of the Health and Functioning ICF-60 (HF-ICF-60) measure, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) ‘International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: ICF’ (2001). The aims of the present study were to test psychometric properties of the HF-ICF-60, developed as a measure that would be responsive to change in functioning through changes in health and nutritional status, as a prospective measure to monitor health and nutritional status of populations and to explore the relationship of the HF-ICF-60 with quality of life measures such as the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment in relation to non-communicable diseases. Methods The HF-ICF-60 measure consists of 60 items selected from the ICF by an expert panel, which included 18 items that cover Body Functions, 21 items that cover Activities and Participation, rated on five-point scales, and 21 items that cover Environmental Factors (seven items cover Individual Environmental Factors and 14 items cover Societal Environmental Factors), rated on nine-point scales. The HF-ICF-60 measure was administered to the Russian nationally representative sample within the Russian National Population Quality of Life, Health and Nutrition Survey, in 2004 (n = 9807) and 2005 (n = 9560), as part of the two waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS). The statistical analyses were carried out with the use of both classical and modern psychometric methods, such as factor analysis, and based on Item Response Theory, respectively. Results The HF-ICF-60 questionnaire is a new measure derived directly from the ICF and covers the ICF components as follows: Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental Factors (Individual Environmental Factors and Societal Environmental Factors). The results from the factor analyses (both Exploratory Factor Analyses and Confirmatory Factor

  20. The California Verbal Learning Test: psychometric characteristics and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Elwood, R W

    1995-09-01

    The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is a popular clinical and research test that claims to measure key constructs in cognitive psychology such as repetition learning, serial position effects, semantic organization, intrusions, and proactive interference. The psychometric characteristics of the CVLT are reviewed and related to the test's clinical utility. The utility of the CVLT is shown to be limited by its poor standardization and inflated norms. Further, the validity is limited because the CVLT uses multiple trials whereas the constructs it purports to measure are based on single-trial paradigms. The review proposes modifications to the CVLT and guidelines for its clinical use. It concludes that if the limitations of the CVLT are recognized, it can still make a useful contribution to the clinical assessment of verbal learning and memory. PMID:8653108

  1. Genes, Culture and Conservatism-A Psychometric-Genetic Approach.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Inga; Jonker, Wilfried; van den Berg, Stéphanie M

    2016-07-01

    The Wilson-Patterson conservatism scale was psychometrically evaluated using homogeneity analysis and item response theory models. Results showed that this scale actually measures two different aspects in people: on the one hand people vary in their agreement with either conservative or liberal catch-phrases and on the other hand people vary in their use of the "?" response category of the scale. A 9-item subscale was constructed, consisting of items that seemed to measure liberalism, and this subscale was subsequently used in a biometric analysis including genotype-environment interaction, correcting for non-homogeneous measurement error. Biometric results showed significant genetic and shared environmental influences, and significant genotype-environment interaction effects, suggesting that individuals with a genetic predisposition for conservatism show more non-shared variance but less shared variance than individuals with a genetic predisposition for liberalism. PMID:26590135

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Family Caregiver Delirium Knowledge Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bull, Margaret J; Avery, Jennifer Sjostedt; Boaz, Lesley; Oswald, Debra

    2015-01-01

    A valid, reliable measure of family caregivers' knowledge about delirium was not located in the literature; such an instrument is essential to assess learning needs and outcomes of education provided. The purpose of the current study was to (a) develop a family Caregiver Delirium Knowledge Questionnaire (CDKQ) based on the Symptom Interpretation Model; and (b) establish validity and reliability of the measure. The 19-item CDKQ was developed and administered to 164 family caregivers for community-dwelling older adults. Descriptive statistics were examined for all variables. Psychometric testing included confirmatory factor analysis, item-to-total correlations, and internal consistency reliability. A three-factor model provided the best fit for the data. The findings support initial validity and reliability of the CDKQ with family caregivers. Although the CDKQ was developed for use with family caregivers, it has potential for use with other caregivers, such as home health aides. PMID:25893726

  3. Computational Psychometrics in Communication and Implications in Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Cipresso, Pietro; Villani, Daniela; Repetto, Claudia; Bosone, Lucia; Balgera, Anna; Mauri, Maurizio; Villamira, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal). In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants' perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process. PMID:26339285

  4. Psychometric structure of the Chinese Multiethnic Adolescent Cultural Identity Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fa-Wen; Wang, Pei; Li, Li-Ju

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we used the Chinese Multiethnic Adolescent Cultural Identity Questionnaire (CMACIQ) and collected valid data from 1,036 participants to systematically examine the mental model of cultural identity in Chinese multiethnic adolescents. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed on the data to discover the factor structure and dimensions of cultural identity. The psychometric properties of the scale were rigorously validated in 2,744 new multiethnic participants from 5 native ethnic groups in Yunnan province in China. The results indicated that CMACIQ had reasonable metric properties and good fit indices. The hierarchical model of cultural identity consisted of 2 second-order factors, Ethnic Cultural Identity and Mainstream Cultural Identity in School. The first higher order factor was composed of preference for ethnic things, ethnic acceptance, religious belief, and ethnic convention, while the second comprised 2 first-order factors, Social Norms and Dominant Culture. The potential application and limitations of CMACIQ are discussed. PMID:25222435

  5. The dysfunctional attitudes scale: psychometric properties in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gregory M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J; Klein, Marjorie H; Silva, Susan G; Hoyle, Rick H; Curry, John F; Feeny, Norah C; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A; Rosenberg, David R; Weller, Elizabeth B; March, John S

    2009-11-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha = .93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of depression. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a correlated 2-factor model, with scales corresponding to perfectionism and need for social approval, provided a satisfactory fit to the data. The goodness-of-fit was equivalent across sexes and age groups. The findings support the use of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and its subscales in the assessment of clinically depressed adolescents. PMID:20183662

  6. The psychometric properties of the Bortner Type A Scale.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J R; Baglioni, A J; Cooper, C L

    1990-08-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the relationship between Type A behaviour pattern (TABP) and coronary heart disease (CHD) is dependent upon the method of measuring TABP. This suggests that the psychometric properties of TABP measures should be carefully investigated. This article examines one widely used TABP measure, the Bortner Scale, using data from 1320 working adults divided into three random samples. The reliability of the Bortner Scale as an overall TABP index is unacceptably low. However, further analyses indicate that, rather than reflecting a single dimension, the Bortner Scale contains two independent dimensions, one reflecting speed and the other reflecting competitiveness. The speed dimension was negatively related to job satisfaction and, to a lesser extent, positively related to anxiety and somatic symptoms, whereas the competitiveness dimension was positively related to job satisfaction. Implications for the use of the Bortner Scale are discussed. PMID:2224394

  7. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fančovičová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-10-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

  8. Emotion processing deficits in the different dimensions of psychometric schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Giakoumaki, Stella G

    2016-06-01

    Schizotypy refers to a personality structure indicating "proneness" to schizophrenia. Around 10% of the general population has increased schizotypal traits, they also share other core features with schizophrenia and are thus at heightened risk for developing schizophrenia and spectrum disorders. A key aspect in schizophrenia-spectrum pathology is the impairment observed in emotion-related processes. This review summarizes findings on impairments related to central aspects of emotional processes, such as emotional disposition, alexithymia, facial affect recognition and speech prosody, in high schizotypal individuals in the general population. Although the studies in the field are not numerous, the current findings indicate that all these aspects of emotional processing are deficient in psychometric schizotypy, in accordance to the schizophrenia-spectrum literature. A disturbed frontotemporal neural network seems to be the critical link between these impairments, schizotypy and schizophrenia. The limitations of the current studies and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27119257

