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Sample records for disease central auditory

  1. Clinical psychoacoustics in Alzheimer's disease central auditory processing disorders and speech deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, Vassiliki; Kaprinis, Stergios

    2003-01-01

    Background Difficulty in speech understanding in the presence of background noise or competing auditory signals is typically present in central auditory processing disorders. These disorders may be diagnosed in Alzheimer's disease as a result of degeneration in the central auditory system. In addition perception and processing of speech may be affected. Material and Methods A MEDLINE research was conducted in order to answer the question whether there is a central auditory processing disorder involved in Alzheimer's disease. A second question to be investigated was what, if any is the connection, between central auditory processing disorders and speech deterioration? Articles were retrieved from the Medline to find relevance of Alzheimer's dis ease with central auditory processing disorders, they summed up to 34. Twelve papers were studied that contained testing for CAPD through psychoacoustic investigation. An additional search using the keywords 'speech production' and 'AD' produced a result of 33 articles, of them 14 are thoroughly discussed in this review as they have references concerning CAPD. The rest do not contain any relavent information on the central auditory system. Results Psychoacoustic tests reveal significantly lower scores in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with normal subjects. Tests concerning sound localization and perception of tones as well as phoneme discrimination and tonal memory reveal deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Central auditory processing disorders may exist several years before the onset of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Segmental characteristics of speech are normal. Deficits exist concerning the supra-segmental components of speech. Conclusions Central auditory processing disorders have been found in many cases when patients with Alzheimer's disease are tested. They may present as an early manifestation of Alzheimer's disease, preceding the disease by a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 10 years. During these

  2. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  3. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D; Musiek, Frank E

    2015-11-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  4. Central auditory testing and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1980-06-01

    A group of dyslexic pupils with normal end organ function was studied by a central auditory battery to determine whether a hearing disability existed. The clinical features of dyslexia are presented with emphasis on the psychological developmental and functional disorders associated with this reading problem. The central battery of Willeford was selected as the test medium and the results of the 77 dyslexic students were compared to the normative data. The model proposed by Sparks, et al., is accepted as the mechanism for dichotic audition. Reference is made to the organic basis of reading disorders from lesion in the calcarine area to the angular gyrus. The competing sentence test, binaural fusion, rapidly alternating speech perception, and filtered speech are described in detail and are organic foundation for the study. The authors indentified a high rate of failure in this investigation. Over 50% of the dyslexic students failed two of the four tests, and each of the 77 failed at least one component. The most sensitive tests were binaural fusion and filtered speech with less variation from the norm in the remaining two components. The effect of maturation in central audition was measured in each of the four tests. The data suggest: 1. the scores are lower in the early ages in each test; 2. that rapidly alternating speech and competing sentences approach the normal range albeit somewhat delayed; and 3. that binaural fusion and filtered speech improve in score somewhat but rather moderately and never approach the normal range. Based upon the central auditory data and in conjunction with the anatomical pathways of vision, the authors suggest the site of lesion to be in the temporo-parietal cortex and the association fibers. PMID:7382713

  5. Central auditory conduction time in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shaw, N A

    1990-01-01

    Central conduction time is the time for an afferent volley to traverse the central pathways of a sensory system. In the present study, central auditory conduction time (CACT) was calculated for the rat, the first such formal measurement in any animal. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were recorded simultaneously with the primary response of the auditory cortex (P1). The latency of wave II of the BAEP, which arises in the cochlear nucleus, was subtracted from that of P1. This yielded a mean CACT of 6.6 ms. The results confirm a previous theoretical estimate that CACT in the rat is at least twice as long as central somatosensory conduction time. PMID:2311700

  6. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  7. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei S.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  8. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Design A MEDLINE search was conducted to search for papers concerning the association between Central Auditory Processing Disorders and mental disorders. The research focused on the diagnostic methods providing the inter-connection of various mental disorders and central auditory deficits. Measurements and Main Results The medline research revealed 564 papers when using the keywords 'auditory deficits' and 'mental disorders'. 79 papers were referring specifically to Central Auditory Processing Disorders in connection with mental disorders. 175 papers were related to Schizophrenia, 126 to learning disabilities, 29 to Parkinson's disease, 88 to dyslexia and 39 to Alzheimer's disease. Assessment of the Central Auditory System is carried out through a great variety of tests that fall into two main categories: psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic testing. Different specialties are involved in the diagnosis and management of Central Auditory Processing Disorders as well as the mental disorders that may co-exist with them. As a result it is essential that they are all aware of the possibilities in diagnostic procedures. Conclusions Considerable evidence exists that mental disorders may correlate with CAPD and this correlation could be revealed through psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology. Mental disorders that relate to Central Auditory Processing Disorders are: Schizophrenia, attention deficit disorders, Alzheimer's disease, learning disabilities, dyslexia, depression, auditory

  9. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Hannah L; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Yong, Keir X X; Downey, Laura E; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer's disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer's disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer's disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer's disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer's disease

  10. Central auditory disorders: toward a neuropsychology of auditory objects

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Analysis of the auditory environment, source identification and vocal communication all require efficient brain mechanisms for disambiguating, representing and understanding complex natural sounds as ‘auditory objects’. Failure of these mechanisms leads to a diverse spectrum of clinical deficits. Here we review current evidence concerning the phenomenology, mechanisms and brain substrates of auditory agnosias and related disorders of auditory object processing. Recent findings Analysis of lesions causing auditory object deficits has revealed certain broad anatomical correlations: deficient parsing of the auditory scene is associated with lesions involving the parieto-temporal junction, while selective disorders of sound recognition occur with more anterior temporal lobe or extra-temporal damage. Distributed neural networks have been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of such disorders as developmental dyslexia, congenital amusia and tinnitus. Auditory category deficits may arise from defective interaction of spectrotemporal encoding and executive and mnestic processes. Dedicated brain mechanisms are likely to process specialised sound objects such as voices and melodies. Summary Emerging empirical evidence suggests a clinically relevant, hierarchical and fractionated neuropsychological model of auditory object processing that provides a framework for understanding auditory agnosias and makes specific predictions to direct future work. PMID:20975559

  11. Central auditory processing disorders: some cohorts studies.

    PubMed

    Demanez, L; Boniver, V; Dony-Closon, B; Lhonneux-Ledoux, F; Demanez, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the use of a French-speaking battery for the assessment of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in a variety of clinical populations: prematurely born children; 8 years old children who had otitis media with effusion in early infancy; children with learning problems and dyslexia; French-speaking children attending Dutch and English schools; adults with King-Kopetzky syndrome and elderly hearing aids users. Population characteristics of each of these groups are presented and discussed. PMID:14714946

  12. Auditory nerve disease and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Kimitaka

    2016-02-01

    In 1996, a new type of bilateral hearing disorder was discerned and published almost simultaneously by Kaga et al. [1] and Starr et al. [2]. Although the pathophysiology of this disorder as reported by each author was essentially identical, Kaga used the term "auditory nerve disease" and Starr used the term "auditory neuropathy". Auditory neuropathy (AN) in adults is an acquired disorder characterized by mild-to-moderate pure-tone hearing loss, poor speech discrimination, and absence of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) all in the presence of normal cochlear outer hair cell function as indicated by normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and evoked summating potentials (SPs) by electrocochleography (ECoG). A variety of processes and etiologies are thought to be involved in its pathophysiology including mutations of the OTOF and/or OPA1 genes. Most of the subsequent reports in the literature discuss the various auditory profiles of patients with AN [3,4] and in this report we present the profiles of an additional 17 cases of adult AN. Cochlear implants are useful for the reacquisition of hearing in adult AN although hearing aids are ineffective. In 2008, the new term of Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorders (ANSD) was proposed by the Colorado Children's Hospital group following a comprehensive study of newborn hearing test results. When ABRs were absent and DPOAEs were present in particular cases during newborn screening they were classified as ANSD. In 2013, our group in the Tokyo Medical Center classified ANSD into three types by following changes in ABRs and DPOAEs over time with development. In Type I, there is normalization of hearing over time, Type II shows a change into profound hearing loss and Type III is true auditory neuropathy (AN). We emphasize that, in adults, ANSD is not the same as AN. PMID:26209259

  13. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  14. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Nagaraj, Naveen K.; Kennett, Sarah E.W.; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  15. Central Auditory Dysfunction in Older People with Memory Impairment or Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gates, George A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; McCurry, Susan M.; Larson, Eric B.

    2009-01-01

    Central auditory function is commonly compromised in people with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may precede the onset of clinical dementia by several years. Given that screening for AD in its earliest stages might someday be useful for emerging therapies aimed at limiting progression, we inquired whether central auditory testing might be suitable for identifying people at risk for dementia. To address this question, we performed a battery of behavioral central auditory tests in a cohort of 313 older people enrolled in a dementia surveillance research program. The cohort consisted of three groups: controls without memory loss (N=232), targets with mild memory impairment but without dementia (N=64), and targets with a dementia diagnosis (N=17). The auditory tests were the Synthetic Sentence Identification with Ipsilateral Competing Message (SSI), the Dichotic Sentence Identification test (DSI), the Dichotic Digits Test (DDT), and the Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) test. Additional control was provided by electrophysiologic testing to assess the integrity of the primary auditory pathways. The mean score on each central auditory test worsened significantly across the three memory groups even after adjusting for age and peripheral hearing status, being poorest in the pAD group and moderately reduced in the memory-impaired group compared to the mean scores in the control group. Heterogeneity of results was noted in all three groups. The electrophysiologic tests did not differ across the three groups. Central auditory function was affected by mild memory impairment. The Dichotic Sentence Identification in the free report mode appears to be the central auditory test most sensitive to the presence of memory impairment. Although central auditory testing requires specialized equipment and training, the objectivity of these tests is appealing. We recommend that comprehensive auditory testing be considered and further evaluated for its potential value as a baseline

  16. Central recruitment in individual with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Preeti; Mishra, Rajkishor; Mahallik, Debadatta; Ansari, Imran; Mungutwar, Varsha

    2014-12-01

    Auditory neuropathy (AN) describes patients with dysfunction of the auditory nerve in the presence of preserved cochlear outer hair-cell receptor functions in presence of normal otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics. In individuals with auditory neuropathy speech are disproportionate to their hearing sensitivity and reported to be dependent on cortical evoked potentials. In individuals with AN, who have normal cortical potentials have better speech identification scores when compared to those with abnormal cortical potentials reflect relation between the cortical potentials and the speech identification scores. One group comparison research design was used for present study. The purpose of the study was to compare shift in latency of LLR peaks at different sensation level in subjects with auditory neuropathy and age matched normal individuals. 6 subjects (11 ears) diagnosed as having auditory neuropathy and 6 subjects (12 ears) with normal hearing Sensitivity participated for the study. Pure tone audiometry, immittance, reflexometry and otoacoustic emissions were administered. ABR was recorded for all the subjects at a repetition rate of 11.1 at an intensity of 90 dB nHL. LLR was carried out at different intensity levels for/da/speech stimulus at an intensity of 90 dB nHL. Latency of N1 and P2 of LLR was calculated at different sensation levels for both the groups. Descriptive analysis was carried out to find out the mean and standard deviation for latency of N1 and P2 for both, AN and normal hearing group. There was delay in latency of N1 and P2 for individuals with auditory neuropathy. PMID:26396961

  17. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches. PMID:27626084

  18. Electrically evoked hearing perception by functional neurostimulation of the central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Tatagiba, M; Gharabaghi, A

    2005-01-01

    Perceptional benefits and potential risks of electrical stimulation of the central auditory system are constantly changing due to ongoing developments and technical modifications. Therefore, we would like to introduce current treatment protocols and strategies that might have an impact on functional results of auditory brainstem implants (ABI) in profoundly deaf patients. Patients with bilateral tumours as a result of neurofibromatosis type 2 with complete dysfunction of the eighth cranial nerves are the most frequent candidates for auditory brainstem implants. Worldwide, about 300 patients have already received an ABI through a translabyrinthine or suboccipital approach supported by multimodality electrophysiological monitoring. Patient selection is based on disease course, clinical signs, audiological, radiological and psycho-social criteria. The ABI provides the patients with access to auditory information such as environmental sound awareness together with distinct hearing cues in speech. In addition, this device markedly improves speech reception in combination with lip-reading. Nonetheless, there is only limited open-set speech understanding. Results of hearing function are correlated with electrode design, number of activated electrodes, speech processing strategies, duration of pre-existing deafness and extent of brainstem deformation. Functional neurostimulation of the central auditory system by a brainstem implant is a safe and beneficial procedure, which may considerably improve the quality of life in patients suffering from deafness due to bilateral retrocochlear lesions. The auditory outcome may be improved by a new generation of microelectrodes capable of penetrating the surface of the brainstem to access more directly the auditory neurons. PMID:15986735

  19. Central auditory development in children with cochlear implants: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anu; Dorman, Michael F

    2006-01-01

    A common finding in developmental neurobiology is that stimulation must be delivered to a sensory system within a narrow window of time (a sensitive period) during development in order for that sensory system to develop normally. Experiments with congenitally deaf children have allowed us to establish the existence and time limits of a sensitive period for the development of central auditory pathways in humans. Using the latency of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) as a measure we have found that central auditory pathways are maximally plastic for a period of about 3.5 years. If the stimulation is delivered within that period CAEP latencies reach age-normal values within 3-6 months after stimulation. However, if stimulation is withheld for more than 7 years, CAEP latencies decrease significantly over a period of approximately 1 month following the onset of stimulation. They then remain constant or change very slowly over months or years. The lack of development of the central auditory system in congenitally deaf children implanted after 7 years is correlated with relatively poor development of speech and language skills [Geers, this vol, pp 50-65]. Animal models suggest that the primary auditory cortex may be functionally decoupled from higher order auditory cortex due to restricted development of inter- and intracortical connections in late-implanted children [Kral and Tillein, this vol, pp 89-108]. Another aspect of plasticity that works against late-implanted children is the reorganization of higher order cortex by other sensory modalities (e.g. vision). The hypothesis of decoupling of primary auditory cortex from higher order auditory cortex in children deprived of sound for a long time may explain the speech perception and oral language learning difficulties of children who receive an implant after the end of the sensitive period. PMID:16891837

  20. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients. PMID:20981630

  1. Language and central temporal auditory processing in childhood epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Boscariol, Mirela; Casali, Raquel L; Amaral, M Isabel R; Lunardi, Luciane L; Matas, Carla G; Collela-Santos, M Francisca; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2015-12-01

    Because of the relationship between rolandic, temporoparietal, and centrotemporal areas and language and auditory processing, the aim of this study was to investigate language and central temporal auditory processing of children with epilepsy (rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy) and compare these with those of children without epilepsy. Thirty-five children aged between eight and 14 years old were studied. Two groups of children participated in this study: a group with childhood epilepsy (n=19), and a control group without epilepsy or linguistic changes (n=16). There was a significant difference between the two groups, with the worst performance in children with epilepsy for the gaps-in-noise test, right ear (p<0.001) and left ear (p<0.001) tests, and duration pattern test--naming (p=0.002) and humming (p=0.002). In auditory P300, there was no significant difference in latency (p=0.343) and amplitude (p=0.194) between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups, with the worst performance in children with epilepsy, for the auditory-receptive vocabulary (PPVT) (p<0.001) and phonological working memory (nonwords repetition task) tasks (p=0.001). We conclude that the impairment of central temporal auditory processing and language skills may be comorbidities in children with rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26580215

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR morphometry of the central auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging.

    PubMed

    Profant, O; Škoch, A; Balogová, Z; Tintěra, J; Hlinka, J; Syka, J

    2014-02-28

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is caused mainly by the hypofunction of the inner ear, but recent findings point also toward a central component of presbycusis. We used MR morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 3T MR system with the aim to study the state of the central auditory system in a group of elderly subjects (>65years) with mild presbycusis, in a group of elderly subjects with expressed presbycusis and in young controls. Cortical reconstruction, volumetric segmentation and auditory pathway tractography were performed. Three parameters were evaluated by morphometry: the volume of the gray matter, the surface area of the gyrus and the thickness of the cortex. In all experimental groups the surface area and gray matter volume were larger on the left side in Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale and slightly larger in the gyrus frontalis superior, whereas they were larger on the right side in the primary visual cortex. Almost all of the measured parameters were significantly smaller in the elderly subjects in Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale and gyrus frontalis superior. Aging did not change the side asymmetry (laterality) of the gyri. In the central part of the auditory pathway above the inferior colliculus, a trend toward an effect of aging was present in the axial vector of the diffusion (L1) variable of DTI, with increased values observed in elderly subjects. A trend toward a decrease of L1 on the left side, which was more pronounced in the elderly groups, was observed. The effect of hearing loss was present in subjects with expressed presbycusis as a trend toward an increase of the radial vectors (L2L3) in the white matter under Heschl's gyrus. These results suggest that in addition to peripheral changes, changes in the central part of the auditory system in elderly subjects are also present; however, the extent of hearing loss does not play a significant role in the central changes. PMID:24333969

  3. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Hannah L.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Yong, Keir X. X.; Downey, Laura E.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer’s disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer’s disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer’s disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer’s disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer’s disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer

  4. Evaluation of Central Auditory Discrimination Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Freigang, Claudia; Schmidt, Lucas; Wagner, Jan; Eckardt, Rahel; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Ernst, Arne; Rübsamen, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on auditory discrimination abilities in older adults aged 65–89 years. We applied the “Leipzig inventory for patient psychoacoustic” (LIPP), a psychoacoustic test battery specifically designed to identify deficits in central auditory processing. These tests quantify the just noticeable differences (JND) for the three basic acoustic parameters (i.e., frequency, intensity, and signal duration). Three different test modes [monaural, dichotic signal/noise (s/n) and interaural] were used, stimulus level was 35 dB sensation level. The tests are designed as three-alternative forced-choice procedure with a maximum-likelihood procedure estimating p = 0.5 correct response value. These procedures have proven to be highly efficient and provide a reliable outcome. The measurements yielded significant age-dependent deteriorations in the ability to discriminate single acoustic features pointing to progressive impairments in central auditory processing. The degree of deterioration was correlated to the different acoustic features and to the test modes. Most prominent, interaural frequency and signal duration discrimination at low test frequencies was elevated which indicates a deterioration of time- and phase-dependent processing at brain stem and cortical levels. LIPP proves to be an effective tool to identify basic pathophysiological mechanisms and the source of a specific impairment in auditory processing of the elderly. PMID:21577251

  5. Central auditory processes and test measures: ASHA 1996 revisited.

    PubMed

    Schow, R L; Seikel, J A; Chermak, G D; Berent, M

    2000-12-01

    The theoretical issues surrounding central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) are reviewed here, especially with reference to the central auditory behavioral processes and the auditory test measures as prescribed in the ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) statement on CAPD. A simplified nomenclature is recommended that directly relates process and test measure to facilitate the diagnostic process in CAPD. This new terminology closely follows the ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) document, but provides some refinement based on recent research in CAPD. To support this recommendation, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to the findings of Domitz and Schow (2000, American Journal of Audiology), who proposed use of a battery of CAPD tests, the Multiple Auditory Processing Assessment (MAPA) for testing school children. The CFA was found to reinforce the four-factor model, which clearly emerged in the exploratory factor analysis of Domitz and Schow. The model was found to be reasonably consistent even when subtests from the SCAN were included in the analysis. Refinement and revision of ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) is recommended to facilitate diagnosis, subclassification, and intervention for CAPD. PMID:11200193

  6. Maturation of the Central Auditory Nervous System in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, Dani; Rance, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay has been proposed as the underlying cause of the majority of cases of auditory processing disorder (APD). The current study employs the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) to assess if maturational differences of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) can be identified between children who do and do not meet the diagnostic criterion for APD. The P1-N1 complex of the CAEP has previously been used for tracking development of the CANS in children with hearing impairment. Twenty-seven children (7 to 12 years old) who failed an APD behavioral test battery were age-matched (within 3 months) to children who had passed the same battery. CAEP responses to 500-Hz tone burst stimuli were recorded and analyzed for latency and amplitude measures. The P1-N1 complex of the CAEP, which has previously been used for tracking development of the CANS in children with hearing impairment, showed significant group differences. The children diagnosed with APD showed significantly increased latency (∼10 milliseconds) and significantly reduced amplitude (∼10 μV) of the early components of the CAEP compared with children with normal auditory processing. No significant differences were seen in the later P2 wave. The normal developmental course is for a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude as a function of age. The results of this study are, therefore, consistent with an immaturity of the CANS as an underlying cause of APD in children. PMID:27587924

  7. The memory systems of children with (central) auditory disorder.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mayra Monteiro; Mota, Mailce Borges; Pinheiro, Maria Madalena Canina

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate working, declarative, and procedural memory in children with (central) auditory processing disorder who showed poor phonological awareness. Thirty 9- and 10-year-old children participated in the study and were distributed into two groups: a control group consisting of 15 children with typical development, and an experimental group consisting of 15 children with (central) auditory processing disorder who were classified according to three behavioral tests and who showed poor phonological awareness in the CONFIAS test battery. The memory systems were assessed through the adapted tests in the program E-PRIME 2.0. The working memory was assessed by the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C), whereas the declarative memory was assessed by a picture-naming test and the procedural memory was assessed by means of a morphosyntactic processing test. The results showed that, when compared to the control group, children with poor phonological awareness scored lower in the working, declarative, and procedural memory tasks. The results of this study suggest that in children with (central) auditory processing disorder, phonological awareness is associated with the analyzed memory systems. PMID:26398254

  8. (Central) Auditory Processing: the impact of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leticia Reis; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze auditory processing test results in children suffering from otitis media in their first five years of age, considering their age. Furthermore, to classify central auditory processing test findings regarding the hearing skills evaluated. METHODS: A total of 109 students between 8 and 12 years old were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of 40 students from public school without a history of otitis media. Experimental group I consisted of 39 students from public schools and experimental group II consisted of 30 students from private schools; students in both groups suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years of age and underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes. The individuals underwent complete audiological evaluation and assessment by Auditory Processing tests. RESULTS: The left ear showed significantly worse performance when compared to the right ear in the dichotic digits test and pitch pattern sequence test. The students from the experimental groups showed worse performance when compared to the control group in the dichotic digits test and gaps-in-noise. Children from experimental group I had significantly lower results on the dichotic digits and gaps-in-noise tests compared with experimental group II. The hearing skills that were altered were temporal resolution and figure-ground perception. CONCLUSION: Children who suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years and who underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes showed worse performance in auditory abilities, and children from public schools had worse results on auditory processing tests compared with students from private schools. PMID:23917659

  9. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  10. The Impact of Mild Central Auditory Processing Disorder on School Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Chyrisse; Slone, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Central Auditory Processing (CAP) difficulties have attained increasing recognition leading to escalating rates of referrals for evaluation. Recognition of the association between (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD) and language, learning, and literacy difficulties has resulted in increased referrals and detection in school-aged…

  11. Using Different Criteria to Diagnose (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder: How Big a Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify how 9 different diagnostic criteria affected potential (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD) diagnoses in a large sample of children referred for (central) auditory processing ([C]AP) assessment. Method: A file review was conducted on 150 children (94 boys and 56 girls; ages 7.0-15.6 years) with normal peripheral…

  12. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:26029629

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Hannah L.; Agustus, Jennifer L.; Goll, Johanna C.; Downey, Laura E.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:26029629

  14. Central Auditory Development: Evidence from CAEP Measurements in Children Fit with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Michael F.; Sharma, Anu; Gilley, Phillip; Martin, Kathryn; Roland, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In normal-hearing children the latency of the P1 component of the cortical evoked response to sound varies as a function of age and, thus, can be used as a biomarker for maturation of central auditory pathways. We assessed P1 latency in 245 congenitally deaf children fit with cochlear implants following various periods of auditory deprivation. If…

  15. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing. PMID:27306460

  16. Designing auditory cues for Parkinson's disease gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cancela, Jorge; Moreno, Eugenio M; Arredondo, Maria T; Bonato, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Recent works have proved that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can be largely benefit by performing rehabilitation exercises based on audio cueing and music therapy. Specially, gait can benefit from repetitive sessions of exercises using auditory cues. Nevertheless, all the experiments are based on the use of a metronome as auditory stimuli. Within this work, Human-Computer Interaction methodologies have been used to design new cues that could benefit the long-term engagement of PD patients in these repetitive routines. The study has been also extended to commercial music and musical pieces by analyzing features and characteristics that could benefit the engagement of PD patients to rehabilitation tasks. PMID:25571327

  17. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Is It a Meaningful Construct or a Twentieth Century Unicorn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.; Beasley, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    The article demonstrates how professional and theoretical perspectives (including psycholinguistics, behaviorist, and information processing perspectives) significantly influence the manner in which central auditory processing is viewed, assessed, and remediated. (Author/CL)

  18. Hemispheric Lateralization of Bilaterally Presented Homologous Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Normal Adults, Normal Children, and Children with Central Auditory Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual…

  19. Central Gain Restores Auditory Processing following Near-Complete Cochlear Denervation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Anna R; Resnik, Jennifer; Yuan, Yasheng; Whitton, Jonathon P; Edge, Albert S; Liberman, M Charles; Polley, Daniel B

    2016-02-17

    Sensory organ damage induces a host of cellular and physiological changes in the periphery and the brain. Here, we show that some aspects of auditory processing recover after profound cochlear denervation due to a progressive, compensatory plasticity at higher stages of the central auditory pathway. Lesioning >95% of cochlear nerve afferent synapses, while sparing hair cells, in adult mice virtually eliminated the auditory brainstem response and acoustic startle reflex, yet tone detection behavior was nearly normal. As sound-evoked responses from the auditory nerve grew progressively weaker following denervation, sound-evoked activity in the cortex-and, to a lesser extent, the midbrain-rebounded or surpassed control levels. Increased central gain supported the recovery of rudimentary sound features encoded by firing rate, but not features encoded by precise spike timing such as modulated noise or speech. These findings underscore the importance of central plasticity in the perceptual sequelae of cochlear hearing impairment. PMID:26833137

  20. Demonstration of prosthetic activation of central auditory pathways using ( sup 14 C)-2-deoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.A.; Niparko, J.K.; Altschuler, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Miller, J.M. )

    1990-02-01

    The cochlear prosthesis is not applicable to patients who lack an implantable cochlea or an intact vestibulocochlear nerve. Direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the brain stem might provide a method for auditory rehabilitation of these patients. A penetrating CN electrode has been developed and tissue tolerance to this device demonstrated. This study was undertaken to evaluate metabolic activation of central nervous system (CNS) auditory tracts produced by such implants. Regional cerebral glucose use resulting from CN stimulation was estimated in a series of chronically implanted guinea pigs with the use of ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Enhanced 2-DG uptake was observed in structures of the auditory tract. The activation of central auditory structures achieved with CN stimulation was similar to that produced by acoustic stimulation and by electrical stimulation of the modiolar portion of the auditory nerve in control groups. An interesting banding pattern was observed in the inferior colliculus following CN stimulation, as previously described with acoustic stimulation. This study demonstrates that functional metabolic activation of central auditory pathways can be achieved with a penetrating CNS auditory prosthesis.

  1. The effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Kelly C.

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to two groups of listeners without PD. Methods: Nineteen individuals with Parkinson's disease, ten healthy age- and hearing-matched adults, and ten healthy young adults were studied. All listeners participated in two intensity discrimination tasks differing in auditory memory load; a lower memory load, 4IAX task and a higher memory load, ABX task. Intensity discrimination performance was assessed using a bias-free measurement of signal detectability known as d' (d-prime). Listeners further participated in a continuous loudness scaling task where they were instructed to rate the loudness level of each signal intensity using a computerized 150mm visual analogue scale. Results: Group discrimination functions indicated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity (d') across tasks for the individuals with PD, as compared to the older and younger controls. No significant effect of aging on intensity discrimination was observed for either task. All three listeners groups demonstrated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity for the higher auditory memory load, ABX task, compared to the lower auditory memory load, 4IAX task. Furthermore, a significant effect of aging was identified for the loudness scaling condition. The younger controls were found to rate most stimuli along the continuum as significantly louder than the older controls and the individuals with PD. Conclusions: The persons with PD showed evidence of impaired auditory perception for intensity information, as compared to the older and younger controls. The significant effect of aging on loudness perception may indicate peripheral and/or central auditory involvement.

  2. Functional neuroimaging of human central auditory processing in normal subjects and patients with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Engelien, A; Stern, E; Silbersweig, D

    2001-02-01

    Auditory sensory processing in the human cerebral cortex is disturbed in several neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from devastating perceptual deficits in neuropsychological syndromes such as cortical deafness and auditory agnosia to the problem of involuntary hallucinatory perception in schizophrenia. With modern non-invasive functional imaging techniques (e.g., PET, fMRI, and MEG), the normal auditory cortical functional anatomy can now be studied in humans in vivo, as well as its disruption in pathological conditions. This article will summarize current knowledge on human central auditory perception in health and disease, with an emphasis on recent functional neuroimaging studies, in the context of clinical and basic neuroscientific knowledge. New strategies include a focus on the role of other, non-temporal brain areas for auditory processing, particularly in the frontal lobes, and the combined use of techniques offering both precise spatial and temporal resolution. One step towards this goal has been the recent development of a silent, event-related fMRI scanning technique. PMID:11320447

  3. Morphometric changes in subcortical structures of the central auditory pathway in mice with bilateral nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dongnhu T; Rendall, Amanda R; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly

    2015-04-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCD) have been observed in human reading and language impaired populations. Injury-induced MCD in rodent models of reading disability show morphological changes in the auditory thalamic nucleus (medial geniculate nucleus; MGN) and auditory processing impairments, thus suggesting a link between MCD, MGN, and auditory processing behavior. Previous neuroanatomical examination of a BXD29 recombinant inbred strain (BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J) revealed MCD consisting of bilateral subcortical nodular heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis. Subsequent behavioral characterization showed a severe impairment in auditory processing-a deficient behavioral phenotype seen across both male and female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mice. In the present study we expanded upon the neuroanatomical findings in the BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mutant mouse by investigating whether subcortical changes in cellular morphology are present in neural structures critical to central auditory processing (MGN, and the ventral and dorsal subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus; VCN and DCN, respectively). Stereological assessment of brain tissue of male and female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mice previously tested on an auditory processing battery revealed overall smaller neurons in the MGN of BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mutant mice in comparison to BXD29/Ty coisogenic controls, regardless of sex. Interestingly, examination of the VCN and DCN revealed sexually dimorphic changes in neuronal size, with a distribution shift toward larger neurons in female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J brains. These effects were not seen in males. Together, the combined data set supports and further expands the observed co-occurrence of MCD, auditory processing impairments, and changes in subcortical anatomy of the central auditory pathway. The current stereological findings also highlight sex differences in neuroanatomical presentation in the presence of a common auditory behavioral phenotype. PMID:25549859

  4. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.

