Science.gov

Sample records for discussion os reservatorios

  1. DISCUSSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an invited discussion of three invited papers on statistical disclosure limitation from the Second International Conference on Establishment Surveys, Buffalo, NY, June 2000. The three papers in this session deal with computing, estimates, and computing estimates in the c...

  2. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  3. Reframing Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Recitations and discussions are two types of interactions which have long been of interest to researchers who study classroom discourse in secondary English and Social Studies. According to research, teachers control the discourse during recitations through "inauthentic" questions requiring pre-specified answers. In contrast, discussions involve…

  4. Strengthening Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    "Strategy sharing" is a certain type of discussion that centers on students' ideas and occurs when children present different approaches to problems and provide information about how they solved the problem (Wood, Williams, and McNeal 2004). A teacher may orchestrate a strategy-sharing discussion to achieve one or more of the…

  5. Orchestrating Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret S.; Hughes, Elizabeth K.; Engle, Randi A.; Stein, Mary Kay

    2009-01-01

    The premise underlying this article is that identifying and using the "five practices model" can make discussions of cognitively challenging tasks more manageable for teachers. By giving teachers a roadmap that they can follow before and during whole-class discussions, these practices have the potential for helping teachers more effectively…

  6. Summary discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs.

  7. Developing Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloch, Beth; Bomer, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and educators have long argued for the importance of providing time and space for rich conversations around literature. This column draws on research to consider how teachers make room for these discussions inside their classrooms. Particularly, the authors consider different dimensions along which teachers might examine and grow…

  8. Case Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Colleen; Mears, Simon C.; Sieber, Frederick E.; Votsis, Julie; Wood, Ronald C.; Friedman, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of a 92-year-old man with multiple comorbidities, who presents with a subtrochanteric fracture. His course is complicated by large volume blood loss intraoperatively, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring postoperatively. His course is also complicated by delirium. PMID:23569687

  9. Risky Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Julian; Jacobs, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This article considers a hypothetical decision by a hypothetical learner about whether or not to participate in an online "discussion", viewed through the lens of risk analysis. It begins with the premise that participation online is desirable but that it involves the participant in risk, a fact that needs to be acknowledged and taken into account…

  10. [Discussing abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Discussions with several groups of low-income, middle-aged women in various countries of Latin America showed that most disapproved of abortion. In the course of group discussions about the motives of women who seek abortions and the psychological and sanitary conditions under which abortion occurs, however, their disapproval became less categorical. They began to accept the need to decriminalize abortion in order to protect women. The majority, strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, believed that human life begins at conception. Others disapproved of abortion because they feared it would be used as a birth control method and would encourage promiscuity. Most disapproved of abortion for single women attempting to escape family or social censure of unmarried motherhood. Fear of health effects or death from abortion and fear of divine punishment were also mentioned. Recognition of the anguish and pain suffered by women deciding to seek abortion and the difficulty of providing for the material and other needs of many children were factors that led to reconsideration of the wholesale condemnation of abortion. The women realized that such condemnations never take the woman's circumstances into account. Some of the women felt that aborting an unwanted pregnancy would be preferable to abandoning or neglecting an unwanted child. Many of the women came to feel that abortion should be legalized at least under some circumstances. PMID:12348503

  11. Os trigonum syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nault, Marie-Lyne; Kocher, Mininder S; Micheli, Lyle J

    2014-09-01

    Os trigonum syndrome is the result of an overuse injury of the posterior ankle caused by repetitive plantar flexion stress. It is predominantly seen in ballet dancers and soccer players and is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exacerbated posterior ankle pain while dancing on pointe or demi-pointe or while doing push-off maneuvers. Symptoms may improve with rest or activity modification. Imaging studies, including a lateral radiographic view of the ankle in maximal plantar flexion, will typically reveal the os trigonum between the posterior tibial lip and calcaneus. If an os trigonum is absent on radiography, an MRI may reveal scar tissue behind the posterior talus, a condition associated with similar symptoms. Os trigonum syndrome is often associated with pathology of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Treatment begins with nonsurgical measures. In addition to physical therapy, symptomatic athletes may need surgical excision of os trigonum secondary to unavoidable plantar flexion associated with their sport. This surgery can be performed using open or arthroscopic approaches. PMID:25157036

  12. Os Trigonum Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Os Trigonum Syndrome Text Size Print Bookmark ... extra (accessory) bone that sometimes develops behind the ankle bone (talus). It is connected to the talus ...

  13. Internet Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…

  14. [Advances in baculovirus per os infection and per os infectivity factor--A review].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Guo, Caiping; Zhu, Shimao

    2015-04-01

    Baculoviruses are a family of arthropod-specific viruses that mainly affect insects of the orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera. In nature, baculoviruses establish infection in their hosts orally and a battery of proteins designated as per os infectivity factors play pivotal roles in baculovirus per os infection. This review summarizes the basic characteristics of baculovirus and discusses the main events that baculovirus establishes per os infection, including the evolutionary advantages for baculovirus to initiate infection through the oral route, the binding and fusion of baculovirus virions with insect midgut microvilli and the functional roles of baculovirus per os infectivity factors. These achievements and advances should promise to shed light on the understanding and utilization of baculovirus for bio-control and exogenous gene expression in the future. PMID:26211313

  15. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  16. Curriculum for Discussion Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhoff, Mary E.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in implementing two 10-meeting series of group discussions designed to enhance the process of the socialialization of students enrolled in an associate degree nursing program. Addressed in the discussion sessions are the following topics: developing an awareness of self-concept and gaining…

  17. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. PMID:26078330

  18. Designing "Educationally Effective" Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses data from a curriculum intervention project designed to introduce new forms of discussion, seen as educationally effective, into the primary classroom. While the introduction of talk as an aid to learning is premised on a social approach to learning, such interventions are often evaluated in terms of cognitive benefits and…

  19. Framing Discussions about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Danielson's Framework for Teaching has provided a common language for discussions of teaching practice for almost 20 years. Many educators love the Framework's comprehensiveness; they find the specific language to be useful as they strive to improve their practice. For other educators, however, the Framework's 22 components and 76 smaller elements…

  20. Promoting Lively Literature Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…

  1. [Discussion paper participation research].

    PubMed

    Farin, Erik

    2012-12-01

    This contribution introduces the "Diskussionspapier Teilhabeforschung" (discussion paper participation research) of the German Association for Rehabilitation (DVfR) and German Society for Rehabilitation Science (DGRW). The aim of this paper is to more clearly define current scientific research activity on the subject of participation and the significance of interdisciplinary participation research. The authors emphasise the desirability of a stronger scientific basis for instruments designed to improve the participation of disabled individuals. The paper is meant to be understood as an initial basis for the discussion about participation research development, and the authors are open to suggestions and elaboration.Participation research is understood in this discussion paper as an interdisciplinary research field with 7 goals and characteristics: 1. focussing on participation and self-determination; 2. contextual approach (taking environmental and personal factors into consideration that affect participation); 3. the participation of disabled persons in participation research; 4. interdisciplinary cooperation; 5. involving organisations and institutions whose approaches to participation research overlap; 6. referring to social and healthcare policies; 7. national and international orientations.The authors discuss the rationale behind increasing the support for participation research and theoretical models thereof. Fundamental concepts with high relevance to participation research include the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functionality, Disability and Health (ICF), the inclusion concept, empowerment concept, and capabilities concept. The authors conclude their paper with recommendations for strengthening the research funding for participation research, and specify concrete steps toward greater participation research. PMID:23235948

  2. Mini-Discussion Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maston, Robert C.; Hagenbuch, Barbara A.

    1976-01-01

    Mini-discussions were held at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Association of American Colleges and were intended as continuations of the general sessions. Topics included: educational implications of the limits to growth; changes in our operative social values; dilemmas and strategies for American higher education in the next century. (LBH)

  3. Discussions That Drive Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Adults in the United States have been migrating to ideologically homogenous communities, a phenomenon that researchers have called "the big sort." Thus, the need for young Americans to engage in civil discussion of controversial issues has never been greater. Public schools are an ideal place to undo the big sort because controversial issues fit…

  4. A Discussion of "Ceremony."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Kathleen M., Ed.; Ruoff, A. Lavonne, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Seminar participants discuss the novel "Ceremony" as a curing ceremony, the function of memory in the novel, and the distinctly American Indian aspects of the novel (role of animals, circular images, ritual, mythology, Laguna cultural traditions, and use of oral tradition). (CM)

  5. Facilitating Productive Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cengiz, Nesrin

    2013-01-01

    Whole-group classroom discussions about solutions allow teachers to promote reasoning that moves students beyond merely noticing mathematical ideas toward developing a well-connected knowledge of concepts. Creating classroom environments where teachers promote reasoning and engage students in investigating important mathematical phenomena is…

  6. John Cage Discusses Fluxus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Ellsworth

    1992-01-01

    Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…

  7. Summaries of group discussions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  8. DISCUSSION ON MENINGITIS

    PubMed Central

    1929-01-01

    (1) Meningitis: two groups of cases. (2) A method of washing out the subarachnoid space in cases of septic meningitis secondary to infection of the ear. (3) Discussion on the value of maintaining a positive pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid when operating on a septic region communicating with the subarachnoid space. (4) Leaking cerebrospinal fluid from the region of the ear: operative treatment. PMID:19986899

  9. 186Os- 187Os systematics of Hawaiian picrites revisited: New insights into Os isotopic variations in ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Walker, R. J.; Brandon, A. D.

    2011-08-01

    Eighteen picrites (MgO > 13 wt.%) and three related basalts from six Hawaiian volcanoes were analyzed for 187Os/ 188Os and 186Os/ 188Os. Variations in these ratios reflect long-term Re/Os and Pt/Os differences in the mantle source regions of these volcanoes. 187Os/ 188Os ratios vary from ˜0.129 to 0.136, consistent with the range defined by previous studies of Hawaiian picrites and basalts. Samples with lower 187Os/ 188Os are mainly from Kea trend volcanoes (Mauna Kea and Kilauea), and the more radiogenic samples are mainly from Loa trend volcanoes (Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Koolau and Loihi). As previously suggested, differences in 187Os/ 188Os between volcanic centers are most consistent with the presence of variable proportions of recycled materials and/or pyroxenitic components in the Hawaiian source. 186Os/ 188Os ratios vary from 0.1198332 ± 26 to 0.1198480 ± 20, with some samples having ratios that are significantly higher than current estimates for the ambient upper mantle. Although the range of 186Os/ 188Os for the Hawaiian suite is consistent with that reported by previous studies, the new data reveal significant heterogeneities among picrites from individual volcanoes. The linear correlation between 187Os/ 188Os and 186Os/ 188Os reported by a previous study is no longer apparent with the larger dataset. The postulated recycled materials and pyroxenites responsible for the dominant variations in 187Os/ 188Os are likely not responsible for the variations in 186Os/ 188Os. Such materials are typically characterized by both insufficiently high Os concentrations and Pt/Os to account for the 186Os/ 188Os heterogeneities. The lack of correspondence between 186Os/ 188Os variations and the Kea and Loa trends supports this conclusion. The primary cause of 186Os/ 188Os variations are evaluated within the framework of two mixing scenarios: (1) metasomatic transport of Pt and/or 186Os-rich Os into some portions of the Hawaiian source, and (2) interaction between an

  10. China's satellite communications discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  11. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    PubMed

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use. PMID:17985247

  12. Low temperature benefits discussed.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    At a recent educational workshop event hosted by Advanced Sterilization Products, expert speakers including Authorising Engineers, and delegates, discussed some of their experiences of low temperature sterilisation of 'hi-tech' medical devices, and highlighted the benefits of a process which allows decontamination of instruments and, for example, parts of robotic surgery systems, that cannot be decontaminated using standard methods. Also examined,and reported on here in an article that first appeared in HEJ's sister publication, The Clinical Services Journal, were some of the disadvantages of low temperature sterilisation, the key considerations and options when choosing such a system, and a focus on how the technology's use had benefited a major London-based NHS Trust. PMID:27132304

  13. [sup 187]Os-[sup 186]Os and [sup 187]Os-[sup 188]Os method of dating: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Q.Z.; Jagoutz, E.; Waenke, H. ); Verkhovskiy, A.B. )

    1993-08-01

    A Re-containing sample is irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The following reactions occur with high cross sections: [sup 185]Re(n, [gamma])[sup 186]Re and [sup 187]Re(n, [gamma])[sup 188]Re. Both [sup 186]Re (half-life 90.6 h) and [sup 188]Re (16.7 h) [beta]-decay to the stable isotopes [sup 186]Os and [sup 188]Os. Thus [sup 186]Os and [sup 188]Os are enriched in proportion to the neutron fluence and R/Os ratio of the sample being irradiated. Analyzing merely the isotopic composition of the sample, the authors get two ages that should be consistent. In one irradiated molybdenite sample from Kingsgate molybdenum mine in New South Wales, Australia, the measured [sup 186]Os/[sup 192]Os and [sup 188]Os/[sup 192]Os are 0.3284 and 0.6299, whereas in an unirradiated sample they are assumed to be 0.0390 and 0.3248. These ratios are measurable with negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS) to a precision of 1[per thousand]. The derived ages for this sample are t[sub 186] = 220.5 [+-] 8.6 Ma and t[sub 188] = 214.9 [+-] 8.9 Ma, respectively (or [+-] 1.4 Ma and [+-] 1.7 Ma, respectively, when excluding the uncertainty of [sup 187]Re half-life). These values are in close agreement with the 221--238 Ma K-Ar ages of the leucogranites emplacement that causes the Mo mineralization at Kingsgate. The major limiting factor on the precision of this age determination is the uncertainty in the half-life of [sup 187]Re. The errors associated with the irradiation parameters are greatly reduced by choosing an appropriate neutron flux monitor. The advantage of this method is that the Re/Os ratio is determined on the same sample and that only one measurement of the isotope composition of osmium is required, thus overcoming some of the experimental difficulties of the conventional Re-Os analysis. The problem of sample inhomogeneity and the need to measure the absolute concentrations of rhenium and osmium are thus eliminated. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Project Status Update and SIM Science Breadth Discussion for the Origins Subcommittee (OS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James C., IV; Shao, Mike

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is composed of two sections The first reviews the features and the science goals of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). The goals are: (1) Perform a search for other planetary systems by surveying 2000 nearby stars for astrometric signatures of planetary companion, (2) Survey a sample of 200 nearby stars for orbiting planets down to terrestrial-type masses (3) Improve best current catalog of star positions by >lOOx and extend to fainter stars to allow extension of stellar knowledge to include our entire galaxy (4) Study dynamics and evolution of stars and star clusters in our galaxy to understand how our galaxy was formed and how it will evolve. (5) Calibrate luminosities of important stars and cosmological distance indicators to improve our understanding of stellar processes and to measure precise distance in the distant universe. The presentation also reviews the accomplishments since 2002, the plans for the subsequent 6 months. The second entitled "The Breadth of SIM Science," reviews SIM science goals in a larger context. SIM will serve to complement and pave the way for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). SIM observations of the motions of stars will tell us about the distribution of all gravitating mass (light plus dark matter) in the Galaxy. SIM observations of the motions of dwarf galaxies around our own will determine the mass distribution (light plus dark matter in the Halo. SIM will greatly extend these observations to test the theories of accretion disks around super massive black holes. SIM has advantages for studying AGN and other very compact objects.

  15. Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davson-Galle, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains Philip Higgs' post modern pluralist thought by reaction to the monolithic rigidities of the decreed dogma of his country's (South Africa) past. Author argues that Higgs has overreacted and has become over tolerant of diversity of thought and that intellectual endeavors should be relativised to particular intellectual parochial…

  16. Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, K.