  9. Psychometric data for the NFL neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Mark R; Solomon, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    As part of a comprehensive league-wide study of concussion, the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury sponsored a neuropsychological testing program from 1996 through 2001. Nearly 1,000 athletes participated voluntarily in the study. Traditional paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests were used for baseline assessment. Neuropsychological tests used in the study included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Trail-Making Tests (Parts A and B), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. We present a factor analysis of these baseline data on 513 athletes who completed all of the neuropsychological tests and present normative psychometric data on the multiple baseline tests employed. PMID:21846219

  10. Psychometric properties of the index of relocation adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-06-01

    More and more American older adults are relocating to retirement communities, and they experience challenges in adjusting to new surroundings that may increase their depression and mortality. An instrument not previously tested in the United States, the Index of Relocation Adjustment (IRA), may help in early identification of poor relocation adjustment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the IRA using secondary data from a convenience sample of 104 older adults who relocated to 6 retirement communities in Northeast Ohio. Cronbach's alpha was .86. The IRA was correlated with measures of positive cognitions (r = .48, p < .01) and relocation controllability (r = -.62, p < .01), suggesting construct validity. Results indicated a single factor reflecting relocation adjustment with loadings for all items ranging from .62 to .83. The IRA is potentially useful as a screening measure for early detection of poor adjustment among relocated older adults. PMID:24781965

  11. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder in women from a psychometric perspective.

    PubMed

    Allen, J G; Coyne, L; Huntoon, J

    1998-04-01

    Herman's (1992a) formulation of complex PTSD was not incorporated into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), but finds ample confirmation in personality assessment of women in inpatient treatment for trauma-related disorders. This study relates MCMI-III and Adult Attachment Scale scores to a self-report measure of childhood abuse and neglect, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Consistent with Herman's formulation, the data reveal a wide array of symptoms coupled with two facets of relationship disturbance: (a) enmeshment in ambivalence (depressive, dependent, and self-defeating personality as well as ambivalent attachment), and (b) more profound isolation (avoidant and schizoid personality coupled with profoundly insecure attachment). We present a model for using such psychometric findings in patient education and diagnostic evaluations. PMID:9697331

  12. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators.

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Role Strain Scale: The Persian Version

    PubMed Central

    Kolagari, Shohreh; Zagheri Tafreshi, Mansoureh; Rassouli, Maryam; Kavousi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nursing teachers have difficulties fulfilling multiple roles expectations and balancing the various dimensions of their roles that may lead to role strain. In order to lack of culturally and academically proper scale in Iran to measure role strain in nursing teachers, localizing a foreign scale in this field is necessary. Objectives: The objective of this study was psychometric evaluation of the Role Strain Scale (RSS) and confirming its structural model in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: The present cross- sectional study was conducted in 2012, comprising 302 nursing teachers from around the country who were selected using stratified- cluster sampling. Psychometric evaluation process of the RSS was carried out by Face, content and constructs validity (confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis). Reliability was examined using test-retest and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency reliability. Results: In the primary results, in spite of being approved by face and content validity, in Construct validity, fitness indices of original Role Strain Scale showed no satisfactory findings in Iranian data. Therefore, some items from the structural model of original version were extracted by exploratory factor analysis and a five–factor model with 33 items was obtained. These factors were role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, role incompetence, and role incongruity. New model as Persian version of RSS was confirmed by calculating fitness indices such as GFI = 0.93, AGFI = 0.94, NFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.093. Internal consistency reliability for the total scale and subscales were respectively 0.92, and 0.71-0.84. Results from Pearson correlation test indicate a high degree of test-retest reliability (r = 0. 89). ICC was also 0.91. Conclusions: This reliable and valid scale is academically appropriate for nursing teachers to measure role strain and helps detect and predict a multiplicity of role problems and consequently make educational

  14. The HIV Medication Taking Self-Efficacy Scale: Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Erlen, Judith A.; Cha, EunSeok; Kim, Kevin H.; Caruthers, Donna; Sereika, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an examination of the psychometric properties of the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale. Background Self-efficacy is a critically important component of strategies to improve HIV medication-taking; however, valid and reliable tools for assessing HIV medication-taking self-efficacy are limited. Method We used a cross-sectional, correlational design. Between 2003 and 2007, 326 participants were recruited from sites in Pennsylvania and Ohio in the United States of America. Six self-report questionnaires administered at baseline and 12 weeks later during “Improving Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy” were used to examine the variables of interest. Means and variances, reliability, criterion, and construct validity of the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale were assessed. Findings Participants reported high self-confidence in their ability to carry out specific medication-related tasks (mean=8.31) and in the medication’s ability to effect good outcomes (mean=8.56). The HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale and subscales showed excellent reliability (α = .93 ~ .94). Criterion validity was well-established by examining the relationships between the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale and selected physiological and psychological factors, and self-reported medication adherence (r = −.20 ~ .58). A two-factor model with a correlation between self-efficacy belief and outcome expectancy fitted the data well (model χ2 = 3871.95, df = 325, p<001; CFA =.96; RMSEA =.046). Conclusion The HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale is a psychometrically sound measure of medication-taking self-efficacy for use by researchers and clinicians with people with HIV. The findings offer insight into the development of interventions to promote self-efficacy and medication adherence in persons with HIV. PMID:20722799

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS)

    PubMed Central

    Storfer-Isser, A; LeBourgeois, MK; Harsh, J; Tompsett, CJ; Redline, S

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19 years; 17.7±0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Self-reports of sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness, caretaker-reports of behavior, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy were collected. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually-based factor structure was similar for 6 of the 8 proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α=0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α=0.60; behavioral arousal: α=0.62; cognitive/emotional: α=0.81; sleep environment: α=0.61; sleep stability: α=0.68; daytime sleep: α=0.78 α = 0.50. Sleep hygiene scores were positively associated with sleep duration (r=.16) and sleep efficiency (r=.12), and negatively correlated with daytime sleepiness (r=-.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. PMID:23682620

  16. Psychometric properties of the modified Symptom Severity Index (SSI)

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; John, Mike T.; Wall, Melanie M.; Fricton, James R.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the modified Symptom Severity Index were investigated to assess the relationships among dimensions of pain in temporomandibular disorders. The 15-item instrument is composed of ordinal scales assessing five pain dimensions (intensity, frequency, duration, unpleasantness, and difficulty to endure) as experienced in three locations (temple, temporomandibular joint, masseter). In 108 closed-lock subjects, Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure internal consistency resulting in 31 of the 105 pair-wise comparisons ≥0.71. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis was used to assess dimensionality between items. Two factors emerged, termed temple pain and jaw pain. The jaw pain factor comprised the temporomandibular joint and masseter locations, indicating that subjects did not differentiate between these two locations. With further analysis, the jaw pain factor could be separated into temporal aspects of pain (frequency, duration) and affective dimensions (intensity, unpleasantness, endurability). Temple pain could not be further reduced; this may have been influenced by concurrent orofacial pains such as headache. Internal consistency was high, with alphas ≥0.92 for scales associated with all factors. Excellent test-retest reliability was found for repeat testing at 2–48 hours in 55 subjects (ICC=0.97, 95%CI 0.96–0.99). In conclusion, the modified Symptom Severity Index has excellent psychometric properties for use as an instrument to measure pain in subjects with temporomandibular disorders. The most important characteristic of this pain is location, while the temporal dimensions are important for jaw pain. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and assess relationships between dimensions of pain as experienced in other chronic pain disorders. PMID:19889036

  17. Understanding the State of the Art for Measurement in Chemistry Education Research: Examining the Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arjoon, Janelle A.; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    education community are relatively new. Because psychometric evidence dictates the validity of interpretations made from test scores, gathering and reporting validity and reliability evidence is of utmost importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate what…

  18. Optimal Fisher Discriminant Ratio for an Arbitrary Spatial Light Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Optimizing the Fisher ratio is well established in statistical pattern recognition as a means of discriminating between classes. I show how to optimize that ratio for optical correlation intensity by choice of filter on an arbitrary spatial light modulator (SLM). I include the case of additive noise of known power spectral density.