  5. Central auditory neurons display flexible feature recombination functions.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of natural stimuli requires a combination of selectivity and invariance. Classical neurobiological models achieve selectivity and invariance, respectively, by assigning to each cortical neuron either a computation equivalent to the logical "AND" or a computation equivalent to the logical "OR." One powerful OR-like operation is the MAX function, which computes the maximum over input activities. The MAX function is frequently employed in computer vision to achieve invariance and considered a key operation in visual cortex. Here we explore the computations for selectivity and invariance in the auditory system of a songbird, using natural stimuli. We ask two related questions: does the MAX operation exist in auditory system? Is it implemented by specialized "MAX" neurons, as assumed in vision? By analyzing responses of individual neurons to combinations of stimuli we systematically sample the space of implemented feature recombination functions. Although we frequently observe the MAX function, we show that the same neurons that implement it also readily implement other operations, including the AND-like response. We then show that sensory adaptation, a ubiquitous property of neural circuits, causes transitions between these operations in individual neurons, violating the fixed neuron-to-computation mapping posited in the state-of-the-art object-recognition models. These transitions, however, accord with predictions of neural-circuit models incorporating divisive normalization and variable polynomial nonlinearities at the spike threshold. Because these biophysical properties are not tied to a particular sensory modality but are generic, the flexible neuron-to-computation mapping demonstrated in this study in the auditory system is likely a general property. PMID:24353301

  6. Targeting Academic Success: An Interdisciplinary Assessment Program for Children with Central Auditory Processing Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Kathleen M.; Mauer, Daria M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of interdisciplinary assessment procedures and criteria for diagnosis of central auditory processing (CAP) disorders. It describes use of a CAP test battery consisting of four measures with results integrated with a comprehensive speech-language pathology assessment. Practical strategies for classroom utilization…

  7. Exploration of Teachers' Awareness and Knowledge of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Anita; Logue-Kennedy, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore primary school teachers' awareness and knowledge of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD). Teachers' awareness and knowledge are crucial for initial recognition and appropriate referral of children suspected of having (C)APD. When a child is diagnosed with (C)APD, teachers have a role in…

  8. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  9. Surgical implantation and biocompatibility of central nervous system auditory prostheses.

    PubMed

    Niparko, J K; Altschuler, R A; Xue, X L; Wiler, J A; Anderson, D J

    1989-12-01

    As part of a program to determine the feasibility of a CNS auditory prosthesis, the tissue reaction to electrodes chronically implanted in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the guinea pig was examined. Varied open operative approaches and microelectrode designs were utilized. Silicon substrate thin film and platinum-iridium wire electrodes, tethered and untethered, were placed successfully in different divisions of the CN. Implantation through a posterior suboccipital approach was most successful. Histologic examinations demonstrated a glial cell proliferation confined to the area of the electrode track that never exceeded 15 microns in width. No neuronal loss or significant effect on cell morphology was seen, and reactive cells were absent. Electrode migration was apparent in a minority of animal preparations. Although potential problems were identified, our findings lend support to the feasibility of implanting a neuroprosthesis in the CN and have helped to establish methods for future studies of chronic intranuclear stimulation. PMID:2589766

  10. Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathways.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Keith N; Slama, Michaël C C; Kozin, Elliott D; Owoc, Maryanna; Hancock, Kenneth; Kempfle, Judith; Edge, Albert; Lacour, Stephanie; Boyden, Edward; Polley, Daniel; Brown, M Christian; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Optogenetics has become an important research tool and is being considered as the basis for several neural prostheses. However, few studies have applied optogenetics to the auditory brainstem. This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway and whether it elicited an evoked response. Viral-mediated gene transfer was used to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the mouse CN. Blue light was delivered via an optical fiber placed near the surface of the infected CN and recordings were made in higher-level centers. Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). The pattern and magnitude of IC activity elicited by optical stimulation was comparable to that obtained with a 50dB SPL acoustic click. This broad pattern of activity was consistent with histological confirmation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) label of cell bodies and axons throughout the CN. Increasing pulse rates up to 320Hz did not significantly affect threshold or bandwidth of the IC responses, but rates higher than 50Hz resulted in desynchronized activity. Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic stimulation. Control cases showed no responses to optical stimulation. These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics may be necessary to convey information at rates typical of many auditory signals. PMID:25481416

  11. Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Keith N.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Owoc, Maryanna; Kozin, Elliott; Hancock, Kenneth; Kempfle, Judith; Edge, Albert; Lacour, Stephanie; Boyden, Edward; Polley, Daniel; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics has become an important research tool and is being considered as the basis for several neural prostheses. However, few studies have applied optogenetics to the auditory brainstem. This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway, and it measured the evoked response to optical stimulation. Viral-mediated gene transfer was used to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the mouse CN. Blue light was delivered via an optical fiber placed near the surface of the infected CN and recordings were made in higher-level centers. Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). The pattern and magnitude of IC activity elicited by optical stimulation was comparable to that obtained with a 50 dB SPL acoustic click stimulus. This broad pattern of activity was consistent with histological confirmation of GFP label of cell bodies and axons throughout the CN. Increasing pulse rates up to 320 Hz did not significantly affect threshold or bandwidth of the IC responses, but rates higher than 50 Hz resulted in desynchronized activity. Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic stimulation. Control cases showed no responses to optical stimulation. These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics will be necessary to convey information in rates typical of many auditory signals. PMID:25481416

  12. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; de Oliveira Pagan-Neves, Luciana; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder. METHODS: Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. RESULTS: When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. CONCLUSIONS : The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful. PMID:26934233

  13. Neural Hyperactivity of the Central Auditory System in Response to Peripheral Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Song, Qiang; Li, Xinyi; Li, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that cochlear pathology is accompanied by adaptive responses in the central auditory system. The cause of cochlear pathology varies widely, and it seems that few commonalities can be drawn. In fact, despite intricate internal neuroplasticity and diverse external symptoms, several classical injury models provide a feasible path to locate responses to different peripheral cochlear lesions. In these cases, hair cell damage may lead to considerable hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways, mediated by a reduction in inhibition, which may underlie some clinical symptoms associated with hearing loss, such as tinnitus. Homeostatic plasticity, the most discussed and acknowledged mechanism in recent years, is most likely responsible for excited central activity following cochlear damage. PMID:26881094

  14. Mutation of Npr2 Leads to Blurred Tonotopic Organization of Central Auditory Circuits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cindy C.; Cao, Xiao-Jie; Wright, Samantha; Ma, Le; Oertel, Donata; Goodrich, Lisa V.

    2014-01-01

    Tonotopy is a fundamental organizational feature of the auditory system. Sounds are encoded by the spatial and temporal patterns of electrical activity in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and are transmitted via tonotopically ordered processes from the cochlea through the eighth nerve to the cochlear nuclei. Upon reaching the brainstem, SGN axons bifurcate in a stereotyped pattern, innervating target neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (aVCN) with one branch and in the posteroventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei (pVCN and DCN) with the other. Each branch is tonotopically organized, thereby distributing acoustic information systematically along multiple parallel pathways for processing in the brainstem. In mice with a mutation in the receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2, this spatial organization is disrupted. Peripheral SGN processes appear normal, but central SGN processes fail to bifurcate and are disorganized as they exit the auditory nerve. Within the cochlear nuclei, the tonotopic organization of the SGN terminal arbors is blurred and the aVCN is underinnervated with a reduced convergence of SGN inputs onto target neurons. The tonotopy of circuitry within the cochlear nuclei is also degraded, as revealed by changes in the topographic mapping of tuberculoventral cell projections from DCN to VCN. Nonetheless, Npr2 mutant SGN axons are able to transmit acoustic information with normal sensitivity and timing, as revealed by auditory brainstem responses and electrophysiological recordings from VCN neurons. Although most features of signal transmission are normal, intermittent failures were observed in responses to trains of shocks, likely due to a failure in action potential conduction at branch points in Npr2 mutant afferent fibers. Our results show that Npr2 is necessary for the precise spatial organization typical of central auditory circuits, but that signals are still transmitted with normal timing, and that mutant mice can hear even with these deficits. PMID

  15. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Thaut, M H; McIntosh, G C; Rice, R R; Miller, R A; Rathbun, J; Brault, J M

    1996-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) was used as a pacemaker during a 3-week home-based gait-training program for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients (n = 15). Electromyogram (EMG) patterns and stride parameters were assessed before and after the test without RAS to evaluate changes in gait patterns. Data were compared with those of two control groups (n = 11), who either did not participate in any gait training or who participated in an internally self-paced training program. RAS consisted of audiotapes with metronome-pulse patterns embedded into the on/off beat structure of rhythmically accentuated instrumental music. Patients who trained with RAS significantly (p < 0.05) improved their gait velocity by 25%, stride length by 12%, and step cadence by 10% more than self-paced subjects who improved their velocity by 7% and no-training subjects whose velocity decreased by 7%. In the RAS-group, timing of EMG patterns changed significantly (p < 0.05) in the anterior tibialis and vastus lateralis muscles. Evidence for rhythmic entrainment of gait patterns was shown by the ability of the RAS group to reproduce the speed of the last training tape within a 2% margin of error without RAS. PMID:8684391

  16. Auditory synesthesias.

    PubMed

    Afra, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality (the inducer) elicits an involuntary or automatic sensation in another sensory modality or different aspect of the same sensory modality (the concurrent). Auditory synesthesias (AS) occur when auditory stimuli trigger a variety of concurrents, or when non-auditory sensory stimulations trigger auditory synesthetic perception. The AS are divided into three types: developmental, acquired, and induced. Developmental AS are not a neurologic disorder but a different way of experiencing one's environment. They are involuntary and highly consistent experiences throughout one's life. Acquired AS have been reported in association with neurologic diseases that cause deafferentation of anterior optic pathways, with pathologic lesions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) outside of the optic pathways, as well as non-lesional cases associated with migraine, and epilepsy. It also has been reported with mood disorders as well as a single idiopathic case. Induced AS has been reported in experimental and postsurgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenics or psychedelics. In this chapter the three different types of synesthesia, their characteristics, and phenomologic differences, as well as their possible neural mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25726281

  17. Hearing the light: neural and perceptual encoding of optogenetic stimulation in the central auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Hight, Ariel E.; Chen, Jenny X.; Klapoetke, Nathan C.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Boyden, Edward S.; Lee, Daniel J.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics provides a means to dissect the organization and function of neural circuits. Optogenetics also offers the translational promise of restoring sensation, enabling movement or supplanting abnormal activity patterns in pathological brain circuits. However, the inherent sluggishness of evoked photocurrents in conventional channelrhodopsins has hampered the development of optoprostheses that adequately mimic the rate and timing of natural spike patterning. Here, we explore the feasibility and limitations of a central auditory optoprosthesis by photoactivating mouse auditory midbrain neurons that either express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) or Chronos, a channelrhodopsin with ultra-fast channel kinetics. Chronos-mediated spike fidelity surpassed ChR2 and natural acoustic stimulation to support a superior code for the detection and discrimination of rapid pulse trains. Interestingly, this midbrain coding advantage did not translate to a perceptual advantage, as behavioral detection of midbrain activation was equivalent with both opsins. Auditory cortex recordings revealed that the precisely synchronized midbrain responses had been converted to a simplified rate code that was indistinguishable between opsins and less robust overall than acoustic stimulation. These findings demonstrate the temporal coding benefits that can be realized with next-generation channelrhodopsins, but also highlight the challenge of inducing variegated patterns of forebrain spiking activity that support adaptive perception and behavior. PMID:26000557

  18. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue. PMID:26408153

  19. [The auditory late potentials (P300, MMN) in central speech disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Swidziński, Piotr; Pruszewicz, Antoni; Zebryk-Stopa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was introduction of preliminary study of late auditory evoked potentials P300 and MMN insome central communication process disorders. The investigations were performed in the group of three children with development dysphasia and pseudobulbar dyzarthria. The registration of endogenic late cognitive potentials was performed using the alternate application of stimulus of pure tones 1 and 2 kHz, and logatoms (da)-(ga). In all patients the normal hearing threshold and the unilateral disturbances in registration of P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) were found. PMID:15603392

  20. Loss of auditory sensitivity from inner hair cell synaptopathy can be centrally compensated in the young but not old brain.

    PubMed

    Möhrle, Dorit; Ni, Kun; Varakina, Ksenya; Bing, Dan; Lee, Sze Chim; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic shift in societal demographics will lead to rapid growth in the number of older people with hearing deficits. Poorer performance in suprathreshold speech understanding and temporal processing with age has been previously linked with progressing inner hair cell (IHC) synaptopathy that precedes age-dependent elevation of auditory thresholds. We compared central sound responsiveness after acoustic trauma in young, middle-aged, and older rats. We demonstrate that IHC synaptopathy progresses from middle age onward and hearing threshold becomes elevated from old age onward. Interestingly, middle-aged animals could centrally compensate for the loss of auditory fiber activity through an increase in late auditory brainstem responses (late auditory brainstem response wave) linked to shortening of central response latencies. In contrast, old animals failed to restore central responsiveness, which correlated with reduced temporal resolution in responding to amplitude changes. These findings may suggest that cochlear IHC synaptopathy with age does not necessarily induce temporal auditory coding deficits, as long as the capacity to generate neuronal gain maintains normal sound-induced central amplitudes. PMID:27318145

  1. Central Auditory Processing of Temporal and Spectral-Variance Cues in Cochlear Implant Listeners.

    PubMed

    Pham, Carol Q; Bremen, Peter; Shen, Weidong; Yang, Shi-Ming; Middlebrooks, John C; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Mc Laughlin, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners have difficulty understanding speech in complex listening environments. This deficit is thought to be largely due to peripheral encoding problems arising from current spread, which results in wide peripheral filters. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, central processing contributes to segregation of speech from competing sounds. We tested the hypothesis that basic central processing abilities are retained in post-lingually deaf CI listeners, but processing is hampered by degraded input from the periphery. In eight CI listeners, we measured auditory nerve compound action potentials to characterize peripheral filters. Then, we measured psychophysical detection thresholds in the presence of multi-electrode maskers placed either inside (peripheral masking) or outside (central masking) the peripheral filter. This was intended to distinguish peripheral from central contributions to signal detection. Introduction of temporal asynchrony between the signal and masker improved signal detection in both peripheral and central masking conditions for all CI listeners. Randomly varying components of the masker created spectral-variance cues, which seemed to benefit only two out of eight CI listeners. Contrastingly, the spectral-variance cues improved signal detection in all five NH listeners who listened to our CI simulation. Together these results indicate that widened peripheral filters significantly hamper central processing of spectral-variance cues but not of temporal cues in post-lingually deaf CI listeners. As indicated by two CI listeners in our study, however, post-lingually deaf CI listeners may retain some central processing abilities similar to NH listeners. PMID:26176553

  2. Central Auditory Processing of Temporal and Spectral-Variance Cues in Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Carol Q.; Bremen, Peter; Shen, Weidong; Yang, Shi-Ming; Middlebrooks, John C.; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Mc Laughlin, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners have difficulty understanding speech in complex listening environments. This deficit is thought to be largely due to peripheral encoding problems arising from current spread, which results in wide peripheral filters. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, central processing contributes to segregation of speech from competing sounds. We tested the hypothesis that basic central processing abilities are retained in post-lingually deaf CI listeners, but processing is hampered by degraded input from the periphery. In eight CI listeners, we measured auditory nerve compound action potentials to characterize peripheral filters. Then, we measured psychophysical detection thresholds in the presence of multi-electrode maskers placed either inside (peripheral masking) or outside (central masking) the peripheral filter. This was intended to distinguish peripheral from central contributions to signal detection. Introduction of temporal asynchrony between the signal and masker improved signal detection in both peripheral and central masking conditions for all CI listeners. Randomly varying components of the masker created spectral-variance cues, which seemed to benefit only two out of eight CI listeners. Contrastingly, the spectral-variance cues improved signal detection in all five NH listeners who listened to our CI simulation. Together these results indicate that widened peripheral filters significantly hamper central processing of spectral-variance cues but not of temporal cues in post-lingually deaf CI listeners. As indicated by two CI listeners in our study, however, post-lingually deaf CI listeners may retain some central processing abilities similar to NH listeners. PMID:26176553

  3. Educational evaluation. The first step toward understanding and remediation of central auditory disorders.

    PubMed

    Knapp, R M

    1985-05-01

    Of all the problems experienced by children with learning disabilities, a language disorder may be the most detrimental to school performance. Because the problems of a child with a language disorder are frequently not recognized until he begins school, it is important that the educational clinician, teacher, related professional, and parents understand what a central auditory disorder is, that it may manifest itself as language disorder, and the way it can academically and emotionally affect a child. Evaluation and identification of a child with a central auditory disorder is vital at an early stage of development; however, testing, while it appears simple, is an extremely complex process and is not always exact. Therefore, the educational clinician must be skilled and understand the frailties which exist in the test instrument and the testing situation. It must be remembered, also, that testing in only part of the diagnostic procedure. Organized, perceptive classroom observations are essential. These must be followed by multidisciplinary meetings that generate remedial procedures and directions to be taken by parents and teachers. Finally, parents must be accepted by professionals as reasonable, concerned, and able to offer knowledgeable insight into their child's learning problems. If a language disorder is suspected, professional help should be sought immediately. Truth is better than fiction or fantasy in helping a child become a happy, adjusted, productive human being. PMID:4011258

  4. Evaluation of central auditory processing in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Piłka, Adam; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) affects about 7-15 % of children of school age and according to the currently accepted diagnostic criteria, it is presumed that these children do not suffer from hearing impairment. The goal of this work was to assess anomalies of central auditory processes in a group of children diagnosed with specific language impairment. Material consisted of 200 children aged 7-10 years (100 children in the study group and 100 hundred in the control group). Selected psychoacoustic tests (Frequency Pattern Test - FPT, Duration Pattern Test - DPT, Dichotic Digit Test - DDT, Time Compressed Sentence Test - CST, Gap Detection Test - GDT) were performed in all children. Results were subject to statistical analysis. It was observed that mean results obtained in individual age groups in the study group are significantly lower than in the control group. Based on the conducted studies we may conclude that children with SLI suffer from disorders of some higher auditory functions, which substantiates the diagnosis of hearing disorders according to the AHSA (American Hearing and Speech Association) guidelines. Use of sound-based, not verbal tests, eliminates the probability that observed problems with perception involve only perception of speech, therefore do not signify central hearing disorders, but problems with understanding of speech. Lack of literature data on the significance of FPT, DPT, DDT, CST and GDT tests in children with specific language impairment precludes comparison of acquired results and makes them unique. PMID:26540009

  5. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  6. Catecholaminergic Innervation of Central and Peripheral Auditory Circuitry Varies with Reproductive State in Female Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Ghahramani, Zachary N.; Monestime, Camillia M.; Kurochkin, Philip; Chernenko, Alena; Milkis, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE) which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic signals. PMID

  7. The dynamic range paradox: a central auditory model of intensity change detection.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew J R; Reiss, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use empirical loudness modeling to explore a perceptual sub-category of the dynamic range problem of auditory neuroscience. Humans are able to reliably report perceived intensity (loudness), and discriminate fine intensity differences, over a very large dynamic range. It is usually assumed that loudness and intensity change detection operate upon the same neural signal, and that intensity change detection may be predicted from loudness data and vice versa. However, while loudness grows as intensity is increased, improvement in intensity discrimination performance does not follow the same trend and so dynamic range estimations of the underlying neural signal from loudness data contradict estimations based on intensity just-noticeable difference (JND) data. In order to account for this apparent paradox we draw on recent advances in auditory neuroscience. We test the hypothesis that a central model, featuring central adaptation to the mean loudness level and operating on the detection of maximum central-loudness rate of change, can account for the paradoxical data. We use numerical optimization to find adaptation parameters that fit data for continuous-pedestal intensity change detection over a wide dynamic range. The optimized model is tested on a selection of equivalent pseudo-continuous intensity change detection data. We also report a supplementary experiment which confirms the modeling assumption that the detection process may be modeled as rate-of-change. Data are obtained from a listening test (N = 10) using linearly ramped increment-decrement envelopes applied to pseudo-continuous noise with an overall level of 33 dB SPL. Increments with half-ramp durations between 5 and 50,000 ms are used. The intensity JND is shown to increase towards long duration ramps (p<10(-6)). From the modeling, the following central adaptation parameters are derived; central dynamic range of 0.215 sones, 95% central normalization, and a central loudness JND

  8. Distinct core thalamocortical pathways to central and dorsal primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Read, Heather L; Nauen, David W; Escabí, Monty A; Miller, Lee M; Schreiner, Christoph E; Winer, Jeffery A

    2011-04-01

    The cat primary auditory cortex (AI) is usually assumed to form one continuous functional region. However, the dorsal and central parts of the AI iso-frequency domain contain neurons that have distinct response properties to acoustic stimuli. In this study, we asked whether neurons projecting to dorsal versus central regions of AI originate in different parts of the medial geniculate body (MGB). Spike rate responses to variations in the sound level and frequency of pure tones were used to measure characteristic frequency (CF) and frequency resolution. These were mapped with high spatial density in order to place retrograde tracers into matching frequency regions of the central narrow-band region (cNB) and dorsal AI. Labeled neurons projecting to these two parts of AI were concentrated in the middle and rostral thirds of the MGB, respectively. There was little evidence that differences in dorsal and central AI function could be due to convergent input from cells outside the ventral division of the MGB (MGBv). Instead, inputs arising from different locations along the caudal-to-rostral dimension of MGBv represent potential sources of response differences between central and dorsal sub-regions of AI. PMID:21145383

  9. The Relationship between Brainstem Temporal Processing and Performance on Tests of Central Auditory Function in Children with Reading Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiet, Cassandra R.; Bellis, Teri James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Studies using speech stimuli to elicit electrophysiologic responses have found approximately 30% of children with language-based learning problems demonstrate abnormal brainstem timing. Research is needed regarding how these responses relate to performance on behavioral tests of central auditory function. The purpose of the study was to…

  10. Effects of location and timing of co-activated neurons in the auditory midbrain on cortical activity: implications for a new central auditory prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Małgorzata M.; McMahon, Melissa; Markovitz, Craig D.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. An increasing number of deaf individuals are being implanted with central auditory prostheses, but their performance has generally been poorer than for cochlear implant users. The goal of this study is to investigate stimulation strategies for improving hearing performance with a new auditory midbrain implant (AMI). Previous studies have shown that repeated electrical stimulation of a single site in each isofrequency lamina of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) causes strong suppressive effects in elicited responses within the primary auditory cortex (A1). Here we investigate if improved cortical activity can be achieved by co-activating neurons with different timing and locations across an ICC lamina and if this cortical activity varies across A1. Approach. We electrically stimulated two sites at different locations across an isofrequency ICC lamina using varying delays in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. We recorded and analyzed spike activity and local field potentials across different layers and locations of A1. Results. Co-activating two sites within an isofrequency lamina with short inter-pulse intervals (<5 ms) could elicit cortical activity that is enhanced beyond a linear summation of activity elicited by the individual sites. A significantly greater extent of normalized cortical activity was observed for stimulation of the rostral-lateral region of an ICC lamina compared to the caudal-medial region. We did not identify any location trends across A1, but the most cortical enhancement was observed in supragranular layers, suggesting further integration of the stimuli through the cortical layers. Significance. The topographic organization identified by this study provides further evidence for the presence of functional zones across an ICC lamina with locations consistent with those identified by previous studies. Clinically, these results suggest that co-activating different neural populations in the rostral-lateral ICC rather

  11. Paired-Pulse Inhibition in the Auditory Cortex in Parkinson's Disease and Its Dependence on Clinical Characteristics of the Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lukhanina, Elena; Berezetskaya, Natalia; Karaban, Irina

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine the value of the paired-pulse inhibition (PPI) in the auditory cortex in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and analyze its dependence on clinical characteristics of the patients. The central (Cz) auditory evoked potentials were recorded in 58 patients with PD and 22 age-matched healthy subjects. PPI of the N1/P2 component was significantly (P < .001) reduced for interstimulus intervals 500, 700, and 900 ms in patients with PD compared to control subjects. The value of PPI correlated negatively with the age of the PD patients (P < .05), age of disease onset (P < .05), body bradykinesia score (P < .01), and positively with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) cognitive score (P < .01). Negative correlation between value of PPI and the age of the healthy subjects (P < .05) was also observed. Thus, results show that cortical inhibitory processes are deficient in PD patients and that the brain's ability to carry out the postexcitatory inhibition is age-dependent. PMID:21052541

  12. Maturation of Outcomes of Behavioral and Electrophysiologic Tests of Central Auditory Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochat, Eliane; Musiek, Frank E.