    Presenter, T. P. Grazulis, private consultant [Grazulis et al., this volume, advances in tornado climatology, hazards, and risk assessment since Tornado Symposium II]. (C. Anderson, North Carolina State University.) At one time, I lived in Wisconsin and used to consider tornado climatology there. I noticed some very strange reporting, also. There were a number of counties along the Lake Michigan shore that showed no reported tornadoes from 1915 to 1950. Did you find something like this as well?

  17. Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Author argues that the philosophical movement known as postmodernism seriously undermined the notion that truth can be at all objective and that truth depends entirely on democratic consensus. Addresses Davon-Galle's criticism of the author's assertions and explains that the certainty that Davon-Galle seeks is not to be found in philosophy or any…

  18. A first-principle study of Os-based compounds: Electronic structure and vibrational properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arıkan, N.; Örnek, O.; Charifi, Z.; Baaziz, H.; Uğur, Ş.; Uğur, G.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structure, elastic, and phonon properties of OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds are studied using first-principles calculations. Elastic constants of OsY and specific heat capacity of OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y, and Zr) are reported for the first time. The predicted equilibrium lattice constants are in excellent agreement with experiment. The calculated values of bulk moduli are considerably high but are much smaller than that of Osmium, which is around 400 GPa. The phase stability of the OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds were studied by DOS calculations and the results suggest that OsY is unstable in the B2 phase. The brittleness and ductility properties of OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) are determined. OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds are predicted to be ductile materials. The electronic structure and phonon frequency curves of OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds are obtained. The position of Fermi level of these systems was calculated and discussed in terms of the pseudo gaps. The finite and small DOS at the Fermi level 0.335, 0.375, 1.063, and 0.383 electrons/eV for OsHf, OsTi, OsY, and OsZr, respectively, suggest that OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds are weak metals.

  19. Estimation of continental 187Os/186Os values by using 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in marine manganese nodules

    PubMed Central

    Turekian, Karl K.; Luck, Jean-Marc

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd in different manganese nodule fields is used to determine the 187Os/186Os ratio of the continental terrains bounding the major ocean basins. The Atlantic Ocean drainages yield 187Os/186Os of about 11; the Pacific Ocean, between 25 and 36; and the western Indian Ocean, 20. By assuming a two-component continental crust composed of “ultramafic rocks” (high Os concentration, low 187Os/186Os) and “granite” with only radiogenic 187Os produced in accessory Re-bearing molybdenite, the ultramafic contribution to weathering is about 0.2%. Some or most of this may come from the alteration of oceanic ultramafics. PMID:16578780

  20. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  1. Let's Discuss: Teaching Students about Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brank, Eve; Wylie, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates the benefits of employing classroom discussions; however, there has been less attention given to teaching students about discussions. The current research compared 2 advanced social psychology courses: 1 without (control) and 1 with (experimental) a week devoted to learning about and discussing discussions.…

  2. iOS and OS X Apps for Exploring Earthquake Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and many other agencies rapidly provide information following earthquakes. This timely information garners great public interest and provides a rich opportunity to engage students in discussion and analysis of earthquakes and tectonics. In this presentation I will describe a suite of iOS and Mac OS X apps that I use for teaching and that Penn State employs in outreach efforts in a small museum run by the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. The iOS apps include a simple, global overview of earthquake activity, epicentral, designed for a quick review or event lookup. A more full-featured iPad app, epicentral-plus, includes a simple global overview along with views that allow a more detailed exploration of geographic regions of interest. In addition, epicentral-plus allows the user to monitor ground motions using seismic channel lists compatible with the IRIS web services. Some limited seismogram processing features are included to allow focus on appropriate signal bandwidths. A companion web site, which includes background material on earthquakes, and a blog that includes sample images and channel lists appropriate for monitoring earthquakes in regions of recent earthquake activity can be accessed through the a third panel in the app. I use epicentral-plus at the beginning of each earthquake seismology class to review recent earthquake activity and to stimulate students to formulate and to ask questions that lead to discussions of earthquake and tectonic processes. Less interactive OS X versions of the apps are used to display a global map of earthquake activity and seismograms in near real time in a small museum on the ground floor of the building hosting Penn State's Geoscience Department.

  3. "Os" omovertebrale variants prove it to be a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Chirag; Bhat, Dhananjay I; Devi, Bhagavatula I

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few case reports comprising exclusively of os omovertebrale. Here, we discuss various types, varied clinical presentations, associated abnormalities, and management strategies of this abnormality. We retrospectively analyzed three patients with os omovertebrale and their clinical presentation, and also reviewed the limited available literature. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically to diagnose this abnormality as well as the associated abnormalities. Two patients were operated for neurological deficits attributed to this deformity. It is quite common to miss this abnormality when it is of osseocartilaginous or fibrous type, especially when it is asymptomatic and not associated with Sprengel's scapula. By analyzing our patients and other reported cases, we have proposed a classification system. In addition, we discuss varied clinical presentations and their practical application. Os omovertebrale is a rare abnormality. It should be kept in mind and managed when encountered in clinical practice. The classification and clinicoradiological correlations described here can be useful to individualize management issues. PMID:27625243

  4. Introduction to Small Group Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dan Pyle

    To bring educational research into focus with tested classroom practice, this booklet provides an introduction to small group discussion. The theory and research section discusses the importance of small group discussion, characteristics of small group discussions, group attraction based on Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs, group decision…

  5. Activation cross sections for 190Os( n, p) 190m,gRe, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs reactions from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua; Zhang, Zhirong; Tian, Weisong; Tuo, Fei; Kong, Xiangzhong; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li

    2009-04-01

    Cross sections for ( n, p) and ( n, n') reactions have been measured on osmium isotopes at the neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV using the activation technique in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Neutrons were produced via the 3H( d, n) 4He reaction using solid TiT. The neutron fluences were determined using the monitor reaction 93Nb( n,2 n) 92mNb. Data are reported for the following reactions: 190Os( n, p) 190mRe, 190Os( n, p) 190gRe, 190Os( n, p) 190Re, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs. Nuclear model calculations using the code HFTT, which employs the Hauser-Feshbach (statistical model) and exciton model (precompound effects) formalisms, were undertaken to describe the formation of the products. The cross sections were discussed and compared with experimental data found in the literature, with values of model calculations including the pre-equilibrium contribution, and with evaluation data of JEFF-3.1/A.

  6. A Discussion of Population Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The discussion here covers five articles that are linked in the sense that they all treat population invariance. This discussion of population invariance is a somewhat broader treatment of the subject than simply a discussion of these five articles. In particular, occasional reference is made to publications other than those in this issue. The…

  7. Round Table Discussion about JIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhl, H.

    After the talks about the CESAR Grid and the Joint Information System (JIS) a round table discussion was scheduled. The author, who was the convener of the discussion was asked to summarize the discussion: The main suggestions are to make access to JIS easier and especially give all users unlimited access to the personal data.

  8. Chemical Kinetics Laboratory Discussion Worksheet

    PubMed Central

    Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S.

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory discussion worksheet and its answer key provide instructors and students a discussion model to further the students’ understanding of chemical kinetics. This discussion worksheet includes a section for students to augment their previous knowledge about chemical kinetics measurements, an initial check on students’ understanding of basic concepts, a group participation model where students work on solving complex-conceptual problems, and a conclusion to help students connect this discussion to their laboratory or lecture class. Additionally, the worksheet has a detailed solution to a more advanced problem to help students understand how the concepts they have put together relate to problems they will encounter during later formal assessments. PMID:24092948

  9. 187Os-186Os and He Isotope Systematics of Iceland Picrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Brandon, A. D.; Graham, D.; Gautason, B.

    2001-12-01

    Iceland is one of the longest-lived modern plumes, and seismic imaging supports a model where the roots of this plume are at the base of the lower mantle. Hence, Os isotopic data for lavas from this plume are ideal for further testing the role of core-mantle chemical exchange at the site of plume generation in the lower mantle, and for addressing the origin of Os-He isotopic variation in plumes. Recent work has shown that lavas from some plume systems (Hawaii, Noril'sk-Siberia, Gorgona) show coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, not observed in upper mantle materials including abyssal peridotites. Picrites from Hawaii display a positive correlation between 186Os/188Os and He isotopes (R/Ra), where range in 186Os/188Os of 0.119834+/-28 to 0.1198475+/-29 and corresponding R/Ra from +7 to +25. These systematics are consistent with a lower mantle source for the radiogenic 186Os signal in the Hawaiian plume. The coupled Os enrichments in these plumes has been attributed to core-mantle chemical exchange, consistent with generation of the Hawaiian plume at the base of the lower mantle in D". Other potentially viable models await additional scrutiny. New He isotope and high precision 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os measurements for Iceland picrites show unique systematics compared to Hawaii. These picrites have 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1297 to 0.1381 and R/Ra of +9 to +18, with generally higher R/Ra correlating with higher 187Os/188Os. Unlike the Hawaiian picrites from Hualalai and Loihi, which have coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, the Iceland picrites show no enrichment 186Os/188Os - 0.1198363+/-28 (2s, n=14). Such Os-He isotopic variations require one end-member source that has high R/Ra, coupled with a long term elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os similar to that of the upper mantle. These systematics are inconsistent with either known upper mantle materials or those purported for ancient recycled slabs and may be a previously unidentified component

  10. Techtalk: Expanding the Online Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Lucy; Caverly, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the use of "type 2 discussion," in which the teacher creates an online conversation with the class. Suggests that, by adding type 2 discussions to a face-to-face developmental education class, faculty help students build their own knowledge base. Adds that the online component gives all students equal access to this knowledge…

  11. Do Rewards Shape Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2008-01-01

    This research attempted to test whether the granting of points for receiving the most votes as the "best post" would affect the quality of subsequent postings to online discussions. Five online discussions were held in a small graduate-level course in leadership theory, and postings were coded into Bloom's taxonomy. Quality was defined…

  12. Promoting Discussions in ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers who work with English as a Second Language (ESL) students, struggle with promoting discussion during guided reading. When ESL students are asked comprehension questions during group discussions and throughout the reading of a book, often teachers receive minimal feedback. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify…

  13. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…

  14. Teacher Flexibility in Mathematical Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Roza; Dinur, Sariga

    2007-01-01

    The significance of discussion in mathematics classes has been prominently debated in the research literature. Different studies have stressed the importance of teacher flexibility in orchestrating the discussion. We introduce an operational definition of teacher flexibility. In a case study with one secondary-school mathematics teacher, we…

  15. Summary of Linac Group discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses upgrading of the LAMPF I linac. Particular topics discussed are: sources of and cures for linac beam halos, ion source, RFQ, chopper and drift-tube linac, cavity-coupled linac, superconducting linac structure, new rf power sources, EHF linac design, and cost projections. (LSP)

  16. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  17. Three-phase Discussion Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, M. C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the procedures, organizational pattern and design of basic soils course used by teaching assistants. Cites studies which support small-group discussion for promoting higher levels of intellectual functioning. Presents tables showing survey evaluation results of this method. (RT)

  18. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  19. Discussion: Confronting theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Hugh; Hayato, Yoshinari; Sobczyk, Jan

    2015-05-15

    This session focused on the current status of neutrino event generators, in practical terms the tool through which ‘theory confronts experiment’. Comparisons of event generators, both in terms of input physics, and in terms of produced distributions, has been a staple of this conference series, and the activities in this area are summarized. In addition, we discuss the highest priorities for model development, discuss the changing needs of experimental users, and comment on challenges and needs for the road ahead.

  20. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  1. Miocene seawater 187Os/ 188Os ratios inferred from metalliferous carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, Douglas N.; Ravizza, Greg; Maasch, Kirk A.; Wright, James D.

    1998-07-01

    Seawater 187Os/ 188Os ratios for the Middle Miocene were reconstructed by measuring the 187Os/ 188Os ratios of metalliferous carbonates from the Pacific (DSDP 598) and Atlantic (DSDP 521) oceans. Atlantic and Pacific 187Os/ 188Os measurements are nearly indistinguishable and are consistent with previously published Os isotope records from Pacific cores. The Atlantic data reported here provide the first direct evidence that the long-term sedimentary 187Os/ 188Os record reflects whole-ocean changes in the Os isotopic composition of seawater. The Pacific and the Atlantic Os measurements confirm a long-term 0.01/Myr increase in marine 187Os/ 188Os ratios that began no later than 16 Ma. The beginning of the Os isotopic increase coincided with a decrease in the rate of increase of marine 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios at 16 Ma. A large increase of 1‰ in benthic foraminiferal δ18O values, interpreted to reflect global cooling and ice sheet growth, began approximately 1 million years later at 14.8 Ma, and the long-term shift toward lower bulk carbonate δ13C values began more than 2 Myr later around 13.6 Ma. The post-16 Ma increase in marine 187Os/ 188Os ratios was most likely forced by weathering of radiogenic materials, either old sediments or sialic crust with a sedimentary protolith. We consider two possible Miocene-specific geologic events that can account for both this increase in marine 187Os/ 188Os ratios and also nearly constant 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios: (1) the first glacial erosion of sediment-covered cratons in the Northern Hemisphere; (2) the exhumation of the Australian passive margin-New Guinea arc system. The latter event offers a mechanism, via enhanced availability of soluble Ca and Mg silicates in the arc terrane, for the maintenance of assumed low CO 2 levels after 15 Ma. The temporal resolution (three samples/Myr) of the 187Os/ 188Os record from Site 598, for which a stable isotope stratigraphy was also constructed, is significantly higher than that of previously

  2. Promoting Colorectal Cancer Screening Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Shannon M.; Perkins, Susan M.; Tong, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Springston, Jeffrey K.; Imperiale, Thomas F.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Provider recommendation is a predictor of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Purpose To compare the effects of two clinic-based interventions on patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Design Two-group RCT with data collected at baseline and 1 week post-intervention. Participants/setting African-American patients that were non-adherent to CRC screening recommendations (n=693) with a primary care visit between 2008 and 2010 in one of 11 urban primary care clinics. Intervention Participants received either a computer-delivered tailored CRC screening intervention or a nontailored informational brochure about CRC screening immediately prior to their primary care visit. Main outcome measures Between-group differences in odds of having had a CRC screening discussion about a colon test, with and without adjusting for demographic, clinic, health literacy, health belief, and social support variables, were examined as predictors of a CRC screening discussion using logistic regression. Intervention effects on CRC screening test order by PCPs were examined using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Results Compared to the brochure group, a greater proportions of those in the computer-delivered tailored intervention group reported having had a discussion with their provider about CRC screening (63% vs 48%, OR=1.81, p<0.001). Predictors of a discussion about CRC screening included computer group participation, younger age, reason for visit, being unmarried, colonoscopy self-efficacy, and family member/friend recommendation (all p-values <0.05). Conclusions The computer-delivered tailored intervention was more effective than a nontailored brochure at stimulating patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Those who received the computer-delivered intervention also were more likely to have a CRC screening test (fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy) ordered by their PCP. Trial registration This study is registered at www

  3. Experts discuss how benchmarking improves the healthcare industry. Roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    Capozzalo, G L; Hlywak, J W; Kenny, B; Krivenko, C A

    1994-09-01

    Healthcare Financial Management engaged four benchmarking experts in a discussion about benchmarking and its role in the healthcare industry. The experts agree that benchmarking by itself does not create change unless it is part of a larger continuous quality improvement program; that benchmarking works best when senior management supports it enthusiastically and when the "appropriate" people are involved; and that benchmarking, when implemented correctly, is one of the best tools available to help healthcare organizations improve their internal processes. PMID:10146069

  4. Body Art: A Panel Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surgenor, Peter; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three camp directors discuss their policies regarding body art and body piercing. Only one director reported a strict policy prohibiting tattoos or body art based on standards that the camp portrays to families. However, all directors enforced policies prohibiting clothing or body art that mentions alcohol, tobacco, drug use, or inappropriate…