  19. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  20. 1974-1975 Annual Survey of Labor Relations and Employment Discrimination Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Robert Philip; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Major headings in this review of 1974-75 labor relations and employment discrimination law include Unfair Labor Practices, Arbitration, Seniority, Sex Discrimination, Affirmative Action Under Title VII, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Enforcement Powers under Section 706, and Federal Employment--Judicial Application of Section 717. (JT)

  1. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks.

    PubMed

    Han, Sunhyoung; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as a pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognition model, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN), whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. As a model of neural computation, the HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a convolutional neural network implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement a combination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectification is performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linear units (ReLUs), whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of target object classes. This enables a number of functional enhancements over neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation of saliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features, and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence. In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity to target object classes and invariance. The performance of the network in saliency and object recognition tasks is compared to those of models from the biological and

  2. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sunhyoung; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as a pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognition model, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN), whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. As a model of neural computation, the HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a convolutional neural network implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement a combination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectification is performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linear units (ReLUs), whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of target object classes. This enables a number of functional enhancements over neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation of saliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features, and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence. In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity to target object classes and invariance. The performance of the network in saliency and object recognition tasks is compared to those of models from the biological and

  3. Discrimination. Prejudice in Action. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Scott

    This book for young readers explains what discrimination is and explores different types of discrimination and how they have developed over the years. Laws that make it more difficult to discriminate against others are described, and the struggle for human rights is outlined. Discrimination means acting unfavorably toward someone based on the…

  4. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  5. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  6. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  7. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  8. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  9. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  10. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  11. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  12. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  13. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  14. Psychometric properties of the national eye institute refractive error correction quality-of-life questionnaire among Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Saffari, Mohsen; Labiris, Georgios; Fridlund, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the national Eye Institute refractive error correction quality of life questionnaire (NEI-RQL-42) among Iranian patients with refractive errors. Materials and Methods: Two samples of patients (n1 = 296, n2 = 95) were consecutively selected from the eye clinic of the Boo-Ali Hospital, Qazvin. A forward-backward procedure was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Iranian version of the NEI-RQL-42. A homogeneity, stability, and reliability test was conducted for the first sample after a two-week interval. Convergent validity was computed using the correlation between the NEI-RQL-42 subscale scores, National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Furthermore, Known-group analysis was performed, to determine the discriminant validity between the subgroups of patients with hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. Responsiveness to clinical change was tested by administering NEI-RQL-42 on the second sample that was scheduled for surgery. Results: Homogeneity was satisfactory with the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging between 0.70 and 0.92. The 13 subscales of the NEI-RQL-42 showed a considerable stability in intra-class-correlation (ICC) ranging between 0.70 and 0.89. Positive correlation coefficients were found among all subscales of the NEI-RQL-42 and the other quality-of-life instruments (NEI-VFQ-25 and SF-36). The NEI-VFQ-25 displayed excellent discriminant validity to differentiate the subgroups of patients, and was found to be responsive to change after the surgical correction at three months. Conclusions: The Iranian version of the NEI-RQL-42 is a valid and reliable instrument to assess refractive error correction quality-of-life in Iranian patients. Moreover this questionnaire can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in patients with refractive errors. PMID:23772124

  15. Development and psychometric evaluation of an information literacy self-efficacy survey and an information literacy knowledge test*

    PubMed Central

    Tepe, Rodger; Tepe, Chabha

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and psychometrically evaluate an information literacy (IL) self-efficacy survey and an IL knowledge test. Methods In this test–retest reliability study, a 25-item IL self-efficacy survey and a 50-item IL knowledge test were developed and administered to a convenience sample of 53 chiropractic students. Item analyses were performed on all questions. Results The IL self-efficacy survey demonstrated good reliability (test–retest correlation = 0.81) and good/very good internal consistency (mean κ = .56 and Cronbach's α = .92). A total of 25 questions with the best item analysis characteristics were chosen from the 50-item IL knowledge test, resulting in a 25-item IL knowledge test that demonstrated good reliability (test–retest correlation = 0.87), very good internal consistency (mean κ = .69, KR20 = 0.85), and good item discrimination (mean point-biserial = 0.48). Conclusions This study resulted in the development of three instruments: a 25-item IL self-efficacy survey, a 50-item IL knowledge test, and a 25-item IL knowledge test. The information literacy self-efficacy survey and the 25-item version of the information literacy knowledge test have shown preliminary evidence of adequate reliability and validity to justify continuing study with these instruments. PMID:25517736

  16. Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying Scale Form B: psychometric testing of the Italian version for students.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Chiara; Piredda, Michela; Taboga, Chiara; Mirabella, Fiorino; Marfoli, Elisabetta; Casale, Giuseppe; Matarese, Maria; Frommelt, Katherine H Murray; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying patients have an impact on the quality of the care provided. Education can improve knowledge and attitudes toward end-of-life care. No validated tool that measures such attitudes is available for Italian nursing students. The aim of this study was to translate the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) Form B from English into Italian and to establish its validity and reliability within an Italian population of students. A two-stage design was used. Stage I adapted the original version of the tool and tested it for content validity through a multistep process. Stage 2 tested its psychometric properties by analyzing internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. The convenience sample consisted of 465 nursing students from all the universities of one Italian region. Measures of stability showed a very good overall (0.87) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The discriminating capacity of the scale was adequate with good values of asymmetry and kurtosis for most of the items. Good internal consistency was found. The six factors derived from the factor analysis are the following: Fear/Malaise, Communication, Relationship, Care of the family, Family as Caring, and Active Care. FATCOD Form B-I is a valid, reliable, and acceptable tool for evaluation of attitudes toward end-of-life care in Italian students. It measures six specific dimensions that should be highlighted during health care student education and training. PMID:26036054

  17. Locke-Wallace Short Marital-Adjustment Test: Psychometric Evaluation in Caregivers for Persons With Primary Malignant Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun; Terhorst, Lauren; Donovan, Heidi S.; Weimer, Jason M.; Choi, Chien-Wen J.; Schulz, Richard; Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caregivers’ well-being has been found to be associated with marital adjustment. This study’s purpose was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Locke-Wallace Short Marital-Adjustment Test (LWSMAT) in a sample of caregivers of persons with primary malignant brain tumor (PMBT). Methods Secondary analysis of data collected from 114 caregivers. The LWSMAT was tested for factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity. Results 5 extracted factors explained 60.55% of the total variance. Four interpretable factors (Contentment & Communication, Leisure & Sociality, Intimacy, and Shared Philosophy) had Cronbach’s alpha between 0.63 and 0.74. Convergent validity (r = −.35 and r = −.43, respectively, both p < .0001) and discriminant validity (r = .07, p = .49; and r = −.04, p = .67) were confirmed by comparing four factors with subdimensions of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA). Conclusion The LWSMAT is a multidimensional, reliable, and valid measure of marital adjustment in caregivers of persons with a PMBT. PMID:24620520