    2006-01-01

    The human peripheral auditory system is fully developed at birth; however, myelination continues for several years in the higher auditory pathways. The aim of the present study was to assess the maturation course of the frequency and duration pattern tests and the middle latency response (MLR). One hundred and fifty normal participants ranging…

  13. Jet Fuel, Noise, and the Central Auditory Nervous System: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Warner, Rachelle; Fuente, Adrian; Hickson, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Prompted by the continued prevalence of hearing related disabilities accepted as eligible for compensation and treatment under Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs legislation, a review of recent literature regarding possible causation mechanisms and thus, possible prevention strategies, is timely. The emerging thoughts on the effects of a combination of jet fuel and noise exposure on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have relevance in the military aviation context because of the high exposures to solvents (including fuels) and unique noise hazards related to weapons systems and military aircraft. This literature review aimed to identify and analyze the current knowledge base of the effects of combined exposure to JP-8 jet fuel (or its aromatic solvent components) and noise on the CANS in human populations. We reviewed articles examining electrophysiological and behavioral measurement of the CANS following combined exposures to jet fuel (or its aromatic constituents) and noise. A total of 6 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and their results are summarized. The articles considered in this review indicate that assessment of the CANS should be undertaken as part of a comprehensive test battery for military members exposed to both noise and solvents in the workplace. PMID:26327546

  14. BioMARK as electrophysiological tool for assessing children at risk for (central) auditory processing disorders without reading deficits.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prawin; Singh, Niraj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Biological Marker of auditory processing (BioMARK) is an electrophysiological test tool widely known as Speech-evoked ABR. Several previous investigations have shown the utility of speech-evoked ABR in the diagnosis of language based processing deficits like learning disability and specific language impairment; however missing from literature is a study that has ruled out the existence of comorbidity of such conditions and carefully delineated the efficacy of speech-evoked ABR in children with children with auditory processing disorders sans reading deficits. Hence, the present study aimed at investigating Speech-evoked ABR in children with auditory processing disorders without reading problems. A total of 336 school going children in the age range of 8-12 years were screened for presence of central auditory processing deficits. Among the 51 children who were identified as at risk, 15 were randomly selected and served as experimental group. The control group comprised of fifteen age matched children. The inter-group comparison was done using MANOVA, which revealed significant prolongations of latencies of waves V and A (p = 0.001) along with marginal reductions in V/A slope (p = 0.052) and amplitude of responses to first formant (p = 0.065). The responses to higher frequencies did not differ between the groups. Speech-evoked ABR are affected in children who are at risk of central auditory processing disorders sans reading deficits which probably indicates the presence of abnormal brainstem encoding of speech signal in this population. PMID:25804824

  15. Hearing Loss and Auditory Function in Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch-Sims, G.P.; Matlock, V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sickle cell disease was first reported in 1910 by J. Herrick, and since then, various associated conditions and complications have been described. Sickle cell disease is a hereditary disorder characterized by abnormality of the hemoglobin in the red blood cell. During periods of decreased oxygen tension in the red blood cell's environment, the…

  16. Lyme disease in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hercogova, J; Brzonova, I

    2001-04-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a fascinating disease, the aetiopathology of which is not yet completely known. Different subspecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are responsible for the variable clinical course of the disease. Some new cutaneous (alopecia) and ocular (photophobia and retinal vasculitis) manisfestations have been described and the largest prospective study on erythema migrans during pregnancy was published during the last year. Optimal therapy of Lyme borreliosis is still lacking, but doxycycline, amoxicillin, penicillin, and ceftriaxone are recommended most frequently. PMID:11979122

  17. Sustained firing of model central auditory neurons yields a discriminative spectro-temporal representation for natural sounds.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Michael A; Elhilali, Mounya

    2013-01-01

    The processing characteristics of neurons in the central auditory system are directly shaped by and reflect the statistics of natural acoustic environments, but the principles that govern the relationship between natural sound ensembles and observed responses in neurophysiological studies remain unclear. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests the presence of a code based on sustained neural firing rates, where central auditory neurons exhibit strong, persistent responses to their preferred stimuli. Such a strategy can indicate the presence of ongoing sounds, is involved in parsing complex auditory scenes, and may play a role in matching neural dynamics to varying time scales in acoustic signals. In this paper, we describe a computational framework for exploring the influence of a code based on sustained firing rates on the shape of the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), a linear kernel that maps a spectro-temporal acoustic stimulus to the instantaneous firing rate of a central auditory neuron. We demonstrate the emergence of richly structured STRFs that capture the structure of natural sounds over a wide range of timescales, and show how the emergent ensembles resemble those commonly reported in physiological studies. Furthermore, we compare ensembles that optimize a sustained firing code with one that optimizes a sparse code, another widely considered coding strategy, and suggest how the resulting population responses are not mutually exclusive. Finally, we demonstrate how the emergent ensembles contour the high-energy spectro-temporal modulations of natural sounds, forming a discriminative representation that captures the full range of modulation statistics that characterize natural sound ensembles. These findings have direct implications for our understanding of how sensory systems encode the informative components of natural stimuli and potentially facilitate multi-sensory integration. PMID:23555217

  18. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  19. Auditory musical hallucinations associated with extended-release pramipexole in an elderly patient with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Auditory musical hallucinations (AMHs) are rare complex auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) that have been limited previously. The characteristics of AMHs in PD remain uncertain. We describe a 72-year-old woman with PD who presented with AMHs. The AMHs occurred after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. The AMHs were a quiet piano or often songs on a loud radio or background music over other sounds. The music was unpleasant, but not objectionable, threatening, or ego-syntonic, and it did not interrupt her daily activities. AMHs in PD were non-threatening, and dopaminergic treatment may predispose patients to AMHs or be a unique possible cause of AMHs. The hallucinations can occur after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. PMID:25501095

  20. Auditory Musical Hallucinations Associated With Extended-Release Pramipexole in an Elderly Patient With Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Auditory musical hallucinations (AMHs) are rare complex auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) that have been limited previously. The characteristics of AMHs in PD remain uncertain. We describe a 72-year-old woman with PD who presented with AMHs. The AMHs occurred after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. The AMHs were a quiet piano or often songs on a loud radio or background music over other sounds. The music was unpleasant, but not objectionable, threatening, or ego-syntonic, and it did not interrupt her daily activities. AMHs in PD were non-threatening, and dopaminergic treatment may predispose patients to AMHs or be a unique possible cause of AMHs. The hallucinations can occur after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. PMID:25501095

  1. Postnatal development of auditory central evoked responses and thalamic cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Yamini; Bartlett, Edward L

    2014-05-01

    During development, the sense of hearing changes rapidly with age, especially around hearing onset. During this period, auditory structures are highly sensitive to alterations of the acoustic environment, such as hearing loss or background noise. This sensitivity includes auditory temporal processing, which is important for processing complex sounds, and for acquiring reading and language skills. Developmental changes can be observed at multiple levels of brain organization-from behavioral responses to cellular responses, and at every auditory nucleus. Neuronal properties and sound processing change dramatically in auditory cortex neurons after hearing onset. However, development of its primary source, the auditory thalamus, or medial geniculate body (MGB), has not been well studied over this critical time window. Furthermore, to understand how temporal processing develops, it is important to determine the relative maturation of temporal processing not only in the MGB, but also in its inputs. Cellular properties of rat MGB neurons were studied using in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, at ages postnatal day (P) 7-9; P15-17, and P22-32. Auditory evoked potentials were measured in P14-17 and P22-32 rats. MGB action potentials became about five times faster, and the ability to generate spike trains increased with age, particularly at frequencies of 50 Hz and higher. Evoked potential responses, including auditory brainstem responses (ABR), middle latency responses (MLR), and amplitude modulation following responses, showed increased amplitudes with age, and ABRs and MLRs additionally showed decreased latencies with age. Overall, temporal processing at subthalamic nuclei is concurrently maturing with MGB cellular properties. PMID:24214269

  2. Viral Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Phillip A.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2015-01-01

    Virus-induced diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a significant burden to human health worldwide. The complexity of these diseases is influenced by the sheer number of different neurotropic viruses, the diverse routes of CNS entry, viral tropism, and the immune system. Using a combination of human pathological data and experimental animal models, we have begun to uncover many of the mechanisms that viruses use to enter the CNS and cause disease. This review highlights a selection of neurotropic viruses that infect the CNS and explores the means by which they induce neurological diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. PMID:25681709

  3. Can rhythmic auditory cuing remediate language-related deficits in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Kotz, Sonja A; Gunter, Thomas C

    2015-03-01

    Neurodegenerative changes of the basal ganglia in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) lead to motor deficits as well as general cognitive decline. Given these impairments, the question arises as to whether motor and nonmotor deficits can be ameliorated similarly. We reason that a domain-general sensorimotor circuit involved in temporal processing may support the remediation of such deficits. Following findings that auditory cuing benefits gait kinematics, we explored whether reported language-processing deficits in IPD can also be remediated via auditory cuing. During continuous EEG measurement, an individual diagnosed with IPD heard two types of temporally predictable but metrically different auditory beat-based cues: a march, which metrically aligned with the speech accent structure, a waltz that did not metrically align, or no cue before listening to naturally spoken sentences that were either grammatically well formed or were semantically or syntactically incorrect. Results confirmed that only the cuing with a march led to improved computation of syntactic and semantic information. We infer that a marching rhythm may lead to a stronger engagement of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit that compensates dysfunctional striato-cortical timing. Reinforcing temporal realignment, in turn, may lead to the timely processing of linguistic information embedded in the temporally variable speech signal. PMID:25773618

  4. The Central Role of Recognition in Auditory Perception: A Neurobiological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Neil; Wilson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The model presents neurobiologically plausible accounts of sound recognition (including absolute pitch), neural plasticity involved in pitch, loudness and location information integration, and streaming and auditory recall. It is proposed that a cortical mechanism for sound identification modulates the spectrotemporal response fields of inferior…

  5. Changes in the auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses in a case of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Geal-Dor, Miriam; Adelman, Cahtia; Levi, Haya; Goitein, Kalman; Sohmer, Haim

    2004-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease due to deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down branched chain amino acids. Lack of the enzyme causes accumulation of these amino acids and, if untreated, causes severe neurological damage. A case study of a 10-day old female infant, born after 40 weeks' gestation with a birthweight of 2740 g with MSUD hospitalized in the acute stage with respiratory failure and severe brain oedema is described. As part of the neurological evaluation, auditory nerve brainstem evoked response testing was conducted and revealed bilateral presence of the first wave from the auditory nerve, with no later brainstem waves. Over the course of days when her condition improved following dialysis treatment and a diet to reach balanced levels of branched chain amino acids, the later brainstem waves appeared on one side, and several weeks later they were also observed on the other side. The possible mechanisms of the reversibility of the appearance of brainstem waves in this case are discussed. PMID:14995088

  6. Central Endoscopy Reading in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Panés, Julián; Feagan, Brian G; Hussain, Fez; Levesque, Barrett G; Travis, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic assessment of the presence and severity of endoscopic lesions has become an essential part of clinical trials in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, for both patient eligibility and outcome measures. Variability in lesion interpretation between and within observers and the potential bias of local investigators in patient assessment have long been recognized. This variability can be reduced, although not completely removed, by independent evaluation of the examinations by experienced off-site (central) readers, properly trained in regard to lesion definition and identification, that should be removed from direct patient contact and blinded to any other clinical or study data. Adding endoscopic demonstration of active disease to eligibility criteria has the potential to reduce placebo response rates, whereas in outcome assessment it has the potential to provide a more precise estimation of the treatment effect, increasing the efficiency of the study. Central endoscopy reading is still at the beginning of its development, and the paradigms of central reading need refinement in terms of the number of readers, the process by which a final score is assigned, the selection and sequence of central readers, and the endoscopic indices of choice. PMID:27604978

  7. Catecholaminergic connectivity to the inner ear, central auditory and vocal motor circuitry in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Kim, Spencer D.; Krzyminska, Zuzanna M.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few studies have examined CA connectivity to physiologically and anatomically identified neural circuitry that controls behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize CA distribution in the brain and inner ear of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) with particular emphasis on their relationship with anatomically labeled circuitry that both produces and encodes social acoustic signals in this species. Neurobiotin labeling of the main auditory endorgan, the saccule, combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence (TH-ir) revealed a strong CA innervation of both the peripheral and central auditory system. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum, known to be dopaminergic, send ascending projections to the ventral telencephalon and prominent descending projections to vocal-acoustic integration sites, notably the hindbrain octavolateralis efferent nucleus, as well as onto the base of hair cells in the saccule via nerve VIII. Neurobiotin backfills of the vocal nerve in combination with TH-ir revealed CA terminals on all components of the vocal pattern generator which appears to largely originate from local TH-ir neurons but may include diencephalic projections as well. This study provides strong evidence for catecholamines as important neuromodulators of both auditory and vocal circuitry and acoustic-driven social behavior in midshipman fish. This first demonstration of TH-ir terminals in the main endorgan of hearing in a non-mammalian vertebrate suggests a conserved and important anatomical and functional role for dopamine in normal audition. PMID:24715479

  8. Effects of Auditory Rhythm and Music on Gait Disturbances in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ashoori, Aidin; Eagleman, David M; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities, such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing, are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), such as playing marching music and dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients' movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain-body interaction and sensory-motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits. PMID:26617566

  9. Effects of Auditory Rhythm and Music on Gait Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ashoori, Aidin; Eagleman, David M.; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities, such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing, are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), such as playing marching music and dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients’ movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain–body interaction and sensory–motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits. PMID:26617566

  10. Chagas disease: Central American initiative launched.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    An initiative to interrupt the transmission of Chagas disease in Central America was launched at a meeting held October 22-24, 1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Sponsored by the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the meeting was attended by government delegates from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The initiative was launched within the framework of Resolution 13 of the Meeting of Ministers of Health of the Central American Countries, held in Belize in September 1997. Detailed plans of activities were prepared for each country for the period 1998-2001, for approval by the various ministries of health, while operational, epidemiological, and entomological research priorities were also agreed upon. Research projects to help improve disease control will be sponsored by TDR. The first meeting of the Technical Intergovernment Commission established to meet annually to assess progress in control activities will occur in October 1998 in Guatemala. Vector and infection rate data are briefly presented on each country represented at the meeting. PMID:12348564

  11. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  12. Brainstem pathology of infantile Gaucher's disease with only wave I and II of auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Kaga, K; Ono, M; Yakumaru, K; Owada, M; Mizutani, T

    1998-11-01

    We studied the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and neuropathology in a female infant who died at six months of age because of typical infantile Gaucher's disease. The patient was hospitalized for hepatosplenomegaly and failure to thrive. Her ABR showed only waves I and II. The neuropathological study disclosed that: (1) Gaucher's cells were found in the perivascular region of the cerebrum and anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus. (2) Gliosis was found in the dorsal part of the brainstem rather than the ventral part. (3) Neuronal cells in the superior olivary nucleus were lost, and marked gliosis was found in the cochlear nucleus. The disappearance of wave III and later waves of ABR could be supported by these pathological findings. PMID:10197147

  13. Steroid-dependent sensorineural hearing loss in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease showing auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Kataoka, Yuko; Sugaya, Akiko; Kariya, Shin; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common form of hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy and sometimes involves disorders of the peripheral auditory system. We present a case of steroid-dependent auditory neuropathy associated with CMT, in which the patient experienced 3 episodes of acute exacerbation of hearing loss and successful rescue of hearing by prednisolone. An 8-year-old boy was referred to the otolaryngology department at the University Hospital. He had been diagnosed with CMT type 1 (demyelinating type) at the Child Neurology Department and was suffering from mild hearing loss due to auditory neuropathy. An audiological diagnosis of auditory neuropathy was confirmed by auditory brainstem response and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. At 9 years and 0 months old, 9 years and 2 months old, and 10 years and 0 months old, he had experienced acute exacerbations of hearing loss, each of which was successfully rescued by intravenous or oral prednisolone within 2 weeks. Steroid-responsive cases of CMT have been reported, but this is the first case report of steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss in CMT. The present case may have implications for the mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:25440412

  14. Silicon central pattern generators for cardiac diseases.

    PubMed

    Nogaret, Alain; O'Callaghan, Erin L; Lataro, Renata M; Salgado, Helio C; Meliza, C Daniel; Duncan, Edward; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Paton, Julian F R

    2015-02-15

    Cardiac rhythm management devices provide therapies for both arrhythmias and resynchronisation but not heart failure, which affects millions of patients worldwide. This paper reviews recent advances in biophysics and mathematical engineering that provide a novel technological platform for addressing heart disease and enabling beat-to-beat adaptation of cardiac pacing in response to physiological feedback. The technology consists of silicon hardware central pattern generators (hCPGs) that may be trained to emulate accurately the dynamical response of biological central pattern generators (bCPGs). We discuss the limitations of present CPGs and appraise the advantages of analog over digital circuits for application in bioelectronic medicine. To test the system, we have focused on the cardio-respiratory oscillators in the medulla oblongata that modulate heart rate in phase with respiration to induce respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We describe here a novel, scalable hCPG comprising physiologically realistic (Hodgkin-Huxley type) neurones and synapses. Our hCPG comprises two neurones that antagonise each other to provide rhythmic motor drive to the vagus nerve to slow the heart. We show how recent advances in modelling allow the motor output to adapt to physiological feedback such as respiration. In rats, we report on the restoration of RSA using an hCPG that receives diaphragmatic electromyography input and use it to stimulate the vagus nerve at specific time points of the respiratory cycle to slow the heart rate. We have validated the adaptation of stimulation to alterations in respiratory rate. We demonstrate that the hCPG is tuneable in terms of the depth and timing of the RSA relative to respiratory phase. These pioneering studies will now permit an analysis of the physiological role of RSA as well as its any potential therapeutic use in cardiac disease. PMID:25433077

  15. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Soriano, Christina T

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson's have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living. PMID:26925029

  16. Alterations in Peripheral and Central Components of the Auditory Brainstem Response: A Neural Assay of Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Andrea S.; Walton, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, or “ringing of the ears”, affects upwards of 15% of the adult population. Identifying a cost-effective and objective measure of tinnitus is needed due to legal concerns and disability issues, as well as for facilitating the effort to assess neural biomarkers. We developed a modified gap-in-noise (GIN) paradigm to assess tinnitus in mice using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). We then compared the commonly used acoustic startle reflex gap-prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI) and the ABR GIN paradigm in young adult CBA/CaJ mice before and after administrating sodium salicylate (SS), which is known to reliably induce a 16 kHz tinnitus percept in rodents. Post-SS, gap-PPI was significantly reduced at 12 and 16 kHz, consistent with previous studies demonstrating a tinnitus-induced gap-PPI reduction in this frequency range. ABR audiograms indicated thresholds were significantly elevated post-SS, also consistent with previous studies. There was a significant increase in the peak 2 (P2) to peak 1 (P1) and peak 4 (P4) to P1 amplitude ratios in the mid-frequency range, along with decreased latency of P4 at higher intensities. For the ABR GIN, peak amplitudes of the response to the second noise burst were calculated as a percentage of the first noise burst response amplitudes to quantify neural gap processing. A significant decrease in this ratio (i.e. recovery) was seen only at 16 kHz for P1, indicating the presence of tinnitus near this frequency. Thus, this study demonstrates that GIN ABRs can be used as an efficient, non-invasive, and objective method of identifying the approximate pitch and presence of tinnitus in a mouse model. This technique has the potential for application in human subjects and also indicates significant, albeit different, deficits in temporal processing in peripheral and brainstem circuits following drug induced tinnitus. PMID:25695496

  17. Alterations in peripheral and central components of the auditory brainstem response: a neural assay of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Andrea S; Walton, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, or "ringing of the ears", affects upwards of 15% of the adult population. Identifying a cost-effective and objective measure of tinnitus is needed due to legal concerns and disability issues, as well as for facilitating the effort to assess neural biomarkers. We developed a modified gap-in-noise (GIN) paradigm to assess tinnitus in mice using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). We then compared the commonly used acoustic startle reflex gap-prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI) and the ABR GIN paradigm in young adult CBA/CaJ mice before and after administrating sodium salicylate (SS), which is known to reliably induce a 16 kHz tinnitus percept in rodents. Post-SS, gap-PPI was significantly reduced at 12 and 16 kHz, consistent with previous studies demonstrating a tinnitus-induced gap-PPI reduction in this frequency range. ABR audiograms indicated thresholds were significantly elevated post-SS, also consistent with previous studies. There was a significant increase in the peak 2 (P2) to peak 1 (P1) and peak 4 (P4) to P1 amplitude ratios in the mid-frequency range, along with decreased latency of P4 at higher intensities. For the ABR GIN, peak amplitudes of the response to the second noise burst were calculated as a percentage of the first noise burst response amplitudes to quantify neural gap processing. A significant decrease in this ratio (i.e. recovery) was seen only at 16 kHz for P1, indicating the presence of tinnitus near this frequency. Thus, this study demonstrates that GIN ABRs can be used as an efficient, non-invasive, and objective method of identifying the approximate pitch and presence of tinnitus in a mouse model. This technique has the potential for application in human subjects and also indicates significant, albeit different, deficits in temporal processing in peripheral and brainstem circuits following drug induced tinnitus. PMID:25695496

  18. Normal Hearing Ability but Impaired Auditory Selective Attention Associated with Prediction of Response to Donepezil in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Yoshitaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Kato, Yuriko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have a poor response to the voices of caregivers. After administration of donepezil, caregivers often find that patients respond more frequently, whereas they had previously pretended to be “deaf.” We investigated whether auditory selective attention is associated with response to donepezil. Methods. The subjects were40 AD patients, 20 elderly healthy controls (HCs), and 15 young HCs. Pure tone audiometry was conducted and an original Auditory Selective Attention (ASA) test was performed with a MoCA vigilance test. Reassessment of the AD group was performed after donepezil treatment for 3 months. Results. Hearing level of the AD group was the same as that of the elderly HC group. However, ASA test scores decreased in the AD group and were correlated with the vigilance test scores. Donepezil responders (MMSE 3+) also showed improvement on the ASA test. At baseline, the responders had higher vigilance and lower ASA test scores. Conclusion. Contrary to the common view, AD patients had a similar level of hearing ability to healthy elderly. Auditory attention was impaired in AD patients, which suggests that unnecessary sounds should be avoided in nursing homes. Auditory selective attention is associated with response to donepezil in AD. PMID:26161001

  19. Relationship between the auditory P300 and the procedural memory function in drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, G W; Sohn, Y H; Huh, K; Kim, J S

    1995-09-01

    We evaluated and compared procedural memory and auditory P300 event-related potential in age-matched normal controls (n = 15) and drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 16). We used Gollin's incomplete picture test for visual procedural memory function and Tower of Hanoi puzzle for visuomotor procedural memory function. The mean latency of P300 was significantly prolonged in the Parkinsonian group than in the controls. In the neuropsychology test, the patients group revealed selective impairment of visuomotor procedural memory against preserved visual procedural memory. In the patients group, the latency of P300 was inversely correlated with performance of visuomotor procedural memory. These results suggest that prolonged auditory P300 event-related potential show the dysfunction of visuomotor procedural memory in the basal ganglia, which appears to be more selectively impaired than visual procedural memory in drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:7483680

  20. Changes in Central Auditory Processing in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy after Anterior Temporal Lobectomy with Amygdalohippocampectomy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Eun Mi; Choi, Eun Ju; Ryu, Han Uk; Chung, Jong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study aimed to determine the effects of anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy (ATL-AH) on central auditory processing (CAP) in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS), and to identify factors that may contribute to the postoperative worsening of CAP. Methods Frequency-pattern, duration-pattern, and dichotic tests were performed before and after epilepsy surgery in 22 patients with normal hearing according to pure-tone audiometry. Results No significant difference in CAP scores was detected between pre- and postoperative tests, but there was a strong association between surgery in the language-dominant temporal lobe and postoperative worsening in the non-dominant-side dichotic test (p<0.05). The probability of a decreased performance in a non-dominant-side dichotic test after surgery was 7.5-fold greater in patients who underwent surgery on the dominant temporal lobe compared with the nondominant temporal lobe. No significant association of postoperative worsening in CAP with the verbal, nonverbal intelligence quotient, or right- or left-side lobectomy was noted. Conclusions These results suggest that ATL-AH on the dominant side in patients with mTLE-HS worsens the CAP ability in the non-dominant-side dichotic test. PMID:27074293

  1. Reduced resting-state brain activity in the default mode network in children with (central) auditory processing disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been a growing interest in Central Auditory Processing Disorder (C)APD. However, the neural correlates of (C)APD are poorly understood. Previous neuroimaging experiments have shown changes in the intrinsic activity of the brain in various cognitive deficits and brain disorders. The present study investigated the spontaneous brain activity in (C)APD subjects with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Methods Thirteen children diagnosed with (C)APD and fifteen age and gender-matched controls participated in a rs-fMRI study during which they were asked to relax keeping their eyes open. Two different techniques of the rs-fMRI data analysis were used: Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), which approach is rare. Results Both methods of data analysis showed comparable results in the pattern of DMN activity within groups. Additionally, ReHo analysis revealed increased co-activation of the superior frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex/the precuneus in controls, compared to the (C)APD group. ICA yielded inconsistent results across groups. Conclusions Our ReHo results suggest that (C)APD children seem to present reduced regional homogeneity in brain regions considered a part of the default mode network (DMN). These findings might contribute to a better understanding of neural mechanisms of (C)APD. PMID:25261349

  2. Primary auditory cortical responses to electrical stimulation of the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Atencio, Craig A; Shih, Jonathan Y; Schreiner, Christoph E; Cheung, Steven W

    2014-03-01

    Cochlear implant electrical stimulation of the auditory system to rehabilitate deafness has been remarkably successful. Its deployment requires both an intact auditory nerve and a suitably patent cochlear lumen. When disease renders prerequisite conditions impassable, such as in neurofibromatosis type II and cochlear obliterans, alternative treatment targets are considered. Electrical stimulation of the cochlear nucleus and midbrain in humans has delivered encouraging clinical outcomes, buttressing the promise of central auditory prostheses to mitigate deafness in those who are not candidates for cochlear implantation. In this study we explored another possible implant target: the auditory thalamus. In anesthetized cats, we first presented pure tones to determine frequency preferences of thalamic and cortical sites. We then electrically stimulated tonotopically organized thalamic sites while recording from primary auditory cortical sites using a multichannel recording probe. Cathode-leading biphasic thalamic stimulation thresholds that evoked cortical responses were much lower than published accounts of cochlear and midbrain stimulation. Cortical activation dynamic ranges were similar to those reported for cochlear stimulation, but they were narrower than those found through midbrain stimulation. Our results imply that thalamic stimulation can activate auditory cortex at low electrical current levels and suggest an auditory thalamic implant may be a viable central auditory prosthesis. PMID:24335216

  3. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  4. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  5. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27075686

  6. Central Nervous System and its Disease Models on a Chip.

    PubMed

    Yi, YoonYoung; Park, JiSoo; Lim, Jaeho; Lee, C Justin; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Technologies for microfluidics and biological microelectromechanical systems have been rapidly progressing over the past decade, enabling the development of unique microplatforms for in vitro human central nervous system (CNS) and related disease models. Most fundamental techniques include manipulation of axons, synapses, and neuronal networks, and different culture conditions are possible, such as compartmental, co-culturing, and 3D. Various CNS disease models, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, migraine, diffuse axonal injury, and neuronal migration disorders, have been successfully established on microplatforms. In this review, we summarize fundamental technologies and current existing CNS disease models on microplatforms. We also discuss possible future directions, including application of these methods to pathological studies, drug screening, and personalized medicine, with 3D and personalized disease models that could generate more realistic CNS disease models. PMID:26497426

  7. Auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. PMID:25726291

  8. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Methods: Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. Results: DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Conclusion: Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH. PMID:26612293

  9. Identifying the threshold of iron deficiency in the central nervous system of the rat by the auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Greminger, Allison R; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and severity of ABR latency defects. To generate various levels of ID, female Long-Evans rats were exposed to diets containing sufficient, borderline, or deficient iron (Fe) concentrations throughout gestation and offspring lifetime. We measured hematological indices of whole body iron stores in dams and offspring to assess the degree of ID. Progression of AN ID in the offspring was measured as ferritin protein levels at different times during postnatal development to complement ABR functional measurements. The severity of ABR deficits correlated with the level of Fe restriction in each diet. The sufficient Fe diet did not induce AN ID and consequently did not show an impaired ABR latency response. The borderline Fe diet, which depleted AN Fe stores but did not cause systemic anemia resulted in significantly increased ABR latency isolated to Peak I.The low Fe diet, which induced anemia and growth retardation, significantly increased ABR latencies of Peaks I to IV. Our findings indicate that changes in the ABR could be related to various degrees of ID experienced throughout development. PMID:25732706

  10. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in children with neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    el Khateeb, I; Abdul Razzak, B; Moosa, A

    1988-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were studied in 35 children with neurological disorders and 24 controls. Abnormal results were obtained in 16 patients. All 5 of the patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy had evidence of peripheral and/or central delay in transmission in keeping with evidence of demyelination of both peripheral (i.e. auditory nerve) and central (i.e. brainstem) pathways as occurs in this disorder. Two children with lead poisoning had delayed conduction in the peripheral pathways only and in these there was good correlation between the degree of delay and the ulnar nerve conduction velocity; both improved after chelation therapy. One infant with lead poisoning had central delay only. One infant with osteopetrosis manifested progressive damage to the auditory nerves. Delayed conduction was also found in one patient each with hydrocephalus, spinal muscular atrophy, and in 2 infants with cerebral palsy. No responses were obtained in one infant with congenital rubella, one deaf-mute and one child with an undiagnosed degenerative neurological disease. Auditory brainstem responses are of value in detecting disturbances of the auditory nerve or brainstem in children with various neurological disorders. PMID:3218703

  11. Outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in the central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Joseph V; Ansdell, David

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the island population of Satowan (population, 650 persons), a small, remote coral island in the central Pacific, suffers from an acquired, chronic, disfiguring skin condition known locally as "spam." This skin disease has affected the island population since shortly after World War II. An investigation in 2007 revealed that this skin disease is caused by a nontuberculous mycobacterial infection closely related to Mycobacterium marinum. This article reviews the fascinating history of this skin disease on Satowan, its distinctive clinical presentation, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of clinically similar skin lesions in Pacific Islanders. PMID:21095522

  12. Chronic Opioid Therapy and Central Sensitization in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Carroll, C Patrick; Lanzkron, Sophie; Haywood, Carlton; Kiley, Kasey; Pejsa, Megan; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Campbell, Claudia M

    2016-07-01

    Chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain is frequently debated, and its effectiveness is unproven in sickle cell disease (SCD). The authors conducted a descriptive study among 83 adult SCD patients and compared the severity of disease and pain symptoms among those who were prescribed COT (n=29) with those who were not using COT. All patients completed baseline laboratory pain assessment and questionnaires between January 2010 and June 2014. Thereafter, participants recorded daily pain, crises, function, and healthcare utilization for 90 days using electronic diaries. Analyses were conducted shortly after the final diary data collection period. Patients on COT did not differ on age, sex, or measures of disease severity. However, patients on COT exhibited greater levels of clinical pain (particularly non-crisis); central sensitization; and depression and increased diary measures of pain severity, function, and healthcare utilization on crisis and non-crisis diary days, as well as a greater proportion of days in crisis. Including depressive symptoms in multivariate models did not change the associations between COT and pain, interference, central sensitization, or utilization. Additionally, participants not on COT displayed the expected positive relationship between central sensitization and clinical pain, whereas those on COT demonstrated no such relationship, despite having both higher central sensitization and higher clinical pain. Overall, the results point out a high symptom burden in SCD patients on COT, including those on high-dose COT, and suggest that nociceptive processing in SCD patients on COT differs from those who are not. PMID:27320469

  13. Auditory object cognition in dementia.

    PubMed

    Goll, Johanna C; Kim, Lois G; Hailstone, Julia C; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2011-07-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n=7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n=1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n=20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as 'auditory objects', we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  14. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Modabber, Milad; Kundu, Sanjoy

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  15. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Soriano, Christina T.