  5. A Philosophical Discussion of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.; Kenney, Keith

    One of the most basic theoretical areas in the study of visual communication and visual literacy is the nature of representation. Some of the important research in this area is reviewed in this paper, and a model of representation is developed that satisfies many of the philosophical concerns. The paper begins with a discussion on the relationship…

  6. A Study in Structured Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutzmer, Willard Ernest

    This study tested the hypothesis that group interaction skill and useful learning occur in a discussion group which is academically structured. A class procedure involving a cognitive map, member skills and roles, and group etiquette was incorporated into a class ("Education and the Contemporary Scene," Fall Quarter, 1968) at the University of…

  7. What Is Effectiveness? Panel Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Naomi

    Two papers are presented from a panel discussion moderated by Naomi Zigmond, who introduces the papers with a note on definitions and measures of intervention effectiveness. "Some Thoughts on Effective Intervention for Handicapped Preschoolers," by Phillip Strain, notes that special education researchers attempt to be efficient, economical,…

  8. Lively Discussions! Fostering Engaged Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Almasi, Janice F., Ed.

    Offering practical, classroom-based strategies teachers can use to promote literacy development, this book presents many examples of children engaging in discussion activities about narrative and informational text that emphasize collaborating, constructing meaning, and using these different types of texts to arrive at new understandings. Chapters…

  9. Black Psychologists Discuss Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardo, Harold R.; And Others

    The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss reasons why blacks should be concerned and actively involved with practices in behavior modification. The concern is that as these techniques are refined it becomes more important to be sure blacks should be involved at all levels of the application of these procedures when other blacks are subjects…

  10. Five Discussions on Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, E. R., Ed.

    Topics discussed are: (1) student aid and access to postsecondary education (Jack L. Woodward); (2) values in athletics (Grant Dungee); (3) some considerations in planning for postsecondary education (Paul G. Orr); (4) the open university as a challenge for postsecondary education in Mississippi (Cleopatra D. Thompson); and (5) comprehensive…

  11. Linguistic Indexicality in Algebra Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as indexicals assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. Indexical words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…

  12. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on others to…

  13. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment. PMID:26015581

  14. Group discussion improves lie detection

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a “wisdom-of-crowds” effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the “truth bias”). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment. PMID:26015581

  15. Neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os for the Re-Os chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Masaki, T.; Nagai, Y.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

    2007-08-15

    Discrete as well as continuum {gamma}-ray energy spectra from the neutron capture by {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os have been taken for the first time at 5{<=}E{sub n}{<=}90 keV by an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The detection of a weak discrete {gamma}-ray, about 0.5% of total {gamma}-ray strength, demonstrates the high sensitivity of the present measurement. The energy spectra enabled us to accurately determine the reaction cross sections with a small systematic uncertainty. Based on the new cross sections, we reestimate on the basis of a careful reaction cross section calculation the correction factor F{sub {sigma}} for the neutron capture on the 9.75-keV first excited state in {sup 187}Os as a function of stellar temperature, as required to derive the age of the galaxy within the Re-Os chronology.

  16. Panel Discussion v: Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obraztsov, Vladimir; Konaka, Akira; Ikeda, Motoyasu; Jediny, Filip; Shirokov, Evgeny; Kalekin, Oleg; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Questions to discuss: * Can sidereal time analysis of the long time neutrino observations give information about the galaxy distribution in the Local Universe? * How well do we need to know the PMNS matrix elements? * Is the existence of MSW effect proved experimentally? * Are there new species of neutrino (e.g. the sterile one)? * What are other most important problems in neutrino physics (CP-violation)? * Can sidereal time analysis of the long time neutrino observations give information about the galaxy distribution in the Local Universe? * Perspectives of existing and future neutrino experiments (LNBF, LAGUNA, ICARUS, SHIP ...)

  17. Science leaders discuss budget crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although funding for research fared relatively well in the budget proposed by the Reagan Administration for fiscal year (FY) 1987, leaders of the science community should expect lean times ahead for federal funding and should plan accordingly. This was the message delivered February 26-27, 1986, to nearly 400 participants in a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C.Leaders and policymakers from all segments of the research establishment were invited to attend the 2-day conference, which was sponsored by the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, an independent group associated with NAS, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Discussions at the conference revolved around the question “What research strategies best serve the national interest in a period of budgetary stress?” After hearing perspectives from representatives from the Administration, industry, federal agencies, universities, and a federal laboratory, participants were divided into seven working groups. Each group was assigned a topic of discussion, such as “Management at the Campus Level,” “The Relative Roles of Federal Laboratories and Outside Research Institutions,” and “Possible Non-Federal Sources of Support: States, Industry, and Foundations.” On the second day of the conference, the working group chairmen reported back to the conference at large.

  18. Functions of OsDof25 in regulation of OsC4PPDK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Verhoeff, N I; Chen, Z; Chen, S; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, P B F

    2015-10-01

    Relative little is known about the functions of the so-called Dof zinc factors in plants. Here we report on the analysis of OsDof25 and show a function in regulation of the important C4 photosynthesis gene, OsC4PPDK in rice. Over-expression of OsDof25 enhanced the expression of OsC4PPDK in transient expression experiments by binding in a specific way to a conserved Dof binding site which was confirmed by yeast and in vitro binding studies. Expression studies using promoter GUS plants as well as qPCR experiments showed that OsDof25 expressed in different tissues including both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs and that expression of OsDof25 was partially overlapping with the OsC4PPDK gene. Conclusive evidence for a role of OsDof25 in regulation of C4PPDK came from loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments with transgenic rice, which showed that down-regulation or over-expression of OsDof25 correlated with OsC4PPDK expression and that OsDof25 has functions as transcriptional activator. PMID:26337938

  19. Neutron capture and inelastic scattering cross sections for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os and the Re-Os chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Masaki, T.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

    2008-05-21

    We measured the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186,187,189}Os taking for the first time their pulse height spectra for neutrons between 5 and 90 keV by means of an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The neutron inelastic scattering cross section for {sup 187}Os as well as the neutron elastic scattering cross sections for {sup 186,187}Os were also observed with use of {sup 6}Li-glass scintillation detectors with a small systematic uncertainty.

  20. Lesbians discuss beauty and aging.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K M; Brown, N; Cassidy, J; Gentry, J H

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two conversations with three aging lesbians are presented to identify and explore different definitions of beauty and how these definitions change and are influenced by age. The three women interviewed believe beauty is more than skin deep, yet they differ regarding specific components of beauty. Two believe that their definition of beauty has changed as they age and one believes that her definition has remained basically unchanged through the years. Topics of discussion include: beauty role models, the impact of the American beauty standard on their self-esteem, and what they look for in potential partners. Through these women's diverse opinions on how beauty is defined and experienced by older lesbians, we see that there is no one perspective representing all older women. PMID:24786423

  1. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  2. Discussion on selected symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viotti, Roberto; Hack, Margherita

    1993-01-01

    Because of its large variety of aspects, the symbiotic phenomenon is not very suitable for a statistical treatment. It is also not clear whether symbiotic stars really represent a homogeneous group of astrophysical objects or a collection of objects of different natures but showing similar phenomena. However we are especially interested in the symbiotic phenomenon, i.e., in those physical processes occurring in the atmosphere of each individual object and in their time dependence. Such a research can be performed through the detailed analysis of individual objects. This study should be done for a time long enough to cover all the different phases of their activity, in all the spectral ranges. Since the typical time scale of the symbiotic phenomena is up to several years and decades, this represents a problem since, for instance, making astronomy outside the visual region is a quite new field of research. It was a fortunate case that a few symbiotic stars (Z And, AG Dra, CH Cyg, AX Per, and PU Vul) had undergone remarkable light variations (or 'outbursts') in recent years, which could have been followed in the space ultraviolet with IUE, and simultaneously in the optical and IR with ground-based telescopes. But, in general, the time coverage of most of the symbiotic objects is too short to have a complete picture of their behavior. In this regard, one should recall Mayall's remark about the light curve of Z And: 'Z Andromedae is another variable that shows it will require several hundred years of observations before a good analysis can be made of its variations'. This pessimistic remark should be considered as a note of caution for those involved in the interpretation of the observations. We shall discuss a number of individual symbiotic stars for which the amount of observational data is large enough to draw a rather complete picture of their general behavior and to make consistent models. We shall especially illustrate the necessary steps toward an empirical model

  3. Problems with Re-Os isochron determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Ngo, H. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-07-01

    We have developed closed-system techniques for the equilibration of Os isotopes and for the calibration of Re and Os tracers using high-purity metals. The results show reproducibility of +/- 0.5% for calibrations of Os using different chunks of the same high-purity Os metal produced by vacuum arc melting. On a Re-Os evolution diagram the analyses of Negrillos and of Tocopilla are displaced along horizontal lines and are not consistent with a well-defined isochron. We conclude that is unclear whether whole-rock samples of irons of individual classes of iron meteorites (including the IIA class) define isochrons.In light of these observations, one must consider the evidence for phases in which Re and Os may become redistributed. We note that the IIA irons are composed of large or single kamacite crystals and do not contain taenite. This may hinder redistribution of Re and Os and may allow the IIA irons to define isochrons in preference to other magmatic iron classes. However, the IIA irons also include ubiquitous rhabdites, up to 20 mm in length, and troilite-daubreelite nodules. It has been observed that rhabdites are extremely rich in Pt-group elements. In addition to these considerations, Negrillos and Tocopilla were found in nitrate deposits and show evidence of corrosion. Therefore, it is possible that different samples of these meteorites have been differentially weathered, although our samples appeared fresh. We conclude that it is important to identify the phases in which Re and the PGEs are located and to address in detail the evidence for Re and Os remobilization.

  4. Muscle coordination: the discussion continues

    PubMed

    Prilutsky

    2000-01-01

    In this response, the major criticisms of the target article are addressed. Terminology from the target article that may have caused some confusion is clarified. In particular, the tasks that have the basic features of muscle coordination, as identified in the target article, have been limited in scope. A new metabolic optimization criterion suggested by Alexander (2000) is examined for its ability to predict muscle coordination in walking. Issues concerning the validation of muscle force predictions, the rules of muscle coordination, and the role of directional constraints in coordination of two-joint muscles are discussed. It is shown in particular that even in one-joint systems, the forces predicted by the criterion of Crowninshield and Brand (1981) depend upon the muscle moment arms and the physiological cross-sectional areas in much more complex ways than either previously assumed in the target article, or incorrectly derived by Herzog and Ait-Haddou (2000). It is concluded that the criterion of Crowninshield and Brand qualitatively predicts the basic coordination features of the major one- and two-joint muscles in a number of highly skilled, repetitive motor tasks performed by humans under predictable conditions and little demands on stability and accuracy. A possible functional significance of such muscle coordination may be the minimization of perceived effort, muscle fatigue, and/or energy expenditure. PMID:10675817

  5. The causes for geographical variations in OS187/OS186 at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turekian, K. K.; Esser, B. K.; Ravizza, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers at Yale has approached the problem of the osmium isotopic composition of marine deposits formed in contact with both oxidized and reduced bottom waters. The measured (187) Os/(186) Os ratios of modern bulk sediment can be explained using mixing equations involving continental detrital, volcaniclastic, cosmogenic and hydrogeneous components. These studies show that sediments deposited under reducing marine conditions contain a hydrogenous component which is enriched in Re and has a radiogenic (187) Os/(186) Os ratio. The presence of such a hydrogenous component in the marine fish clay at Stevns Klint can account for the elevation of its (187) Os/(186) Os ration above the expected meteoritic value. Mass balance considerations require the Re/Os ratio of the phase precipitated from the terminal Cretaceous sea at Stevns Klint to have been about one tenth the value observed in contemporary deposits in the Black Sea, assuming Re has not been lost (or Os gained) subsequent to precipitation. In continental sections, the elevation of the (187) Os/(186) Os ratio in boundary layers may be due to precipitation from continental waters of crustally-derived radiogenic osmium either contemporaneous with the meteoritic (or mantle) osmium deposition or later during diagenesis.

  6. O/S analysis of conceptual space vehicles. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The application of recently developed computer models in determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems is discussed. The models used are the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, the maintenance simulation model, and the operations and support (O&S) cost model. In the process of applying these models, the R&M and O&S cost models were updated. The more significant enhancements include (1) improved R&M equations for the tank subsystems, (2) the ability to allocate schedule maintenance by subsystem, (3) redefined spares calculations, (4) computing a weighted average of the working days and mission days per month, (5) the use of a position manning factor, and (6) the incorporation into the O&S model of new formulas for computing depot and organizational recurring and nonrecurring training costs and documentation costs, and depot support equipment costs. The case study used is based upon a winged, single-stage, vertical-takeoff vehicle (SSV) designed to deliver to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) a 25,000 lb payload including passengers without a crew.

  7. 186Os/188Os Isotopic Compositions of Peridotites: Constraints on Melt Depletion and Pt/Os Evolution of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R. N.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Global correlations between Al2O3 and Pt/Os in mantle peridotites suggest that Pt behaves incompatibly relative to Os during partial melting [c.f., 1]. Because 190Pt decays to 186Os (t1/2 = 468 Ga), correlations between 186Os/188Os and peridotite fertility can be used to constrain the long-term Pt/Os evolution of the depleted mantle and the initial Pt/Os ratio of the primitive upper mantle (PUM). We examined 186Os/188Os in mantle peridotites from continental (Rio Grande Rift/Colorado Plateau) and oceanic (Lena Trough, Hawaiian Islands) settings that span a wide range in fertility (Al2O3 ~0.67-4.42 %) and 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1138-0.1305). The new data define a narrow range in 186Os/188Os (0.1198338 to 0.1198393, 2 SD~24 ppm), placing constraints on long-term Pt/Os variability in the DMM. 186Os/188Os is broadly correlated with indices of melt depletion including spinel Cr#, clinopyroxene Cr#, and clinopyroxene Yb content, consistent with the inferred relative compatibility of Pt and Os during partial melting. Extrapolation of the alumina-186Os/188Os trend to PUM alumina content (~4.5 wt% Al2O3; [2]) suggests a PUM 186Os/188Os of ~0.1198380±15, similar to the 186Os/188Os of H chondrites (~0.1198398±16; [3]). This 186Os/188Os value is consistent with a PUM Pt/Os of 1.8±0.3, similar to Pt/Os values measured in several classes of chondrites (Carbonaceous ~1.9±0.2, Ordinary ~2.0±0.3 and Enstatite ~1.9±0.2; [3]). Whereas ~84% of peridotites worldwide [excluding low-[Os] samples (<1 ppb Os) that may have been compromised by melt-rock reaction and/or weathering and alteration] with measured Pt/Os ratios have Pt/Os between 0.3 and 3.1 (the range permissible from 186Os/188Os variations for melt extraction from PUM at ~1.5 Ga), only ~36% fall between 1.3 and 2.2 (a narrower range consistent with an older ~4.5 Ga melt depletion age). This suggests that much of the observed Pt/Os variability in mantle peridotites is relatively recent. Close agreement between our inferred

  8. Involvement of the OsMKK4-OsMPK1 Cascade and its Downstream Transcription Factor OsWRKY53 in the Wounding Response in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Jin; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Young Cheol; Cho, Baik Ho; Yang, Kwang-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Plant has possessed diverse stress signals from outside and maintained its fitness. Out of such plant responses, it is well known that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays important role in wounding and pathogen attack in most dicot plants. However, little is understood about its role in wounding response for the economically important monocot rice plant. In this study, therefore, the involvement of MAPK was investigated to understand the wounding signaling pathway in rice. The OsMPK1 was rapidly activated by wounding within 10 min, and OsMPK1 was also activated by challenge of rice blast fungus. Further analysis revealed that OsMKK4, the upstream kinase of OsMPK1, phosphorylated OsMPK1 by wounding in vivo. Furthermore, OsMPK1 directly interacted with a rice defense-related transcription factor OsWRKY53. To understand a functional link between MAPK and its target transcription factor, we showed that OsMPK1 activated by the constitutively active mutant OsMKK4DD phosphorylated OsWRKY53 in vitro. Taken together, components involving in the wounding signaling pathway, OsMKK4-OsMPK1-OsWRKY53, can be important players in regulating crosstalk between abiotic stress and biotic stress. PMID:25288999