  18. Psychometric Properties of a Self-Report Instrument for the Assessment of Tic Severity in Adults With Tic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Reese, Hannah; Woods, Douglas W; Peterson, Alan; Deckersbach, Thilo; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    The gold-standard measure of tic severity in tic disorders (TD), the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), is a semistructured clinician-administered interview that can be time consuming and requires highly trained interviewers. Moreover, the YGTSS does not provide information regarding frequency and intensity of specific tics because all motor and all vocal tics are rated as a group. The aim of the present study is to describe and test the Adult Tic Questionnaire (ATQ), a measure for the assessment of tic severity in adults, and to report its preliminary psychometric properties. The ATQ is a brief self-report questionnaire that provides information regarding frequency, intensity, and severity of 27 specific tics. In addition, the ATQ produces total frequency, intensity, and severity scores for vocal and motor tics, as well as a global total tic severity score. Results showed that the ATQ demonstrated very good internal consistency and temporal stability. The total, vocal, and motor tic severity scales of the ATQ showed strong correlation with corresponding subscales of the YGTSS, indicating strong convergent validity. Weak correlations with measures of severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, indicated strong discriminant validity. The ATQ, a promising measure for the assessment of tic severity in adults with TD, may be a valuable supplement to the current recommended assessment battery for TD. Furthermore, the ATQ enables clinicians and researchers to track changes in the frequency and intensity of specific tics, which is important given their complex and dynamic nature. PMID:26520221

  19. Development and psychometric properties of an informant assessment scale of theory of mind for adults with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dengke; Pang, Yanxia; Cai, Weixiong; Fazio, Rachel L; Ge, Jianrong; Su, Qiaorong; Xu, Shuiqin; Pan, Yinan; Chen, Sanmei; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-08-01

    Impairment of theory of mind (ToM) is a common phenomenon following traumatic brain injury (TBI) that has clear effects on patients' social functioning. A growing body of research has focused on this area, and several methods have been developed to assess ToM deficiency. Although an informant assessment scale would be useful for examining individuals with TBI, very few studies have adopted this approach. The purpose of the present study was to develop an informant assessment scale of ToM for adults with traumatic brain injury (IASToM-aTBI) and to test its reliability and validity with 196 adults with TBI and 80 normal adults. A 44-item scale was developed following a literature review, interviews with patient informants, consultations with experts, item analysis, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The following three common factors were extracted: social interaction, understanding of beliefs, and understanding of emotions. The psychometric analyses indicate that the scale has good internal consistency reliability, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, structural validity, discriminate validity and criterion validity. These results provide preliminary evidence that supports the reliability and validity of the IASToM-aTBI as a ToM assessment tool for adults with TBI. PMID:25849662

  20. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  1. Discriminative Feature Selection via Multiclass Variable Memory Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonim, Noam; Bejerano, Gill; Fine, Shai; Tishby, Naftali

    2003-12-01

    We propose a novel feature selection method based on a variable memory Markov (VMM) model. The VMM was originally proposed as a generative model trying to preserve the original source statistics from training data. We extend this technique to simultaneously handle several sources, and further apply a new criterion to prune out nondiscriminative features out of the model. This results in a multiclass discriminative VMM (DVMM), which is highly efficient, scaling linearly with data size. Moreover, we suggest a natural scheme to sort the remaining features based on their discriminative power with respect to the sources at hand. We demonstrate the utility of our method for text and protein classification tasks.

  2. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. Method A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. Results 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. Conclusions The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose. PMID:20338040

  3. Anomaly discrimination in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Paylor, Drew; Chang, Chein-I.

    2014-05-01

    Anomaly detection finds data samples whose signatures are spectrally distinct from their surrounding data samples. Unfortunately, it cannot discriminate the anomalies it detected one from another. In order to accomplish this task it requires a way of measuring spectral similarity such as spectral angle mapper (SAM) or spectral information divergence (SID) to determine if a detected anomaly is different from another. However, this arises in a challenging issue of how to find an appropriate thresholding value for this purpose. Interestingly, this issue has not received much attention in the past. This paper investigates the issue of anomaly discrimination which can differentiate detected anomalies without using any spectral measure. The ideas are to makes use unsupervised target detection algorithms, Automatic Target Generation Process (ATGP) coupled with an anomaly detector to distinguish detected anomalies. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are indeed very effective in anomaly discrimination.

  4. Temporal discrimination and delayed reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Buriticá, Jonathan; Vilchez, Zirahuén; Santos, Cristiano Valerio Dos

    2016-09-01

    We attempted to determine the effect of reinforcement delay on time discrimination in an interval bisection task. Three groups of rats were exposed to immediate, delayed reinforcement and longer signals with immediate reinforcement in acquisition and test. Results show differences in the amount of training necessary to reach the acquisition criteria, the Weber fraction and the range or overall stimulus control. The results suggest an increased difficulty to discriminate the difference among durations rather than an increase in estimated time as main effect of delayed reinforcement. PMID:27431922

  5. Amplifier-Discriminator-Multiplexor card

    SciTech Connect

    Graupman, D.

    1986-02-01

    The Amplifier-Discriminator-Multiplexor (ADM) card described was designed for the External Muon Identifier at the 15 ft Bubble Chamber. The general scheme of the data readout of the External Muon Identifier is based on the use of a master clock. The ADM card serves to amplify the signals from the proportional tubes, discriminate them, latch the signals in parallel into a shift register. The data are then shifted out serially to the Time Digitizing System, using the master clock. The shift registers are loaded, and the latches are reset every sixteen cycles of the master clock. (LEW)

  6. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  7. Does fundamental-frequency discrimination measure virtual pitch discrimination?

    PubMed

    Micheyl, Christophe; Divis, Kristin; Wrobleski, David M; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    Studies of pitch perception often involve measuring difference limens for complex tones (DLCs) that differ in fundamental frequency (F0). These measures are thought to reflect F0 discrimination and to provide an indirect measure of subjective pitch strength. However, in many situations discrimination may be based on cues other than the pitch or the F0, such as differences in the frequencies of individual components or timbre (brightness). Here, DLCs were measured for harmonic and inharmonic tones under various conditions, including a randomized or fixed lowest harmonic number, with and without feedback. The inharmonic tones were produced by shifting the frequencies of all harmonics upwards by 6.25%, 12.5%, or 25% of F0. It was hypothesized that, if DLCs reflect residue-pitch discrimination, these frequency-shifted tones, which produced a weaker and more ambiguous pitch than would yield larger DLCs than the harmonic tones. However, if DLCs reflect comparisons of component pitches, or timbre, they should not be systematically influenced by frequency shifting. The results showed larger DLCs and more scattered pitch matches for inharmonic than for harmonic complexes, confirming that the inharmonic tones produced a less consistent pitch than the harmonic tones, and consistent with the idea that DLCs reflect F0 pitch discrimination. PMID:20968365