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson’s have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living. PMID:26925029

  16. Surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Dagan, Ron; Sayiner, Abdullah; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Dinleyici, Ener Çağrı; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Kulcsár, Andrea; Mad'arová, Lucia; Pazdiora, Petr; Sidorenko, Sergey; Streinu-Cercel, Anca; Tambić-Andrašević, Arjana; Yeraliyeva, Lyazzat

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pneumococcal infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease associated with S. pneumoniae is largely preventable through routine vaccination. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (e.g. PCV7, PCV13) provide protection from invasive pneumococcal disease as well as non-invasive infection (pneumonia, acute otitis media), and decrease vaccine-type nasopharyngeal colonisation, thus reducing transmission to unvaccinated individuals. PCVs have also been shown to reduce the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal disease. Surveillance for pneumococcal disease is important to understand local epidemiology, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance rates. Surveillance systems also help to inform policy development, including vaccine recommendations, and monitor the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. National pneumococcal surveillance systems exist in a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (such as Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia), and some have introduced PCVs (Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Russia, Slovakia and Turkey). Those countries without established programs (such as Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) may be able to learn from the experiences of those with national surveillance systems. The serotype distributions and impact of PCV13 on pediatric pneumococcal diseases are relatively similar in different parts of the world, suggesting that approaches to vaccination used elsewhere are also likely to be effective in Central and Eastern Europe. This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease, presents the latest surveillance data from Central and Eastern Europe, and discusses any similarities and differences in these data as well the potential implications for vaccination policies in the region. PMID:27096714

  17. Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Carolyn J; Cree, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Fulminant demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, the related acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis variants, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and idiopathic transverse myelitis. These syndromes are often managed with similar acute treatments including high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis; however, long-term management varies. Although the prognosis of fulminant demyelinating disease was historically poor, outcomes today may be improved due to earlier diagnosis, rapid implementation of anti-inflammatory therapies such as high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis, and improved supportive care. PMID:26595866

  18. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    PubMed

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy. PMID:26259280

  19. The role of leptin in central nervous system diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Yan, Hai-Jing; Guo, Yi-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a peptide hormone produced by adipose tissue and acts in brain centers to control critical physiological functions. Leptin receptors are especially abundant in the hypothalamus and trigger specific neuronal subpopulations, and activate several intracellular signaling events, including the JAK/STAT, MAPK, PI3K, and mTOR pathway. Although most studies focus on its role in energy intake and expenditure, leptin also plays a critical role in many central nervous system diseases. PMID:26885866

  20. The central nervous system in childhood chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Debbie S; Duquette, Peter J; Icard, Phil F; Hooper, Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits in pediatric and adult survivors of childhood onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been documented for many years. This paper reviews the available literature on central nervous system involvement incurred in childhood CKD. The studies reviewed include recent work in neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and neuropsychology, along with commentary on school functioning and long-term outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for monitoring the neurodevelopmental status and pursuing appropriate early interventions for children with CKD. PMID:17072652

  1. Venous endothelial injury in central nervous system diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The role of the venous system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurological/neurodegenerative diseases remains largely unknown and underinvestigated. Aside from cerebral venous infarcts, thromboembolic events, and cerebrovascular bleeding, several inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and optic neuritis, appear to be associated with venous vascular dysfunction, and the neuropathologic hallmark of these diseases is a perivenous, rather than arterial, lesion. Such findings raise fundamental questions about the nature of these diseases, such as the reasons why their pathognomonic lesions do not develop around the arteries and what exactly are the roles of cerebral venous inflammation in their pathogenesis. Apart from this inflammatory-based view, a new hypothesis with more focus on the hemodynamic features of the cerebral and extracerebral venous system suggests that MS pathophysiology might be associated with the venous system that drains the CNS. Such a hypothesis, if proven correct, opens new therapeutic windows in MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the pathophysiology of MS, ADEM, pseudotumor cerebri, and optic neuritis, with an emphasis on the roles of venous vascular system programming and dysfunction in their pathogenesis. We consider the fundamental differences between arterial and venous endothelium, their dissimilar responses to inflammation, and the potential theoretical contributions of venous insufficiency in the pathogenesis of neurovascular diseases. PMID:24228622

  2. Using Mismatch Negativity to Study Central Auditory Processing in Developmental Language and Literacy Impairments: Where Are We, and where Should We Be Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.

    2007-01-01

    A popular theoretical account of developmental language and literacy disorders implicates poor auditory temporal processing in their etiology, but evidence from studies using behavioral measures has yielded inconsistent results. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has been recommended as an alternative,…

  3. A central executive deficit in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple-Alford, J C; Kalders, A S; Jones, R D; Watson, R W

    1994-01-01

    Eight patients with Parkinson's disease and eight matched controls were tested for concurrent task performance to examine whether Parkinson's disease produces deficits in the coordinating and integrating function of the central executive component of Baddeley's working memory model. Consistent with this prediction, the patients showed a significant decline in performance on a random pursuit tracking task while recalling digit span forward sequences, whereas the controls showed no such change. Performance on the component pursuit and digit span tasks, which did not differ between groups, was equated across subjects by varying the size of a target square and by using individual subjects' digit spans. The patient group also produced poorer word fluency scores and reported higher levels of depression, but there was no significant impairment on the Wisconsin card sort test. There was no association between dual task performance and any psychometric measure, target size, or disease related variables. Baddeley's working memory model is advantageous in providing a rich conceptual basis to explore and characterise cognitive abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:8158188

  4. The Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Beat-Based Auditory Timing in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Daniel J.; Pickett, Kristen A.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) adversely affects timing abilities. Beat-based timing is a mechanism that times events relative to a regular interval, such as the “beat” in musical rhythm, and is impaired in PD. It is unknown if dopaminergic medication influences beat-based timing in PD. Here, we tested beat-based timing over two sessions in participants with PD (OFF then ON dopaminergic medication) and in unmedicated control participants. People with PD and control participants completed two tasks. The first was a discrimination task in which participants compared two rhythms and determined whether they were the same or different. Rhythms either had a beat structure (metric simple rhythms) or did not (metric complex rhythms), as in previous studies. Discrimination accuracy was analyzed to test for the effects of beat structure, as well as differences between participants with PD and controls, and effects of medication (PD group only). The second task was the Beat Alignment Test (BAT), in which participants listened to music with regular tones superimposed, and responded as to whether the tones were “ON” or “OFF” the beat of the music. Accuracy was analyzed to test for differences between participants with PD and controls, and for an effect of medication in patients. Both patients and controls discriminated metric simple rhythms better than metric complex rhythms. Controls also improved at the discrimination task in the second vs. first session, whereas people with PD did not. For participants with PD, the difference in performance between metric simple and metric complex rhythms was greater (sensitivity to changes in simple rhythms increased and sensitivity to changes in complex rhythms decreased) when ON vs. OFF medication. Performance also worsened with disease severity. For the BAT, no group differences or effects of medication were found. Overall, these findings suggest that timing is impaired in PD, and that dopaminergic medication influences beat

  5. The Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Beat-Based Auditory Timing in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Daniel J; Pickett, Kristen A; Earhart, Gammon M; Grahn, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) adversely affects timing abilities. Beat-based timing is a mechanism that times events relative to a regular interval, such as the "beat" in musical rhythm, and is impaired in PD. It is unknown if dopaminergic medication influences beat-based timing in PD. Here, we tested beat-based timing over two sessions in participants with PD (OFF then ON dopaminergic medication) and in unmedicated control participants. People with PD and control participants completed two tasks. The first was a discrimination task in which participants compared two rhythms and determined whether they were the same or different. Rhythms either had a beat structure (metric simple rhythms) or did not (metric complex rhythms), as in previous studies. Discrimination accuracy was analyzed to test for the effects of beat structure, as well as differences between participants with PD and controls, and effects of medication (PD group only). The second task was the Beat Alignment Test (BAT), in which participants listened to music with regular tones superimposed, and responded as to whether the tones were "ON" or "OFF" the beat of the music. Accuracy was analyzed to test for differences between participants with PD and controls, and for an effect of medication in patients. Both patients and controls discriminated metric simple rhythms better than metric complex rhythms. Controls also improved at the discrimination task in the second vs. first session, whereas people with PD did not. For participants with PD, the difference in performance between metric simple and metric complex rhythms was greater (sensitivity to changes in simple rhythms increased and sensitivity to changes in complex rhythms decreased) when ON vs. OFF medication. Performance also worsened with disease severity. For the BAT, no group differences or effects of medication were found. Overall, these findings suggest that timing is impaired in PD, and that dopaminergic medication influences beat-based and non

  6. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  7. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  8. Rosai-Dorfman Disease of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Sus, Jose D.; Sandoval-Leon, Ana C.; Chapman, Jennifer R.; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Borja, Maria J.; Rosenberg, Shai; Lossos, Alexander; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is an uncommon benign idiopathic lymphoproliferative disorder. The histologic hallmark of RDD is the finding of emperipolesis displayed by lesional histiocytes. While RDD most commonly affects lymph nodes, extranodal involvement of multiple organs has been reported, including the central nervous system (CNS). However, CNS involvement in RDD is rare and is not well characterized. As a result, therapeutic approaches to CNS involvement in RDD are not well established. Herein we report 6 cases of RDD with isolated CNS involvement and review the literature on RDD with CNS involvement. One of the presented cases exhibited intramedullary involvement of the spinal cord—a very rare form of RDD with CNS involvement. PMID:24797172

  9. Listenmee and Listenmee smartphone application: synchronizing walking to rhythmic auditory cues to improve gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez, William Omar Contreras; Higuera, Carlos Andres Escalante; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Albicker, Ulrich; Martinez, Jairo Alberto Espinoza

    2014-10-01

    Evidence supports the use of rhythmic external auditory signals to improve gait in PD patients (Arias & Cudeiro, 2008; Kenyon & Thaut, 2000; McIntosh, Rice & Thaut, 1994; McIntosh et al., 1997; Morris, Iansek, & Matyas, 1994; Thaut, McIntosh, & Rice, 1997; Suteerawattananon, Morris, Etnyre, Jankovic, & Protas , 2004; Willems, Nieuwboer, Chavert, & Desloovere, 2006). However, few prototypes are available for daily use, and to our knowledge, none utilize a smartphone application allowing individualized sounds and cadence. Therefore, we analyzed the effects on gait of Listenmee®, an intelligent glasses system with a portable auditory device, and present its smartphone application, the Listenmee app®, offering over 100 different sounds and an adjustable metronome to individualize the cueing rate as well as its smartwatch with accelerometer to detect magnitude and direction of the proper acceleration, track calorie count, sleep patterns, steps count and daily distances. The present study included patients with idiopathic PD presented gait disturbances including freezing. Auditory rhythmic cues were delivered through Listenmee®. Performance was analyzed in a motion and gait analysis laboratory. The results revealed significant improvements in gait performance over three major dependent variables: walking speed in 38.1%, cadence in 28.1% and stride length in 44.5%. Our findings suggest that auditory cueing through Listenmee® may significantly enhance gait performance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential role and maximize the benefits of these portable devices. PMID:25215623

  10. Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocci, Sandra R.

    This digest presents an overview of children with auditory processing disorders (APDs), children who can typically hear information but have difficulty attending to, storing, locating, retrieving, and/or clarifying that information to make it useful for academic and social purposes. The digest begins by describing central auditory processing and…

  11. [Auditory evoked potentials: basics and clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, A; Cebulla, M; Shehata-Dieler, W

    2014-09-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are elicited at various levels of the auditory system following acoustic stimulation. Electrocochleography is a technique for recording AEPs of the inner ear. The recording is performed by means of a needle electrode placed on the promontory or non-invasive with tympanic membrane or ear canal electrodes. Clinically, electrocochleography is used for the diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) and endolymphatic hydrops. According to their latencies, AEPs of the central auditory pathway are subdivided into early, middle and late (cortical) AEPs. These AEPs are recorded via surface scalp electrodes. Normally, the larger EEG masks AEPs. For unmasking the AEP, several techniques are applied. Early AEPs or auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are the most widely used AEPs for functional evaluation of the auditory pathway. In contrast to otoacoustic emissions, early AEPs can detect ANSD. Thus, they are more suitable for hearing screening in newborns. For this purpose automated procedures are implemented. PMID:25152975

  12. Differential patterns of histone methylase EHMT2 and its catalyzed histone modifications H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 during maturation of central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Ebbers, Lena; Runge, Karen; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2016-08-01

    Histone methylation is an important epigenetic mark leading to changes in DNA accessibility and transcription. Here, we investigate immunoreactivity against the euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EHMT2 and its catalyzed mono- and dimethylation marks at histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) during postnatal differentiation of the mouse central auditory system. In the brainstem, expression of EHMT2 was high in the first postnatal week and down-regulated thereafter. In contrast, immunoreactivity in the auditory cortex (AC) remained high during the first year of life. This difference might be related to distinct demands for adult plasticity. Analyses of two deaf mouse models, namely Cldn14 (-/-) and Cacna1d (-/-), demonstrated that sound-driven or spontaneous activity had no influence on EHMT2 immunoreactivity. The methylation marks H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 were high throughout the auditory system up to 1 year. Young auditory neurons showed immunoreactivity against both methylations at similar intensities, whereas many mature neurons showed stronger labeling for either H3K9me1 or H3K9me2. These differences were only poorly correlated with cell types. To identify methyltransferases contributing to the persistent H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 marks in the adult brainstem, EHMT1 and the retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein RIZ1 were analyzed. Both were down-regulated during brainstem development, similar to EHMT2. Contrary to EHMT2, EHMT1 was also down-regulated in adult cortical areas. Together, our data reveal a marked difference in EHMT2 levels between mature brainstem and cortical areas and a decoupling between EHMT2 abundance and histone 3 lysine 9 methylations during brainstem differentiation. Furthermore, EHMT1 and EHMT2 are differentially expressed in cortical areas. PMID:27083448

  13. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  14. Bat's auditory system: Corticofugal feedback and plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Nobuo

    2001-05-01

    The auditory system of the mustached bat consists of physiologically distinct subdivisions for processing different types of biosonar information. It was found that the corticofugal (descending) auditory system plays an important role in improving and adjusting auditory signal processing. Repetitive acoustic stimulation, cortical electrical stimulation or auditory fear conditioning evokes plastic changes of the central auditory system. The changes are based upon egocentric selection evoked by focused positive feedback associated with lateral inhibition. Focal electric stimulation of the auditory cortex evokes short-term changes in the auditory cortex and subcortical auditory nuclei. An increase in a cortical acetylcholine level during the electric stimulation changes the cortical changes from short-term to long-term. There are two types of plastic changes (reorganizations): centripetal best frequency shifts for expanded reorganization of a neural frequency map and centrifugal best frequency shifts for compressed reorganization of the map. Which changes occur depends on the balance between inhibition and facilitation. Expanded reorganization has been found in different sensory systems and different species of mammals, whereas compressed reorganization has been thus far found only in the auditory subsystems highly specialized for echolocation. The two types of reorganizations occur in both the frequency and time domains. [Work supported by NIDCO DC00175.

  15. Relationship between Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults. Methods Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63–98 years) without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61) and White (n=63) subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities. Results Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance. Conclusions For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials. PMID:26237423

  16. Effects of communal exercise with visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application on gait ability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronically developing neurodegenerative disease showing typical motor symptoms of the following triad: resting tremor, freezing of gait, and bradykinesia-hypokinesia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a communal exercise program, using the visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application, to assess gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson's disease patients. Subjects consisted of 29 Parkinson's disease patients who were non-demented individuals. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (n= 9, CG), the communal exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, CCEG), and the individual exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, ICEG). The communal exercise program consisted of a warm up (10 min) followed by communal exercise using the smart application (40 min), and a cool down (10 min) for 3 days per week over 10 weeks. The results presented here show that velocity and cadence were significantly increased among groups. Step and stride length were significantly increased among times. Fear of falling and fall efficacy were significantly different among groups and times. In particular, fear of falling was lower and fall efficacy was higher in the CCEG than in the ICEG and CG. These findings indicate that 10 weeks of the communal exercise program using the smart application can be effective in improving gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:25426465

  17. Visual modulation of auditory responses in the owl inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Joseph F; Knudsen, Eric I

    2009-06-01

    The barn owl's central auditory system creates a map of auditory space in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX). Although the crucial role visual experience plays in the formation and maintenance of this auditory space map is well established, the mechanism by which vision influences ICX responses remains unclear. Surprisingly, previous experiments have found that in the absence of extensive pharmacological manipulation, visual stimuli do not drive neural responses in the ICX. Here we investigated the influence of dynamic visual stimuli on auditory responses in the ICX. We show that a salient visual stimulus, when coincident with an auditory stimulus, can modulate auditory responses in the ICX even though the same visual stimulus may elicit no neural responses when presented alone. For each ICX neuron, the most effective auditory and visual stimuli were located in the same region of space. In addition, the magnitude of the visual modulation of auditory responses was dependent on the context of the stimulus presentation with novel visual stimuli eliciting consistently larger response modulations than frequently presented visual stimuli. Thus the visual modulation of ICX responses is dependent on the characteristics of the visual stimulus as well as on the spatial and temporal correspondence of the auditory and visual stimuli. These results demonstrate moment-to-moment visual enhancements of auditory responsiveness that, in the short-term, increase auditory responses to salient bimodal stimuli and in the long-term could serve to instruct the adaptive auditory plasticity necessary to maintain accurate auditory orienting behavior. PMID:19321633

  18. Current understanding of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun

    2008-12-01

    Auditory neuropathy is defined by the presence of normal evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sites of lesion could be at the cochlear inner hair cells, spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea, synapse between the inner hair cells and auditory nerve, or the auditory nerve itself. Genetic, infectious or neonatal/perinatal insults are the 3 most commonly identified underlying causes. Children usually present with delay in speech and language development while adult patients present with hearing loss and disproportionately poor speech discrimination for the degree of hearing loss. Although cochlear implant is the treatment of choice, current evidence show that it benefits only those patients with endocochlear lesions, but not those with cochlear nerve deficiency or central nervous system disorders. As auditory neuropathy is a disorder with potential long-term impact on a child's development, early hearing screen using both OAE and ABR should be carried out on all newborns and infants to allow early detection and intervention. PMID:19904452

  19. One hundred ways to process time, frequency, rate and scale in the central auditory system: a pattern-recognition meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hemery, Edgar; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian auditory system extracts features from the acoustic environment based on the responses of spatially distributed sets of neurons in the subcortical and cortical auditory structures. The characteristic responses of these neurons (linearly approximated by their spectro-temporal receptive fields, or STRFs) suggest that auditory representations are formed, as early as in the inferior colliculi, on the basis of a time, frequency, rate (temporal modulations) and scale (spectral modulations) analysis of sound. However, how these four dimensions are integrated and processed in subsequent neural networks remains unclear. In this work, we present a new methodology to generate computational insights into the functional organization of such processes. We first propose a systematic framework to explore more than a hundred different computational strategies proposed in the literature to process the output of a generic STRF model. We then evaluate these strategies on their ability to compute perceptual distances between pairs of environmental sounds. Finally, we conduct a meta-analysis of the dataset of all these algorithms' accuracies to examine whether certain combinations of dimensions and certain ways to treat such dimensions are, on the whole, more computationally effective than others. We present an application of this methodology to a dataset of ten environmental sound categories, in which the analysis reveals that (1) models are most effective when they organize STRF data into frequency groupings—which is consistent with the known tonotopic organization of receptive fields in auditory structures -, and that (2) models that treat STRF data as time series are no more effective than models that rely only on summary statistics along time—which corroborates recent experimental evidence on texture discrimination by summary statistics. PMID:26190996

  20. One hundred ways to process time, frequency, rate and scale in the central auditory system: a pattern-recognition meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemery, Edgar; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian auditory system extracts features from the acoustic environment based on the responses of spatially distributed sets of neurons in the subcortical and cortical auditory structures. The characteristic responses of these neurons (linearly approximated by their spectro-temporal receptive fields, or STRFs) suggest that auditory representations are formed, as early as in the inferior colliculi, on the basis of a time, frequency, rate (temporal modulations) and scale (spectral modulations) analysis of sound. However, how these four dimensions are integrated and processed in subsequent neural networks remains unclear. In this work, we present a new methodology to generate computational insights into the functional organization of such processes. We first propose a systematic framework to explore more than a hundred different computational strategies proposed in the literature to process the output of a generic STRF model. We then evaluate these strategies on their ability to compute perceptual distances between pairs of environmental sounds. Finally, we conduct a meta-analysis of the dataset of all these algorithms' accuracies to examine whether certain combinations of dimensions and certain ways to treat such dimensions are, on the whole, more computationally effective than others. We present an application of this methodology to a dataset of ten environmental sound categories, in which the analysis reveals that (1) models are most effective when they organize STRF data into frequency groupings-which is consistent with the known tonotopic organization of receptive fields in auditory structures -, and that (2) models that treat STRF data as time series are no more effective than models that rely only on summary statistics along time-which corroborates recent experimental evidence on texture discrimination by summary statistics. PMID:26190996

  1. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-04-12

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  2. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  3. Management of disease-modifying treatments in neurological autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Salmen, A; Gold, R; Chan, A

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium for autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, specifically multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, is steadily increasing, with a large spectrum of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents targeting different mechanisms of the immune system. However, increasingly efficacious treatment options also entail higher potential for severe adverse drug reactions. Especially in cases failing first-line treatment, thorough evaluation of the risk–benefit profile of treatment alternatives is necessary. This argues for the need of algorithms to identify patients more likely to benefit from a specific treatment. Moreover, paradigms to stratify the risk for severe adverse drug reactions need to be established. In addition to clinical/paraclinical measures, biomarkers may aid in individualized risk–benefit assessment. A recent example is the routine testing for anti-John Cunningham virus antibodies in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients to assess the risk for the development of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy. Refined algorithms for individualized risk assessment may also facilitate early initiation of induction treatment schemes in patient groups with high disease activity rather than classical escalation concepts. In this review, we will discuss approaches for individiualized risk–benefit assessment both for newly introduced agents as well as medications with established side-effect profiles. In addition to clinical parameters, we will also focus on biomarkers that may assist in patient selection. Other Articles published in this series Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 336–48. Disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: common and divergent current and future strategies. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 359–72. Monoclonal antibodies in treatment of multiple

  4. A Case of Neuro-Behcet’s Disease Presenting with Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation

    PubMed Central

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M.; Saeed, Saba; Kaur, Jaspreet; Shams, Tanzila; De Georgia, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 46 Final Diagnosis: Central hyperventilation Symptoms: Hyperventilation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Behcet’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder usually characterized by the triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Central to the pathogenesis of Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune vasculitis. Neurological involvement, so called “Neuro-Behcet’s disease”, occurs in 10–20% of patients, usually from a meningoencephalitis or venous thrombosis. Case Report: We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease who presented with central neurogenic hyperventilation as a result of brainstem involvement from venulitis. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, central neurogenic hyperventilation has not previously been described in a patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease. PMID:26965646

  5. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  6. Central pontine myelinolysis associated with Wilson disease in a 7-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Rai, Dheeraj

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease is a rare heredodegenerative inborn error of copper metabolism with varied neuropsychiatric, hepatic and other manifestations. Here we report a case of Wilson disease with neurological manifestations in a 7-year-old girl with concurrent asymptomatic liver involvement and characteristic radiological findings of signal intensity alterations in bilateral striata and thalami along with changes in central pons too like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is of rare occurrence. PMID:23704419

  7. Central nervous system endothelium in neuroinflammatory, neuroinfectious, and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Andjelkovic, A V; Pachter, J S

    1998-02-15

    Accumulating evidence points toward a significant role for the microvascular endothelium in the pathogenesis of several neurologic conditions. This review highlights those biochemical, anatomical, and physiological features of the endothelium thought to be dysfunctional in these disease states, and elaborates on novel treatment modalities that target the endothelium. PMID:9514196

  8. Glial biomarkers in human central nervous system disease.

    PubMed

    Garden, Gwenn A; Campbell, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing understanding that aberrant GLIA function is an underlying factor in psychiatric and neurological disorders. As drug discovery efforts begin to focus on glia-related targets, a key gap in knowledge includes the availability of validated biomarkers to help determine which patients suffer from dysfunction of glial cells or who may best respond by targeting glia-related drug mechanisms. Biomarkers are biological variables with a significant relationship to parameters of disease states and can be used as surrogate markers of disease pathology, progression, and/or responses to drug treatment. For example, imaging studies of the CNS enable localization and characterization of anatomical lesions without the need to isolate tissue for biopsy. Many biomarkers of disease pathology in the CNS involve assays of glial cell function and/or response to injury. Each major glia subtype (oligodendroglia, astroglia and microglia) are connected to a number of important and useful biomarkers. Here, we describe current and emerging glial based biomarker approaches for acute CNS injury and the major categories of chronic nervous system dysfunction including neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric, neoplastic, and autoimmune disorders of the CNS. These descriptions are highlighted in the context of how biomarkers are employed to better understand the role of glia in human CNS disease and in the development of novel therapeutic treatments. GLIA 2016;64:1755-1771. PMID:27228454

  9. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  10. Alcoholic liver disease and bilateral multifocal central serous retinopathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We present a unique case of a patient with bilateral, multifocal central serous retinopathy in a patient with alcoholic liver disease. Case presentation A 58-year-old Caucasian man with alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and ascites presented to the eye clinic. The ophthalmoscopic examination of both eyes revealed a symmetrical pattern of variably sized, slightly yellowish, translucent, raised lesions throughout the fundi which were confirmed to be caused by multifocal central serous retinopathy after optical coherence tomography and autofluoresence tests. Conclusion This case highlights the possible link between central serous retinopathy and end-stage liver disease, with potential implications for the pathogenesis of central serous retinopathy in these patients. PMID:23406548

  11. Auditory midbrain processing is differentially modulated by auditory and visual cortices: An auditory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Patrick P; Zhang, Jevin W; Fan, Shu-Juan; Sanes, Dan H; Wu, Ed X

    2015-12-01

    The cortex contains extensive descending projections, yet the impact of cortical input on brainstem processing remains poorly understood. In the central auditory system, the auditory cortex contains direct and indirect pathways (via brainstem cholinergic cells) to nuclei of the auditory midbrain, called the inferior colliculus (IC). While these projections modulate auditory processing throughout the IC, single neuron recordings have samples from only a small fraction of cells during stimulation of the corticofugal pathway. Furthermore, assessments of cortical feedback have not been extended to sensory modalities other than audition. To address these issues, we devised blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms to measure the sound-evoked responses throughout the rat IC and investigated the effects of bilateral ablation of either auditory or visual cortices. Auditory cortex ablation increased the gain of IC responses to noise stimuli (primarily in the central nucleus of the IC) and decreased response selectivity to forward species-specific vocalizations (versus temporally reversed ones, most prominently in the external cortex of the IC). In contrast, visual cortex ablation decreased the gain and induced a much smaller effect on response selectivity. The results suggest that auditory cortical projections normally exert a large-scale and net suppressive influence on specific IC subnuclei, while visual cortical projections provide a facilitatory influence. Meanwhile, auditory cortical projections enhance the midbrain response selectivity to species-specific vocalizations. We also probed the role of the indirect cholinergic projections in the auditory system in the descending modulation process by pharmacologically blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors. This manipulation did not affect the gain of IC responses but significantly reduced the response selectivity to vocalizations. The results imply that auditory cortical

  12. Central Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Genetic Complexity of a Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is an emerging pathological condition frequently associated with overweight, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and midline defects. The genetic mechanisms involve mutations in at least twenty-four genes regulating GnRH neuronal migration, secretion, and activity. So far, the mechanisms underlying CHH, both in prepubertal and in adulthood onset forms, remain unknown in most of the cases. Indeed, all detected gene variants may explain a small proportion of the affected patients (43%), indicating that other genes or epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the onset of CHH. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on genetic background of CHH, organizing the large amount of data present in the literature in a clear and concise manner, to produce a useful guide available for researchers and clinicians. PMID:25254043

  13. A central processing sensory deficit with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjae; Agada, Peter; Grill, Stephen; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disease manifested by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Deficits in proprioceptive integration are prevalent in individuals with PD, even at early stages of the disease. These deficits have been demonstrated primarily during investigations of reaching. Here, we investigated how PD affects sensory fusion of multiple modalities during upright standing. We simultaneously perturbed upright stance with visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive stimulation, to understand how these modalities are reweighted so that overall feedback remains suited to stabilizing upright stance in individuals with PD. Eight individuals with PD stood in a visual cave with a moving visual scene at 0.2 Hz while an 80-Hz vibratory stimulus was applied bilaterally to their Achilles tendons (stimulus turns on-off at 0.28 Hz) and a ±1 mA bilateral monopolar galvanic stimulus was applied at 0.36 Hz. The visual stimulus was presented at different amplitudes (0.2°, 0.8° rotation about ankle axis) to measure: the change in gain (weighting) to vision, an intramodal effect; and a simultaneous change in gain to vibration and galvanic stimulation, both intermodal effects. Trunk/leg gain relative to vision decreased when visual amplitude was increased, reflecting an intramodal visual effect. In contrast, when vibration was turned on/off, leg gain relative to vision was equivalent in individuals with PD, indicating no reweighting of visual information when proprioception was disrupted through vibration (i.e., no intermodal effect). Trunk and leg angle gain relative to GVS also showed no reweighting in individuals with PD. These results are in contrast to previous results with healthy adults, who showed clear intermodal effects in the same paradigm, suggesting that individuals with PD not only have a proprioceptive deficit during standing, but also have a cross-modal sensory fusion deficit that is crucial for upright stance

  14. The Equine Neonatal Central Nervous System: Development and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tennent-Brown, Brett S; Morrice, Ashleigh V; Reed, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy is the most common neurologic condition affecting newborn foals and shares similarities with perinatal asphyxia syndrome of human infants. In many cases of neonatal encephalopathy there is no obvious episode of acute or chronic hypoxia and other mechanisms likely play a role in the pathogenesis. Increased concentrations of neuroactive progestagens are found in affected foals; whether these molecules are protective, as has been suggested, or play a role in the pathogenesis is unknown. Neurologic diseases other than neonatal encephalopathy affect foals occasionally and should be considered when evaluating sick foals with clinical signs of neurologic dysfunction. PMID:26612749

  15. Microglia in Infectious Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Monica M.; Kielian, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Microglia are the resident macrophage population in the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma and, as such, are poised to provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Microglia are endowed with a vast repertoire of pattern recognition receptors that include such family members as Toll-like receptors and phagocytic receptors, which collectively function to sense and eliminate microbes invading the CNS parenchyma. In addition, microglial activation elicits a broad range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that are involved in the recruitment and subsequent activation of peripheral immune cells infiltrating the infected CNS. Studies from several laboratories have demonstrated the ability of microglia to sense and respond to a wide variety of pathogens capable of colonizing the CNS including bacterial, viral, and fungal species. This review will highlight the role of microglia in microbial recognition and the resultant antipathogen response that ensues in an attempt to clear these infections. Implications as to whether microglial activation is uniformly beneficial to the CNS or in some circumstances may exacerbate pathology will also be discussed. PMID:19728102