  9. Involvement of the OsMKK4-OsMPK1 Cascade and its Downstream Transcription Factor OsWRKY53 in the Wounding Response in Rice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Jin; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Young Cheol; Cho, Baik Ho; Yang, Kwang-Yeol

    2014-06-01

    Plant has possessed diverse stress signals from outside and maintained its fitness. Out of such plant responses, it is well known that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays important role in wounding and pathogen attack in most dicot plants. However, little is understood about its role in wounding response for the economically important monocot rice plant. In this study, therefore, the involvement of MAPK was investigated to understand the wounding signaling pathway in rice. The OsMPK1 was rapidly activated by wounding within 10 min, and OsMPK1 was also activated by challenge of rice blast fungus. Further analysis revealed that OsMKK4, the upstream kinase of OsMPK1, phosphorylated OsMPK1 by wounding in vivo. Furthermore, OsMPK1 directly interacted with a rice defense-related transcription factor OsWRKY53. To understand a functional link between MAPK and its target transcription factor, we showed that OsMPK1 activated by the constitutively active mutant OsMKK4(DD) phosphorylated OsWRKY53 in vitro. Taken together, components involving in the wounding signaling pathway, OsMKK4-OsMPK1-OsWRKY53, can be important players in regulating crosstalk between abiotic stress and biotic stress. PMID:25288999

  10. Re-Os Isotope Systematics in Lunar Soils and Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar soil and breccia samples show a narrow range in 187Os/188Os, in the range for H-chondrites and unfractionated irons. All samples show enrichments in 187Re/188Os, possibly reflecting loss of Os, associated with the terminal lunar cataclysm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Low-lying excited states in the neutron-deficient isotopes 163Os and 165Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, M. C.; Joss, D. T.; Page, R. D.; Simpson, J.; O'Donnell, D.; Andgren, K.; Bianco, L.; Cederwall, B.; Darby, I. G.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hadinia, B.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leppänen, A.-P.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sapple, P. J.; Sarén, J.; Saygi, B.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Thomson, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Venhart, M.

    2013-05-01

    Excited states in the neutron-deficient isotopes 163Os and 165Os were identified using the JUROGAM and GREAT spectrometers in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled separator. The 163Os and 165Os nuclei were populated via the 106Cd(60Ni,3n) and 92Mo(78Kr,2p3n) reactions at bombarding energies of 270 MeV and 357 MeV, respectively. Gamma-ray emissions from these nuclei have been established unambiguously using the recoil-decay tagging technique and a coincidence analysis has allowed level schemes to be established. These results suggest that the yrast states are based upon negative-parity configurations originating from the νf7/2 and νh9/2 orbitals.

  12. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n,gamma) cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2010-07-15

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os measured at the n{sub T}OF facility at cern. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the sammy code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the {sup 187}Os abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  13. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  14. Discussion, Schooling, and the Struggle for Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preskill, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Argues that because democracy, education, and discussion are interrelated and seek to promote human growth, ways must be found to involve children and adults in frequent discussions. Focuses on democratic education, including the barriers, functions of discussion, and dispositional ideals for classroom members. Concludes that discussion is an…

  15. Increasing Moral Reasoning Skills through Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Jeff; Smith, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects that online asynchronous dilemma discussions have on moral reasoning scores of pharmacy students. In contrast to face-to-face group discussions, asynchronous threaded discussions afford all participants time to reflect and respond during discussions. Anonymity features may lessen inhibitions in responding critically…

  16. Muonic x-ray study of the even Os nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehn, M. V.; Shera, E. B.; Wohlfahrt, H. D.; Yamazaki, Y.; Steffen, R. M.; Sheline, R. K.

    1981-10-01

    Precision measurements have been made of the muonic x-ray spectra of the transitional nuclei 186,188,190,192Os. Equivalent Barrett radii and isotope shifts have been determined, as have isomer shifts of the first excited 2+ states. These results are compared with other experiments and with theoretical calculations. The systematics of isotope shifts in the deformed nuclei are also discussed. Generalized E 2 moments of the charge distribution have been extracted in a nearly model-independent way and conventional electromagnetic moments have been deduced by assuming a specific transition charge density model. The latter are in good agreement with recent calculations of both the interacting boson approximation and the boson expansion theory. However, a serious discrepancy in the values of the quadrupole moments determined from the muonic and Coulomb excitation experiments is apparent. The model dependence of the muonic results (including the effect of a triaxial model charge distribution) is explored as a possible cause of the discrepancy; however, no effect large enough to explain the discrepancy is found. Furthermore, no feature of the muonic spectra was found which could be used to distinguish between a triaxial and an axially symmetric charge distribution. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 186,188,190,192Os; measured muonic x-ray spectra; deduced monopole and quadrupole charge parameters, isotope and isomer shifts.

  17. Re-Os systematics of St. Paul's Rocks, equatorial Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blusztajn, J.; Hart, S. R.

    2006-12-01

    St. Paul's Rocks, small islets in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic (0°56'N, 29°22'W) just north of the St. Paul's Fracture zone, represent oceanic peridotites that are unique compared to abyssal peridotites. The main difference is the occurrence of modally metasomatized peridotites containing hornblende and pargasite. These mantle peridotites from St. Paul's Rocks show large Os isotopic heterogeneity, with present day 187Os/188Os ratios ranging from 0.1179 to 0.1273. In contrast, two hornblendite samples have very radiogenic Os isotopic compositions of 0.221 and 0.284. The Os concentrations vary from 0.003 ppb (hornblendite) to 5.8 ppb (spinel peridotite). Pargasite peridotites contain on average about 1.6 ppb Os. Even modally metasomatized samples with hornblende and pargasite have subchondritic Os isotopic ratios, indicating that enrichment processes did not disturb the Os isotopic system. The only indication of pervasive enrichment is a very high Re content in two of the amphibole peridotites (0.7 and 2.2 ppb). The unradiogenic Os isotopic ratios in the peridotites record ancient melting events with model ages of about 1.5 Ga. Three alkali basalts dredged on the flank of St. Paul's Rocks (1966 Atlantis II-20 cruise) have relatively high Os contents (62 to 167 ppt) and are quite radiogenic, with 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.167 to 0.239. Data from this study indicates that mixing of the different lithologies observed on St. Paul's Rocks cannot produce 187Os/188Os as high as that observed in the dredged basalts. On the other hand, the similar 187Os/188Os in the hornblendites and alkali basalts show that interaction between basalts and mantle peridotites took place. The very low Os isotopic ratios in St. Paul's Rocks, in conjunction with other Os studies from the equatorial Atlantic, indicate dispersed heterogeneities of old subcontinental lithospheric material in the oceanic mantle.

  18. Investigation into the mechanism of action of the antimicrobial peptides Os and Os-C derived from a tick defensin.

    PubMed

    Taute, Helena; Bester, Megan J; Neitz, Albert W H; Gaspar, Anabella R M

    2015-09-01

    Os and Os-C are two novel antimicrobial peptides, derived from a tick defensin, which have been shown to have a larger range of antimicrobial activity than the parent peptide, OsDef2. The aim of this study was to determine whether the peptides Os and Os-C are mainly membrane acting, or if these peptides have possible additional intracellular targets in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that both peptides adversely affected intracellular structure of both bacteria causing different degrees of granulation of the intracellular contents. At the minimum bactericidal concentrations, permeabilization as determined with the SYTOX green assay seemed not to be the principle mode of killing when compared to melittin. However, fluorescent triple staining indicated that the peptides caused permeabilization of stationary phase bacteria and TEM indicated membrane effects. Studies using fluorescently labeled peptides revealed that the membrane penetrating activity of Os and Os-C was similar to buforin II. Os-C was found to associate with the septa of B. subtilis. Plasmid binding studies showed that Os and Os-C binds E. coli plasmid DNA at a similar charge ratio as melittin. These studies suggest membrane activity for Os and Os-C with possible intracellular targets such as DNA. The differences in permeabilization at lower concentrations and binding to DNA between Os and Os-C, suggest that the two peptides have dissimilar modes of action. PMID:26215047

  19. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  20. Video 7 of 14: Classroom Discussion

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video segment documents the follow-up discussion, in which students discuss the results of their test flights. The session demonstrates how the teacher uses the inquiry method to evaluate stud...

  1. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alan D; Macdonald, Francis A; Strauss, Justin V; Dudás, Francis Ö; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post-Snowball Earth hothouse. PMID:24344274

  2. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Alan D.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Strauss, Justin V.; Dudás, Francis Ö.; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post–Snowball Earth hothouse. PMID:24344274

  3. USENET Discussion Groups in Political Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Martha

    1995-01-01

    Considers the applications and limitations of supplementing political science instruction with USENET discussion groups. Maintains that the engaging and topical nature of the discussion groups can enhance traditional course materials. Notes, however, that USENET comments often are not indicative of the general public. Briefly discusses reference…

  4. Discussion Technique: The Twice-Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a discussion technique: the twice-around. A variant on the circular response discussion, the twice-around engages students by beginning with students' questions, ensuring equal time for all participants and inviting discussants to build on previous contributions. In the twice-around, participants sit in a circle,…

  5. Cooperative application/OS DRAM fault recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Heroux, Michael Allen; Hoemmen, Mark; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Exascale systems will present considerable fault-tolerance challenges to applications and system software. These systems are expected to suffer several hard and soft errors per day. Unfortunately, many fault-tolerance methods in use, such as rollback recovery, are unsuitable for many expected errors, for example DRAM failures. As a result, applications will need to address these resilience challenges to more effectively utilize future systems. In this paper, we describe work on a cross-layer application/OS framework to handle uncorrected memory errors. We illustrate the use of this framework through its integration with a new fault-tolerant iterative solver within the Trilinos library, and present initial convergence results.

  6. Painful Os Peroneum Syndrome: Underdiagnosed Condition in the Lateral Midfoot Pain.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; de Souza, Barbara Nogueira Caracas; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Os peroneum is an accessory ossicle located within the peroneus longus tendon. The painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) results from a wide spectrum of conditions, including fractures, diastases, and other causes. POPS can result in tenosynovitis or discontinuity of the peroneus longus tendon with a clinical presentation of pain in the lateral aspect of the midfoot. Authors report a typical case of POPS, illustrating this entity through different imaging methods (radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging). We emphasize the prevalence of this ossicle and discuss painful complications. PMID:27478674

  7. Painful Os Peroneum Syndrome: Underdiagnosed Condition in the Lateral Midfoot Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Barbara Nogueira Caracas

    2016-01-01

    Os peroneum is an accessory ossicle located within the peroneus longus tendon. The painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) results from a wide spectrum of conditions, including fractures, diastases, and other causes. POPS can result in tenosynovitis or discontinuity of the peroneus longus tendon with a clinical presentation of pain in the lateral aspect of the midfoot. Authors report a typical case of POPS, illustrating this entity through different imaging methods (radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging). We emphasize the prevalence of this ossicle and discuss painful complications. PMID:27478674

  8. New insights from old spherules: Os-W isotope and HSE evidence for Paleoarchean meteorite bombardment of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, T.; Luguet, A. A.; Koeberl, C.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: Although still debated, spherule beds in the Barberton Mountain Land (~3.4 Ga) are suspected to represent remnants of impact-generated and ballistically emplaced silicate melt droplets [e.g. 1]. Such deposits provide the only window into the late stages of the heavy meteorite bombardment on Earth as their source craters have long since been obliterated. In order to identify a possible meteoritic component and, if successful, to discuss potential projectile materials, we are performing a detailed Os-W isotope as well as HSE abundance study on spherule layers from the recently drilled ICDP BARB5 core (grid location 25°30`50.76``S, 31°33`10.08``E). Samples and Methods: Samples were taken from a spherule-containing meta-sedimentary core section discovered between 510 and 512 m depth. About 100 mg of homogenized sample powders were spiked with a mixed 190Os, 185Re, 191Ir and 194Pt tracer and treated in a high pressure asher using inverse aqua regia, followed by conventional extraction schemes for Os and the other HSEs [4]. Chemical and Os isotope measurements (via N-TIMS) were performed in Vienna, whereas HSE measurements were undertaken via ICP MS in Bonn. Results and Discussion: Our preliminary Os isotope data reveal a trend between samples exhibiting high spherule to matrix ratios (187Os/188Os ~0.106 and Os ~0.4 ppm) and samples with lower ones (187Os/188Os up to ~0.304 and Os ~0.008 ppm). Notably, the most unradiogenic samples exhibit carbonaceous-chondrite-like initial 187Os/188Os and HSE ratios, whereas all other samples are clear non-chondritic. These findings support an extraterrestrial contribution in the spherules and can be interpreted compared to conclusions drawn from a Cr isotope study performed on similar samples [3], possibly representing a different impact event and favouring a chondritic projectile. However, further considerations based on precise Os/W ratio determinations and high-precision 182W isotope data, will be presented at the

  9. Multilobular osteochondrosarcoma of the os penis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jinelle A.; Liptak, Julius M.; Hewitt, Saundra A.; Vince, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Multilobular osteochondrosarcoma (MLO) of the os penis was diagnosed in a dysuric dog. Recurrence was confirmed or suspected twice over a 22-month period. This is the first reported case of MLO occurring in the os penis, and the 5th reported case of neoplasia of the os penis in the dog. PMID:19337619

  10. Overexpression of the OsChI1 gene, encoding a putative laccase precursor, increases tolerance to drought and salinity stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Yong; Lee, Chanhui; Hwang, Sun-Goo; Park, Yong Chan; Lim, Hye Lee; Jang, Cheol Seong

    2014-11-15

    In a previous study, we identified a number of genes induced by chilling using a microarray approach. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying chilling tolerance and possible crosstalk with other abiotic stresses, we selected a rice gene, OsChI1 (Os01g61160), for further analysis. The OsChI1 gene encodes a putative laccase precursor protein. In accordance with our previous results, its transcript is highly accumulated during a 12-day period of chilling treatment. Higher expression of the OsChI1 gene was also detected in roots and tissues at the vegetative and productive stages. In addition, we also observed increased transcript levels of the OsChI1 gene during dehydration and high salinity conditions. Transient expression of OsChI1 proteins tagged with fluorescence protein in rice protoplasts revealed that OsChI1 is localized in the plasma membrane. The Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing OsChI1-EGFP resulted in an increased tolerance to drought and salinity stress. In silico analysis of OsChI1 suggests that several genes coexpressed with OsChI1 in the root during various abiotic stresses, such as chilling, drought and salt stress, may play an important role in the ROS signaling pathway. Potential roles of OsChI1 in response to abiotic stresses are discussed. PMID:25218040

  11. Measurement of the Zeeman effect in an atomic anion: Prospects for laser cooling of Os-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerbauer, A.; Fischer, A.; Warring, U.

    2014-04-01

    The negative osmium ion Os- is one of very few atomic anions potentially suitable for laser cooling. We have made a measurement of the Zeeman splitting of a bound-bound transition in 192Os- by studying the laser excitation from the 5d76s2 4F9/2e ground to the 5d66s26p 6D9/2o excited state in a homogeneous external magnetic field. The experimental Landé factors gJ=1.31(7) and gJ=1.50(8), respectively, agree well with calculated values. Both levels are found to split into 10 Zeeman sublevels, resulting in 28 allowed transitions of different relative intensities, in agreement with calculations based on pure and composite LS states. In view of the experimental results, the prospects for laser cooling of Os- are discussed.