  8. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA): Development and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Shahla; Ramezankhani, Ali; Montazeri, Ali; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA). Methods This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012–2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15–18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13) and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16). In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and factor analysis were assessed. Results An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15–18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93). The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy. Conclusion The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA) is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15

  9. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    PubMed Central

    Coolidge, Trilby; Chambers, Mark A; Garcia, Laura J; Heaton, Lisa J; Coldwell, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS), as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS). Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability), and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations) for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish versions of the DFS and NS

  10. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  11. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. PMID:26436847

  12. A compact nonlinear fiber-based optical autocorrelation peak discriminator.

    PubMed

    Fok, M P; Deng, Y; Prucnal, P R

    2009-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a nonlinear fiber-based optical autocorrelation peak discriminator. The approach exploits four-wave mixing in a 37-cm highly-nonlinear bismuth-oxide fiber that provides a passive and compact means for rejecting cross-correlation peaks. The autocorrelation peak discriminator plays an important role in improving the detection of optical CDMA signals. Eye diagrams and bit-error rates are measured at different power ratios. Significant receiver sensitivity improvements are obtained and error-floors are removed. The experimental results show that the autocorrelation peak discriminator works well even when the amplitudes of individual cross-correlation peaks are higher than that of the autocorrelation peak. PMID:19506641

  13. Uncertain LDA: Including Observation Uncertainties in Discriminative Transforms.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Rahim; Astudillo, Ramon Fernandez; Kolossa, Dorothea

    2016-07-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a powerful technique in pattern recognition to reduce the dimensionality of data vectors. It maximizes discriminability by retaining only those directions that minimize the ratio of within-class and between-class variance. In this paper, using the same principles as for conventional LDA, we propose to employ uncertainties of the noisy or distorted input data in order to estimate maximally discriminant directions. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed uncertain LDA on two applications using state-of-the-art techniques. First, we experiment with an automatic speech recognition task, in which the uncertainty of observations is imposed by real-world additive noise. Next, we examine a full-scale speaker recognition system, considering the utterance duration as the source of uncertainty in authenticating a speaker. The experimental results show that when employing an appropriate uncertainty estimation algorithm, uncertain LDA outperforms its conventional LDA counterpart. PMID:26415158

  14. Multilevel psychometric properties of the AHRQ hospital survey on patient safety culture

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was designed to assess staff views on patient safety culture in hospital settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the multilevel psychometric properties of the survey. Methods Survey data from 331 U.S. hospitals with 2,267 hospital units and 50,513 respondents were analyzed to examine the psychometric properties of the survey's items and composites. Item factor loadings, intraclass correlations (ICCs), design effects, internal consistency reliabilities, and multilevel confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) were examined as well as intercorrelations among the survey's composites. Results Psychometric analyses confirmed the multilevel nature of the data at the individual, unit and hospital levels of analysis. Results provided overall evidence supporting the 12 dimensions and 42 items included in the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture as having acceptable psychometric properties at all levels of analysis, with a few exceptions. The Staffing composite fell slightly below cutoffs in a number of areas, but is conceptually important given its impact on patient safety. In addition, one hospital-level model fit indicator for the Supervisor/Manager Expectations & Actions Promoting Patient Safety composite was low (CFI = .82), but all other psychometrics for this scale were good. Average dimension intercorrelations were moderate at .42 at the individual level, .50 at the unit level, and .56 at the hospital level. Conclusions Psychometric analyses conducted on a very large database of hospitals provided overall support for the patient safety culture dimensions and items included in the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey's items and dimensions overall are psychometrically sound at the individual, unit, and hospital levels of analysis and can be used by researchers and hospitals interested in assessing patient safety culture

  15. Experimental variability and data pre-processing as factors affecting the discrimination power of some chemometric approaches (PCA, CA and a new algorithm based on linear regression) applied to (+/-)ESI/MS and RPLC/UV data: Application on green tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Iorgulescu, E; Voicu, V A; Sârbu, C; Tache, F; Albu, F; Medvedovici, A

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the experimental variability (instrumental repeatability, instrumental intermediate precision and sample preparation variability) and data pre-processing (normalization, peak alignment, background subtraction) on the discrimination power of multivariate data analysis methods (Principal Component Analysis -PCA- and Cluster Analysis -CA-) as well as a new algorithm based on linear regression was studied. Data used in the study were obtained through positive or negative ion monitoring electrospray mass spectrometry (+/-ESI/MS) and reversed phase liquid chromatography/UV spectrometric detection (RPLC/UV) applied to green tea extracts. Extractions in ethanol and heated water infusion were used as sample preparation procedures. The multivariate methods were directly applied to mass spectra and chromatograms, involving strictly a holistic comparison of shapes, without assignment of any structural identity to compounds. An alternative data interpretation based on linear regression analysis mutually applied to data series is also discussed. Slopes, intercepts and correlation coefficients produced by the linear regression analysis applied on pairs of very large experimental data series successfully retain information resulting from high frequency instrumental acquisition rates, obviously better defining the profiles being compared. Consequently, each type of sample or comparison between samples produces in the Cartesian space an ellipsoidal volume defined by the normal variation intervals of the slope, intercept and correlation coefficient. Distances between volumes graphically illustrates (dis)similarities between compared data. The instrumental intermediate precision had the major effect on the discrimination power of the multivariate data analysis methods. Mass spectra produced through ionization from liquid state in atmospheric pressure conditions of bulk complex mixtures resulting from extracted materials of natural origins provided an excellent data

  16. Long range target discrimination using UV fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Mark; Lepley, Jason

    2011-06-01

    An active imaging system using UV fluorescence for target discrimination is proposed. The emission wavelength is characteristic of the target material and allows spectral discrimination of targets from clutter. The burst-illumination-LIDAR system transmits a laser pulse and the fluorescent return is detected with a synchronised gated imaging receiver. The short gate length (~ns) allowed by a micro-channel plate CCD reduces solar clutter. Detector noise is not the limiting factor because of the high MCP-CCD detectivity. Laser choice is constrained by the required laser pulse energy, laser size and robustness. The COTS solution identified is a diode-pumped, 4th harmonic converted, 1064nm laser. Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Nd:Alexandrite lasers have superior performance but require some development for this application. A pessimistic range model evaluates the optical powers. Comparison of the received fluorescent energy to the detector noise equivalent energy and the solar energy received provides the detection range limit. Performance of the proposed systems exceeds the detection range requirement for all samples evaluated and all varying conditions explored. The lowest range is for black paint with the COTS laser system and is 2860m; the best ranges exceed 5km.