  16. Small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: The relevance of central network connections.

    PubMed

    Reijmer, Yael D; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Piantoni, Giovanni; Boulouis, Gregoire; Kelly, Kathleen E; Gurol, Mahmut E; Leemans, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven M; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-07-01

    Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network connections. Brain networks were reconstructed from diffusion-weighted MRI scans in 72 individuals (75 ± 8 years) with cognitive impairment and SVD on MRI. The centrality of white matter connections in the network was defined using graph theory. The association between the fractional anisotropy (FA) of central versus non-central connections, executive functioning, and markers of SVD was evaluated with linear regression and mediation analysis. Lower FA in central network connections was more strongly associated with impairment in executive functioning than FA in non-central network connections (r = 0.41 vs. r = 0.27; P < 0.05). Results were consistent across varying thresholds to define the central subnetwork (>50%-10% connections). Higher SVD burden was associated with lower FA in central as well as non-central network connections. However, only central network FA mediated the relationship between white matter hyperintensity volume and executive functioning [change in regression coefficient after mediation (95% CI): -0.15 (-0.35 to -0.02)]. The mediation effect was not observed for FA alterations in non-central network connections [-0.03 (-0.19 to 0.04)]. These findings suggest that the centrality of network connections, and thus their contribution to global network efficiency, appears to be relevant for understanding the relationship between SVD and cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2446-2454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004840

  17. Auditory Temporal Processing Deficits in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The role of central auditory processing in reading skill development and reading disorders is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals with specific reading disabilities (SRD) have deficits in processing rapidly presented, serially ordered non-speech auditory signals. To this end, we compared 12 children with SRD and…

  18. PhenomeCentral: a portal for phenotypic and genotypic matchmaking of patients with rare genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Buske, Orion J; Girdea, Marta; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Gallinger, Bailey; Hartley, Taila; Trang, Heather; Misyura, Andriy; Friedman, Tal; Beaulieu, Chandree; Bone, William P; Links, Amanda E; Washington, Nicole L; Haendel, Melissa A; Robinson, Peter N; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Adams, David; Gahl, William A; Boycott, Kym M; Brudno, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of disease-causing mutations typically requires confirmation of the variant or gene in multiple unrelated individuals, and a large number of rare genetic diseases remain unsolved due to difficulty identifying second families. To enable the secure sharing of case records by clinicians and rare disease scientists, we have developed the PhenomeCentral portal (https://phenomecentral.org). Each record includes a phenotypic description and relevant genetic information (exome or candidate genes). PhenomeCentral identifies similar patients in the database based on semantic similarity between clinical features, automatically prioritized genes from whole-exome data, and candidate genes entered by the users, enabling both hypothesis-free and hypothesis-driven matchmaking. Users can then contact other submitters to follow up on promising matches. PhenomeCentral incorporates data for over 1,000 patients with rare genetic diseases, contributed by the FORGE and Care4Rare Canada projects, the US NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program, the EU Neuromics and ANDDIrare projects, as well as numerous independent clinicians and scientists. Though the majority of these records have associated exome data, most lack a molecular diagnosis. PhenomeCentral has already been used to identify causative mutations for several patients, and its ability to find matching patients and diagnose these diseases will grow with each additional patient that is entered. PMID:26251998

  19. Central endoscopy reads in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials: The role of the imaging core lab.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Harris; Berzin, Tyler M; Yu, Hui Jing; Huang, Christopher S; Mishkin, Daniel S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are evolving at a rapid pace by employing central reading for endoscopic mucosal assessment in a field that was, historically, largely based on assessments by local physicians. This transition from local to central reading carries with it numerous technical, operational, and scientific challenges, many of which can be resolved by imaging core laboratories (ICLs), a concept that has a longer history in clinical trials in a number of diseases outside the realm of gastroenterology. For IBD trials, ICLs have the dual goals of providing objective, consistent assessments of endoscopic findings using central-reading paradigms whilst providing important expertise with regard to operational issues and regulatory expectations. This review focuses on current approaches to using ICLs for central endoscopic reading in IBD trials. PMID:24994835

  20. Central endoscopy reads in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials: The role of the imaging core lab

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Harris; Berzin, Tyler M.; Yu, Hui Jing; Huang, Christopher S.; Mishkin, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are evolving at a rapid pace by employing central reading for endoscopic mucosal assessment in a field that was, historically, largely based on assessments by local physicians. This transition from local to central reading carries with it numerous technical, operational, and scientific challenges, many of which can be resolved by imaging core laboratories (ICLs), a concept that has a longer history in clinical trials in a number of diseases outside the realm of gastroenterology. For IBD trials, ICLs have the dual goals of providing objective, consistent assessments of endoscopic findings using central-reading paradigms whilst providing important expertise with regard to operational issues and regulatory expectations. This review focuses on current approaches to using ICLs for central endoscopic reading in IBD trials. PMID:24994835

  1. Auditory system of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an invaluable model for auditory research. Advantages of using the fruit fly include its stereotyped behavior in response to a particular sound, and the availability of molecular-genetic tools to manipulate gene expression and cellular activity. Although the receiver type in fruit flies differs from that in mammals, the auditory systems of mammals and fruit flies are strikingly similar with regard to the level of development, transduction mechanism, mechanical amplification, and central projections. These similarities strongly support the use of the fruit fly to study the general principles of acoustic information processing. In this review, we introduce acoustic communication and discuss recent advances in our understanding on hearing in fruit flies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26560238

  2. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  3. Auditory neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bin Na; Kang, Tong Ho

    2008-02-01

    An investigation of the mechanism of damage to the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system in diabetes mellitus (DM) is highly important in current neurological research. Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder in which the auditory brainstem evoked potential is absent or severely abnormal. This study investigated auditory neuropathy caused by streptozotocin in mouse model. In order to assess diabetic auditory neuropathy, we evaluated auditory brainstem response (ABR) for the evaluation of sensorineural function in peripheral auditory nerve. Auditory middle latency response (AMLR) was employed to assess the middle response in the midbrain. STZ groups significantly increased the absolute latencies IV and the interpeak latencies I-III and I-IV of ABR compared with STZ 0 group. Pa latency of AMLR also significantly increased in proportion to STZ dosage. Taken together, our results demonstrate that STZ-induced DM may impair the auditory pathway from peripheral auditory nerve to midbrain in the mouse model. We suggest that the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model may be useful for the evaluation of auditory pathway impairment by using ABR and AMLR tests. PMID:18164131

  4. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD: A Resource for Studies on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Reijs, Babette L R; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Betsou, Fay; Blennow, Kaj; Baldeiras, Inês; Brosseron, Frederic; Cavedo, Enrica; Fladby, Tormod; Froelich, Lutz; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Gurvit, Hakan; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Koson, Peter; Kulic, Luka; Lehmann, Sylvain; Lewczuk, Piotr; Lleó, Alberto; Maetzler, Walter; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Miller, Anne-Marie; Molinuevo, José L; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Rot, Uros; Schneider, Anja; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Tsolaki, Magda; Verbeek, Marcel M; Verhey, Frans R J; Zboch, Marzena; Winblad, Bengt; Scheltens, Philip; Zetterberg, Henrik; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized pre-analytical procedures and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular dementia, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8,600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank. PMID:26528237

  5. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD: A Resource for Studies on Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Reijs, Babette L. R.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Betsou, Fay; Blennow, Kaj; Baldeiras, Inês; Brosseron, Frederic; Cavedo, Enrica; Fladby, Tormod; Froelich, Lutz; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Gurvit, Hakan; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Koson, Peter; Kulic, Luka; Lehmann, Sylvain; Lewczuk, Piotr; Lleó, Alberto; Maetzler, Walter; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Miller, Anne-Marie; Molinuevo, José L.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Rot, Uros; Schneider, Anja; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Tsolaki, Magda; Verbeek, Marcel M.; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Zboch, Marzena; Winblad, Bengt; Scheltens, Philip; Zetterberg, Henrik; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized pre-analytical procedures and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular dementia, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8,600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank. PMID:26528237

  6. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  7. Conducting polymer electrodes for auditory brainstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Guex, Amélie A.; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Hight, Ariel E.; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) restores hearing in patients with damaged auditory nerves. One of the main ideas to improve the efficacy of ABIs is to increase spatial specificity of stimulation, in order to minimize extra-auditory side-effects and to maximize the tonotopy of stimulation. This study reports on the development of a microfabricated conformable electrode array with small (100 μm diameter) electrode sites. The latter are coated with a conducting polymer, PEDOT:PSS, to offer high charge injection properties and to safely stimulate the auditory system with small stimulation sites. We report on the design and fabrication of the polymer implant, and characterize the coatings in physiological conditions in vitro and under mechanical deformation. We characterize the coating electrochemically and during bending tests. We present a proof of principle experiment where the auditory system is efficiently activated by the flexible polymeric interface in a rat model. These results demonstrate the potential of using conducting polymer coatings on small electrode sites for electrochemically safe and efficient stimulation of the central auditory system. PMID:26207184

  8. Attending to auditory memory.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26638836

  9. Molecular Analysis of Central Nervous System Disease Spectrum in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Chindo; Sitthi-Amorn, Jitsuda; Douglas, Jessica; Ramani, Ritika; Miele, Lucio; Vijayakumar, Vani; Karlson, Cynthia; Chipeta, James; Megason, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) is an essential therapeutic component in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The goal of this study was to identify molecular signatures distinguishing patients with CNS disease from those without the disease in pediatric patients with ALL. We analyzed gene expression data from 207 pediatric patients with ALL. Patients without CNS were classified as CNS1, while those with mild and advanced CNS disease were classified as CNS2 and CNS3, respectively. We compared gene expression levels among the three disease classes. We identified gene signatures distinguishing the three disease classes. Pathway analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways dysregulated in response to CNS disease involvement. The identified pathways included the ILK, WNT, B-cell receptor, AMPK, ERK5, and JAK signaling pathways. The results demonstrate that transcription profiling could be used to stratify patients to guide therapeutic decision-making in pediatric ALL. PMID:26997880

  10. Use of Angong Niuhuang in Treating Central Nervous System Diseases and Related Research

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Yan, Shaohua; Xu, Lipeng; Zhu, Gexin; Yu, Xiaotong; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese medicine-based therapeutics, Angong Niuhuang pill (ANP) is one of the three most effective formulas for febrile diseases, and it is also used to treat other diseases. This paper reviews current knowledge regarding the clinical and pharmacological effects of ANP for treating different central nervous system (CNS) diseases to confirm its validity and efficacy. These diseases are like centric fever, coma, stroke, and viral encephalitis. This review reveals that various diseases could be treated using the same agent, which is one of the most important principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the “Same Treatment for Different Diseases” principle, ANP might be efficacious in other CNS diseases. PMID:25587341

  11. Molecular study of patients with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Guilherme Machado De; Ramos, Priscila Zonzini; Castilho, Arthur Menino; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2016-07-01

    Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing loss that constitutes a change in the conduct of the auditory stimulus by the involvement of inner hair cells or auditory nerve synapses. It is characterized by the absence or alteration of waves in the examination of brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with otoacoustic and/or cochlear microphonic issues. At present, four loci associated with non‑syndromic auditory neuropathy have been mapped: Autosomal recessive deafness‑9 [DFNB9; the otoferlin (OTOF) gene] and autosomal recessive deafness‑59 [DFNB59; the pejvakin (PJVK) gene], associated with autosomal recessive inheritance; the autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy gene [AUNA1; the diaphanous‑3 (DIAPH3) gene]; and AUNX1, linked to chromosome X. Furthermore, mutations of connexin 26 [the gap junction β2 (GJB2) gene] have also been associated with the disease. OTOF gene mutations exert a significant role in auditory neuropathy. In excess of 80 pathogenic mutations have been identified in individuals with non‑syndromic deafness in populations of different origins, with an emphasis on the p.Q829X mutation, which was found in ~3% of cases of deafness in the Spanish population. The identification of genetic alterations responsible for auditory neuropathy is one of the challenges contributing to understand the molecular bases of the different phenotypes of hearing loss. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate molecular changes in the OTOF gene in patients with auditory neuropathy, and to develop a DNA chip for the molecular diagnosis of auditory neuropathy using mass spectrometry for genotyping. Genetic alterations were investigated in 47 patients with hearing loss and clinical diagnosis of auditory neuropathy, and the c.35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene was identified in three homozygous patients, and the heterozygous parents of one of these cases. Additionally, OTOF gene mutations were tracked by complete sequencing of 48 exons, although these results

  12. Effects of Physical Rehabilitation Integrated with Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Spatio-Temporal and Kinematic Parameters of Gait in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Corona, Federica; Pili, Roberta; Casula, Carlo; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano; Cossu, Giovanni; Guicciardi, Marco; Murgia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Movement rehabilitation by means of physical therapy represents an essential tool in the management of gait disturbances induced by Parkinson's disease (PD). In this context, the use of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has been proven useful in improving several spatio-temporal parameters, but concerning its effect on gait patterns, scarce information is available from a kinematic viewpoint. In this study, we used three-dimensional gait analysis based on optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of supervised rehabilitation, which included gait training integrated with RAS on 26 individuals affected by PD (age 70.4 ± 11.1, Hoehn and Yahr 1-3). Gait kinematics was assessed before and at the end of the rehabilitation period and after a 3-month follow-up, using concise measures (Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score, GPS and GVS, respectively), which are able to describe the deviation from a physiologic gait pattern. The results confirm the effectiveness of gait training assisted by RAS in increasing speed and stride length, in regularizing cadence and correctly reweighting swing/stance phase duration. Moreover, an overall improvement of gait quality was observed, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of the GPS value, which was created mainly through significant decreases in the GVS score associated with the hip flexion-extension movement. Future research should focus on investigating kinematic details to better understand the mechanisms underlying gait disturbances in people with PD and the effects of RAS, with the aim of finding new or improving current rehabilitative treatments. PMID:27563296

  13. Effects of Physical Rehabilitation Integrated with Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Spatio-Temporal and Kinematic Parameters of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pau, Massimiliano; Corona, Federica; Pili, Roberta; Casula, Carlo; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano; Cossu, Giovanni; Guicciardi, Marco; Murgia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Movement rehabilitation by means of physical therapy represents an essential tool in the management of gait disturbances induced by Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this context, the use of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has been proven useful in improving several spatio-temporal parameters, but concerning its effect on gait patterns, scarce information is available from a kinematic viewpoint. In this study, we used three-dimensional gait analysis based on optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of supervised rehabilitation, which included gait training integrated with RAS on 26 individuals affected by PD (age 70.4 ± 11.1, Hoehn and Yahr 1–3). Gait kinematics was assessed before and at the end of the rehabilitation period and after a 3-month follow-up, using concise measures (Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score, GPS and GVS, respectively), which are able to describe the deviation from a physiologic gait pattern. The results confirm the effectiveness of gait training assisted by RAS in increasing speed and stride length, in regularizing cadence and correctly reweighting swing/stance phase duration. Moreover, an overall improvement of gait quality was observed, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of the GPS value, which was created mainly through significant decreases in the GVS score associated with the hip flexion–extension movement. Future research should focus on investigating kinematic details to better understand the mechanisms underlying gait disturbances in people with PD and the effects of RAS, with the aim of finding new or improving current rehabilitative treatments. PMID:27563296

  14. Aging and auditory site of lesion.

    PubMed

    Otto, W C; McCandless, G A

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and quantify the functional auditory problems of presbycusis through a battery of recently developed diagnostic tests and to evaluate the usefulness of these tests with an elderly population. Diagnostic measures used were impedence measures, speech discrimination tests, synthetic sentence identification, compressed speech, two measures of tone decay, the short increment sensitivity index, a digit span test, and auditory brain stem response audiometry. Significant differences were found between scores for elderly subjects and those of young subjects who had similar audiograms. Use of the Metz test as an objective measure of recruitment yielded results suggesting a higher incidence of recruitment than evidenced by previous studies using loudness balancing procedures. The Olsen-Noffsinger procedure of quantifying tone decay revealed a greater difference between age groups than did the Suprathreshold Adaptation Test. Synthetic sentence identification revealed the most consistent age effect among the tests of central auditory function. Auditory brain stem response audiometry revealed several examples of abnormally long interpeak latencies. It is concluded that there is both behavioral and electrophysiological evidence of central and peripheral auditory disorder frequently accompanying senescence. PMID:7095318

  15. Morbus Behçet – a rare disease in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Jurowski, Piotr; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Kot, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease of complex and not entirely elucidated etiology, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations and ocular manifestations. The entity is endemic in countries of Eastern and Central Asia, especially Turkey and Iran, but rarely seen in Central Europe. As there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or histopathologic findings which confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the final diagnosis should be based on clinical criteria. Frequently a definitive diagnosis is established within several years or months after the first manifestations appear. The increased number of cases, recently described worldwide also in the Polish population, indicates that the disease could spread out of endemic areas. The aim of this manuscript is to present the clinical picture, diagnosis criteria and therapeutic approaches of this “international disease” which currently is observed not only in emigrants from Asia but also in native Polish citizens. PMID:26788079

  16. Neonatal herpes simplex virus type-1 central nervous system disease with acute retinal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Fong, Choong Yi; Aye, Aye Mya Min; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Nor, Norazlin Kamal; Visvaraja, Subrayan; Tajunisah, Iqbal; Ong, Lai Choo

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 central nervous system disease with bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN). An infant was presented at 17 days of age with focal seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-1 and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebritis. While receiving intravenous acyclovir therapy, the infant developed ARN with vitreous fluid polymerase chain reaction positive for HSV-1 necessitating intravitreal foscarnet therapy. This is the first reported neonatal ARN secondary to HSV-1 and the first ARN case presenting without external ocular or cutaneous signs. Our report highlights that infants with neonatal HSV central nervous system disease should undergo a thorough ophthalmological evaluation to facilitate prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment of this rapidly progressive sight-threatening disease. PMID:24378951

  17. Novel Excitation-Contraction Uncoupled RYR1 Mutations in Patients With Central Core Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kraeva, Natalia; Zvaritch, Elena; Rossi, Ann E.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; Zaid, Hilal; Frodis, Wanda; Kraev, Alexander; Dirksen, Robert T.; MacLennan, David H.; Riazi1, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Central core disease, one of the most common congenital myopathies in humans, has been linked to mutations in the RYR1 gene encoding the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (RyR1). Functional analyses showed that disease-associated RYR1 mutations led to impairment of skeletal muscle Ca2+ homeostasis, however, thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying central core disease and other RyR1-related conditions is still lacking. We screened by sequencing the complete RYR1 transcripts in ten unrelated patients with central core disease and identified five novel, p.M4640R, p.L4647P, p.F4808L, p.D4918N and p.F4941C, and four recurrent mutations. Four of the novel mutations involved amino acid residues that were positioned within putative transmembrane segments of the RyR1. The pathogenic character of the identified mutations was demonstrated by bioinformatic analyses and by the in vitro functional studies in HEK293 cells and RYR1-null (dyspedic) myotubes. Characterization of Ca2+ channel properties of RyR1s carrying one recurrent and two novel mutations upholds the view that diminished intracellular Ca2+ release caused by impaired Ca2+channel gating and/or Ca2+permeability is an important component of central core disease etiology. This study expands the list of functionally characterized disease-associated RyR1 mutations, increasing the value of genetic diagnosis for RyR1-related disorders. PMID:23183335

  18. What causes auditory distraction?

    PubMed

    Macken, William J; Phelps, Fiona G; Jones, Dylan M

    2009-02-01

    The role of separating task-relevant from task-irrelevant aspects of the environment is typically assigned to the executive functioning of working memory. However, pervasive aspects of auditory distraction have been shown to be unrelated to working memory capacity in a range of studies of individual differences. We measured individual differences in global pattern matching and deliberate recoding of auditory sequences, and showed that, although deliberate processing was related to short-term memory performance, it did not predict the extent to which that performance was disrupted by task-irrelevant sound. Individual differences in global sequence processing were, however, positively related to the degree to which auditory distraction occurred. We argue that much auditory distraction, rather than being a negative function of working memory capacity, is in fact a positive function of the acuity of obligatory auditory processing. PMID:19145024

  19. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, P<0.001). In conclusion, the decrease in HR with ivabradine was associated with an increase in central systolic pressure, which may have antagonized possible benefits of HR lowering in coronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. PMID:27091900

  20. Forebrain pathway for auditory space processing in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y E; Miller, G L; Knudsen, E I

    1998-02-01

    The forebrain plays an important role in many aspects of sound localization behavior. Yet, the forebrain pathway that processes auditory spatial information is not known for any species. Using standard anatomic labeling techniques, we used a "top-down" approach to trace the flow of auditory spatial information from an output area of the forebrain sound localization pathway (the auditory archistriatum, AAr), back through the forebrain, and into the auditory midbrain. Previous work has demonstrated that AAr units are specialized for auditory space processing. The results presented here show that the AAr receives afferent input from Field L both directly and indirectly via the caudolateral neostriatum. Afferent input to Field L originates mainly in the auditory thalamus, nucleus ovoidalis, which, in turn, receives input from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. In addition, we confirmed previously reported projections of the AAr to the basal ganglia, the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX), the deep layers of the optic tectum, and various brain stem nuclei. A series of inactivation experiments demonstrated that the sharp tuning of AAr sites for binaural spatial cues depends on Field L input but not on input from the auditory space map in the midbrain ICX: pharmacological inactivation of Field L eliminated completely auditory responses in the AAr, whereas bilateral ablation of the midbrain ICX had no appreciable effect on AAr responses. We conclude, therefore, that the forebrain sound localization pathway can process auditory spatial information independently of the midbrain localization pathway. PMID:9463450

  1. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  2. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy. PMID:27587912

  3. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L; Parkhouse, R M E; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  4. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  5. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  6. Bilateral congenital lumbar hernias in a patient with central core disease--A case report.

    PubMed

    Lazier, Joanna; Mah, Jean K; Nikolic, Ana; Wei, Xing-Chang; Samedi, Veronica; Fajardo, Carlos; Brindle, Mary; Perrier, Renee; Thomas, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Congenital lumbar hernias are rare malformations caused by defects in the development of the posterior abdominal wall. A known association exists with lumbocostovertebral syndrome; however other associated anomalies, including one case with arthrogryposis, have been previously reported. We present an infant girl with bilateral congenital lumbar hernias, multiple joint contractures, decreased muscle bulk and symptoms of malignant hyperthermia. Molecular testing revealed an R4861C mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene, known to be associated with central core disease. This is the first reported case of the co-occurrence of congenital lumbar hernias and central core disease. We hypothesize that ryanodine receptor 1 mutations may interrupt muscle differentiation and development. Further, this case suggests an expansion of the ryanodine receptor 1-related myopathy phenotype to include congenital lumbar hernias. PMID:26684984

  7. Central pontine myelinolysis presenting with tremor in a child with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Sharma, Suvasini; Panwar, Neha; Mahto, Deonath; Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Atin; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-03-01

    A 4-year-old boy presented with a history of tremor for 7 days. He also had recurrent diarrhea for the previous 1 year, and poor weight gain. Magnetic resonance of the brain was suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis. There was no evidence of electrolyte abnormalities. The serum tissue transglutaminase level was markedly elevated, and the duodenal biopsy revealed features of celiac disease. The patient was started on gluten-free diet. The tremor resolved within 3 months. Repeat imaging of the brain done 3 months after starting gluten-free diet showed complete resolution of the lesion. This case highlights the unusual presentation of central pontine myelinosis as tremor in a malnourished child with celiac disease. PMID:23390116

  8. Central nervous system complications of sickle cell disease in children: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wang, Winfred C

    2007-03-01

    Complications involving the central nervous system are among the most devastating manifestations of sickle cell disease. Although overt stroke occurs in 1 in 10 children with Hemoglobin SS, "silent cerebral infarcts" are even more frequent. Both are associated with significant neuropsychological deficits. The end result of these effects on the CNS often is diminished school performance. The use of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography screening allows the identification of patients at high risk for clinical stroke as well as stroke prevention by chronic transfusion. However, definitive prophylaxis and treatment for most CNS complications of sickle cell disease have yet to be determined. PMID:17364568

  9. Central pontine myelinolysis in advanced HIV infection with tuberculosis and multicentric Castleman's disease.

    PubMed

    Katchanov, J; Branding, G; Stocker, H

    2013-07-01

    We present a case of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) in a patient with advanced HIV infection and miliary tuberculosis. While hospitalized the patient developed an unusual ataxic variant of CPM with full clinical recovery. Follow-up imaging revealed resolution of pontine lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinical and radiological recovery from CPM in advanced HIV disease. Our report extends our knowledge of neurological presentations in patients with advanced HIV infection. It highlights the importance of considering CPM in patients with advanced HIV disease presenting with an ataxic syndrome, even in the absence of an electrolyte derangement. PMID:23970776

  10. A Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probe as a Central Nervous System Disease Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Ann-Chee; Mahamad, Ummi Affah; Lim, Shen-Yang; Kim, Hae-Jo; Choo, Yeun-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are important biomarkers for diseases associated with an impaired central nervous system (CNS). A new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 to detect the levels of homocysteine is successfully implemented using Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' blood serum. In addition, a rapid identification of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels in blood serum of PD patients was also performed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from both analyses were in agreement. The new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 offers a cost- and time-effective method to identify the biomarkers in CNS patients. PMID:25390405

  11. Central obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio as risk factors for ischaemic heart disease and stroke in Asia Pacific populations. We undertook a pooled analysis involving six cohort studies (45 988 participants) and used Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the associations of the four anthropometric indices with stroke and ischaemic heart disease by age, sex and region. During a mean follow-up of six years, 346 stroke and 601 ischaemic heart disease events (fatal and non-fatal) were documented. Overall, a one-standard deviation increase in index was associated with an increase in risk of ischaemic heart disease of 17% (95% CI 7-27%) for body mass index, 27% (95% CI 14-40%) for waist circumference, 10% (95% CI 1-20%) for hip circumference, and 36% (95% CI 21-52%) for waist-hip ratio. There were no significant differences between age groups, sex, and region. None of the four anthropometric indices had a strong association with risk of stroke. These data indicate that measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio are strongly associated with risk of ischaemic heart disease in this region. Therefore, we suggest that, along with calculation of body mass index, measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio should be undertaken routinely. PMID:16837418

  12. Altered auditory function in rats exposed to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Hoffman, L.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an orthodynamic hypergravic field of 6 G on the brainstem auditory projections was studied in rats. The brain temperature and EEG activity were recorded in the rats during 6 G orthodynamic acceleration and auditory brainstem responses were used to monitor auditory function. Results show that all animals exhibited auditory brainstem responses which indicated impaired conduction and transmission of brainstem auditory signals during the exposure to the 6 G acceleration field. Significant increases in central conduction time were observed for peaks 3N, 4P, 4N, and 5P (N = negative, P = positive), while the absolute latency values for these same peaks were also significantly increased. It is concluded that these results, along with those for fields below 4 G (Jones and Horowitz, 1981), indicate that impaired function proceeds in a rostro-caudal progression as field strength is increased.

  13. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C.