  12. Structures and optical absorption of Bi2OS2 and LaOBiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Akira; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Takei, Takahiro; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2016-02-01

    The band gaps of isostructural Bi2OS2 and LaOBiS2 were examined using optical absorption and discussed with the band structures calculated based on the crystal structures determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The Bi 6p and S 3p orbitals in the Bi-S plane were computationally predicted to constitute the bands near the Fermi level. The optical reflectance spectra of Bi2OS2 and LaOBiS2 showed optical band gaps of ~1.0 eV, which were close to the computationally calculated direct band gaps of ~0.8 eV. Our results show that Bi2OS2 and LaOBiS2 are semiconductors containing direct band gaps of 0.8-1.0 eV, and they are suggested to be candidates for optoelectronic materials in the near-infrared region without highly toxic elements.

  13. Deliberative discussion as an innovative teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Heather Janiszewski; Stein, David

    2008-06-01

    The discussion method is a teaching strategy commonly used by nurse educators in a variety of educational settings. However, relatively unknown to nursing education is a unique discussion teaching strategy: the deliberative discussion method. The deliberative discussion method was developed by the National Issues Forums Institute for the sole purpose of creating a means to engage people and communities to dialogue with one another. In essence, a deliberative discussion is a shared inquiry that asks participants to talk through and weigh the costs and consequences of a variety of options of solutions to a public problem. At the heart of deliberation is the group's willingness to work through the conflicts, to accept the consequences of their choices, and to establish grounds for action. Deliberative discussion offers an innovative approach to health care or other nursing issues in the classroom. PMID:18557315

  14. A discussion of dynamic stability measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the measurement of the dynamic stability of linear systems are discussed. Particular attention is given to an analysis of the errors in the procedures, and to methods for calculating the system damping from the data. The techniques discussed include: transient decay, moving block analysis, spectral analysis, random decrement signatures, transfer function analysis, and parameter identification methods. The special problems of rotorcraft dynamic stability testing are discussed.

  15. 33 CFR 240.5 - Discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discussion. 240.5 Section 240.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.5 Discussion. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the Conference Report, H.R. Rpt. No. 99-1013,...

  16. Os-187/Os-188 and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Apollo 17 Aphanitic Melt Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; James, O. B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Generally chondritic relative abundances and high absolute abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) in Earth s upper mantle provide strong evidence that these elements were added to the Earth following the last major interaction between its metallic core and silicate fraction. So called "late accretion" may have added materials comprising as much as 0.8% of the total mass of the Earth and possibly a similar proportion of mass to the Moon. We have begun to study the chemical nature of late accreted materials to the Earth - Moon system by examining the HSE contained in lunar impact-melt rocks. The HSE contained in melt rocks were largely added to the Moon during the period of time from the origin of the lunar highlands crust (4.4- 4.5 Ga) to the end of the late bombardment period (ca. 3.9 Ga). These materials provide the only direct chemical link to the late accretionary period. The chemical fingerprints of the HSE in late accreted materials may enable us to ascertain under what conditions and where in the solar system the late accreted materials formed. The Os-187/Os-188 ratios (reflecting long-term Re/Os), coupled with ratios of other HSE, can be diagnostic for identifying the nature of the impactor. A critical issue, however, will be deconvolving the exogenous from indigenous components.

  17. Re-Os dating of 3AB iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esat, Tezer M.; Bennett, Victoria

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Creaser et al., and Volkening and Heumann, have demonstrated the efficient production of large (approximately 10 exp -11 A) ion beams by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) using standard laboratory solutions of Os compounds. Horan et al., have applied NTIMS to a group of 7 IIA iron meteorites and obtained a Re-Os closure age of 4596 +/- 152 million years. The initial Os-187/Os-186 ratio was 0.8007 plus or minus 0.0029. In addition they analyzed 3 IIIA meteorite samples which indicated an age of 4554 +/- 180 million years and Os initial of 0.8120 +/- 0.0075 which does not overlap with the initial for the IIA irons. We have been independently pursuing a similar program with the direct aim of determining possible variations in the initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio or Re-Os closure age of different classes of iron meteorite. We have applied NTIMS to Os extracted from the most common group of iron meteorites the IIIAB. These meteorites are believed to be of magmatic origin, formed by fractional crystallization of molten cores of asteroidal bodies. The present results point to a significantly lower initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio of 0.7731 plus or minus 0.0050 than previously determined.

  18. Coulomb excitation of {sup 189}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, W.A.; Botelho, S.; Ribas, R.V.

    1993-10-01

    The transitional nucleus {sup 189}Os has been studied by Coulomb excitation. Measurements with a Ge(HP) detector were made at 0{degrees}, 55{degrees}, 90{degrees} with beams of {sup 28}Si at 80 and 88 Me {sup 35}Cl at 80 MeV and {sup 16}O at 58 MeV. A total of gamma-ray transitions leading to 23 levels we used in the least-squares code GOSIA to determined reduced matrix elements. A theoretic understanding of this nucleus has been attempt from the point of view of current nuclear mode as they apply to systematics of the 1/2 {sup -}[510] 3/2 -[512], 1/2 [503] levels in this ma region.

  19. Discussion paper on energy grant alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, B.; Clifford, D.; Gunnison, F.; Tatar, J.

    1981-07-01

    The federal grant-in-aid system now consists of three general types of grants: categorical grants; block grants; and general revenue sharing. These are discussed and compared. The types of complications that may arise from implementation of these grants proposals are discussed. Some proposals for the possible consolidation of programs that the Department of Energy offices now administer are summarized. (MCW)

  20. Informal Discussions in Substance Abuse Treatment Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steve; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which counselors initiated informal discussions (i.e., general discussions and self-disclosures about matters unrelated to treatment) with their clients during treatment sessions within two National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trial Network protocols involving adaptations of motivational interviewing (MI). Sixty counselors across the two protocols had 736 sessions independently rated for counselor treatment fidelity and the occurrence of informal discussions. The results showed that 88% of the counselors initiated informal discussions in their sessions and that the majority of these discussions involved counselors sharing personal information or experiences they had in common with their clients. The major finding was that counselor training in MI was associated with significantly less informal discussion across sessions. A higher frequency of informal discussion was related to less counselor MI proficiency and less in-session change in client motivation, though unrelated to client program retention and substance use outcomes. The findings suggest that while some informal discussion may help build an alliance between counselors and clients, too much of it may hinder counselors' proficient implementation of MI treatment strategies and the clients' motivational enhancement process. PMID:18835679

  1. The Superiority of Online Discussion: Faculty Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglione, Stephen L.; Nastanski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    With online education continuing its meteoric rise, some educators continue to debate the efficacy of the medium--in particular, the ability to discuss complex subjects online. However, the online asynchronous discussion environment seems to offer some advantages over the traditional classroom including increased time for students to research and…

  2. Emergent Leadership in Children's Discussion Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Dong, Ting; Archodidou, Anthi; Kim, Il-Hee; Kuo, Li-Jen; Clark, Ann-Marie; Wu, Xiaoying; Jadallah, May; Miller, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Emergent leadership was examined in 12 discussion groups in 4 fourth-grade classrooms. Children's leadership moves were coded from transcripts of 10 free-flowing, open-format discussions of each of the 12 groups. The transcripts encompassed 26,000 turns for speaking, including 22,000 child turns of which 1,700 were judged to serve one of five…

  3. Involving Preservice Teachers in Discussions of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Patricia L.; Benton, Janet E.

    Creating a safe, open environment for discussion is a critical first step in examining topics of diversity. Because public schools may be the only social arena in the United States where different social classes, ethnicities, and genders come together on a regular basis, it is important to involve preservice teachers in discussions involving…

  4. Clicking Our Way to Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Judith; Ruggieri, Margaret; Whelan-Berry, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to investigate whether the use of a personal response system ("clickers") in the classroom increases student participation and discussion and its impact on the quality of the discussion in undergraduate accounting courses. While many studies conducted regarding the use of clickers rely on student…

  5. Discussion-Based Instruction in Drug Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruenitz, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    A flexible strategy for large-group pharmacy instruction in drug metabolism has students prepare and discuss answers to fact-oriented study questions, addressing fundamentals covered in a textbook, with regular evaluation of in-class student responses to higher-order review questions. This discussion-based approach has brought sustained…

  6. White Educators Facilitating Discussions about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2012-01-01

    Facilitating democratic discussions about race among students in classroom environments continues to be a problem facing educators. When these discussions occur, they are facilitated mostly by faculty of color. However, given the underrepresentation of faculty of color within higher education institutions and that white students respond…

  7. Global Leadership Competencies: A Review and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Tiina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: From the competency point of view, this article aims to review and discuss existing global leadership and other related literature, and to combine findings and suggestions provided in previous literature in a more integrative framework of global leadership competencies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews and discusses the…

  8. 33 CFR 240.5 - Discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.5 Discussion. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the... flood control works for projects under study. Both general provisions would enable local interests to... flood damages in the period preceding authorization of a Federal project with assurance that they...

  9. The Discussion Method in Classroom Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Meredith Damien; Gillett, Maxwell

    1980-01-01

    Remarkably versatile and demonstrated as effective at all grade levels, the discussion method has great potential for classroom teaching. Teachers should use this method more often because it teaches students to speak freely, listen to others, analyze different points of view, and evaluate the effectiveness of a discussion. (CMJ)

  10. Threaded Discussion Instructional Strategies and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Rodger Pratt

    2013-01-01

    Educators need insight into what instructional strategies are effective in the online environment, but few researchers have contrasted threaded discussion strategies and measures of student performance using a quantitative approach. Also, the effectiveness of threaded discussion strategies across all student generation groups or between genders is…

  11. Managing the Paradoxes of Discussion Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Jody S.; Anderson, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Discussion pedagogy is part of a larger curricular goal that intersects the two aspirations of diversity of perspectives and democratic inquiry in that it challenges stereotypes and assumptions through student discourse. Yet, teaching with discussion is a complex and sometimes ambiguous endeavor that leaves instructors feeling pulled between…

  12. Building Knowledge and Community through Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    A web conference "adds value by generating discussion among a diverse student group" (Skinner, 2004a, p. 12). Or does it? A significant concern is the extent to which learners construct knowledge and develop a learning community through online discussion. Critics argue that genuine knowledge construction is difficult to achieve. This study…

  13. 33 CFR 214.6 - Discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discussion. 214.6 Section 214.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.6 Discussion. (a) The amendment provides for furnishing emergency supplies of drinking water. The method...

  14. 33 CFR 214.6 - Discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discussion. 214.6 Section 214.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.6 Discussion. (a) The amendment provides for furnishing emergency supplies of drinking water. The method...

  15. Asynchronous Discussions and Assessment in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Liang, Xin; Alderman, Kay

    2007-01-01

    This case study explored asynchronous online discussions, assessment processes, and the meaning students derived from their experiences in five online graduate courses at the Colleges of Education of two Midwestern higher education institutions. The findings suggest that asynchronous online discussions facilitate a multidimensional process of…

  16. Discourse Patterns during Children's Collaborative Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Il-Hee; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Archodidou, Anthi

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the discourse of 10 groups of children during text-based online discussions. Analysis of the discourse in the discussions showed that 8 different rhetorical moves, or argument stratagems, were used by most groups of children, whereas 3 other stratagems were used by 1 group. The use of argument stratagems snowballed; that is,…

  17. Online Discussion, Student Engagement, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leonard; Lahman, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Recent research into the merits of online discussion (computer-mediated communication) has shown that it promotes active learning behaviors and enhances learner outcomes. Scholars have also shown that, when instructors employ effective questioning and moderating skills, students can show higher levels of critical thinking in online discussion. In…

  18. Discussion Starters. Technical Note No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Ibrahim; Dilts, Russ

    Discussion starters, the result of collaboration between the Indonesian Directorate General of Nonformal Education, Youth, and Sports, and World Education, Inc., are simple learning tools used to generate discussion among community groups involved in nonformal education. Appropriate in and adaptable to a variety of settings, content areas, and…

  19. Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but…

  20. Integrating Online Discussion: Broadening the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2006-01-01

    This article shares an approach to teaching mathematics teacher education courses incorporating asynchronous online discussions. Specifically, this research is guided by the following research questions: (a) How would online discussions contribute or hinder teachers' learning in mathematics methods courses? and (b) What pedagogical strategies need…

  1. The Adventure of the Discussion Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Don

    This paper describes the frustration with the lack student involvement in classroom discussions regarding significant issues of the California State History Social Science Standards, specifically on politics and media. The initial use of a discussion board produced disappointing results. Very few students participated and their responses did not…

  2. Learning Reading Strategies with Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, I-Fang; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Teachers experience difficulty demonstrating prediction strategies and leading discussions in traditional classrooms. It is also unclear whether online discussion can contribute to reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to create an online reading system to investigate whether learners can acquire reading strategies and enhance their…

  3. What Is America? Discussions, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Robert E., Ed.; And Others

    Volume II contains 20 discussion units for the final five months of the Calendar for the American Issues Forum Bicentennial program (see SO 008 613 for Vol. I). Discussion topics in this book include Working in America; the Business of America; America in the World; Growing up in America; and Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. Although a…

  4. Preparing Teachers to Lead Mathematics Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerst, Timothy A.; Sleep, Laurie; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg; Bass, Hyman

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Discussion is central to mathematics teaching and learning, as well as to mathematics as an academic discipline. Studies have shown that facilitating discussions is complex work that is not easily done or learned. To make such complex aspects of the work of teaching learnable by beginners, recent research has focused on…

  5. Affordances and Constraints of Electronic Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Russell A.

    The most common consequence of setting up an "electronic discussion group" for a university class or a group of faculty is a flurry of initial greetings followed by an enduring silence. Only a small proportion of computer users are active and sophisticated enough to read regularly and feel disposed to participate actively. Written discussion may…

  6. Functional characterization of rice OsDof12.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejun; Yang, Chunhua; Li, Xiaobing; Gan, Qiang; Zhao, Xianfeng; Zhu, Lihuang

    2009-05-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) proteins are a large family of transcription factors involved in a variety of biological processes in plants. In rice, 30 different Dof genes have been identified through genome analysis. Here we report the functional characteristics of a rice Dof gene, OsDof12, which encodes a predicted Dof protein. The nuclear localization of OsDof12 was investigated by the transient expression assays of the OsDof12-GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells. Trans-activation assays in a yeast one-hybrid system indicated that OsDof12 had transcriptional activity. RNA expression analyses showed that the expression of OsDof12 was not tissue-specific in general and fluctuated at different development stages in rice. In addition, OsDof12 was strongly inhibited by dark treatments. The transgenic lines overexpressing OsDof12 showed early flowering under long-day (LD) conditions, whereas OsDof12 overexpression had no effect on flowering time under short-day (SD) conditions. In transgenic lines overexpressing OsDof12, the transcription levels of Hd3a and OsMADS14 were up-regulated under LD conditions but not SD conditions, whereas the expression of Hd1, OsMADS51, Ehd1 and OsGI did not change under LD and SD conditions. These results suggested that OsDof12 might regulate flowering by controlling the expression of Hd3a and OsMADS14. PMID:19198875

  7. Discussion Forum for Technical Codes Users

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspar, Bryce P.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2006-03-30

    One goal of the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) is to provide useful, easy to understand information about the national energy codes. A forum where users could ask for, and receive clarification on these codes and software from other users would allow the Energy codes project to reach and instruct a broader audience for a modest resource cost. The forum proposed would be a staff moderated discussion board where staff would post topics, and users would post discussion of those topics, with staff joining in to the discussions. The forum would be moderated by staff members, to remove objectionable and irrelevant postings, and to answer any technical questions that arise. The topics and discussions would be archived and searchable to allow users to answer their own questions, if they pertain to a previously discussed topic.