  17. Individual differences in chess expertise: a psychometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Roland H; Stern, Elsbeth; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2007-03-01

    Starting from controversies over the role of general individual characteristics (especially intelligence) for the attainment of expert performance levels, a comprehensive psychometric investigation of individual differences in chess expertise is presented. A sample of 90 adult tournament chess players of varying playing strengths (1311-2387 ELO) was screened with tests on intelligence and personality variables; in addition, experience in chess play, tournament participation, and practice activities were assessed. Correlation and regression analyses revealed a clear-cut moderate relationship between general (and in particular numerical) intelligence and the participants' playing strengths, suggesting that expert chess play does not stand in isolation from superior mental abilities. The strongest predictor of the attained expertise level, however, was the participants' chess experience which highlights the relevance of long-term engagement for the development of expertise. Among all analysed personality dimensions, only domain-specific performance motivation and emotion expression control incrementally contributed to the prediction of playing strength. In total, measures of chess experience, current tournament activity, intelligence, and personality accounted for about 55% of variance in chess expertise. The present results suggest that individual differences in chess expertise are multifaceted and cannot be reduced to differences in domain experience. PMID:16942740

  18. A multidimensional assessment of social cognition in psychometrically defined schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Sean C; Brown, Laura A; Cohen, Alex S

    2013-12-30

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in multiple social cognitive domains. There is evidence that these impairments may be trait-related vulnerability markers for schizophrenia. However, the literature focusing on individuals vulnerable to developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, referred to as schizotypy, has produced inconsistent findings. This study's primary aim was to provide a more comprehensive understanding of social cognitive functioning within schizotypy than previous studies by employing a broad array of measures to assess multiple social cognitive domains, and examine how these domains relate to specific schizotypy traits (i.e., positive, negative, and disorganized) and Quality of Life (QOL). Facial emotion recognition, Theory of Mind (ToM), and aspects of emotional intelligence related to regulating one's own emotions (emotion management) and other's emotions (social management) were measured. Individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy (n=36) and controls (n=26) were examined. The schizotypy group performed significantly worse than controls on facial emotion recognition, ToM, and emotion management, but not social management. Generally speaking, poorer social cognition performance was not a function of specific schizotypy traits. However, negative traits were associated with poorer facial emotion recognition, and disorganized traits were associated with better social management. Facial emotion recognition was associated with QOL in the schizotypy group. PMID:24001586

  19. Fear the serpent: A psychometric study of snake phobia.

    PubMed

    Polák, Jakub; Sedláčková, Kristýna; Nácar, David; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2016-08-30

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from specific phobias. Almost any stimulus may trigger a phobic reaction, but snakes are among the most feared objects. Half of the population feel anxious about snakes and 2-3% meet the diagnostic criteria for snake phobia. Despite such a high ratio, only one instrument is commonly used, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ). The aim of this study was to develop a standardized Czech translation, describe its psychometric properties and analyze the distribution of snake fears. In a counter-balanced design 755 respondents were asked to complete the English and Czech SNAQ (first or last) with a 2-3 month delay; 300 of them completed both instruments. We found excellent test-retest reliability (0.94), although the total scores differed significantly when the English version was administered first. The mean score was 5.80 and Generalized Linear Models revealed significant effects of sex and field of study (women and people with no biology education scored higher than men and biologists). A cut-off point for snake phobia as derived from a previous study identified 2.6% of the subjects as phobic. Finally, the score distribution was similar to other countries supporting the view that fear of snakes is universal. PMID:27280527

  20. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Psychometric Validity of Individual Variables.

    PubMed

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed. PMID:27153465

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale

    PubMed Central

    Koukounari, Artemis; Pickles, Andrew; Hill, Jonathan; Sharp, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS) and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks). When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions). Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy. PMID:26696945

  2. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the workaholism battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Chieh; Hu, Changya; Wu, Tzong-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The authors designed the current study to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the workaholism battery (J. T. Spence & A. S. Robbins, 1992). Using the back-translation strategy recommended by R. Brislin (1980), the authors translated the original scale developed by Spence and Robbins. Factor analyses of responses from 1,235 full-time workers in Taiwan revealed a 5-factor solution. The reliability coefficients of the factors ranged from .58 to .88. Significant correlations between the 5 factors, the work-addiction risk test, career commitment, and job involvement provided evidence for convergent validity. Significant correlations between the 5 factors and criterion variables (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and hours worked per week) provided evidence of concurrent criterion validity. Overall, the findings suggest that the Taiwanese workers conceptualize workaholism as 5 dimensions rather than the 2 or 3 dimensions that previous empirical studies (A. Kanai, M. Wakabayashi, & S. Fling, 1996; L. H. W. McMillan, E. C. Brady, M. P. Driscoll, & N. V. Marsh, 2002; J. T. Spence & A. S. Robbins, 1992) have suggested. The authors discussed implications and limitations of their findings. PMID:20307021

  3. The inventory of dyadic heterosexual preferences: development and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1996-04-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed. PMID:8871371

  4. Psycho-informatics: Big Data shaping modern psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Markowetz, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Montag, Christian; Switala, Christina; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2014-04-01

    For the first time in history, it is possible to study human behavior on great scale and in fine detail simultaneously. Online services and ubiquitous computational devices, such as smartphones and modern cars, record our everyday activity. The resulting Big Data offers unprecedented opportunities for tracking and analyzing behavior. This paper hypothesizes the applicability and impact of Big Data technologies in the context of psychometrics both for research and clinical applications. It first outlines the state of the art, including the severe shortcomings with respect to quality and quantity of the resulting data. It then presents a technological vision, comprised of (i) numerous data sources such as mobile devices and sensors, (ii) a central data store, and (iii) an analytical platform, employing techniques from data mining and machine learning. To further illustrate the dramatic benefits of the proposed methodologies, the paper then outlines two current projects, logging and analyzing smartphone usage. One such study attempts to thereby quantify severity of major depression dynamically; the other investigates (mobile) Internet Addiction. Finally, the paper addresses some of the ethical issues inherent to Big Data technologies. In summary, the proposed approach is about to induce the single biggest methodological shift since the beginning of psychology or psychiatry. The resulting range of applications will dramatically shape the daily routines of researches and medical practitioners alike. Indeed, transferring techniques from computer science to psychiatry and psychology is about to establish Psycho-Informatics, an entire research direction of its own. PMID:24529915

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale.

    PubMed

    Koukounari, Artemis; Pickles, Andrew; Hill, Jonathan; Sharp, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS) and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks). When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions). Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy. PMID:26696945

  6. Psychometric Properties of Maze Tasks in Middle School Students

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Barth, Amy E.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Maze tasks have appealing properties as progress-monitoring tools, but there is a need for a thorough examination of the psychometric properties of Maze tasks among middle school students. We evaluated form effects, reliability, validity, and practice effects of Maze among students in Grades 6 through 8. We administered the same (familiar) and novel Maze passages for progress monitoring of a reading intervention among typical readers (n = 588), struggling readers receiving researcher-provided intervention (n = 471), and struggling readers not receiving intervention (n = 284). Form effects accounted for significant variance in Maze performance. Familiar passages had greater test–retest reliability than novel passages. Both administrative conditions had similar, moderate correlations (validity coefficients) with other measures of reading fluency and comprehension. There were also significant practice effects. Students who read the same passage showed steeper slopes in Maze performance than students who read different passages over time. Practice effects were influenced by beginning levels of reading comprehension and by intervention status. PMID:23125552

  7. [Psychometric evaluation of the Body Change Questionnaire for adolescents].