    2015-01-01

    Background To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. Material/Methods This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment – research groups I and II, respectively – and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. Results There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:26485202

  14. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  15. Evaluation of risk and vulnerability using a Disease Flow Centrality measure in dynamic cattle trade networks.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Savini, Lara; Giovannini, Armando; Calistri, Paolo; Candeloro, Luca; Fiore, Gianluca

    2011-02-01

    A new method for the calculation of a centrality measure (Disease Flow Centrality, DFC), which takes into account temporal dynamics of livestock movement networks, is proposed. The method is based on a network traversal algorithm which represents an epidemic process more realistically compared with traditional graph traversal algorithms used in the calculation of centrality measures on static networks. The new approach was tested on networks generated from all the registered movements of cattle in Italy in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 and the results were compared to those obtained by classical centrality measures. The results show that DFC values often differ substantially from those of other centrality measures and that these DFC values tend to be more unstable in time. The DFC offers several advantages for assessing risk and vulnerability of specific holdings and of an entire network, using recent movement data from national livestock databases. Some examples also indicate how the basic approach in the DFC calculation could be expanded into a more complex epidemic model by incorporating weights and how it could be combined with a geo-spatial perspective. PMID:21159393

  16. Spect-studies of the brain with stimulation of the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schadel, A

    1988-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical N-isopropyl-p-J-Amphetamin (IMP) permits a new approach in the study of cerebral perfusion and function. We advanced the hypothesis for an increased IMP-uptake on auditory cortex during stimulation by white noise. Auditory stimulation activates the auditory cortex. This is marked by an increased IMP-uptake. IMP-uptake by the auditory region on the left side during stimulation on the right ear is another evidence of the crossing of central auditory pathways to the contralateral side. PMID:3265798

  17. Temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiujing; Lan, Lan; Shi, Wei; Yu, Lan; Xie, Lin-Yi; Xiong, Fen; Zhao, Cui; Li, Na; Yin, Zifang; Zong, Liang; Guan, Jing; Wang, Dayong; Sun, Wei; Wang, Qiuju

    2016-05-01

    Temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy is a very rare and puzzling disorder. In the present study, we reported three unrelated 2 to 6 year-old children who were diagnosed as auditory neuropathy patients who complained of severe hearing loss when they had fever. Their hearing thresholds varied from the morning to the afternoon. Two of these patients' hearing improved with age, and one patient received positive results from cochlear implant. Genetic analysis revealed that these three patients had otoferlin (OTOF) homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations with the genotypes c.2975_2978delAG/c.4819C>T, c.4819C>T/c.4819C>T, or c.2382_2383delC/c.1621G>A, respectively. Our study suggests that these gene mutations may be the cause of temperature sensitive auditory neuropathy. The long term follow up results suggest that the hearing loss in this type of auditory neuropathy may recover with age. PMID:26778470

  18. Subcortical modulation in auditory processing and auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Toshikazu; DeRosse, Pamela; Argyelan, Miklos; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Kingsley, Peter B; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-12-15

    Hearing perception in individuals with auditory hallucinations has not been well studied. Auditory hallucinations have previously been shown to involve primary auditory cortex activation. This activation suggests that auditory hallucinations activate the terminal of the auditory pathway as if auditory signals are submitted from the cochlea, and that a hallucinatory event is therefore perceived as hearing. The primary auditory cortex is stimulated by some unknown source that is outside of the auditory pathway. The current study aimed to assess the outcomes of stimulating the primary auditory cortex through the auditory pathway in individuals who have experienced auditory hallucinations. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, as well as hallucination assessments. During the fMRI session, auditory stimuli were presented in one-second intervals at times when scanner noise was absent. Participants listened to auditory stimuli of sine waves (SW) (4-5.5kHz), English words (EW), and acoustically reversed English words (arEW) in a block design fashion. The arEW were employed to deliver the sound of a human voice with minimal linguistic components. Patients' auditory hallucination severity was assessed by the auditory hallucination item of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). During perception of arEW when compared with perception of SW, bilateral activation of the globus pallidus correlated with severity of auditory hallucinations. EW when compared with arEW did not correlate with auditory hallucination severity. Our findings suggest that the sensitivity of the globus pallidus to the human voice is associated with the severity of auditory hallucination. PMID:26275927

  19. Auditory dysfunction in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iragui, V J

    1986-07-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a Ramsay Hunt syndrome due to herpes zoster had a hearing deficit. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) localised the site of dysfunction to the ipsilateral eighth nerve. Clinical improvement was associated with improvement of the BAEP. Conventional audiological studies and BAEPs provided no evidence of involvement of the cochlea or the brainstem. In Ramsay Hunt syndrome, BAEPs may help to localise the site of involvement within the auditory pathway and follow the course of the disease. PMID:3746312

  20. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  1. Disease burden of enterovirus 71 in rural central China: A community-based survey.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zheng-kai; Jin, Hui; Li, Jing-xin; Yao, Xue-jun; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Xue-feng; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) centered in the Asian-Pacific region have been characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections were responsible for the majority of the infections leading to severe cases of HFMD and death. This is a community-based survey aimed to estimate the disease burden of EV71 in rural central China, especially for HFMD. From 2011 to 2013, demographic and socio-economic data were gathered from 343 ill children and their parents using a structured questionnaire. We quantified the health burden of disease resulting from EV71 infection in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Among 343 cases, 303 had confirmed HFMD, 6 presented with herpangina, 25 presented with respiratory symptoms, and 9 presented with non-specific symptoms. The number of severe cases was 47 (including 1 death) and all of these presented with HFMD. The total cost per patient for severe HFMD, mild HFMD, herpangina, respiratory disease, and non-specific disease was $2149.47, $513.22, $53.28, $31.95, and $39.25, respectively. The overall cost of EV71-related diseases as a proportion of local farmers' per capita net income ranged from 0.18% for those with non-specific disease to 187.12% for those with severe HFMD. The loss of DALYs for the 5 forms of disease were 3.47, 1.76, 1.07, 1.44, 1.22 person-years per 1000 persons, respectively. This study provides data on cost of treatment and health burden for diseases caused by EV71, which can be used in the evaluation of EV71 vaccine cost-effectiveness. PMID:26158689

  2. Disease burden of enterovirus 71 in rural central China: A community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Zheng-kai; Jin, Hui; Li, Jing-xin; Yao, Xue-jun; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Xue-feng; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) centered in the Asian-Pacific region have been characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections were responsible for the majority of the infections leading to severe cases of HFMD and death. This is a community-based survey aimed to estimate the disease burden of EV71 in rural central China, especially for HFMD. From 2011 to 2013, demographic and socio-economic data were gathered from 343 ill children and their parents using a structured questionnaire. We quantified the health burden of disease resulting from EV71 infection in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Among 343 cases, 303 had confirmed HFMD, 6 presented with herpangina, 25 presented with respiratory symptoms, and 9 presented with non-specific symptoms. The number of severe cases was 47 (including 1 death) and all of these presented with HFMD. The total cost per patient for severe HFMD, mild HFMD, herpangina, respiratory disease, and non-specific disease was $2149.47, $513.22, $53.28, $31.95, and $39.25, respectively. The overall cost of EV71-related diseases as a proportion of local farmers' per capita net income ranged from 0.18% for those with non-specific disease to 187.12% for those with severe HFMD. The loss of DALYs for the 5 forms of disease were 3.47, 1.76, 1.07, 1.44, 1.22 person-years per 1000 persons, respectively. This study provides data on cost of treatment and health burden for diseases caused by EV71, which can be used in the evaluation of EV71 vaccine cost-effectiveness. PMID:26158689

  3. Metabolic Profiling and Phenotyping of Central Nervous System Diseases: Metabolites Bring Insights into Brain Dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Davidovic, Laetitia

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic phenotyping corresponds to the large-scale quantitative and qualitative analysis of the metabolome i.e., the low-molecular weight <1 KDa fraction in biological samples, and provides a key opportunity to advance neurosciences. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry are the main analytical platforms used for metabolic profiling, enabling detection and quantitation of a wide range of compounds of particular neuro-pharmacological and physiological relevance, including neurotransmitters, secondary messengers, structural lipids, as well as their precursors, intermediates and degradation products. Metabolic profiling is therefore particularly indicated for the study of central nervous system by probing metabolic and neurochemical profiles of the healthy or diseased brain, in preclinical models or in human samples. In this review, we introduce the analytical and statistical requirements for metabolic profiling. Then, we focus on key studies in the field of metabolic profiling applied to the characterization of animal models and human samples of central nervous system disorders. We highlight the potential of metabolic profiling for pharmacological and physiological evaluation, diagnosis and drug therapy monitoring of patients affected by brain disorders. Finally, we discuss the current challenges in the field, including the development of systems biology and pharmacology strategies improving our understanding of metabolic signatures and mechanisms of central nervous system diseases. PMID:25616565

  4. Auditory map plasticity: Diversity in causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Christoph E.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory cortical maps have been a long-standing focus of studies that assess the expression, mechanisms, and consequences of sensory plasticity. Here we discuss recent progress in understanding how auditory experience transforms spatially organized sound representations at higher levels of the central auditory pathways. New insights into the mechanisms underlying map changes have been achieved and more refined interpretations of various map plasticity effects and their consequences in terms of behavioral corollaries and learning as well as other cognitive aspects have been offered. The systematic organizational principles of cortical sound processing remains a key-aspect in studying and interpreting the role of plasticity in hearing. PMID:24492090

  5. Auditory map plasticity: diversity in causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Christoph E; Polley, Daniel B

    2014-02-01

    Auditory cortical maps have been a long-standing focus of studies that assess the expression, mechanisms, and consequences of sensory plasticity. Here we discuss recent progress in understanding how auditory experience transforms spatially organized sound representations at higher levels of the central auditory pathways. New insights into the mechanisms underlying map changes have been achieved and more refined interpretations of various map plasticity effects and their consequences in terms of behavioral corollaries and learning as well as other cognitive aspects have been offered. The systematic organizational principles of cortical sound processing remain a key aspect in studying and interpreting the role of plasticity in hearing. PMID:24492090

  6. Human auditory evoked potentials. I - Evaluation of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.; Krausz, H. I.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen distinct components can be identified in the scalp recorded average evoked potential to an abrupt auditory stimulus. The early components occurring in the first 8 msec after a stimulus represent the activation of the cochlea and the auditory nuclei of the brainstem. The middle latency components occurring between 8 and 50 msec after the stimulus probably represent activation of both auditory thalamus and cortex but can be seriously contaminated by concurrent scalp muscle reflex potentials. The longer latency components occurring between 50 and 300 msec after the stimulus are maximally recorded over fronto-central scalp regions and seem to represent widespread activation of frontal cortex.

  7. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  8. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    PubMed Central

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  9. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  10. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  11. Concise review: modeling central nervous system diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianmin; Hunsberger, Joshua G; Simeonov, Anton; Malik, Nasir; Pei, Ying; Rao, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an opportunity to delve into the mechanisms underlying development while also affording the potential to take advantage of a number of naturally occurring mutations that contribute to either disease susceptibility or resistance. Just as with any new field, several models of screening are being explored, and innovators are working on the most efficient methods to overcome the inherent limitations of primary cell screens using iPSCs. In the present review, we provide a background regarding why iPSCs represent a paradigm shift for central nervous system (CNS) disease modeling. We describe the efforts in the field to develop more biologically relevant CNS disease models, which should provide screening assays useful for the pharmaceutical industry. We also provide some examples of successful uses for iPSC-based screens and suggest that additional development could revolutionize the field of drug discovery. The development and implementation of these advanced iPSC-based screens will create a more efficient disease-specific process underpinned by the biological mechanism in a patient- and disease-specific manner rather than by trial-and-error. Moreover, with careful and strategic planning, shared resources can be developed that will enable exponential advances in the field. This will undoubtedly lead to more sensitive and accurate screens for early diagnosis and allow the identification of patient-specific therapies, thus, paving the way to personalized medicine. PMID:25368377

  12. The association of central retinal artery occlusion and extracranial carotid artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, D J; Schuler, J J; Buchbinder, D; Dillon, B C; Flanigan, D P

    1988-01-01

    To determine the incidence of associated carotid artery disease and the effect of carotid endarterectomy on subsequent neurologic sequelae, a retrospective study of 66 patients with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) was undertaken. Ipsilateral extracranial carotid artery disease was present in 23 of 33 patients (70%) who had carotid arteriography. Sixteen patients had carotid endarterectomy following their CRAO (Group I) and 50 did not (Group II). Seven of the 40 patients available for follow-up in Group II had a subsequent stroke (mean follow-up: 54 months). Of the seven Group II patients shown to have associated carotid disease (Group IIs), three (43%) had a subsequent stroke during follow-up (mean: 28.3 months) compared to zero in Group I (p = 0.033; mean follow-up: 18.7 months). Because of the strong association between CRAO and ipsilateral carotid artery disease and because of the significantly higher incidence of subsequent ipsilateral stroke in CRAO patients with carotid disease who did not undergo endarterectomy, thorough evaluation of the carotid arteries followed by carotid endarterectomy, if indicated, is warranted in CRAO patients who have no other obvious etiology for the occlusion. PMID:3389947

  13. Olfactory dysfunction, central cholinergic integrity and cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martijn L. T. M.; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A.; Kilbourn, Michael A.; Albin, Roger L.; Frey, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is common in subjects with Parkinson’s disease. The pathophysiology of such dysfunction, however, remains poorly understood. Neurodegeneration within central regions involved in odour perception may contribute to olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Central cholinergic deficits occur in Parkinson’s disease and cholinergic neurons innervate regions, such as the limbic archicortex, involved in odour perception. We investigated the relationship between performance on an odour identification task and forebrain cholinergic denervation in Parkinson’s disease subjects without dementia. Fifty-eight patients with Parkinson’s disease (mean Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.5 ± 0.5) without dementia (mean Mini-Mental State Examination, 29.0 ± 1.4) underwent a clinical assessment, [11C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate acetylcholinesterase brain positron emission tomography and olfactory testing with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease was confirmed by [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 positron emission tomography. We found that odour identification test scores correlated positively with acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampal formation (r = 0.56, P < 0.0001), amygdala (r = 0.50, P < 0.0001) and neocortex (r = 0.46, P = 0.0003). Striatal monoaminergic activity correlated positively with odour identification scores (r = 0.30, P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis including limbic (hippocampal and amygdala) and neocortical acetylcholinesterase activity as well as striatal monoaminergic activity, using odour identification scores as the dependent variable, demonstrated a significant regressor effect for limbic acetylcholinesterase activity (F = 10.1, P < 0.0001), borderline for striatal monoaminergic activity (F = 1.6, P = 0.13), but not significant for cortical acetylcholinesterase activity (F = 0.3, P = 0.75). Odour identification scores

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2012-06-01

    Central catecholamine deficiency characterizes α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuronal metabolites of catecholamines provide neurochemical biomarkers of these disorders. To test this hypothesis we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols including dopamine, norepinephrine and their main respective neuronal metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol in Parkinson's disease and two other synucleinopathies, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. Cerebrospinal fluid catechols were assayed in 146 subjects-108 synucleinopathy patients (34 Parkinson's disease, 54 multiple system atrophy, 20 pure autonomic failure) and 38 controls. In 14 patients cerebrospinal fluid was obtained before or within 2 years after the onset of parkinsonism. The Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure groups all had lower cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [0.86 ± 0.09 (SEM), 1.00 ± 0.09, 1.32 ± 0.12 nmol/l] than controls (2.15 ± 0.18 nmol/l; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001; P = 0.0002). Dihydroxyphenylglycol was also lower in the three synucleinopathies (8.82 ± 0.44, 7.75 ± 0.42, 5.82 ± 0.65 nmol/l) than controls (11.0 ± 0.62 nmol/l; P = 0.009, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001). Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was lower and dihydroxyphenylglycol higher in Parkinson's disease than in pure autonomic failure. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was 100% sensitive at 89% specificity in separating patients with recent onset of parkinsonism from controls but was of no value in differentiating Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy. Synucleinopathies feature cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical evidence for central dopamine and norepinephrine deficiency. Parkinson's disease and pure autonomic failure involve differential dopaminergic versus noradrenergic lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid

  15. [Infections related to central venous catheters in children affected from malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik

    2011-06-27

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are an essential part of the treatment of children with haematological and oncological diseases. Unfortunately, CVC also represent a major risk factor of bloodstream infections. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in children are often diagnosed based on blood cultures from the CVC only. Most CRBSI can be treated without catheter removal. On suspicion of CRBSI empirical antibiotic treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem or ampicillin in combination with gentamicin is recommended. The systemic treatment can be combined with catheter-lock therapy. PMID:21712011

  16. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Samadian, Mohammad; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy. PMID:25653877

  17. Central nervous system tuberculosis: an imaging-focused review of a reemerging disease.

    PubMed

    Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Pourghorban, Ramin; Samadian, Mohammad; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy. PMID:25653877

  18. Prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Malak, A K; Mpoke, L; Banak, J; Muriuki, S; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D; Sunter, J; Kiara, H

    2012-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted in Kajo Keji and Yei Counties, Central Equatoria State, southern Sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. A serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the PE study. PE data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. Information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. Constraints in livestock keeping were explored through description and probing. Proportional piling on the importance of different diseases and relative incidence scoring were also conducted. 243 sera were collected from cattle and tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Theileria mutans and T. parva by ELISA. Additionally, 173 blood samples were collected for a PCR assay of T. parva. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraint to livestock keeping. While East Coast fever was ranked as the most important disease in Kajo Keji, diarrhoea in small ruminants was reported as the most important disease in Yei. Serological analyses of the sera indicated that A. marginale, B. bigemina, T. mutans and T. parva were most prevalent. Prevalence of B. bovis was found to be low (4.0% and 7.4% in Kajo Keji and Yei, respectively). 35% of the samples screened with the T. parva p104 gene nested PCR assay were positive. The study concludes that while ECF is the most important disease in Kajo Keji, it was not the case in Yei. Additional epidemiological studies are proposed before control strategies are recommended. PMID:22244519

  19. Dcc Mediates Functional Assembly of Peripheral Auditory Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young J.; Wang, Sheng-zhi; Tymanskyj, Stephen; Ma, Le; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

    2016-01-01

    Proper structural organization of spiral ganglion (SG) innervation is crucial for normal hearing function. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the developmental formation of this precise organization remain not well understood. Here, we report in the developing mouse cochlea that deleted in colorectal cancer (Dcc) contributes to the proper organization of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) within the Rosenthal’s canal and of SGN projections toward both the peripheral and central auditory targets. In Dcc mutant embryos, mispositioning of SGNs occurred along the peripheral auditory pathway with misrouted afferent fibers and reduced synaptic contacts with hair cells. The central auditory pathway simultaneously exhibited similar defective phenotypes as in the periphery with abnormal exit of SGNs from the Rosenthal’s canal towards central nuclei. Furthermore, the axons of SGNs ascending into the cochlear nucleus had disrupted bifurcation patterns. Thus, Dcc is necessary for establishing the proper spatial organization of SGNs and their fibers in both peripheral and central auditory pathways, through controlling axon targeting and cell migration. Our results suggest that Dcc plays an important role in the developmental formation of peripheral and central auditory circuits, and its mutation may contribute to sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:27040640

  20. Pulmonary, Gonadal, and Central Nervous System Status after Bone Marrow Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Mark C.; Hardy, Karen; Edwards, Sandie; Adamkiewicz, Thomas; Barkovich, James; Bernaudin, Francoise; Buchanan, George R.; Bunin, Nancy; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giller, Roger; Haut, Paul R.; Horan, John; Hsu, Lewis L.; Kamani, Naynesh; Levine, John E.; Margolis, David; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Patience, Melinda; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa; Roberts, Irene A. G.; Rogers, Zora R.; Sanders, Jean E.; Scott, J. Paul; Sullivan, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, multicenter investigation of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) between 1991 and 2000. To determine if children were protected from complications of SCD after successful BMT, we extended our initial study of BMT for SCD to conduct assessments of the central nervous system (CNS) and of pulmonary function 2 or more years after transplantation. In addition, the impact on gonadal function was studied. After BMT, patients with stroke who had stable engraftment of donor cells experienced no subsequent stroke events after BMT, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams demonstrated stable or improved appearance. However, 2 patients with graft rejection had a second stroke after BMT. After transplantation, most patients also had unchanged or improved pulmonary function. Among the 11 patients who had restrictive lung changes at baseline, 5 were improved and 6 had persistent restrictive disease after BMT. Of the 2 patients who had obstructive changes at baseline, 1 improved and 1 had worsened obstructive disease after BMT. There was, however, significant gonadal toxicity after BMT, particularly among female recipients. In summary, individuals who had stable donor engraftment did not experience sickle-related complications after BMT, and were protected from progressive CNS and pulmonary disease. PMID:19822218

  1. The Drosophila Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoff-Falk, Grace; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a functional auditory system in Drosophila requires specification and differentiation of the chordotonal sensilla of Johnston’s organ (JO) in the antenna, correct axonal targeting to the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) in the brain, and synaptic connections to neurons in the downstream circuit. Chordotonal development in JO is functionally complicated by structural, molecular and functional diversity that is not yet fully understood, and construction of the auditory neural circuitry is only beginning to unfold. Here we describe our current understanding of developmental and molecular mechanisms that generate the exquisite functions of the Drosophila auditory system, emphasizing recent progress and highlighting important new questions arising from research on this remarkable sensory system. PMID:24719289

  2. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  3. Glucocerebrosidase L444P mutation confers genetic risk for Parkinson’s disease in central China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutations of the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have reportedly been associated with Parkinson disease (PD) in various ethnic populations such as Singaporean, Japanese, Formosan, Canadian, American, Portuguese, Greek, Brazilian, British, Italian, Ashkenazi Jewish, southern and southwestern Chinese. The purpose of this study is to determine in central China whether or not the reported GBA mutations remain associated with PD. Methods In this project, we conducted a controlled study in a cohort of 208 central Chinese PD patients and 298 controls for three known GBA mutations (L444P, N370S and R120W). Results Our data reveals a significantly higher frequency of L444P mutation in GBA gene of PD cases (3.4%) compared with the controls (0.3%) (P = 0.007, OR = 10.34, 95% CI = 1.26 - 84.71). Specifically, the frequency of L444P mutation was higher in the late onset PD (LOPD) cases compared with that in control subjects. The N370S and R120W mutations were detected in neither the PD group nor the control subjects. Conclusions Our observations demonstrated that the GBA L444P mutation confers genetic risk for PD, especially LOPD, among the population in the central China area. PMID:23227814

  4. For non-small cell lung cancer with T3 (central) disease, sleeve lobectomy or pneumonectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qian-Li; Guo, Yong-Qing; Shi, Bin; Tian, Yan-Chu; Song, Zhi-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonectomy (PN) has traditionally been the treatment of choice for central lung tumors for which the alternative is sleeve lobectomy (SL). The aim of this study was to compare early and long-term results after SL and PN in focusing on T3 central non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Patients who underwent SL (n=58) or PN (n=42) were retrospectively analyzed. For bias reduction, these 100 patients had been selected according to the following criteria: (I) tumor located in the main bronchus less than 2 cm distal to the carina; (II) there were no N2 disease; (III) no induction therapy was applied; (IV) complete resection (R0) was achieved. Results SL and PN patients had comparable mean ages, gender distribution, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), stage and tumor grade. Postoperative mortality (3.4% vs. 4.8%, P=1.0) and morbidity (41% vs. 38%, P=0.74) were similar between the two groups. Recurrences occurred in 48% of patients after SL and in 31% of those after PN (P=0.08). The 5-year survival after SL (64.8%) and PN (61.4%) was not significantly different (P=0.20). Multivariable survival analysis showed that there were no independent prognostic factors. Conclusions SL does not compromise survival for NSCLC with T3 central disease compared with PN. It is an adequate oncologic resection and should be treated as the first line intervention whenever complete resection can be achieved. PMID:27293841

  5. Peripheral inflammatory disease associated with centrally activated IL-1 system in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Lampa, Jon; Westman, Marie; Kadetoff, Diana; Agréus, Anna Nordenstedt; Le Maître, Erwan; Gillis-Haegerstrand, Caroline; Andersson, Magnus; Khademi, Mohsen; Corr, Maripat; Christianson, Christina A; Delaney, Ada; Yaksh, Tony L; Kosek, Eva; Svensson, Camilla I

    2012-07-31

    During peripheral immune activation caused by an infection or an inflammatory condition, the innate immune response signals to the brain and causes an up-regulation of central nervous system (CNS) cytokine production. Central actions of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-1β, are pivotal for the induction of fever and fatigue. In the present study, the influence of peripheral chronic joint inflammatory disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on CNS inflammation was investigated. Intrathecal interleukin (IL)-1β concentrations were markedly elevated in RA patients compared with controls or with patients with multiple sclerosis. Conversely, the anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-4 were decreased in RA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 levels in the CSF did not differ between patients and controls. Concerning IL-1β, CSF concentrations in RA patients were higher than in serum, indicating local production in the CNS, and there was a positive correlation between CSF IL-1β and fatigue assessments. Next, spinal inflammation in experimental arthritis was investigated. A marked increase of IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor, but not IL-6 mRNA production, in the spinal cord was observed, coinciding with increased arthritis scores in the KBxN serum transfer model. These data provide evidence that peripheral inflammation such as arthritis is associated with an immunological activation in the CNS in both humans and mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic target for centrally affecting conditions as fatigue in chronic inflammatory diseases, for which to date there are no specific treatments. PMID:22802629

  6. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on pork and chicken prices in Central Luzon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Abao, Lary Nel B; Kono, Hiroichi; Gunarathne, Anoma; Promentilla, Rolando R; Gaerlan, Manolita Z

    2014-03-01

    Central Luzon is the number one pig-producing region in the Philippines and was affected by Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in 1995. In this paper, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon meat market from 1995 to 1999 was examined. Employing the error correction model (ECM) and historical decomposition, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon pork and chicken meat market was quantified. The following findings were observed: (a) pig farm and pork wholesale prices dropped 11.8% and 15.7%, respectively, after the initial FMD outbreaks in January, 1995; (b) in February, 1995, chicken farm and wholesale prices declined by 21.1% and 14.2%, respectively (while chicken retail prices also went down by 10.5%); (c) the margins of pig and chicken traders were also adversely affected at some point; and (d) FMD caused changes of dynamic interdependence among prices by meat type at different levels of the meat supply chain. This study makes several contributions to the literature on the impact of FMD outbreaks. This study is the first that simultaneously investigates the impact of FMD outbreaks on meat prices, price margins along the supply chain, and price interdependence in the meat system in Central Luzon, Philippines. Also, the Philippine pork industry is dominated by backyard farmers rather than the predominantly large commercial pig farmers existing in developed countries. Secondly, it yielded the novel finding of price decline in both pig and chicken prices as a result of the FMD outbreaks. And lastly, the study showed that the profit margins of the pig traders, pork traders, chicken traders and chicken meat traders were also negatively affected by the FMD outbreaks in January 1995. However, over the long term, the price margins of pork traders were more severely affected in contrast to that of the other traders' profits. PMID:24433637

  7. Peripheral vs. Central Sex Steroid Hormones in Experimental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Simon; Gillies, Glenda E.

    2011-01-01

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyze the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females) or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatized to estrogen centrally) have negligible effects on dopaminergic neuron survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realize the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies

  8. Widespread correction of central nervous system disease after intracranial gene therapy in a feline model of Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, V J; Rockwell, H E; Arthur, J R; Bradbury, A M; Johnson, A K; Randle, A N; Brunson, B L; Hwang, M; Gray-Edwards, H L; Morrison, N E; Johnson, J A; Baker, H J; Cox, N R; Seyfried, T N; Sena-Esteves, M; Martin, D R

    2015-02-01

    Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by deficiency of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (Hex) resulting in pathological accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in lysosomes of the central nervous system (CNS) and progressive neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no treatment for SD, which often results in death by the age of five years. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy achieved global CNS Hex restoration and widespread normalization of storage in the SD mouse model. Using a similar treatment approach, we sought to translate the outcome in mice to the feline SD model as an important step toward human clinical trials. Sixteen weeks after four intracranial injections of AAVrh8 vectors, Hex activity was restored to above normal levels throughout the entire CNS and in cerebrospinal fluid, despite a humoral immune response to the vector. In accordance with significant normalization of a secondary lysosomal biomarker, ganglioside storage was substantially improved, but not completely cleared. At the study endpoint, 5-month-old AAV-treated SD cats had preserved neurological function and gait compared with untreated animals (humane endpoint, 4.4±0.6 months) demonstrating clinical benefit from AAV treatment. Translation of widespread biochemical disease correction from the mouse to the feline SD model provides optimism for treatment of the larger human CNS with minimal modification of approach. PMID:25474439

  9. Zebra Chip, a New Potato Disease in North and Central America, is Associated with the Potato Psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC) is an important and emerging potato disease that is causing millions of dollars in losses to both potato producers and processors in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America. This disease is characterized by symptoms that develop in fried chips from infected potato...

  10. Hearing it right: Evidence of hemispheric lateralization in auditory imagery.

    PubMed

    Prete, Giulia; Marzoli, Daniele; Brancucci, Alfredo; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-02-01

    An advantage of the right ear (REA) in auditory processing (especially for verbal content) has been firmly established in decades of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging research. The laterality of auditory imagery, however, has received little attention, despite its potential relevance for the understanding of auditory hallucinations and related phenomena. In Experiments 1-4 we find that right-handed participants required to imagine hearing a voice or a sound unilaterally show a strong population bias to localize the self-generated auditory image at their right ear, likely the result of left-hemispheric dominance in auditory processing. In Experiments 5-8 - by means of the same paradigm - it was also ascertained that the right-ear bias for hearing imagined voices depends just on auditory attention mechanisms, as biases due to other factors (i.e., lateralized movements) were controlled. These results, suggesting a central role of the left hemisphere in auditory imagery, demonstrate that brain asymmetries can drive strong lateral biases in mental imagery. PMID:26706706

  11. Pathophysiological mechanisms and functional hearing consequences of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rance, Gary; Starr, Arnold

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inner ear abnormality on audibility have been explored since the early 20th century when sound detection measures were first used to define and quantify 'hearing loss'. The development in the 1970s of objective measures of cochlear hair cell function (cochlear microphonics, otoacoustic emissions, summating potentials) and auditory nerve/brainstem activity (auditory brainstem responses) have made it possible to distinguish both synaptic and auditory nerve disorders from sensory receptor loss. This distinction is critically important when considering aetiology and management. In this review we address the clinical and pathophysiological features of auditory neuropathy that distinguish site(s) of dysfunction. We describe the diagnostic criteria for: (i) presynaptic disorders affecting inner hair cells and ribbon synapses; (ii) postsynaptic disorders affecting unmyelinated auditory nerve dendrites; (iii) postsynaptic disorders affecting auditory ganglion cells and their myelinated axons and dendrites; and (iv) central neural pathway disorders affecting the auditory brainstem. We review data and principles to identify treatment options for affected patients and explore their benefits as a function of site of lesion. PMID:26463676

  12. [Auditory hallucinations in lesions of the brain stem].