  8. National GAP Conference 2007-Discussion Groups Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee

    2010-01-01

    We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.

  9. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    PubMed

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  10. An Elementary Discussion of Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Carl W.

    1988-01-01

    This discussion uses a more difficult reaction as the prototype to derive the standard equation for chemical equilibrium. It can be used by students who can understand and use partial derivatives. (CW)

  11. Os2 -Os4 Switch Controls DNA Knotting and Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Romero, María J; Salassa, Luca; Cheng, Xi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Clarkson, Guy J; Prokes, Ivan; Rodger, Alison; Costantini, Giovanni; Sadler, Peter J

    2016-07-25

    Dinuclear trihydroxido-bridged osmium-arene complexes are inert and biologically inactive, but we show here that linking dihydroxido-bridged Os(II) -arene fragments by a bridging di-imine to form a metallacycle framework results in strong antiproliferative activity towards cancer cells and distinctive knotting of DNA. The shortened spacer length reduces biological activity and stability in solution towards decomposition to biologically inactive dimers. Significant differences in behavior toward plasmid DNA condensation are correlated with biological activity. PMID:27240103

  12. Exploring the Use of Discussion Strategies and Labels in Asynchronous Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on research in constrained online discussion environments and strategy instruction, this approach combines explicit instruction on discussion strategies with the use of post type labels. In a trial of this approach in an online course, students actively used the discussion strategies and post type labels in their discussions. Analysis of…

  13. Online Discussions: A Survey of Advantages and Disadvantages Compared to Face-to-Face Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of surveys of graduate students involved in online class discussions that show a preference for face-to-face experiences in spite of positive reactions to online discussions. Online discussions were perceived as valuable additions to in-class discussions, rather than as an acceptable substitution for them. (Author/LRW)

  14. A Qualitative Case Study Illustrating the Benefits of Discussion Roles in Online Asynchronous Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    This research describes a qualitative, naturalistic case study of a situation-specific, in-depth exploration of the use of ten student discussion roles in and adult education, online asynchronous discussions. Discussion roles were designed in order to enable students to respond better and create deeper and more meaning-filled threaded discussions,…

  15. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 C and cooling in vacuo down to 225 C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2 2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276 426 C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  16. [A glossary for discussion about abortion].

    PubMed

    Astete A, Carmen; Beca I, Juan Pablo; Lecaros U, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Abortion and its diverse possible legal regulations is one of the major and toughest social controversies. This debate is even more problematic due to biases, prejudgments, different ideologies, beliefs, religious doctrines and political pressures. Chile has recently begun a new national discussion with an evident confusion, both in juridical and clinical terminology, which makes very difficult to achieve the necessary plural debate for a social and political consensus. The authors structured an academic collaborative project to create a glossary as a contribution for a discussion based on clearly defined notions about the different terms used in the abortion debate. Twenty-two concepts were selected and their definitions were reviewed and discussed by more than 50 different specialists. The final version of this glossary in Spanish language is presented. PMID:25694291

  17. A Discussion of Knowledge Based Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A discussion of knowledge and Knowledge- Based design as related to the design of aircraft is presented. The paper discusses the perceived problem with existing design studies and introduces the concepts of design and knowledge for a Knowledge- Based design system. A review of several Knowledge-Based design activities is provided. A Virtual Reality, Knowledge-Based system is proposed and reviewed. The feasibility of Virtual Reality to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of aerodynamic and multidisciplinary design, evaluation, and analysis of aircraft through the coupling of virtual reality technology and a Knowledge-Based design system is also reviewed. The final section of the paper discusses future directions for design and the role of Knowledge-Based design.

  18. Discussion of difficult assessment cases: psychodynamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yalof, Jed

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the papers of Kleiger (this issue), Husain (this issue), and Bram (this issue), each of whom described their personality assessment of a very challenging case. Each case illustrates the way in which experienced personality assessors integrate psychoanalytic theory with clinical reasoning, multi-method assessment, and an understanding of the patient-examiner relationship when evaluating patients with serious psychiatric needs. The discussion elaborates particular aspects of each case and integrates the different estuaries through which personality assessors use psychoanalytic theory to develop diagnostic and treatment inferences. PMID:25746100

  19. Informal Learning of Young Children: Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    This paper, a discussion of papers by Robert S. Randall, Greta Fein, Richard Bauman and Murray Newman, looks at informal learning from an anthropological viewpoint with an emphasis on inversive theory. It is suggested that the irrational elements of informal learning, the combinations of order and disorder, allow children to relate to reality by…

  20. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  1. Measuring Faculty Participation in Asynchronous Discussion Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blignaut, A. Signet; Trollip, Stanley R.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomy of types of faculty participation in online course discussions was developed and a survey of 18 online business instructors and administrators was used to develop expectations for type and number of feedback messages. Results were used to analyze business courses and develop guidelines for teachers' role. (Contains 13 references.) (SK)

  2. Studying School Leadership Practice: A Methodological Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eacott, Scott

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to engage the field of educational leadership in a methodological conversation. It outlines a methodological position taken by the author (a focus on leadership practice using Bourdieu) in a currently funded project and seeks discussion with the wider field. The paper is structured to provide the reader with background to the…

  3. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch--A Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…

  4. What Is Formation? A Conceptual Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphen, Molly; de Lange, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the principles and connotations of the term "formation." In our discussion of formation, we draw on different disciplines in order to widen and deepen our understanding of the concept of formation. We also mirror the formation concept against comparable terms and draw on studies in which it has been applied in…

  5. Indians and the Media: A Panel Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Rights Digest, 1973

    1973-01-01

    An exploration of communications and the approximately one million Indian people who live in the U.S., by people in film, television, radio, and print news; condensed from the transcript of a panel discussion held July 6, 1973 in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution's Folklife Festival in Washington, D.C. (Author/JM)

  6. Theory and Distance Education: A New Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles; Hanson, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for theory in the field of distance education, reviews several traditional theoretical approaches, and describes a new theory called Equivalency Theory that incorporates telecommunications. Compares theories of independence and autonomy, industrialization of teaching, and interaction and communication. (LRW)

  7. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Plenary: Discussant Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Katherine R.

    2004-01-01

    Feminist ideas and practices permeate the consciousness, relationships, and politics of women and men across continents. Certainly, they are central to work in the scientific study of family structures and processes. It is exciting to engage in discussion and debate with other feminist scholars about the relative contributions of feminist theories…

  8. Popular Magazines Discuss Online Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil

    1984-01-01

    Examines 55 articles from 25 popular magazines such as "Better Homes and Gardens,""Business Week,""Popular Mechanics," and "Working Woman" and discusses purpose of the articles, consumer oriented online services, libraries and information centers, databases, and publishers and intermediaries. A list of the articles is appended. (EJS)

  9. NEUROTOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE): DISCUSSION PAPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is a background document for a meeting of neurotoxicity experts to discuss the central nervous system effects of exposure to perchloroethylene (perc). The document reviews the literature on neurological testing of people exposed to perc occupationally in dry cleanin...

  10. On psychotherapist-patient sex: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, G B

    1990-01-01

    The transference phenomenon as central to the problem of sex between psychotherapist and patient is discussed. Socio-semantic factors related to the evolution of psychotherapy from Freud to the present are presented. Contemporary pertinent studies are reported. Societal and legal attitudes towards offending therapists are briefly touched upon. Reflections are made and suggestions are offered for dealing with this serious issue. PMID:2250271

  11. Corruptness in Education: A Tentative Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongping, Yang

    2004-01-01

    With more and more instances of corruptness coming to light in the field of education, corruptness in education has become an intense "hot point" of concern in society. This article is a tentative exploration into this matter. In this article, the author discusses the categories of the corruptness in education that has found widespread publicity…

  12. Unseen Discussions: Artist@Hotmail.Com.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Anthony

    For the recent exhibition "Greater New York: New Art in New York Now," the Education Department at P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, a large museum located in the Long Island City section of Queens, New York, organized a unique email-based discussion. The museum set up an e-mail address for most participating artists using the free Hotmail.com…

  13. Discussion Paper on Digital Copyright Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    The Copyright Forum serves as a venue for the discussion of digital copyright issues of interest to Canadian educational institutions, libraries, archives, and museums. The Forum currently comprises 13 national associations. The members of the participating associations are both creators and users of digital intellectual content, and a number of…

  14. 33 CFR 214.6 - Discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... providing emergency supplies of clean drinking water. Sewage treatment and disposal, and other sanitary... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.6 Discussion. (a) The amendment provides for furnishing emergency supplies of drinking water. The method of furnishing those supplies is not provided for in the amendment,...

  15. 33 CFR 214.6 - Discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... providing emergency supplies of clean drinking water. Sewage treatment and disposal, and other sanitary... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.6 Discussion. (a) The amendment provides for furnishing emergency supplies of drinking water. The method of furnishing those supplies is not provided for in the amendment,...

  16. 33 CFR 214.6 - Discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... providing emergency supplies of clean drinking water. Sewage treatment and disposal, and other sanitary... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.6 Discussion. (a) The amendment provides for furnishing emergency supplies of drinking water. The method of furnishing those supplies is not provided for in the amendment,...

  17. Online Discussion about Sexuality Education in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbear, James T.; Broadbear, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Sexuality education in schools continues to be a controversial issue although public debate has seemingly calmed in recent years. Dialogue about the value and purpose of sexuality education for adolescents can provide health education specialists a better understanding of public opinion and online discussion may be a potentially ideal way to…

  18. A Discussion Strategy for an Online Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Durham, Nancy Faith

    2014-01-01

    As a former teacher of face-to-face classes now assigned to teach only online classes, Nancy Reese Durham found herself challenged to change to accommodate online learners. She was determined to provide an environment in the online class where the high level of discussion she had provided in face-to-face classes could flourish as well. Here she…

  19. Workplace Mobbing: A Discussion for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecker, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Workplace mobbing occurs in libraries but is usually unrecognized and unchecked because the phenomenon has not been described and given a name. This discussion provides the library profession with an overview but also with specific background details to assist with recognizing mobbing and preventing severe harm to employees and organizations.

  20. Young Scientists Discuss Recent Advances, Future Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a National Academy of Science forum at which a group of outstanding young researchers in astronomy, molecular and developmental biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, atmospheric science, and materials science met for three days of formal presentations and informal conversations. Provides a short synopsis of major speakers. (MVL)

  1. Functions of Symbolizing Activity: A Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik

    2010-01-01

    I propose that attending how symbolizing activity functions for teachers and students helps to characterize student-teacher communication, and allows for an investigation of how symbolizing activity contributes to learning. I begin this discussion by articulating four ideas-schemes, symbolizing activity, communication, and learning. Then I propose…

  2. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  3. Online Discussion Assignments Improve Students' Class Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineweaver, Tara T.

    2010-01-01

    To increase the number of students who read the text before class and to promote student interaction centering on text material, I developed an online discussion assignment as a required component of a cognitive psychology course. Across 2 studies, this assignment had a limited effect on examination performance, but students completing online…

  4. Discussion: the radiobiological bases of TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, L.

    1980-06-01

    With the use of TBI, dose limiting normal tissues must be considered in treatment planning. The sensitivity of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and heart are discussed in view of cell survival curves of proposed target cells with emphasis upon radiation fractionation as a dose-limiting factor. (DLS)

  5. Teaching medical humanities through film discussions.

    PubMed

    Self, Donnie J; Baldwin, DeWitt C

    1990-01-01

    Following a brief consideration of two contrasting purposes for teaching the medical humanities, a description is given of a film discussion elective course. In contrast to the usual teaching of medical ethics which is primarily a cognitive activity emphasizing the development of a code of principles such as justice, autonomy, and beneficence, the film discussion elective was primarily an affective activity emphasizing the development of an ethical ideal of caring, relatedness, and sensitivity to others. The pass/fail elective, offered for one credit each quarter for two quarters, met once a week for one hour for twenty-four weeks. Each week a film was shown followed by a group discussion. A wide variety of social issues were covered. The objective of the course was to increase the ethical sensitivity of the medical students through promotion of introspection and reflection on social issues. A brief discussion is given of the importance and appropriateness of using film to promote the affective focus of medicine on the relief of the suffering. Examples are given of how the course achieved its objective. A detailed description of the resource materials is provided. PMID:11645721

  6. 48 CFR 1.102-1 - Discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures in the FAR. (b) Vision. All participants in the System are responsible for making acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discussion. 1.102-1 Section 1.102-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL...

  7. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  8. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    MedlinePlus

    ... Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider If ... NIHSeniorHealth: Diabetes http://nihseniorhealth.gov/diabetes/toc.html Weekly email updates: MEDLINEPLUS-DIABETES: Subscribe from https://list. ...

  9. Principals Discuss Their Roles: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kathryn S.

    What principals are taught about their roles differs markedly from how they actually perceive and experience their roles. To discover the principals' views, comments made in discussion groups by 44 principals in a large urban Midwest school system over a four-month period were analyzed. Their descriptions of their roles and desired role changes…

  10. 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Mathematics Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary Kay; Smith, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Learn the 5 practices for facilitating effective inquiry-oriented classrooms: (1) Anticipating what students will do--what strategies they will use--in solving a problem; (2) Monitoring their work as they approach the problem in class; (3) Selecting students whose strategies are worth discussing in class; (4) Sequencing those students'…

  11. Language and Music as Communication: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Roger Brown, Diana Deutsch, Warren Benson, and Ruth Day comment on the similarities and differences between verbal language and music as forms of communication. This discussion occurred at the first session of the National Symposium on the Applications of Psychology to the Teaching and Learning of Music, Ann Arbor. (SJL)

  12. Discussed Issues in Preventive Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of studies in the field of prevention science and related advancements in evidence based programs leads to some discussions about the fundamental issues such as efficacy, effectiveness, dissemination, adaptation, fidelity and continuity in recent years. In this article it is intended to report the common views of early childhood…

  13. Examining the Doctoral Thesis: A Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The examination of doctoral theses controls an important academic threshold, yet practices are often private, codes non-specific, and individuals isolated. This article adds to recent investigation of the examination culture by reporting informal panel discussion amongst a total of 23 University of Auckland (New Zealand) faculty members as to…

  14. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  15. Lander Propulsion Overview and Technology Requirements Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar lander propulsion requirements. It includes discussion on: Lander Project Overview, Project Evolution/Design Cycles, Lunar Architecture & Lander Reference Missions, Lander Concept Configurations, Descent and Ascent propulsion reviews, and a review of the technology requirements.

  16. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…

  17. Literature Discussion as Positioning: Examining Positions in Dialogic Discussions in a Third-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Jongsun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine positions of students and a teacher in dialogic discussion. In this study, dialogic discussion was defined with Bakhtin's (1981) dialogism, Nystrand's (1997) explanation of dialogically organized instruction, and Mercer's (1995) explanation of Exploratory Talk. Studies about literature discussion in…

  18. Os2–Os4 Switch Controls DNA Knotting and Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Romero, María J.; Salassa, Luca; Cheng, Xi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Clarkson, Guy J.; Prokes, Ivan; Rodger, Alison; Costantini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dinuclear trihydroxido‐bridged osmium–arene complexes are inert and biologically inactive, but we show here that linking dihydroxido‐bridged OsII–arene fragments by a bridging di‐imine to form a metallacycle framework results in strong antiproliferative activity towards cancer cells and distinctive knotting of DNA. The shortened spacer length reduces biological activity and stability in solution towards decomposition to biologically inactive dimers. Significant differences in behavior toward plasmid DNA condensation are correlated with biological activity. PMID:27240103

  19. OS3D/GIMRT software for modeling multicomponent-multidimensional reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    CI Steefel; SB Yabusaki

    2000-05-17

    OS3D/GIMRT is a numerical software package for simulating multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. The package consists of two principal components: (1) the code OS3D (Operator Splitting 3-Dimensional Reactive Transport) which simulates reactive transport by either splitting the reaction and transport steps in time, i.e., the classic time or operator splitting approach, or by iterating sequentially between reactions and transport, and (2) the code GIMRT (Global Implicit Multicomponent Reactive Transport) which treats up to two dimensional reactive transport with a one step or global implicit approach. Although the two codes do not yet have totally identical capabilities, they can be run from the same input file, allowing comparisons to be made between the two approaches in many cases. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are discussed more fully below, but in general OS3D is designed for simulation of transient concentration fronts, particularly under high Peclet number transport conditions, because of its use of a total variation diminishing or TVD transport algorithm. GIMRT is suited for simulating water-rock alteration over long periods of time where the aqueous concentration field is at or close to a quasi-stationary state and the numerical transport errors are less important. Where water-rock interaction occurs over geological periods of time, GIMRT may be preferable to OS3D because of its ability to take larger time steps.