    PubMed

    Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Amaral, Ana Carolina Soares; Neves, Clara Mockdece; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to examine construct validity, internal consistency, and reproducibility of the Body Change Questionnaire (BCQ). A total of 439 female and male adolescents (13-22 years of age) were evaluated. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis and correlation between the scores of the BCQ and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Scale Silhouettes (SS). Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and reproducibility using test-retest and intra-class correlation. The scale presented a six-factor structure that almost entirely accounted for the instrument's subscales. Correlations for the total sample between BCQ and scores of the other questionnaires ranged from 0.37 to 0.46. Internal consistency varied from 0.78 to 0.96 for each of the factors, and intra-class correlation was consistent with good reproducibility. The test-retest scores showed no statistically significant differences for the total sample or according to sex. The BCQ showed good psychometric qualities for Brazilian adolescents. PMID:26840810

  8. Psychometric properties of an assessment for mental health recovery programs.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Dennis G; Pilon, David; Hershberger, Scott L; Reynolds, Grace L; LaMaster, Stephen C; Davis, Monica

    2009-08-01

    The concept of recovery can be operationalized from either the point of view of the consumer, or from the perspective of the agency providing services. The Milestones of Recovery Scale (MORS) was created to capture aspects of recovery from the agency perspective. Evidence establishing the psychometric properties of the MORS was obtained in three efforts: Inter-rater reliability using staff at The Village, a multi-service organization serving the homeless mentally ill in Long Beach, California; inter-rater reliability was also obtained from Vinfen Corporation, a large provider of housing services to mentally ill persons in Boston, Massachusetts. A test-retest reliability study was conducted using staff rating of clients at The Village, and evidence for validity was obtained using the Level of Care Utilization System (LOCUS) as a validity measure. The intra-class correlation coefficient for the inter-rater reliability study was r = .85 (CI .81, .89) for The Village and r = .86 (CI .80, .90) for Vinfen Corporation; test-retest reliability was r = .85 (CI .81, .87); and validity coefficients for the LOCUS were at or above r = .49 for all subscales except one. There is sufficient evidence for the reliability and validity of the MORS. PMID:19582574

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of Modified RHAQWRA Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani Bilandi, Roghaieh; Khalajabadi Farahamni, Farideh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Mohamadi, Reza; Amiri, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examin the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of Reproductive Health Assessment Questionnaire for Women of Reproductive Age (RHAQWRA). Materials and methods: This study was a cross sectional study. We selected 150 women aged 18- 45 years based on convenience sampling method who lived in the Quake-hit areas in eastern part of Iran in 2013. Some previously recognized and established instructions were undertaken in translating and adapting the RHAQWRA questionnaire culturally. We sought help and feedback from teenagers and experts in the fields of midwifery, sociology, and epidemiology to establish the face and content validity of the questionnaire. To examine the test-retest reliability indices of all the items, we used Kappa and McNemar tests. Results: The Content Validity Index (CVI) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR) scores for RHAQWRA were above 0.70. Results from Kappa and McNemar tests indicated a high degree of test-retest reliability. In order to evaluate the construct validity, known- group comparison (women with and without unwanted pregnancy) was used. The internal consistency reliability indexes for the subscales obtained through Cronbach’s alpha were between 0.68 and 0.87. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Iranian version of RHAQWRA is a valid and reliable questionnaire which can be used for measuring reproductive health needs during disasters. PMID:27047565

  10. Frequency Discrimination in Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsho, Lynne Werner; And Others

    Frequency difference thresholds were determined for fourteen 4- to 9-month-old infants (mean age, 6 months 10 days) using a discrimination learning paradigm, following a one-up, two-down staircase procedure. The subject heard 500 msec tone bursts repeated at a rate of one per sec, with a fixed standard frequency. At various points in this pulse…

  11. Law: Reverse Discrimination, Legal Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Just as schools and colleges are starting to hire more black and female faculty members through affirmative action programs, there is a new battle cry on the civil rights front: "reverse discrimination." Qualified whites claim they are being shoved aside in the scramble for less-qualified blacks, Chicanos, American Indians, and members of other…

  12. Visualization of Term Discrimination Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Wolfram, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information visualization techniques and introduces a visual term discrimination value analysis method using a document density space within a distance-angle-based visual information retrieval environment. Explains that applications of these methods facilitate more effective assignment of term weights to index terms within documents and…

  13. Discriminant Analysis on a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Alan H.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a method for discriminant analysis which uses the multiple regression facilities offered by many microcomputer statistical packages. This method is illustrated with an ecological example using the MICROTAB statistical package on a BBC microcomputer. Compares these results with an analysis of the same data using SPSS X. (Author/CW)

  14. A Talk on Sex Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Irving C.

    The topic of this speech covers the 1972 amendments to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the subsequent court cases dealing with sex discrimination. The cases discussed cover maternity leaves for tenured as well as untenured teachers and other public employees. The issues basic to these cases involve mandatory maternity leaves at…

  15. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to the author, by the…

  16. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  17. Assessing Discrimination: A Boolean Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragin, Charles C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current practices for statistical assessments of employment discrimination and suggests nonstatistical techniques that can be used to aid in interpreting results of statistical analyses. The techniques incorporate principles of Boolean algebra and allow holistic comparison of categories of similarly situated individuals. (CMG)

  18. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  19. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A; Merlo, Lisa J; Ricketts, Emily D; Geffken, Gary R; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K

    2008-12-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (CY-BOCS-SC; Scahill, L., Riddle, M. A., McSwiggin-Hardin, M., Ort, S. I., King, R. A., Goodman, W. K., et al. (1997). Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 844-852) is widely used to assess the presence of obsessions and compulsions in youth. Although factor analytic studies have established symptom dimensions of the CY-BOCS-SC, little is known of its psychometric properties. The present study sought to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the CY-BOCS-SC. Eighty-six youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their parents were administered the CY-BOCS-SC, the CY-BOCS severity items, and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Parent Version (ADIS-IV-P). Children completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. Internal consistency of CY-BOCS-SC symptom dimensions ranged from poor to good. The CY-BOCS-SC demonstrated good to excellent convergent validity, as demonstrated by large correlations with conceptually similar items on the ADIS-IV-P. The discriminant validity of the CY-BOCS-SC was also good, as evidenced by small, generally non-significant, correlations between the CY-BOCS-SC dimensions and depressive and anxiety symptoms, OCD symptom severity, and trichotillomania symptoms. These results provide initial psychometric support for the CY-BOCS-SC and support its use as a clinical and research instrument for assessing presence of a range of obsessive and compulsive symptoms in youth with OCD. PMID:18329843

  20. 18 CFR 2.17 - Price discrimination and anticompetitive effect (price squeeze issue).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purchased power costs; (2) A showing that a competitive situation exists in that the wholesale customer... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price discrimination and anticompetitive effect (price squeeze issue). 2.17 Section 2.17 Conservation of Power and...

  1. Auditory Cortical Plasticity in Learning to Discriminate Modulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    van Wassenhove, Virginie; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2014-01-01

    The discrimination of temporal information in acoustic inputs is a crucial aspect of auditory perception, yet very few studies have focused on auditory perceptual learning of timing properties and associated plasticity in adult auditory cortex. Here, we trained participants on a temporal discrimination task. The main task used a base stimulus (four tones separated by intervals of 200 ms) that had to be distinguished from a target stimulus (four tones with intervals down to ~180 ms). We show that participants’ auditory temporal sensitivity improves with a short amount of training (3 d, 1 h/d). Learning to discriminate temporal modulation rates was accompanied by a systematic amplitude increase of the early auditory evoked responses to trained stimuli, as measured by magnetoencephalography. Additionally, learning and auditory cortex plasticity partially generalized to interval discrimination but not to frequency discrimination. Auditory cortex plasticity associated with short-term perceptual learning was manifested as an enhancement of auditory cortical responses to trained acoustic features only in the trained task. Plasticity was also manifested as induced non-phase–locked high gamma-band power increases in inferior frontal cortex during performance in the trained task. Functional plasticity in auditory cortex is here interpreted as the product of bottom-up and top-down modulations. PMID:17344404

  2. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talaska, Cara A.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed. PMID:24052687