    PubMed

    Cambier, J; Decroix, J P; Masson, C

    1987-01-01

    Since the publication by Jean Lhermitte in 1922 of his paper on hallucinosis, the peduncular type has been described as a purely visual phenomenon. However, limited brain stem lesions can give rise to analogous manifestations in the auditory field. Five cases of auditory hallucinosis are reviewed, the first four resulting from a lesion of tegmentum of pons responsible for contralateral hemi-anesthesia and homolateral facial palsy with paralysis of laterality. Central type hypoacusis and a severe disorder of localization of sounds revealed a lesion of trapezoid body. The fifth case resulted from a peduncular lesion in region supplied by superior cerebellar artery, the auditory deficit being related to a lesion of inferior corpus quadrigeminum. In one patient, the auditory hallucinosis was followed by a period of visual hallucinations and oneiric delusions. Both auditory and visual hallucinosis can be related to hypnagogic hallucinations. Dream mechanisms (the geniculo-occipital spikes system) escape from normal inhibitory control exerted by the raphe nuclei. Auditory deafferentation could predispose to auditory hallucinosis. PMID:3629075

  13. Localized Cell and Drug Delivery for Auditory Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Chikar, Jennifer A.; Crumling, Mark A.; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Localized cell and drug delivery to the cochlea and central auditory pathway can improve the safety and performance of implanted auditory prostheses (APs). While generally successful, these devices have a number of limitations and adverse effects including limited tonal and dynamic ranges, channel interactions, unwanted stimulation of non-auditory nerves, immune rejection, and infections including meningitis. Many of these limitations are associated with the tissue reactions to implanted auditory prosthetic devices and the gradual degeneration of the auditory system following deafness. Strategies to reduce the insertion trauma, degeneration of target neurons, fibrous and bony tissue encapsulation, and immune activation can improve the viability of tissue required for AP function as well as improve the resolution of stimulation for reduced channel interaction and improved place-pitch and level discrimination. Many pharmaceutical compounds have been identified that promote the viability of auditory tissue and prevent inflammation and infection. Cell delivery and gene therapy have provided promising results for treating hearing loss and reversing degeneration. Currently, many clinical and experimental methods can produce extremely localized and sustained drug delivery to address AP limitations. These methods provide better control over drug concentrations while eliminating the adverse effects of systemic delivery. Many of these drug delivery techniques can be integrated into modern auditory prosthetic devices to optimize the tissue response to the implanted device and reduce the risk of infection or rejection. Together, these methods and pharmaceutical agents can be used to optimize the tissue-device interface for improved AP safety and effectiveness. PMID:18573323

  14. A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2002-08-01

    Speaking and singing present the auditory system of the caller with two fundamental problems: discriminating between self-generated and external auditory signals and preventing desensitization. In humans and many other vertebrates, auditory neurons in the brain are inhibited during vocalization but little is known about the nature of the inhibition. Here we show, using intracellular recordings of auditory neurons in the singing cricket, that presynaptic inhibition of auditory afferents and postsynaptic inhibition of an identified auditory interneuron occur in phase with the song pattern. Presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition persist in a fictively singing, isolated cricket central nervous system and are therefore the result of a corollary discharge from the singing motor network. Mimicking inhibition in the interneuron by injecting hyperpolarizing current suppresses its spiking response to a 100-dB sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic stimulus and maintains its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. Inhibition by the corollary discharge reduces the neural response to self-generated sound and protects the cricket's auditory pathway from self-induced desensitization.

  15. Neonatal Screening and the Clinical Outcome in Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhye, Dipti S.; Jain, Dipty L.; Trivedi, Yogesh L.; Nadkarni, Anita H.; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major health burden in India. The objective of the study was to establish a neonatal screening program and to understand the clinical course of children with SCD in central India. Methods and Findings Pregnant mothers were screened for sickle hemoglobin using the solubility test. Babies were screened by high performance liquid chromatography if the mother was positive for sickle hemoglobin. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis. They received early prophylactic treatment and vaccination. Of 2134 newborns screened, 104 were sickle homozygous (SS), seven had sickle β-thalassemia (S-β thal) and 978 were sickle heterozygous (AS). The other hemoglobin abnormalities detected included HbS -δβ thalassemia-1, HbSD disease-2, HbE traits-5, β-thalassemia traits-4, alpha chain variants-3 and HbH disease-1.These babies were followed up regularly for hematological and clinical evaluation. Pain, severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and acute febrile illness were the major complications with 59.7, 45.1 and 42.6 cases per 100 person years. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels were inversely associated with vaso-oclussive crisis (VOC) and severe anemia while presence of alpha thalassemia increased the rate of painful events and sepsis. Six early deaths occurred among the SS babies. Conclusion A systematic follow up of this first newborn SCD cohort in central India showed that 47% of babies presented within 1 year of age. In spite of the presence of the Arab-Indian haplotype many babies had severe manifestations. PMID:26785407

  16. Auditory neuropathy: a challenge for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Declau, F; Boudewyns, A; Van den Ende, J; van de Heyning, P

    2013-01-01

    In current terminology, auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a disease involving the disruption of the temporal coding of acoustic signals in auditory nerve fibres, resulting in the impairment of auditory perceptions that rely on temporal cues. There is debate about almost every aspect of the disorder, including aetiology, lesion sites, and the terminology used to describe it. ANSD is a heterogeneous disease despite similar audiological findings. The absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR) and the presence of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) suggest an ANSD profile. However, to determine the exact anatomical site of the disorder, more in-depth audiological and electrophysiological tests must be combined with imaging, genetics and neurological examinations. Greater diagnostic specificity is therefore needed to provide these patients with more adequate treatment. PMID:24383225

  17. Disseminated Hemangioblastoma of the Central Nervous System without Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sun-Yoon; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Hemangioblastoma (HB) of the central nervous system may occur sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Disseminated HB means malignant spread of the original primary HB without local recurrence at surgically resected site. It has been rarely reported previously, and rarer especially without VHL gene mutation. We report a case of disseminated HB without VHL disease. A 59-year-old man underwent a surgery for total removal of a cerebellar HB. From five years after the surgery, multiple dissemination of HB was identified intracranially and he subsequently underwent cyberknife radiosurgery. The lesions got smaller temporarily, but they soon grew larger. Nine years after the initial surgery for cerebellar HB, he showed severe back pain. His magnetic resonance image of spine revealed intradural extramedullary mass at T6-7 level. Complete surgical removal of the mass was performed and the pathological diagnosis was identical to the previous one. He had no evidence of VHL disease. And there was no recurrence of the tumor at the site of the original operation. The exact mechanism of dissemination is unknown, but the surgeon should be cautious of tumor cell spillage during surgery and prudently consider the decision to perform ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. In addition, continuous follow-up for recurrence or dissemination is necessary for patients even who underwent complete removal of cerebellar HB. PMID:25408933

  18. MicroRNAs: Key Regulators in the Central Nervous System and Their Implication in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dan-Dan; Li, Lu; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, well-conserved noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They have been demonstrated to regulate a lot of biological pathways and cellular functions. Many miRNAs are dynamically regulated during central nervous system (CNS) development and are spatially expressed in adult brain indicating their essential roles in neural development and function. In addition, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that dysfunction of miRNAs contributes to neurological diseases. These observations, together with their gene regulation property, implicated miRNAs to be the key regulators in the complex genetic network of the CNS. In this review, we first focus on the ways through which miRNAs exert the regulatory function and how miRNAs are regulated in the CNS. We then summarize recent findings that highlight the versatile roles of miRNAs in normal CNS physiology and their association with several types of neurological diseases. Subsequently we discuss the limitations of miRNAs research based on current studies as well as the potential therapeutic applications and challenges of miRNAs in neurological disorders. We endeavor to provide an updated description of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in normal CNS functions and pathogenesis of neurological diseases. PMID:27240359

  19. Auditory Memory for Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Denis; Wellsted, David

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies are reported examining how the context of recent auditory stimulation may modulate the processing of new sounds. The question posed is how recent tone stimulation may affect ongoing performance in a discrimination task. In the task, two complex sounds occurred in successive intervals. A single target component of one complex…

  20. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  1. Auditory Channel Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  2. Listening to Another Sense: Somatosensory Integration in the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Stefanescu, Roxana A.; Martel, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, sensory systems are viewed as separate entities, each with its own physiological process serving a different purpose. However, many functions require integrative inputs from multiple sensory systems, and sensory intersection and convergence occur throughout the central nervous system. The neural processes for hearing perception undergo significant modulation by the two other major sensory systems, vision and somatosensation. This synthesis occurs at every level of the ascending auditory pathway: the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and the auditory cortex. In this review, we explore the process of multisensory integration from 1) anatomical (inputs and connections), 2) physiological (cellular responses), 3) functional, and 4) pathological aspects. We focus on the convergence between auditory and somatosensory inputs in each ascending auditory station. This review highlights the intricacy of sensory processing, and offers a multisensory perspective regarding the understanding of sensory disorders. PMID:25526698

  3. Auditory Neuroimaging with fMRI and PET

    PubMed Central

    Talavage, Thomas M.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Scott, Sophie K.

    2013-01-01

    For much of the past 30 years, investigations of auditory perception and language have been enhanced or even driven by the use of functional neuroimaging techniques that specialize in localization of central responses. Beginning with investigations using positron emission tomography (PET) and gradually shifting primarily to usage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), auditory neuroimaging has greatly advanced our understanding of the organization and response properties of brain regions critical to the perception of and communication with the acoustic world in which we live. As the complexity of the questions being addressed has increased, the techniques, experiments and analyses applied have also become more nuanced and specialized. A brief review of the history of these investigations sets the stage for an overview and analysis of how these neuroimaging modalities are becoming ever more effective tools for understanding the auditory brain. We conclude with a brief discussion of open methodological issues as well as potential clinical applications for auditory neuroimaging. PMID:24076424

  4. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. PMID:22500034

  5. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty. PMID:24846528

  6. [The therapeutic effect of central nervous stimulants in edema disease of swine].

    PubMed

    Orban, P; Bilkei Papp, G; Bölcskei, A

    1993-12-01

    During a natural outbreak of edema disease in different farms 160 weaned piglets showing the clinical symptoms of palpebral edema, mental discomfort and apathy were selected and divided into three groups. The groups were treated as follows: Group 1 (51 piglets) received twice daily one i. m. dose of Gentamycin (11 mg/kg body weight), Prednisolone (1 mg/kg body weight), Melperone (4 mg/kg body weight) for 3 days. Group 2 (55 piglets) received twice daily one i. m. dose of Amphetaminum Phosphoricum 1 mg/kg body weight for 3 days. Group 3 (54 piglets) untreated control. The result showed that group 2 treated with stimulant of the central nervous system gave the best results concerning survival. It ist the authors opinion that concerning clinical symptoms and therapy further classification is necessary. PMID:7907469

  7. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Patient with Retinal Vasculitis and Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Lígia; Rothwell, Renata; Brandão, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of a 47-year-old woman with Crohn's disease (CD) who presented with retinal vasculitis and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) during remission. The patient complained of sudden painless visual loss in her left eye (OS). Ophthalmologic evaluation revealed a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20 in the right eye and hand movements in OS. Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography of OS showed signs of nonischemic CRVO and extensive vasculitis. She was treated with oral prednisolone, mercaptopurine, and intravitreal bevacizumab in OS. After 1 month of treatment, VA of OS improved to 5/10 and after 1 year it was 10/10 with complete resolution of retinal vasculitis and nonischemic CRVO. PMID:25506451

  8. Central neuraxial blockade for splenectomy in myeloproliferative disease: A word of caution

    PubMed Central

    Myatra, SN; Kothekar, A; Siddiqui, SS; Divatia, JV

    2015-01-01

    We describe management of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in a patient with myeloproliferative disease after splenectomy. This case posed a unique therapeutic challenge in maintaining a fine balance between life-saving thrombolysis and the risk of neuraxial complications due to bleeding. The incidence of PVT after splenectomy in patients with myeloproliferative disorders is high (40%). Anaesthesiologists should be aware of this and avoid central neuraxial blockade in such cases. If post-operative emergency thrombolysis is required in a patient having an epidural catheter in situ, it should be done under close monitoring, weighing the risks and benefits. Fibrinogen levels should be monitored to evaluate the presence of residual thrombolytic effects and to time the catheter removal. PMID:26644616

  9. Clonal distribution of Streptococcus suis isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Bárbara; Ruiz, Álvaro; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of 29 Chilean field strains of Streptococcus suis recovered between 2007 and 2011 from pigs with clinical signs at different farms were studied. Serotyping with use of the coagglutination test revealed that all but 1 strain belonged to serotype 6; the remaining strain was serotype 22. All the serotype-6 strains were suilysin (hemolysin)-negative; in addition, they were found to be genotypically homogeneous by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and sensitive to ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results indicate that, in contrast to what is generally observed in other countries, a single clone of S. suis was isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile. PMID:26424917

  10. Role of Nuclear Receptors in Central Nervous System Development and Associated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ana Maria; Moreno-Ramos, Oscar Andrés; Haider, Neena B

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily is composed of a wide range of receptors involved in a myriad of important biological processes, including development, growth, metabolism, and maintenance. Regulation of such wide variety of functions requires a complex system of gene regulation that includes interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complex, and the proper recognition of ligands. NHRs are able to coordinate the expression of genes in numerous pathways simultaneously. This review focuses on the role of nuclear receptors in the central nervous system and, in particular, their role in regulating the proper development and function of the brain and the eye. In addition, the review highlights the impact of mutations in NHRs on a spectrum of human diseases from autism to retinal degeneration. PMID:27168725

  11. [Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Central Core Disease for Scoliosis Surgery].

    PubMed

    Jimi, Nobuo; Izumi, Kaoru; Sumiyoshi, Rieko; Mizuno, Keiichiro

    2016-06-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is a dominantly inherited congenital myopathy. CCD is also associated with muscular and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), hip dislocation, and joint deformities. CCD and malignant hyperthermia (MH) are both associated with mutations in the ryanodine receptor on chromosome 19q13.1. An 11-year-old boy with CCD complicated with severe scoliosis was scheduled for spinal fusion surgery under general anesthesia. Furthermore, he had trismus caused by temporomandibular contracture. He was considered as MH susceptible. Anesthesia was managed with remifentanil and propofol without using muscle relaxtants and volatile anesthetics. We could intubate the trachea with Airtraq laryngoscope without any complications. The perioperative course was uneventful. PMID:27483668

  12. A case of Erdheim Chester disease with central nervous system involvement

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anil Kumar; Muthusamy, Karthik; Aaron, Sanjith; Alexander, Mathew; Kachare, Nanda; Mani, Sunithi; Sniya, Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    Erdheim Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, commonly involving the musculoskeletal system. Other tissue can also be involved, including the central nervous system with wide spectrum of clinical features, at times being nonspecific. This can cause diagnostic dilemmas with delay in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here we describe a 63-year-old man who had presented with ataxia and behavioral changes, bony pains, weight loss, and fatigue. His computed tomography (CT), 99Tc scintigraphy and histopathological features on bone biopsy were consistent with ECD. Thus, ECD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bony pain and nonspecific features of multiorgan involvement. PMID:26425015

  13. TAM receptor tyrosine kinases: Expression, disease and oncogenesis in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Angela M.; Keating, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface proteins that tightly regulate a variety of downstream intra-cellular processes; ligand-receptor interactions result in cascades of signaling events leading to growth, proliferation, differentiation and migration. There are 58 described RTKs, which are further categorized into 20 different RTK families. When dysregulated or overexpressed, these RTKs are implicated in disordered growth, development, and oncogenesis. The TAM family of RTKs, consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK, is prominently expressed during the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Aberrant expression and dysregulated activation of TAM family members has been demonstrated in a variety of CNS-related disorders and diseases, including the most common but least treatable brain cancer in children and adults: glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:24184575

  14. Role of Nuclear Receptors in Central Nervous System Development and Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ana Maria; Moreno-Ramos, Oscar Andrés; Haider, Neena B.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily is composed of a wide range of receptors involved in a myriad of important biological processes, including development, growth, metabolism, and maintenance. Regulation of such wide variety of functions requires a complex system of gene regulation that includes interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complex, and the proper recognition of ligands. NHRs are able to coordinate the expression of genes in numerous pathways simultaneously. This review focuses on the role of nuclear receptors in the central nervous system and, in particular, their role in regulating the proper development and function of the brain and the eye. In addition, the review highlights the impact of mutations in NHRs on a spectrum of human diseases from autism to retinal degeneration. PMID:27168725

  15. A framework for integrating heterogeneous clinical data for a disease area into a central data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Karmen, Christian; Ganzinger, Matthias; Kohl, Christian D; Firnkorn, Daniel; Knaup-Gregori, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Structured collection of clinical facts is a common approach in clinical research. Especially in the analysis of rare diseases it is often necessary to aggregate study data from several sites in order to achieve a statistically significant cohort size. In this paper we describe a framework how to approach an integration of heterogeneous clinical data into a central register. This enables site-spanning queries for the occurrence of specific clinical facts and thus supports clinical research. The framework consists of three sequential steps, starting from a formal data harmonization process, to the data transformation methods and finally the integration into a proper data warehouse. We implemented reusable software templates that are based on our best practices in several projects in integrating heterogeneous clinical data. Our methods potentially increase the efficiency and quality for future data integration projects by reducing the implementation effort as well as the project management effort by usage of our approaches as a guideline. PMID:25160351

  16. On the central role of brain connectivity in neurodegenerative disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Evans, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased brain connectivity, in all its variants, is often considered an evolutionary advantage by mediating complex sensorimotor function and higher cognitive faculties. Interaction among components at all spatial scales, including genes, proteins, neurons, local neuronal circuits and macroscopic brain regions, are indispensable for such vital functions. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, from the microscopic to the macroscopic levels, such connections might also be a conduit for in intra-brain disease spreading. For instance, cell-to-cell misfolded proteins (MP) transmission and neuronal toxicity are prominent connectivity-mediated factors in aging and neurodegeneration. This article offers an overview of connectivity dysfunctions associated with neurodegeneration, with a specific focus on how these may be central to both normal aging and the neuropathologic degenerative progression. PMID:26052284

  17. Multimodality Review of Amyloid-related Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Miller-Thomas, Michelle M; Sipe, Adam L; Benzinger, Tammie L S; McConathy, Jonathan; Connolly, Sarah; Schwetye, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is ubiquitous in the central nervous system (CNS), but pathologic accumulation of Aβ results in four distinct neurologic disorders that affect middle-aged and elderly adults, with diverse clinical presentations ranging from chronic debilitating dementia to acute life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. The characteristic imaging patterns of Aβ-related CNS diseases reflect the pathophysiology of Aβ deposition in the CNS. Aβ is recognized as a key component in the neuronal damage that characterizes the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease, the most common form of dementia. Targeted molecular imaging shows pathologic accumulation of Aβ and tau protein, and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and anatomic imaging allow differentiation of typical patterns of neuronal dysfunction and loss in patients with Alzheimer disease from those seen in patients with other types of dementia. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of cognitive impairment and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly. Hemorrhage and white matter injury seen at imaging reflect vascular damage caused by the accumulation of Aβ in vessel walls. The rare forms of inflammatory angiopathy attributed to Aβ, Aβ-related angiitis and CAA-related inflammation, cause debilitating neurologic symptoms that improve with corticosteroid therapy. Imaging shows marked subcortical and cortical inflammation due to perivascular inflammation, which is incited by vascular Aβ accumulation. In the rarest of the four disorders, cerebral amyloidoma, the macroscopic accumulation of Aβ mimics the imaging appearance of tumors. Knowledge of the imaging patterns and pathophysiology is essential for accurate diagnosis of Aβ-related diseases of the CNS. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27399239

  18. Clinical characteristics in early Parkinson's disease in a central California population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gail A; Bronstein, Jeff M; Masterman, Donna L; Redelings, Matthew; Crum, Jarrod A; Ritz, Beate

    2005-09-01

    There is considerable variation in the phenotypic appearance of individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), which may translate into differences in disease progression in addition to underlying disease etiology. In this publication, we report on the demographic and clinical characteristics of 162 individuals diagnosed with clinically probable PD from January 1998 to June 2003 who resided in predominantly rural communities in central California. The majority of the subjects were Caucasian, male, and between 60 and 79 years of age. The akinetic-rigid and tremor-dominant subtypes were more common than the mixed subtype. The majority of subjects displayed motor signs of rigidity (92.0%), bradykinesia (95.7%), and gait problems (87.0%), whereas less than half (43.3%) of the subjects displayed a tremor. Three fourths of patients received a Hoehn and Yahr Scale score of Stage 2 or higher. One third of the patients were treated with levodopa, and patients under 60 years of age were more likely to be treated with dopamine agonists. Within 3 years after first diagnosis, 13% of subjects showed some signs of depression and 17% of subjects met criteria for mild dementia. Among our subjects, 17.3% reported a family history of PD in first- or second-degree relatives,15.4% a family history of essential tremor, and 14.2% of Alzheimer's disease. This study represents the most extensive phenotypic description of rural U.S. residents in the initial stages of PD who were recruited in a population-based manner; future follow-up may provide valuable information regarding the prognostic indication of these symptoms/signs and improve our understanding of the underlying etiology of PD. PMID:15954133

  19. Mapping tonotopy in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Pim; Langers, Dave R M

    2013-01-01

    Tonotopy is arguably the most prominent organizational principle in the auditory pathway. Nevertheless, the layout of tonotopic maps in humans is still debated. We present neuroimaging data that robustly identify multiple tonotopic maps in the bilateral auditory cortex. In contrast with some earlier publications, tonotopic gradients were not found to be collinearly aligned along Heschl's gyrus; instead, two tonotopic maps ran diagonally across the anterior and posterior banks of Heschl's gyrus, set at a pronounced angle. On the basis of the direction of the tonotopic gradient, distinct subdivisions of the auditory cortex could be clearly demarcated that suggest homologies with the tonotopic organization in other primates. Finally, we applied our method to tinnitus patients to show that - contradictory to some pathophysiological models - tinnitus does not necessarily involve large-scale tonotopic reorganization. Overall, we expect that tonotopic mapping techniques will significantly enhance our ability to study the hierarchical functional organization of distinct auditory processing centers in the healthy and diseased human brain. PMID:23716248

  20. Increased central microglial activation associated with peripheral cytokine levels in premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Politis, Marios; Lahiri, Nayana; Niccolini, Flavia; Su, Paul; Wu, Kit; Giannetti, Paolo; Scahill, Rachael I; Turkheimer, Federico E; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Piccini, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown activation of the immune system and altered immune response in Huntington's disease (HD) gene carriers. Here, we hypothesized that peripheral and central immune responses could be concurrent pathophysiological events and represent a global innate immune response to the toxic effects of mutant huntingtin in HD gene carriers. We sought to investigate our hypothesis using [(11)C]PK11195 PET as a translocator protein (TSPO) marker of central microglial activation, together with assessment of peripheral plasma cytokine levels in a cohort of premanifest HD gene carriers who were more than a decade from predicted symptomatic conversion. Data were also compared to those from a group of healthy controls matched for age and gender. We found significantly increased peripheral plasma IL-1β levels in premanifest HD gene carriers compared to the group of normal controls (P=0.018). Premanifest HD gene carriers had increased TSPO levels in cortical, basal ganglia and thalamic brain regions (P<0.001). Increased microglial activation in somatosensory cortex correlated with higher plasma levels of IL-1β (rs=0.87, P=0.013), IL-6 (rs=0.85, P=0.013), IL-8 (rs=0.68, P=0.045) and TNF-α (rs=0.79; P=0.013). Our findings provide first in vivo evidence for an association between peripheral and central immune responses in premanifest HD gene carriers, and provide further supporting evidence for the role of immune dysfunction in the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:26297319

  1. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  2. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Khowailed, Mohammad S; Suliman, Wijdan E; Al-Turaif, Deema A; Al-Bluwi, Eman; Al-Kahtani, Hassan S

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06), followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40) and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75). After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03), older age (P = 0.003), rural origin (P = 0.03), positive family history of the same lesion(s) (P = 0.01), shorter duration of ≤6 months (P = 0.02), generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02), and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02). Conclusion . The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the

  3. RNA-sequencing reveals oligodendrocyte and neuronal transcripts in microglia relevant to central nervous system disease

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jason; Wylie, Todd; Magrini, Vincent; Apicelli, Anthony J.; Griffith, Malachi; Griffith, Obi L.; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Wu, Gregory F.; Brody, David L.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Gutmann, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Expression profiling of distinct central nervous system (CNS) cell populations has been employed to facilitate disease classification and to provide insights into the molecular basis of brain pathology. One important cell type implicated in a wide variety of CNS disease states is the resident brain macrophage (microglia). In these studies, microglia are often isolated from dissociated brain tissue by flow sorting procedures (FACS) or from postnatal glial cultures by mechanic isolation. Given the highly dynamic and state-dependent functions of these cells, the use of FACS or short-term culture methods may not accurately capture the biology of brain microglia. In the current study, we performed RNA-sequencing using Cx3cr1+/GFP labeled microglia isolated from the brainstem of 6-week old mice to compare the transcriptomes of FACS-sorted versus laser-captured (LCM) microglia. While both isolation techniques resulted in a large number of shared (common) transcripts, we identified transcripts unique to FACS-isolated and LCM-captured microglia. In particular, ~50% of these LCM-isolated microglial transcripts represented genes typically associated with neurons and glia. While these transcripts clearly localized to microglia using complementary methods, they were not translated into protein. Following the induction of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), increased oligodendrocyte and neuronal transcripts were detected in microglia, while only the myelin basic protein oligodendrocyte transcript was increased in microglia after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Collectively, these findings have implications for the design and interpretation of microglia transcriptome-based investigations. PMID:25258010

  4. Vascular involvement of the central nervous system and systemic diseases: etiologies and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Simone; Faria, Andréia Vasconcellos; Zanardi, Verônica A; Fernandes, Sandra R; Costallat, Lilian Tereza Lavras; Cendes, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with vascular involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with systemic diseases. We reviewed the MRI findings in clinically suspected cases of vascular involvement of the CNS associated with systemic diseases. Vascular CNS involvement was considered in the presence of characteristic clinical, MRI and/or MR angiography findings. In order to be included in the study, patients needed to have a complete clinical and laboratory investigation and a follow-up of a minimum of 6 months. Twenty-four patients (17 women and 7 men), with mean age of 29.5 years had diagnosis of CNS vasculitis and were included. The clinical presentation was variable, but the most common complaints were headache in 18, focal deficits in 9, disturbances of consciousness in 9, and seizures in 8 patients. Underlying causes for CNS vasculitis were identified in all patients and included systemic lupus erythematosus in eight, tuberculosis in three, bacterial meningitis in three, Takayasu arteritis in two, polyarteritis nodosa in two, syphilis in two, drug abuse in two, yellow fever in one and varicella in one patient. Nonspecific high intensity T2WI/FLAIR lesions in white matter were the most common finding, present in ten patients. Eight patients had infarctions in large cerebral arteries territory, associated or not with high intensity T2WI/FLAIR small foci. Vascular involvement of the CNS can be found in a great variety of systemic diseases, including rheumatologic, infectious and drug abuse. Clinical findings are unspecific and MRI/MRA may help to establish the correct diagnosis. PMID:18651146

  5. Prevalence of Fabry Disease in Familial Mediterranean Fever Patients from Central Anatolia of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Huzmeli, Can; Candan, Ferhan; Alaygut, Demet; Bagci, Gokhan; Akkaya, Lale; Bagci, Binnur; Sozmen, Eser Yıldırım; Kurtulgan, Hande Kucuk; Kayatas, Mansur

    2016-08-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (AGALA) activity. FD and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) have typical clinical similarities, and both diseases may progress to end-stage renal diseases. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of FD in patients with FMF from Central Anatolia of Turkey. The study group consisted of 177 FMF patients, followed up by the Adult and Pediatric Nephrology Clinic of Cumhuriyet University Hospital. Screening for AGALA activity was performed by the dry blood spot method. Mutation analysis for GLA gene was carried out for patients having an AGALA enzyme activity value lower than the normal reference value. Low AGALA activity was detected in 23 (13 %) patients. Heterozygous GLA gene mutation c.[937G>T] p.[D313Y] was detected in one female patient (0.56 %). The patient was a 53-year-old female with proteinuria and who had undergone left nephrectomy; her glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by scintigraphy was found to be 70 ml/min. She had M694V mutation and no clinical manifestation of FD. In our study, the prevalence rate of FD was found as 0.56 % in FMF patients. The similarities between the symptoms of FMF and FD might lead to a diagnostic dilemma in physicians at countries where FMF is observed frequently. Although the prevalence of FD is rare, physicians should keep in mind that FD has an ambiguous symptomology pattern of FMF. PMID:27105876

  6. Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT) diseases in Central Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Grace N; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of ear, nose and throat (ENT) often have serious consequences including hearing impairment, and emotional strain that lower the quality of life of patients. In Kenya, upper respiratory infections are among the most common infections encountered in outpatient facilities. Some of these infections are becoming difficult to control because some of the causing microorganisms have acquired antibiotic resistance and hence the need to develop new drugs with higher efficacy. Ethnobotanical studies have now been found to be instrumental in improving chances of discovering plants with antimicrobial activity in new drug development. In Kenya the majority of local people are turning to herbal remedies for primary health care needs. In most cases the sources of these remedies are undocumented and the knowledge about them passed orally form generation to generation, hence under threat of disappearing with current rates of modernisation. This study explored the traditional remedies used in managing various ENT diseases in seven districts of the Central Province of Kenya. The most common ENT conditions managed using traditional therapies include: common cold, cough, tonsillitis, otitis-media, chest pains and asthma. The results indicate that 67 species belonging to 36 plant families were utilized in this region. These plants were of varying habits; herbs (37.3%), shrubs (34.4%), trees (25.4%) as well as some grasses and sedges (3%). The traditional preparations were found to be made mainly from leaves (49%), roots (20.5%) and barks (12.5%). For each of the ENT conditions multiple species are utilized mainly as individual preparations but occasionally as polyherbal concoctions. In the case of common cold for example, 30 different species are used. Plants reported in this survey are important candidates for antimicrobial tests against ENT disease causing micro-organisms, especially those with antibiotic resistance. PMID:17192184

  7. Detection of Lyme Disease and Q Fever Agents in Wild Rodents in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Marco; Dall'Acqua, Francesca; Sozio, Giulia; Cammà, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The maintenance of tick-borne disease agents in the environment strictly depends on the relationship between tick vectors and their hosts, which act as reservoirs for these pathogens. A pilot study aimed to investigate wild rodents as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was carried out in an area of Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park (Abruzzi Region, central Italy), a wide protected area where, despite sporadic reports of infection in humans and animals, eco-epidemiological data on these diseases are still not available. Rodents were trapped and released at the capture site after the collection of feeding ticks and blood samples. In all, 172 ticks were collected; the most frequent species was Ixodes acuminatus (53%). Out of 88 tick pools, 11 resulted positive for C. burnetii and 13 for B. burgdorferi s.l.; the Borrelia afzelii genospecies was identified in one Ixodes ricinus tick collected from one Apodemus sp. rodent. Out of 143 blood samples, seven Apodemus spp. and five Myodes glareolus were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and two Apodemus spp. were positive for C. burnetii. All samples (ticks and blood) were negative for F. tularensis and A. phagocytophilum. This is the first report of B. burgdorferi s.l. in the environment for Abruzzi Region. Data on the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. are similar to that observed in other Mediterranean countries. The present work is also the first report of C. burnetii in wild rodents in Italy. C. burnetii infection has been largely investigated in Italy in ruminant farms by serology and molecular methods, but information on ecology and on the wild cycle are still lacking. Further studies including genotyping should be performed and species-specific differences between wild rodent reservoirs of Q fever and Lyme disease agents should be investigated. PMID:26134933

  8. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  9. Detection of Lyme Disease and Q Fever Agents in Wild Rodents in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Di Domenico, Marco; Dall'Acqua, Francesca; Sozio, Giulia; Cammà, Cesare

    2015-07-01

    The maintenance of tick-borne disease agents in the environment strictly depends on the relationship between tick vectors and their hosts, which act as reservoirs for these pathogens. A pilot study aimed to investigate wild rodents as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was carried out in an area of Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park (Abruzzi Region, central Italy), a wide protected area where, despite sporadic reports of infection in humans and animals, eco-epidemiological data on these diseases are still not available. Rodents were trapped and released at the capture site after the collection of feeding ticks and blood samples. In all, 172 ticks were collected; the most frequent species was Ixodes acuminatus (53%). Out of 88 tick pools, 11 resulted positive for C. burnetii and 13 for B. burgdorferi s.l.; the Borrelia afzelii genospecies was identified in one Ixodes ricinus tick collected from one Apodemus sp. rodent. Out of 143 blood samples, seven Apodemus spp. and five Myodes glareolus were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and two Apodemus spp. were positive for C. burnetii. All samples (ticks and blood) were negative for F. tularensis and A. phagocytophilum. This is the first report of B. burgdorferi s.l. in the environment for Abruzzi Region. Data on the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. are similar to that observed in other Mediterranean countries. The present work is also the first report of C. burnetii in wild rodents in Italy. C. burnetii infection has been largely investigated in Italy in ruminant farms by serology and molecular methods, but information on ecology and on the wild cycle are still lacking. Further studies including genotyping should be performed and species-specific differences between wild rodent reservoirs of Q fever and Lyme disease agents should be investigated. PMID:26134933

  10. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: Access in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn’s disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  11. Neural Correlates of Auditory Processing, Learning and Memory Formation in Songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaud, R.; Terleph, T. A.; Wynne, R. D.; Tremere, L. A.