  20. STRCMACS: An extensive set of Macros for structured programming in OS/360 assembly language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two techniques are discussed that have been most often referred to as structured programming. One is that of programming with high level control structures (such as the if and while) replacing the branch instruction (goto-less programming); the other is the process of developing a program by progressively refining descriptions of components in terms of more primitive components (called stepwise refinement or top-down programming). In addition to discussing what these techniques are, it is shown why their use is advised and how both can be implemented in OS assembly language by the use of a special macro instruction package.

  1. Project Teaches Students to Diagnose an Ailing Windows OS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baijan

    2007-01-01

    Troubleshooting a corrupted Windows operating system (OS) is a must-learn experience for computer technology students. To teach OS troubleshooting, the simplest approach involves introducing the available tools followed by the "how-to's." But how does a teacher teach his or her students to apply their knowledge in real-life scenarios and help them…

  2. Open problems in color constancy: discussion.

    PubMed

    van Trigt, C

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses a number of open problems in color constancy theory whose correct solution is a prerequisite for the theory of the phenomenon. Solutions employing suitable visually meaningful versus physically meaningful basis functions (principal components) are examined. In the former case the starting point is an estimate of the first derivative of the reflectance (illuminant), essential for defining color, instead of an estimate of the reflectance (illuminant), as in the latter. Conceptual consequences are discussed. Mathematical and physical constraints are identified. We compare the results of theories that do or do not ignore them. The following questions are considered. (1) Do unique solutions of the estimation problem exist everywhere in the object-color solid belonging to the illuminant? (2) Are they physically meaningful, i.e., at least nonnegative? (3) Are they representative for reflectance and spectral distribution functions? (4) What role plays metamerism? PMID:24562033

  3. Quantum clock: A critical discussion on spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burderi, Luciano; Di Salvo, Tiziana; Iaria, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    We critically discuss the measure of very short time intervals. By means of a Gedankenexperiment, we describe an ideal clock based on the occurrence of completely random events. Many previous thought experiments have suggested fundamental Planck-scale limits on measurements of distance and time. Here we present a new type of thought experiment, based on a different type of clock, that provide further support for the existence of such limits. We show that the minimum time interval Δ t that this clock can measure scales as the inverse of its size Δ r . This implies an uncertainty relation between space and time: Δ r Δ t >G ℏ/c4, where G , ℏ, and c are the gravitational constant, the reduced Planck constant, and the speed of light, respectively. We outline and briefly discuss the implications of this uncertainty conjecture.

  4. How to write a discussion section?

    PubMed

    Şanlı, Öner; Erdem, Selçuk; Tefik, Tzevat

    2013-09-01

    Writing manuscripts to describe study outcomes, although not easy, is the main task of an academician. The aim of the present review is to outline the main aspects of writing the discussion section of a manuscript. Additionally, we address various issues regarding manuscripts in general. It is advisable to work on a manuscript regularly to avoid losing familiarity with the article. On principle, simple, clear and effective language should be used throughout the text. In addition, a pre-peer review process is recommended to obtain feedback on the manuscript. The discussion section can be written in 3 parts: an introductory paragraph, intermediate paragraphs and a conclusion paragraph. For intermediate paragraphs, a "divide and conquer" approach, meaning a full paragraph describing each of the study endpoints, can be used. In conclusion, academic writing is similar to other skills, and practice makes perfect. PMID:26328131

  5. Career Opportunities for Physicists: Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-03-01

    We live in a world full of opportunity for physics graduates. Join us for a unique opportunity to learn about some of these opportunities from our diverse panel of working physicists from industrial, national lab, and academic sectors. Topics of discussion will include panelists' daily experiences, how physics serves them in their career, and advice to students interested in following a similar path. Light refreshments will be served.

  6. Attorney for Cruzans discusses legal 'odyssey'.

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    On December 11, 1983, 25-year-old Missourian Nancy Cruzan was in a serious car accident, pronounced dead at the scene by police then resuscitated by paramedics. On December 14, 1990, the gastrostomy tube which had kept Nancy alive since the accident was removed and she died 11 days later. The heartbreak, legal maneuvering and impassioned discussions of the 8 years between these events captured the attention of the nation. PMID:1906440

  7. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-15

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type OsB{sub 2} ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched {sup 11}B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline {sup 11}B powder was used as a raw material, only Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB{sub 2}+3O{sub 2}→2Os+2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place due to presence of O{sub 2}/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB{sub 2} lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB{sub 2} lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O{sub 2}, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice

  8. Thrust faulting and hydrocarbon generation: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.A.; Royse, F.

    1987-07-01

    Following the discovery of large volumes of hydrocarbons in the Cordilleran thrust belt of southwestern Wyoming and northern Utah, Angevine and Turcotte (1983), Edman and Surdam (1984), and Furlong and Edman (1984) discussed the role of thrust faulting in hydrocarbon generation. The authors concluded that overthrusting plays an important or even dominant role in the process of hydrocarbon generation in overthrust terrains. These conclusions may be in error because they are based on a mathematical analysis of thermal and geologic models that have little resemblance to actual thrust-belt geology. In this discussion, the authors discuss shortcomings of the thermal model used in the papers referred to above; emphasize the differences between their model and the geologic facts as they exist in thrust belts in general and in western Wyoming in particular; and caution readers about applying the conclusions based on such a model in the search for hydrocarbons. They contend that the temperature effects of thrust faulting were rather insignificant in the process of hydrocarbon generation in the Wyoming thrust belt.

  9. Discussion of long-range weather prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-09-10

    A group of scientists at Los Alamos have held a series of discussions of the issues in and prospects for improvements in Long-range Weather Predictions Enabled by Proving of the Atmosphere at High Space-Time Resolution. The group contained the requisite skills for a full evaluation, although this report presents only an informal discussion of the main technical issues. The group discussed all aspects of the proposal, which are grouped below into the headings: (1) predictability; (2) sensors and satellites, (3) DIAL and atmospheric sensing; (4) localized transponders; and (5) summary and integration. Briefly, the group agreed that the relative paucity of observations of the state of the atmosphere severely inhibits the accuracy of weather forecasts, and any program that leads to a more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather Predictions, the pay-back of accurate long-range forecasts should more than justify the expenditure associated with improved observations and forecast models required. The essential step is to show that the needed technologies are available for field test and space qualification.

  10. Phosphate transporters OsPHT1;9 and OsPHT1;10 are involved in phosphate uptake in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We characterized the function of two rice phosphate (Pi) transporters: OsPHT1;9 (OsPT9) and OsPHT1;10 (OsPT10). OsPT9 and OsPT10 were expressed in the root epidermis, root hairs, and lateral roots, with the expression being specifically induced by Pi-starvation. In leaves, the expression of the two ...

  11. Panel Discussion With PR/PRL Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Panelists: Peter Adams, Physical Review B Irwin Oppenheim, Physical Review E & Massachsetts Institute of Technology Jack Sandweiss, Physical Review Letters & Yale University Reinhardt Schuhmann, Physical Review Letters The panel will include Editors from Physical Review Letters, Physical Review B, and Physical Review E. They will briefly discuss some current issues facing the journals, such as raising the standards for PRL acceptance and the role of electronic media attachments (e.g., movies) to journal articles. Opinions on these issues from the audience will be solicited. The Editors will also respond to questions and comments from the audience.

  12. ASPRS Digital Imagery Guideline Image Gallery Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the image gallery are to 1) give users and providers a simple means of identifying appropriate imagery for a given application/feature extraction; and 2) define imagery sufficiently to be described in engineering and acquisition terms. This viewgraph presentation includes a discussion of edge response and aliasing for image processing, and a series of images illustrating the effects of signal to noise ratio (SNR) on images. Another series of images illustrates how images are affected by varying the ground sample distances (GSD).

  13. [Why should LD be discussed now?].

    PubMed

    Futakami, S

    1999-05-01

    The term learning disability was first used in 1962 by Kirk S A in his textbook. In Japan the term was adopted as a substitute term for MBD in the 1970s. At present many professionals, especially on education and psychology, are interested with LD. The role of child neurologist is discussed here from three viewpoint: the term and definition, LD as a brain dysfunction, and LD in the child neurology. For collaboration with education and psychology, child neurologist should know more about LD and make efforts to find the etiology and mechanism of LD. PMID:10355261

  14. PDII- Additional discussion of the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Norman M. Gelfand

    2002-07-23

    This note is in the nature of an addition to the dynamic aperture calculations found in the report on the Proton Driver, FERMILAB-TM-2169. A extensive discussion of the Proton Driver lattice, as well as the nomenclature used to describe it can be found in TM-2169. Basically the proposed lattice is a racetrack design with the two arcs joined by two long straight sections. The straight sections are dispersion free. Tracking studies were undertaken with the objective of computing the dynamic aperture for the lattice and some of the results have been incorporated into TM-2169. This note is a more extensive report of those calculations.

  15. Panel discussion - Phases of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    This article summarizes the panel discussion on 'Phases of the Interstellar Medium'. While the 3-phase model has had many successes, several recent observations disagree with its predictions. The major unresolved issue is whether the model can be 'fixed' by tinkering with cloud geometries and supernova rates and by including a galactic fountain. The Milky Way supernova rate may have been overestimated, many supernovae may be less than 10 to the 51st ergs, and modelers have probably neglected important physics in mass transport, cloud formation and halo input.

  16. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    PubMed

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety. PMID:27400489

  17. Best Friends’ Discussions of Social Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend's reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents’ social and moral development. PMID:23666555

  18. Best friends' discussions of social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kristina L; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2014-02-01

    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents' social and moral development. PMID:23666555

  19. Panel Discussion on Multi-Disciplinary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is hosting the Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) during the week of September 10, 2001. Included in this year's TFAWS is a panel session on Multidisciplinary Analysis techniques. The intent is to provide an opportunity for the users to gain information as to what product may be best suited for their applications environment and to provide feedback to you, the developers, on future desired developments. Potential users of multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) techniques are often overwhelmed by the number of choices available to them via commercial products and by the pace of new developments in this area. The purpose of this panel session is to provide a forum wherein MDA tools available and under development can be discussed, compared, and contrasted. The intent of this panel is to provide the end-user with the information necessary to make educated decisions on how to proceed with selecting their MDA tool. It is anticipated that the discussions this year will focus on MDA techniques that couple discipline codes or algorithms (as opposed to monolithic, unified MDA approaches). The MDA developers will be asked to prepare a product overview presentation addressing specific questions provided by the panel organizers. The purpose of these questions will be to establish the method employed by the particular MDA technique for communication between the discipline codes, to establish the similarities and differences amongst the various approaches, and to establish the range of experience and applications for each particular MDA approach.

  20. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs).

  1. Student decision making in large group discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  2. Discussing Health Care Costs with Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hardee, James T; Platt, Frederic W; Kasper, Ilene K

    2005-01-01

    Escalating health care costs are affecting patients across the country. As employers and insurance companies face higher expenses, they may move to a cost-sharing strategy, which potentially increases financial burdens on patients. In this situation, physicians may find themselves serving as both medical and financial advisors for their patients. Clinical encounters in which patients experience financial hardship can be awkward and frustrating for both parties. Physicians must learn to discuss issues of affordability in a manner that builds, rather than detracts, from a therapeutic alliance. This article describes our experiences using several communication skills that can help in the discussion of health care costs with patients. The primary skill, empathic communication, which includes “we” statements and “I wish …” statements, serves to create a platform for shared decision-making, negotiation, and a search for alternatives. In addition, it is helpful if physician offices have resource materials available and strategies identified to assist patients facing financial hardship. PMID:16050867

  3. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively. PMID:24552484

  4. A TinyOS-based wireless neural interface.

    PubMed

    Farshchi, Shahin; Mody, Istvan; Judy, Jack W

    2004-01-01

    The overlay of a neural interface upon a TinyOS-based sensing and communication platform is described. The system amplifies, digitally encodes, and transmits two EEG channels of neural signals from an un-tethered subject to a remote gateway, which routes the signals to a client PC. This work demonstrates the viability of the TinyOS-based sensor technology as a foundation for chronic remote biological monitoring applications, and thus provides an opportunity to create a system that can leverage from the frequent networking and communications advancements being made by the global TinyOS-development community. PMID:17271263

  5. Sources of osmium to the modern oceans: New evidence from the 190Pt-186Os system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, D.K.; Walker, R.J.; Hemming, S.R.; Horan, M.F.; Becker, H.; Grauch, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    High precision Os isotope analysis of young marine manganese nodules indicate that whereas the composition of modern seawater is radiogenic with respect to 187Os/188Os, it has 186Os/188Os that is within uncertainty of the chondritic value. Marine Mn nodule compositions thus indicate that the average continental source of Os to modern seawater had long-term high Re/Os compared to Pt/Os. Analyses of loess and freshwater Mn nodules support existing evidence that average upper continental crust (UCC) has resolvably suprachondritic 186Os/188Os, as well as radiogenic 187Os/188Os. Modeling the composition of seawater as a two-component mixture of oceanic/cosmic Os with chondritic Os compositions and continentally-derived Os demonstrates that, insofar as estimates for the composition of average UCC are accurate, congruently weathered average UCC cannot be the sole continental source of Os to seawater. Our analysis of four Cambrian black shales confirm that organic-rich sediments can have 187Os/188Os ratios that are much higher than average UCC, but 186Os/188Os compositions that are generally between those of chondrites and average-UCC. Preferential weathering of black shales can result in dissolved Os discharged to the ocean basins that has a much lower 186Os/188Os than does average upper crust. Modeling the available data demonstrates that augmentation of estimated average UCC compositions with less than 0.1% additional black shale and 1.4% additional ultramafic rock can produce a continental end-member Os isotopic composition that satisfies the requirements imposed by the marine Mn nodule data. The interplay of these two sources provides a mechanism by which the 187Os/188Os of seawater can change as sources and weathering conditions change, yet seawater 186Os/188Os varies only minimally. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Test versus analysis: A discussion of methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Some techniques for comparing structural vibration data determined from test and analysis are discussed. Orthogonality is a general category of one group, correlation is a second, synthesis is a third and matrix improvement is a fourth. Advantages and short-comings of the methods are explored with suggestions as to how they can complement one another. The purpose for comparing vibration data from test and analysis for a given structure is to find out whether each is representing the dynamic properties of the structure in the same way. Specifically, whether: mode shapes are alike; the frequencies of the modes are alike; modes appear in the same frequency sequence; and if they are not alike, how to judge which to believe.