  3. Measuring HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Nicaragua: results from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette C; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    Psychometric properties of external HIV-related stigma and discrimination scales and their predictors were investigated. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 520 participants using an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua. Participants completed an 18-item HIV stigma scale and 19 HIV and AIDS discrimination-related statements. A factor analysis found that 15 of the 18 items in the stigma scale and 18 of the 19 items in the discrimination scale loaded clearly into five- and four-factor structures, respectively. Overall Cronbach's alpha of .81 for the HIV stigma scale and .91 for the HIV discrimination scale provided evidence of internal consistency. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis identified that females, rural residents, people with insufficient HIV-related transmission knowledge, those not tested for HIV, those reporting an elevated self-perception of HIV risk, and those unwilling to disclose their HIV status were associated with higher stigmatizing attitudes and higher discriminatory actions towards HIV-positive people. This is the first community-based study in Nicaragua that demonstrates that overall HIV stigma and discrimination scales were reliable and valid in a community-based sample comprised of men and women of reproductive age. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population, especially among sub-groups. The findings in the current study suggest community-based strategies, including the monitoring of stigma and discrimination, and designing and implementing stigma reduction interventions, are greatly needed to reduce inequities and increase acceptance of persons with HIV. PMID:23514083

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Japanese Version of the STarT Back Tool in Patients with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Ko; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Haga, Yuri; Sawada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The STarT Back Tool uses prognostic indicators to classify patients with low back pain into three risk groups to guide early secondary prevention in primary care. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the tool (STarT-J). Methods An online survey was conducted among Japanese patients with low back pain aged 20–64 years. Reliability was assessed by examining the internal consistency of the overall and psychosocial subscales using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the concurrent validity between the STarT-J total score/psychosocial subscore and standard reference questionnaires. Discriminant validity was evaluated by calculating the area under the curves (AUCs) for the total and psychosocial subscale scores against standard reference cases. Known-groups validity was assessed by examining the relationship between low back pain-related disability and STarT-J scores. Results The analysis included data for 2000 Japanese patients with low back pain; the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 47.7 (9.3) years, and 54.1% were male. The mean (SD) STarT-J score was 2.2 (2.1). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.75 for the overall scale and 0.66 for the psychosocial subscale. Spearman’s correlation coefficients ranged from 0.30 to 0.59, demonstrating moderate to strong concurrent validity. The AUCs for the total score ranged from 0.65 to 0.83, mostly demonstrating acceptable discriminative ability. For known-groups validity, participants with more somatic symptoms had higher total scores. Those in higher STarT-J risk groups had experienced more low back pain-related absences. Conclusions The overall STarT-J scale was internally consistent and had acceptable concurrent, discriminant, and known-groups validity. The STarT-J can be used with Japanese patients with low back pain. PMID:27002823

  5. Psychometric precision in phenotype definition is a useful step in molecular genetic investigation of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Xu, M K; Gaysina, D; Barnett, J H; Scoriels, L; van de Lagemaat, L N; Wong, A; Richards, M; Croudace, T J; Jones, P B

    2015-01-01

    Affective disorders are highly heritable, but few genetic risk variants have been consistently replicated in molecular genetic association studies. The common method of defining psychiatric phenotypes in molecular genetic research is either a summation of symptom scores or binary threshold score representing the risk of diagnosis. Psychometric latent variable methods can improve the precision of psychiatric phenotypes, especially when the data structure is not straightforward. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, we compared summary scores with psychometric modeling based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scale for affective symptoms in an association analysis of 27 candidate genes (249 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). The psychometric method utilized a bi-factor model that partitioned the phenotype variances into five orthogonal latent variable factors, in accordance with the multidimensional data structure of the GHQ-28 involving somatic, social, anxiety and depression domains. Results showed that, compared with the summation approach, the affective symptoms defined by the bi-factor psychometric model had a higher number of associated SNPs of larger effect sizes. These results suggest that psychometrically defined mental health phenotypes can reflect the dimensions of complex phenotypes better than summation scores, and therefore offer a useful approach in genetic association investigations. PMID:26125156

  6. Painfree and accurate Bayesian estimation of psychometric functions for (potentially) overdispersed data.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Heiko H; Harmeling, Stefan; Macke, Jakob H; Wichmann, Felix A

    2016-05-01

    The psychometric function describes how an experimental variable, such as stimulus strength, influences the behaviour of an observer. Estimation of psychometric functions from experimental data plays a central role in fields such as psychophysics, experimental psychology and in the behavioural neurosciences. Experimental data may exhibit substantial overdispersion, which may result from non-stationarity in the behaviour of observers. Here we extend the standard binomial model which is typically used for psychometric function estimation to a beta-binomial model. We show that the use of the beta-binomial model makes it possible to determine accurate credible intervals even in data which exhibit substantial overdispersion. This goes beyond classical measures for overdispersion-goodness-of-fit-which can detect overdispersion but provide no method to do correct inference for overdispersed data. We use Bayesian inference methods for estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters of the psychometric function. Unlike previous Bayesian psychometric inference methods our software implementation-psignifit 4-performs numerical integration of the posterior within automatically determined bounds. This avoids the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods typically requiring expert knowledge. Extensive numerical tests show the validity of the approach and we discuss implications of overdispersion for experimental design. A comprehensive MATLAB toolbox implementing the method is freely available; a python implementation providing the basic capabilities is also available. PMID:27013261

  7. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  8. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  9. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  10. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  11. The Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form: Psychometric Properties and Association with Social Anxiety in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…

  12. Being Playful and Smart? The Relations of Adult Playfulness with Psychometric and Self-Estimated Intelligence and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, Rene T.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the relation between subjectively assessed adult playfulness and psychometric and self-estimated intelligence in a sample of 254 students. As expected, playfulness existed widely independently from psychometric intelligence. Correlations pointed in the direction of higher expressive playfulness and numeric intelligence and lower…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale among Turkish University Students, Correctional Officers, and Elderly Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Two Measures of Speed of Information Processing and Their Relation to Psychometric Intelligence: Evidence from the German Observational Study of Adult Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Alioscha C.; Spinath, Frank M.; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Borkenau, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Administered 2 elementary cognitive task (ECT) tests and 2 psychometric intelligence tests to 169 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs of twins in Germany. Reaction times correlated negatively with psychometric intelligence, and habitability estimates were substantial for both psychometric intelligence and reaction times on the ECTs. Multivariate…

  15. Discrimination in Recruitment: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jerry M.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate whether recruitment practices of companies with affirmative action programs discriminated against Blacks or resulted in reverse discrimination, qualifications and race of fictitious job applicants were manipulated on resumes sent to a sample of employers. Responses strongly indicate discrimination, with Black applicants favored…

  16. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  17. Simultaneous Visual Discrimination in Asian Elephants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissani, Moti; Hoefler-Nissani, Donna; Lay, U. Tin; Htun, U. Wan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored the behavior of 20 Asian elephants ("Elephas aximus") in simultaneous visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 7 Burmese logging elephants acquired a white+/black- discrimination, reaching criterion in a mean of 2.6 sessions and 117 discrete trials, whereas 4 elephants acquired a black+/white- discrimination in 5.3…

  18. Discrimination against Students in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieronek, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 1998 cases of discrimination against students, focusing on discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity, and disability and on hazing. Cases did not usually involve the blatant discriminatory acts that inspired antidiscrimination legislation. They involved increasingly complicated and subtle forms of discrimination and required more…

  19. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  20. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...