  7. Modeling household behavior in developing countries: discussion.

    PubMed

    Quisumbing, A R

    1996-12-01

    A large and growing body of literature has examined how agricultural households cope with risk. Much of the work has focused on which types of households are better able to smooth consumption, testing whether households with more resources and greater access to income-smoothing institutions, such as credit markets or well-functioning labor markets exhibit greater consumption smoothing. However, income shocks may have different effects upon different individuals within households, and differences in individual ability to smooth income or consumption may have welfare consequences which go beyond foregone income. The development of collective household models challenges the assumption that individuals within households maximize a single utility function. The assumption of income pooling has also been rejected in a growing body of empirical research on intrahousehold resource allocation. However, research on risk-pooling within households and differences in individual abilities to smooth consumption is relatively new. Selected papers are discussed. PMID:12292622

  8. Changes to key L8 guidance discussed.

    PubMed

    Mount, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Legionella Approved Code of Practice and guidance (ACoP) has recently undergone a review by the Health and Safety Executive. Steve Mount BSc (hons) CBiol MIBiol MWMSoc, an independent specialist consultant in water hygiene and safety, reports on the first conference (held in Birmingham) to discuss these changes, entitled 'Legionella management: The revised ACoP (L8); what impact will the changes have on you?'. The event was hosted by Immerse Training, and delegates' views on various issues, including the non-definitive terminology, and their general concerns regarding Legionella management and competence, were recorded, along with the impact that the proposed changes will have on people who manage water systems. PMID:24516938

  9. Discussion of medical x ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  10. Middle Ear Adenoma: Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Vrugt, B.; Huber, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite modern radiological workup, surgeons can still be surprised by intraoperative findings or by the pathologist's report. Materials & Methods. We describe the case of a 52-year-old male who was referred to our clinic with a single sided conductive hearing loss. He ultimately underwent middle ear exploration and excision of a middle ear tumour followed by second look and ossiculoplasty a year later. Results. Though preoperative CT and MRI scanning were suggestive of a congenital cholesteatoma, the pathologist's report diagnosed a middle ear adenoma. Discussion. Middle ear glandular tumors are extremely rare and, despite numerous histological techniques, continue to defy satisfactory classification. Most surgeons advocate surgical excision though evidence of the tumour's natural course and risk of recurrence is lacking. PMID:25045567

  11. Ice and environment: A terminological discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobinski, Wojciech

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses the terminological and disciplinary problems associated with the point of view that ice is a rock, resulting from a dynamic development of earth sciences which have begun the research into other planets as well. Such a position necessitates a revision of the definitions of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere. It is the state that determines which particular sphere ice belongs to. Water is understood to be a triphase substance. As a result permafrost should now include the "cold" layer of polythermal glaciers. Rock glaciers are features that integrate glacial and periglacial permafrost. This facilitates the research into the interaction between the glacial and the periglacial environment by recognizing the leading role of the isotherm 0 °C as the physical feature integrating these fields.

  12. Discussion on ``Teaching the Second Law''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbey, Robert; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Keck, James C.; Lewins, Jeffery; Lior, Noam; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Steinfeld, Jeffrey; von Spakovsky, Michael R.; Wang, Lin-Shu; Zanchini, Enzo

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Joseph Smith Jr., Howard Butler, Andrew Foley, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli, Bernhardt Trout, Jeffery Lewins, Enzo Zanchini, and Michael von Spakovsky. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law taught in so many different ways? Why so many textbooks on thermodynamics? Why so many schools of thought? • Some say that thermodynamics is limited to equilibrium, others that it extends to nonequilibrium. How is entropy defined for nonequilibrium states?

  13. Discussion of Opportunities in Computational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Bernd; Pederson, Mark

    2011-03-01

    A discussion of the points raised in the previous talk by Mark Pederson (DOE) will be encouraged, including: (1) Identifying models and strategies for effectively organizing and availing complex computational simulation capabilities to a broader scientific and technical community. (2) Identifying cross-discipline communication of capabilities to ensure sharing of algorithms. (3) Opinions on evolution of overlap between the basic energy scientific mission and the fields that are typically represented by the March-Meeting participants. (4) Interactions between the domains of computational physics, computer science, and applied mathematics. (5) The proper balance between individual and group achievement. (6) What role could DCOMP have in this? In part supported by the DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER41022.

  14. Folding with thermal-mechanical feedback: Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treagus, Susan H.; Hudleston, Peter J.

    2009-07-01

    A recent paper in this Journal by Bruce Hobbs, Klaus Regenauer-Lieb and Alison Ord [Hobbs, B., Regenauer-Lieb, K., Ord, A., 2008. Folding with thermal-mechanical feedback. Journal of Structural Geology 30, 1572-1592] presents an alternative theory to the traditional Biot-Ramberg theory for folding of viscous rocks that involves non-equilibrium thermodynamics and thermal-mechanical feedback. The authors convey a strong message throughout their paper that the folds produced by this theoretical and numerical modelling are geologically realistic and provide a better explanation for many natural folds than the traditional theory. They promise the same approach for boudinage, and present this folding paper as part of a "unified framework for rock deformation processes". Readers of the Journal of Structural Geology might be led to conclude that this paper provides a good alternative model for folding of rocks. Our discussion will disagree, on four counts.

  15. Comparing Asynchronous Online Discussions and Face-to-Face Discussions in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun; Woo, Huay Lit

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived differences between asynchronous online discussions and face-to-face discussions in a classroom setting. The students' reflections were analysed by following a qualitative research approach. The results showed that atmosphere, response, efficiency, interactivity and communication were the…

  16. Does the Discussion Help? The Impact of a Formally Assessed Online Discussion on Final Student Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart; Holt, Dale; Bray, Sharyn

    2008-01-01

    While there is agreement that participation in online asynchronous discussions can enhance student learning, it has also been identified that there is a need to investigate the impact of participation in online discussions on student course performance. This paper presents a case study based on an undergraduate engineering management unit…

  17. Designing a Discussion Environment to Enhance Connectivity and Sustainability in Asynchronous Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Lack of connectivity and sustainability are two common problems in asynchronous online discussions. In this paper, the author proposes that the two problems may have to do with the structure of threaded forums, that is, the design of threaded forums may constrain participants from having well-connected and sustained discussions. A new discussion…

  18. Improving Student Discussions in Graduate and Undergraduate Courses: Transforming the Discussion Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soranno, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Student discussions are a common teaching approach in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses because of their benefits to student learning, and to future professional development for natural resources professionals. However, traditional student-led discussions often are ineffective at meeting course and learning objectives and suffer from…

  19. Science in Discussions: An Analysis of the Use of Science Content in Socioscientific Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a normative pragmatics analysis of students' use of science content in eight socioscientific group discussions about human gene therapy. The specific focus of the paper is on the argumentative role that invocations of science had in the dialectics of the discussions. The analysis suggests that science content occasionally…

  20. Research on Separation of Three Powers Architecture for Trusted OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Zhao, Yong; Xin, Siyuan

    The privilege in the operating system (OS) often results in the break of confidentiality and integrity of the system. To solve this problem, several security mechanisms are proposed, such as Role-based Access Control, Separation of Duty. However, these mechanisms can not eliminate the privilege in OS kernel layer. This paper proposes a Separation of Three Powers Architecture (STPA). The authorizations in OS are divided into three parts: System Management Subsystem (SMS), Security Management Subsystem (SEMS) and Audit Subsystem (AS). Mutual support and mutual checks and balances which are the design principles of STPA eliminate the administrator in the kernel layer. Furthermore, the paper gives the formal description for authorization division using the graph theory. Finally, the implementation of STPA is given. Proved by experiments, the Separation of Three Powers Architecture we proposed can provide reliable protection for the OS through authorization division.

  1. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. A discussion of numerical subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne; Ellis, Susan

    2016-04-01

    if subduction can numerically initiate. However, once a setup has been found that successfully initiates subduction, a small change in either rheology or geometry can again lead to subduction initiation failure. We will discuss subduction setups that have been known to fail and how to avoid them, thus potentially leading to successful recipes for numerical subduction initiation. A further point we will discuss is how the geometry of weak zones and pre-existing slabs that are used to initiate a subduction model can impact subsequent subduction style and velocity. For example, using simple linear viscous subduction models we find that initiation along shallow initial pre-existing weak zones and/or pre-existing slabs results in shallow, forward dipping slabs, whereas steep initial dip angles lead to steep slab dips and an overturned slab.

  3. Os trigonum syndrome on bone SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2014-08-01

    A 16-year-old female athlete presented with increased pain in the distal left lower extremity. A possible stress fracture or shin splint of the left tibia was first considered. A 3-phase bone scintigraphy showed a very small focus of increased activity in the posterior left foot. A diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome was made after SPECT/CT images pinpointed the activity at the left os trigonum. PMID:24686218

  4. Problems with Re-Os isochron determinations. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Ngo, H. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed closed-system techniques for the equilibration of Os isotopes and for the calibration of Re and Os tracers using high-purity metals. The results show reproducibility of +/- 0.5% for calibrations of Os using different chunks of the same high-purity Os metal produced by vacuum arc melting. On a Re-Os evolution diagram the analyses of Negrillos and of Tocopilla are displaced along horizontal lines and are not consistent with a well-defined isochron. We conclude that is unclear whether whole-rock samples of irons of individual classes of iron meteorites (including the IIA class) define isochrons.In light of these observations, one must consider the evidence for phases in which Re and Os may become redistributed. We note that the IIA irons are composed of large or single kamacite crystals and do not contain taenite. This may hinder redistribution of Re and Os and may allow the IIA irons to define isochrons in preference to other magmatic iron classes. However, the IIA irons also include ubiquitous rhabdites, up to 20 mm in length, and troilite-daubreelite nodules. It has been observed that rhabdites are extremely rich in Pt-group elements. In addition to these considerations, Negrillos and Tocopilla were found in nitrate deposits and show evidence of corrosion. Therefore, it is possible that different samples of these meteorites have been differentially weathered, although our samples appeared fresh. We conclude that it is important to identify the phases in which Re and the PGEs are located and to address in detail the evidence for Re and Os remobilization.

  5. Theoretical NMR correlations based Structure Discussion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The constitutional assignment of natural products by NMR spectroscopy is usually based on 2D NMR experiments like COSY, HSQC, and HMBC. The actual difficulty of the structure elucidation problem depends more on the type of the investigated molecule than on its size. The moment HMBC data is involved in the process or a large number of heteroatoms is present, a possibility of multiple solutions fitting the same data set exists. A structure elucidation software can be used to find such alternative constitutional assignments and help in the discussion in order to find the correct solution. But this is rarely done. This article describes the use of theoretical NMR correlation data in the structure elucidation process with WEBCOCON, not for the initial constitutional assignments, but to define how well a suggested molecule could have been described by NMR correlation data. The results of this analysis can be used to decide on further steps needed to assure the correctness of the structural assignment. As first step the analysis of the deviation of carbon chemical shifts is performed, comparing chemical shifts predicted for each possible solution with the experimental data. The application of this technique to three well known compounds is shown. Using NMR correlation data alone for the description of the constitutions is not always enough, even when including 13C chemical shift prediction. PMID:21797997

  6. Gravitational waves: Some less discussed intriguing issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaram, C.

    2015-11-01

    Attempts to detect gravitational waves is actively in progress with sophisticated devices like LIGO setup across continents. Despite being predicted almost 100 years ago, there has so far been no direct detection of these waves. In this work, we draw attention to some of the less discussed but subtle aspects arising, for example, from high orbital eccentricities, where emission near periastron could be millions of times more than that in the distant parts of the orbit. The strong field nonlinear effects close to the compact objects can substantially slow down and deflect the waves in the last (few) orbit(s) where much of the intensity is expected. Spin-orbit and other forces could be significant. There would also be plasma like resonant absorption (of kilohertz radiation) during the collapse. Recent observation of supermassive black holes at high redshift implies cluster collapse, where the gravitational wave intensity depends on very high powers of the mass. Any unambiguous claim of detection should perhaps consider several of these effects.

  7. Miles Discusses Experiment With NASA Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Lexington, Massachusetts high school student, Judith Miles, discusses her proposed Skylab experiment with Keith Demorest (right) and Henry Floyd, both of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In her experiment, called the 'Web Formation in Zero Gravity', called for spiders to be released into a box and their actions recorded to determine how well they adapt to the absence of gravity. Spiders are known to adapt quickly to other changes in the environment but nothing was known of their ability to adapt to weightlessness. At the same time spiders were weaving webs in Earth orbit, similar spiders were spinning webs in identical boxes on Earth under full gravity conditions. Miles was among the 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab Mission. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of equipment.

  8. Miles Discusses Skylab Experiment With NASA Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Lexington, Massachusetts high school student, Judith Miles, discusses her proposed Skylab experiment with engineers and scientists during a design review of the experiment equipment. At left is Ron Pavlue of Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC), holding a box is Keith Demorest of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Right of Miles is Dr. Raymond Gause, also of MSFC, who is Miles' scientific advisor. In her experiment, called the 'Web Formation in Zero Gravity', spiders were released into a box and their actions recorded to determine how well they adapt to the absence of gravity. Spiders are known to adapt quickly to other changes in the environment but nothing was known of their ability to adapt to weightlessness. At the same time spiders were weaving webs in Earth orbit, similar spiders were spinning webs in identical boxes on Earth under full gravity conditions. Miles was among the 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of equipment.

  9. [Discussion on twirling reinforcing-reducing method].

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Li

    2014-01-01

    The essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is discussed to provide theoretical guidance for clinical application of reinforcing-reducing method. Through retrospection on historical literature of twirling reinforcing-reducing method, records and explanatory notes are thoroughly explored. Several existing opinions are analyzed and explained for instance twirling method has connection with circulation direction of channels; twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot; twriling method is related to quantity of stimulus and operation time; twriling method belongs to spiral motion and so on. As a result, it is found that the key of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is the posture of needle-holding hand that defines three-dimensional motion. If twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot and so on, steric effects of lifting-thrusting movement that come along with twirling method could be ignored at the same time. It is that the essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is close to the principle of lifting-thrusting reinforcing-reducing method, enriching effect with slow insertion and fast withdrawal of needle while reducing effect with fast insertion and slow withdrawal, which is recorded in Miraculous Pivot: Nine needle and Twelve Yuan. With this principle as guide, manipulation could be avoided to become a mere formality and illusory metaphysics during clinical application of twirling reinforcing-reducing method. PMID:24673057

  10. Discussions about preventive services: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lasser, Karen E; Kelly, Bridget; Maier, Jan; Murillo, Jennifer; Hoover, Sonia; Isenberg, Karen; Osber, Deborah; Pilkauskas, Natasha; Willis, Bayo C; Hersey, James

    2008-01-01

    Background Elderly minority patients are less likely to receive influenza vaccination and colorectal cancer screening than are other patients. Communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and patients may affect service receipt. Methods Encounters between 7 PCPs and 18 elderly patients were observed and audiotaped at 2 community health centers. Three investigators coded transcribed audiotapes and field notes. We used qualitative analysis to identify specific potential barriers to completion of preventive services and to highlight examples of how physicians used patient-centered communication and other facilitation strategies to overcome those barriers. Results Sharing of power and responsibility, the use of empathy, and treating the patient like a person were all important communication strategies which seemed to help address barriers to vaccination and colonoscopy. Other potential facilitators of receipt of influenza vaccine included (1) cultural competence, (2) PCP introduction of the discussion, (3) persistence of the PCP (revisiting the topic throughout the visit), (4) rapport and trust between the patient and PCP, and (5) PCP vaccination of the patient. PCP persistence as well as rapport and trust also appeared to facilitate receipt of colorectal cancer screening. Conclusion Several communications strategies appeared to facilitate PCP communications with older patients to promote acceptance of flu vaccination and colorectal cancer screening. These strategies should be studied with larger samples to determine which are most predictive of compliance with prevention recommendations. PMID:18768086