    Songbirds have emerged as powerful experimental models for the study of auditory processing of complex natural communication signals. Intact hearing is necessary for several behaviors in developing and adult animals including vocal learning, territorial defense, mate selection and individual recognition. These behaviors are thought to require the processing, discrimination and memorization of songs. Although much is known about the brain circuits that participate in sensorimotor (auditory-vocal) integration, especially the ``song-control" system, less is known about the anatomical and functional organization of central auditory pathways. Here we discuss findings associated with a telencephalic auditory area known as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). NCM has attracted significant interest as it exhibits functional properties that may support higher order auditory functions such as stimulus discrimination and the formation of auditory memories. NCM neurons are vigorously dr iven by auditory stimuli. Interestingly, these responses are selective to conspecific, relative to heterospecific songs and artificial stimuli. In addition, forms of experience-dependent plasticity occur in NCM and are song-specific. Finally, recent experiments employing high-throughput quantitative proteomics suggest that complex protein regulatory pathways are engaged in NCM as a result of auditory experience. These molecular cascades are likely central to experience-associated plasticity of NCM circuitry and may be part of a network of calcium-driven molecular events that support the formation of auditory memory traces.

  12. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; van Oven, Mannis; Wallace, Douglas C; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-06-01

    MSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR also functions as a centralized application server for Web-based tools to analyze data across both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including investigator-driven whole exome or genome dataset analyses through MSeqDR-Genesis. MSeqDR-GBrowse genome browser supports interactive genomic data exploration and visualization with custom tracks relevant to mtDNA variation and mitochondrial disease. MSeqDR-LSDB is a locus-specific database that currently manages 178 mitochondrial diseases, 1,363 genes associated with mitochondrial biology or disease, and 3,711 pathogenic variants in those genes. MSeqDR Disease Portal allows hierarchical tree-style disease exploration to evaluate their unique descriptions, phenotypes, and causative variants. Automated genomic data submission tools are provided that capture ClinVar compliant variant annotations. PhenoTips will be used for phenotypic data submission on deidentified patients using human phenotype ontology terminology. The development of a dynamic informed patient consent process to guide data access is underway to realize the full potential of these resources. PMID:26919060

  13. The auditory characteristics of children with inner auditory canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yu; Xu, Lei; Li, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Jianfen; Wang, Mingming; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) in the children with inner auditory canal (IAC) stenosis is much higher than those without IAC stenosis, regardless of whether they have other inner ear anomalies. In addition, the auditory characteristics of ANSD with IAC stenosis are significantly different from those of ANSD without any middle and inner ear malformations. Objectives To describe the auditory characteristics in children with IAC stenosis as well as to examine whether the narrow inner auditory canal is associated with ANSD. Method A total of 21 children, with inner auditory canal stenosis, participated in this study. A series of auditory tests were measured. Meanwhile, a comparative study was conducted on the auditory characteristics of ANSD, based on whether the children were associated with isolated IAC stenosis. Results Wave V in the ABR was not observed in all the patients, while cochlear microphonic (CM) response was detected in 81.1% ears with stenotic IAC. Sixteen of 19 (84.2%) ears with isolated IAC stenosis had CM response present on auditory brainstem responses (ABR) waveforms. There was no significant difference in ANSD characteristics between the children with and without isolated IAC stenosis. PMID:26981851

  14. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Central Repositories: A Valuable Resource for Nephrology Research

    PubMed Central

    Akolkar, Beena; Spain, Lisa M.; Guill, Michael H.; Del Vecchio, Corey T.; Carroll, Leslie E.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are an important resource available to researchers and the general public. The Central Repositories house samples, genetic data, phenotypic data, and study documentation from >100 NIDDK-funded clinical studies, in areas such as diabetes, digestive disease, and liver disease research. The Central Repositories also have an exceptionally rich collection of studies related to kidney disease, including the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease landmark study and recent data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort and CKD in Children Cohort studies. The data are carefully curated and linked to the samples from the study. The NIDDK is working to make the materials and data accessible to researchers. The Data Repositories continue to improve flexible online searching tools that help researchers identify the samples or data of interest, and NIDDK has created several different paths to access the data and samples, including some funding initiatives. Over the past several years, the Central Repositories have seen steadily increasing interest and use of the stored materials. NIDDK plans to make more collections available and do more outreach and education about use of the datasets to the nephrology research community in the future to enhance the value of this resource. PMID:25376765

  15. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  16. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  17. Changes in brainstem auditory evoked potentials among North Indian females with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Baweja, Pooja; Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, Kamal Dev; Sharma, Raghuvansh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder whose detrimental effects on various organ systems, including the nervous system are well known. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 116 females with type 2 diabetes and 100 age matched, healthy female volunteers were selected. The brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were recorded with RMS EMG EP Marc-II Channel machine. The measures included latencies of waves I, II, III, IV, V and Interpeak latencies (IPL) I-III, III-V and I-V separately for both ears. Data was analysed statistically with SPSS software v13.0. Results: It was found that IPL I-III was significantly delayed (P = 0.028) only in the right ear, while the latency of wave V and IPL I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally (P values for right ear being 0.021 and 0.0381 respectively while those for left ear being 0.028 and 0.016 respectively), in diabetic females. However, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latencies of waves I, II, III, IV and IPL III-V bilaterally and IPL I-III unilaterally in the left ear. Also, none of the BAEP latencies were significantly correlated with either the duration of disease or with fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Conclusions: Therefore, it could be concluded that diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected quite accurately with the help of auditory evoked potential studies. PMID:24381878

  18. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  19. The Association of Glucose Metabolism and Eigenvector Centrality in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Sofie M; Wink, Alle Meije; Tijms, Betty M; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Verfaillie, Sander C J; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald; Scheltens, Philip; van Berckel, Bart N M; Barkhof, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Both fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography, examining glucose metabolism, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), using covarying blood oxygen levels, can be used to explore neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both measures are reported to identify similar brain regions affected in AD patients. The spatial overlap and association of [(18)F]FDG with rs-fMRI in AD patients and controls were examined to investigate whether these two measures are associated, and if so, to what extent. For 24 AD patients and 18 controls, [(18)F]FDG and rs-fMRI data were available. [(18)F]FDG standardized uptake value ratios (SUVr), with cerebellar gray matter (GM) as reference tissue, were calculated. Eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping was used to spatially analyze the functional brain network. Group differences were calculated for [(18)F]FDG and eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) values in four cortical regions (occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal) and across voxels, with age, gender, and GM as covariates. Correlation of [(18)F]FDG with ECM was calculated within groups. Both lowered [(18)F]FDG SUVr and EC values were seen in the parietal and occipital cortex of AD patients. However, [(18)F]FDG yielded more robust and widespread brain areas affected in AD patients; hypometabolism was also observed in the temporal cortex and regions within frontal brain areas. Poor spatial overlap of both measures was observed. No associations were found between local [(18)F]FDG SUVr and ECM. In conclusion, agreement of [(18)F]FDG and ECM in AD patients seems moderate at best. [(18)F]FDG was most accurate in distinguishing AD patients from controls. PMID:26414628

  20. Vocal-Motor and Auditory Connectivity of the Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray in a Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Kittelberger, J. Matthew; Bass, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in the descending control of vocalization across vertebrates. The PAG has also been implicated in auditory-vocal integration, though its precise role in such integration remains largely unexplored. Courtship and territorial interactions in plainfin midshipman fish depend on vocal communication, and the PAG is a central component of the midshipman vocal-motor system. We made focal neurobiotin injections into the midshipman PAG to both map its auditory-vocal circuitry and enable evolutionary comparisons with tetrapod vertebrates. These injections revealed an extensive bidirectional pattern of connectivity between the PAG and known sites in both the descending vocal-motor and ascending auditory systems, including portions of the telencephalon, dorsal thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum, midbrain and hindbrain. Injections in the medial PAG produced dense label within hindbrain auditory nuclei, while those confined to the lateral PAG preferentially labeled hypothalamic and midbrain auditory areas. Thus, the teleost PAG may have functional subdivisions playing different roles in vocal-auditory integration. Together, the results confirm several pathways previously identified by injections into known auditory or vocal areas and provide strong support for the hypothesis that the teleost PAG is centrally involved in auditory-vocal integration. PMID:22826153

  1. Vocal-motor and auditory connectivity of the midbrain periaqueductal gray in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Kittelberger, J Matthew; Bass, Andrew H

    2013-03-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in the descending control of vocalization across vertebrates. The PAG has also been implicated in auditory-vocal integration, although its precise role in such integration remains largely unexplored. Courtship and territorial interactions in plainfin midshipman fish depend on vocal communication, and the PAG is a central component of the midshipman vocal-motor system. We made focal neurobiotin injections into the midshipman PAG to both map its auditory-vocal circuitry and allow evolutionary comparisons with tetrapod vertebrates. These injections revealed an extensive bidirectional pattern of connectivity between the PAG and known sites in both the descending vocal-motor and the ascending auditory systems, including portions of the telencephalon, dorsal thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum, midbrain, and hindbrain. Injections in the medial PAG produced dense label within hindbrain auditory nuclei, whereas those confined to the lateral PAG preferentially labeled hypothalamic and midbrain auditory areas. Thus, the teleost PAG may have functional subdivisions playing different roles in vocal-auditory integration. Together the results confirm several pathways previously identified by injections into known auditory or vocal areas and provide strong support for the hypothesis that the teleost PAG is centrally involved in auditory-vocal integration. PMID:22826153

  2. Auditory function in individuals within Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Rance, Gary; Kearns, Lisa S; Tan, Johanna; Gravina, Anthony; Rosenfeld, Lisa; Henley, Lauren; Carew, Peter; Graydon, Kelley; O'Hare, Fleur; Mackey, David A

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate whether auditory dysfunction is part of the spectrum of neurological abnormalities associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and to determine the perceptual consequences of auditory neuropathy (AN) in affected listeners. Forty-eight subjects confirmed by genetic testing as having one of four mitochondrial mutations associated with LHON (mt11778, mtDNA14484, mtDNA14482 and mtDNA3460) participated. Thirty-two of these had lost vision, and 16 were asymptomatic at the point of data collection. While the majority of individuals showed normal sound detection, >25% (of both symptomatic and asymptomatic participants) showed electrophysiological evidence of AN with either absent or severely delayed auditory brainstem potentials. Abnormalities were observed for each of the mutations, but subjects with the mtDNA11778 type were the most affected. Auditory perception was also abnormal in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, with >20% of cases showing impaired detection of auditory temporal (timing) cues and >30% showing abnormal speech perception both in quiet and in the presence of background noise. The findings of this study indicate that a relatively high proportion of individuals with the LHON genetic profile may suffer functional hearing difficulties due to neural abnormality in the central auditory pathways. PMID:21887510

  3. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  4. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.L.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  5. Potassium-induced release of an endogenous toxic activity for outer hair cells and auditory neurons in the cochlea: a new pathophysiological mechanism in Menière's disease?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, P P; Weber, T; Rigo, J M; Delree, P; Leprince, P; Moonen, G

    1990-08-01

    In Menière's disease, the increase of extracellular potassium concentration in the perilymph is thought to play a key role in determining the progressive loss of cochlear hair cells. In this paper, we describe a serum-free culture preparation of hair cells from 5 day-old rat and report the release by the cochlea, in response to an increase of extracellular potassium concentration, of a cytotoxic activity active on hair cells and auditory neurons. The toxic activity is associated with low molecular weight (less than 10,000 Dalton) molecule(s) as revealed by ultrafiltration. Morphological studies performed on the organ of Corti incubated during 24 h in the presence of the cochlea-derived toxic activity (CTA), show that this factor is toxic for hair cells and not for supporting or surrounding cells. The release of CTA occurs both in the spiral ganglion and in the organ of Corti. We suggest that this cochlea-derived toxic activity may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the hearing loss that occurs during the progression of Menière's disease. PMID:2228800

  6. The therapeutic potential of sigma (σ) receptors for the treatment of central nervous system diseases: evaluation of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Banister, Samuel D; Kassiou, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since their proposal in 1976, sigma (σ) receptors have been increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of virtually all major central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Due to their involvement in motor function and higher cognitive function,σ receptors have also been implicated in movement disorders (such as Parkinson's disease) and memory deficits (including Alzheimer's disease). In most cases the precise mechanism(s) linking σ receptors to CNS disease are unknown or yet to be fully elucidated. However, many σ ligands have shown promise in pharmacological studies and animal models of the aforementioned diseases, and some have entered clinical trials. This review will assess the validity of receptors as a target for various CNS diseases based on evidence from animal models of human diseases, preclinical studies in humans, and full clinical trials. PMID:22288410

  7. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanaee, Layli; Karnauchow, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p < 0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p < 0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p < 0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p = 0.0002); median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p = 0.0004) and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p = 0.0005) were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  8. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maubert, Monique E.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T.; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:26793168

  9. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sanaee, Layli; Taljaard, Monica; Karnauchow, Tim; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p < 0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p < 0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p < 0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p = 0.0002); median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p = 0.0004) and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p = 0.0005) were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  10. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  11. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    PubMed

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed. PMID:26920689

  12. Central vestibular disease in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Keating, M Kelly; Gaffney, Patricia M; Lowenstine, Linda; Zwingenberger, Allison; Young, Alex C; Vernau, Karen M; Sokoloff, Amberly M; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2014-06-01

    A 24-year-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented for an acute onset of left head tilt. On examination, the macaw was dehydrated and had a 120-degree left head tilt, decreased proprioception of the left pelvic limb, and intermittent vertical nystagmus. Results of hematologic testing and biochemical analysis revealed severe leukocytosis with lymphopenia and heterophilia and a high uric acid concentration. Radiographs showed bilateral intertarsal joint osteoarthritis and a healed ulnar fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed focal T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere and in the midbrain. The midbrain lesion showed susceptibility artifact on the T2* sequence, suggesting hemorrhage. In the T2* sequence, iron accumulation (as seen with hemorrhage) distorts the magnetic signal, resulting in the production of a susceptibility artifact, which can then be visualized as a region of hypointensity. The bird was hospitalized but died despite intensive care. Necropsy revealed multiple cerebral vascular lesions including an acute cerebral infarct, a ruptured midbrain aneurysm, and multifocal systemic atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cerebral aneurysm in a bird. This report correlates the clinical presentation, imaging, and histopathologic findings in a macaw with central vestibular disease and demonstrates how advanced imaging techniques can identify hemorrhagic lesions through the T2* sequence. PMID:25115042

  13. Dramatic decline of ischaemic heart disease mortality in post communist central Europe: recovery from totality.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vlado

    2012-06-01

    After 1970 the preexisting gap in population health between democratic Europe and communist countries became even more prominent. While in the democratic Europe there was a progressive rise in life expectancy associated with the decline in ischaemic heart disease (IHD), the trend on the other side of the iron curtain was exactly reverse. After the fall of communism in 1989 population health in the post-communist central Europe (CE) rapidly signalled a favourable recovery. This biphasic trend in post-communist countries is very remarkable. Most remarkably the decline in IHD mortality started soon after the demise of totality, even before the modernization of health care (new more effective medications and diagnostic technology), public campaign against smoking and improved supply of protective nutrients got chance to attain an important role. The decades-long psychosocial depression of communism was rapidly replaced with a promise of a better future. It is generally accepted that psychosocial factors are powerfool tools in the pathogenesis of IHD. PMID:22966731

  14. Newborn Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABRs): Prenatal and Contemporary Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann D.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are a literature review and new data on correlates of newborn auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs). Concludes that disorders of the central components of the ABR may be more of prenatal than of postnatal origin. The I-V interval had low but reliable correlations with four of 11 Brazelton scale variables. (RH)

  15. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function. PMID:25405381

  16. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  17. Noise exposure enhances auditory cortex responses related to hyperacusis behavior.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Deng, Anchun; Jayaram, Aditi; Gibson, Brittany

    2012-11-16

    Hyperacusis, a marked intolerance to normal environmental sound, is a common symptom in patients with tinnitus, Williams syndrome, autism, and other neurologic diseases. It has been suggested that an imbalance of excitation and inhibition in the central auditory system (CAS) may play an important role in hyperacusis. Recent studies found that noise exposure, one of the most common causes of hearing loss and tinnitus, can increase the auditory cortex (AC) response, presumably by increasing the gain of the AC. However, it is not clear whether the increased cortical response will affect sound sensitivity and induce hyperacusis. In this experiment, we studied the effects of noise exposure (narrow band noise, 12 kHz, 120 dB SPL, 1 hour) on the physiological response of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the AC, and the behavioral sound reaction in conscious Sprague Dawley rats. Noise exposure induced a decrease of sound evoked potential in the IC. However, significant increases of AC response including sound evoked potentials and the spike firing rates of AC neurons were recorded right after the noise exposure. These results suggest that noise exposure induces hyperexcitability of AC presumably by increasing the post-synaptic response of AC neurons. The behavioral consequence of the noise exposure on sound perception was measured by the amplitude of the acoustic startle response before and after noise exposure in a separate group of rats. Although noise exposure caused a moderate hearing loss, the acoustic startle amplitude at the super-threshold level was significantly increased. These results suggest that noise exposure can cause exaggerated the sound reaction which may be related with the enhanced responsiveness of the AC neurons. This phenomenon may be related with noise induced hyperacusis.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience. PMID:22402030

  18. Hypermnesia using auditory input.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    1992-07-01

    The author investigated whether hypermnesia would occur with auditory input. In addition, the author examined the effects of subjects' knowledge that they would later be asked to recall the stimuli. Two groups of 26 subjects each were given three successive recall trials after they listened to an audiotape of 59 high-imagery nouns. The subjects in the uninformed group were not told that they would later be asked to remember the words; those in the informed group were. Hypermnesia was evident, but only in the uninformed group. PMID:1447564

  19. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation. PMID:25726290

  20. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  1. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  2. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    PubMed

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  3. Auditory-limbic interactions in chronic tinnitus: Challenges for neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Amber M; Seydell-Greenwald, Anna; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2016-04-01

    Tinnitus is a widespread auditory disorder affecting approximately 10-15% of the population, often with debilitating consequences. Although tinnitus commonly begins with damage to the auditory system due to loud-noise exposure, aging, or other etiologies, the exact neurophysiological basis of chronic tinnitus remains unknown. Many researchers point to a central auditory origin of tinnitus; however, a growing body of evidence also implicates other brain regions, including the limbic system. Correspondingly, we and others have proposed models of tinnitus in which the limbic and auditory systems both play critical roles and interact with one another. Specifically, we argue that damage to the auditory system generates an initial tinnitus signal, consistent with previous research. In our model, this "transient" tinnitus is suppressed when a limbic frontostriatal network, comprised of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, successfully modulates thalamocortical transmission in the auditory system. Thus, in chronic tinnitus, limbic-system damage and resulting inefficiency of auditory-limbic interactions prevents proper compensation of the tinnitus signal. Neuroimaging studies utilizing connectivity methods like resting-state fMRI and diffusion MRI continue to uncover tinnitus-related anomalies throughout auditory, limbic, and other brain systems. However, directly assessing interactions between these brain regions and networks has proved to be more challenging. Here, we review existing empirical support for models of tinnitus stressing a critical role for involvement of "non-auditory" structures in tinnitus pathophysiology, and discuss the possible impact of newly refined connectivity techniques from neuroimaging on tinnitus research. PMID:26299843

  4. Centrality in primate–parasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José María; Nunn, Charles L.; Verdú, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated host–parasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system because—owing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humans—they are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host species—a measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the network—is associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primate–parasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific host–parasite networks. PMID:23610389

  5. Organization of projection neurons and local neurons of the primary auditory center in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Eriko; Seki, Haruyoshi; Asai, Tomonori; Morimoto, Takako; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Ito, Kei; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2016-04-15

    Acoustic communication between insects serves as an excellent model system for analyzing the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory information processing. The detailed organization of auditory neural circuits in the brain has not yet been described. To understand the central auditory pathways, we used the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model and performed a large-scale analysis of the interneurons associated with the primary auditory center. By screening expression driver strains and performing single-cell labeling of these strains, we identified 44 types of interneurons innervating the primary auditory center. Five types were local interneurons whereas the other 39 types were projection interneurons connecting the primary auditory center with other brain regions. The projection neurons comprised three frequency-selective pathways and two frequency-embracive pathways. Mapping of their connection targets revealed that five neuropils in the brain-the wedge (WED), anterior ventrolateral protocerebrum, posterior ventrolateral protocerebrum (PVLP), saddle (SAD), and gnathal ganglia (GNG)-were intensively connected with the primary auditory center. In addition, several other neuropils, including visual and olfactory centers in the brain, were directly connected to the primary auditory center. The distribution patterns of the spines and boutons of the identified neurons suggest that auditory information is sent mainly from the primary auditory center to the PVLP, WED, SAD, GNG, and thoracico-abdominal ganglia. Based on these findings, we established the first comprehensive map of secondary auditory interneurons, which indicates the downstream information flow to parallel ascending pathways, multimodal pathways, and descending pathways. PMID:26762251

  6. Determinants of HIV-related cardiac disease among adults in north central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isiguzo, Godsent; Okeahialam, Basil; Danbauchi, Solomon; Odili, Augustin; Iroezindu, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of HIV-related cardiac disease (HRCD) among adults in north central Nigeria. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study recruiting patients who were HIV positive attending the HIV clinic at Jos University teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Methods A total of 200 adults who were HIV positive and aged ≥18 years were consecutively recruited. All patients were administered a questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, laboratory investigation for haemoglobin estimation, CD4 cell count, viral load, serum lipid profile, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, electrocardiogram and two-dimensional echocardiography Doppler studies. The outcome measure was echocardiography-defined cardiac disease, such as systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, isolated left ventricular dilatation, right ventricular dysfunction or pulmonary hypertension. Results The mean age of the study population was 38±9 years. The majority (71%) were women and were on average younger than the men (36±8 years vs 47±9 years, p<0.0002). Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) use was seen in 84.4% of subjects. The median CD4 cell count for the study population was 358 cells/µL; the count was 459 (95% CI 321 to 550) cells/µL for subjects without HRCD and 193 (95% CI 126 to 357) cells/µL for subjects with HRCD (p<0.001). HAART-naive subjects with HRCD had a mean CD4 cell count of 121 cells/µL vs 200 cells/µL for those on HAART (p<0.01). CD4 cell count (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.45) and duration of diagnosis (OR=3.88, 95% CI 1.20 to 13.71) were the significant determinants of HRCD on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Duration of HIV diagnosis and degree of immunosuppression were the significant determinants of HRCD. There is therefore a need to reduce cardiovascular morbidity in patients infected with HIV through early diagnosis/sustained use of HAART, early screening for HRCD

  7. The Isotropic Fractionator as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Ivan E; Monti, Riccardo; Tropiano, Marta; Tomasi, Simone; Arbini, Alessia; Andrade-Moraes, Carlos-Humberto; Lent, Roberto; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    One major aim in quantitative and translational neuroscience is to achieve a precise and fast neuronal counting method to work on high throughput scale to obtain reliable results. Here, we tested the isotropic fractionator (IF) method for evaluating neuronal and non-neuronal cell loss in different models of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent: (i) ischemic brain damage; (ii) intraperitoneal injection with kainic acid (KA) to induce epileptic seizures; and (iii) monolateral striatal injection with quinolinic acid (QA) mimicking human Huntington's disease. All specimens were processed for IF method and cell loss assessed. Hippocampus from KA-treated rats and striatum from QA-treated rats were carefully dissected using a dissection microscope and a rat brain matrix. Ischemic rat brains slices were first processed for TTC staining and then for IF. In the ischemic group the cell loss corresponded to the neuronal loss suggesting that hypoxia primarily affects neurons. Combining IF with TTC staining we could correlate the volume of lesion to the neuronal loss; by IF, we could assess that neuronal loss also occurs contralaterally to the ischemic side. In the epileptic group we observed a reduction of neuronal cells in treated rats, but also evaluated the changes in the number of non-neuronal cells in response to the hippocampal damage. In the QA model, there was a robust reduction of neuronal cells on ipsilateral striatum. This neuronal cell loss was not related to a drastic change in the total number of cells, being overcome by the increase in non-neuronal cells, thus suggesting that excitotoxic damage in the striatum strongly activates inflammation and glial proliferation. We concluded that the IF method could represent a simple and reliable quantitative technique to evaluate the effects of experimental lesions mimicking human diseases, and to consider the neuroprotective/anti-inflammatory effects of different treatments in the whole

  8. The Isotropic Fractionator as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis in Central Nervous System Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ivan E.; Monti, Riccardo; Tropiano, Marta; Tomasi, Simone; Arbini, Alessia; Andrade-Moraes, Carlos-Humberto; Lent, Roberto; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    One major aim in quantitative and translational neuroscience is to achieve a precise and fast neuronal counting method to work on high throughput scale to obtain reliable results. Here, we tested the isotropic fractionator (IF) method for evaluating neuronal and non-neuronal cell loss in different models of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent: (i) ischemic brain damage; (ii) intraperitoneal injection with kainic acid (KA) to induce epileptic seizures; and (iii) monolateral striatal injection with quinolinic acid (QA) mimicking human Huntington’s disease. All specimens were processed for IF method and cell loss assessed. Hippocampus from KA-treated rats and striatum from QA-treated rats were carefully dissected using a dissection microscope and a rat brain matrix. Ischemic rat brains slices were first processed for TTC staining and then for IF. In the ischemic group the cell loss corresponded to the neuronal loss suggesting that hypoxia primarily affects neurons. Combining IF with TTC staining we could correlate the volume of lesion to the neuronal loss; by IF, we could assess that neuronal loss also occurs contralaterally to the ischemic side. In the epileptic group we observed a reduction of neuronal cells in treated rats, but also evaluated the changes in the number of non-neuronal cells in response to the hippocampal damage. In the QA model, there was a robust reduction of neuronal cells on ipsilateral striatum. This neuronal cell loss was not related to a drastic change in the total number of cells, being overcome by the increase in non-neuronal cells, thus suggesting that excitotoxic damage in the striatum strongly activates inflammation and glial proliferation. We concluded that the IF method could represent a simple and reliable quantitative technique to evaluate the effects of experimental lesions mimicking human diseases, and to consider the neuroprotective/anti-inflammatory effects of different treatments in the whole

  9. Mind the Gap: Two Dissociable Mechanisms of Temporal Processing in the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lucy A.

    2016-01-01

    High temporal acuity of auditory processing underlies perception of speech and other rapidly varying sounds. A common measure of auditory temporal acuity in humans is the threshold for detection of brief gaps in noise. Gap-detection deficits, observed in developmental disorders, are considered evidence for “sluggish” auditory processing. Here we show, in a mouse model of gap-detection deficits, that auditory brain sensitivity to brief gaps in noise can be impaired even without a general loss of central auditory temporal acuity. Extracellular recordings in three different subdivisions of the auditory thalamus in anesthetized mice revealed a stimulus-specific, subdivision-specific deficit in thalamic sensitivity to brief gaps in noise in experimental animals relative to controls. Neural responses to brief gaps in noise were reduced, but responses to other rapidly changing stimuli unaffected, in lemniscal and nonlemniscal (but not polysensory) subdivisions of the medial geniculate body. Through experiments and modeling, we demonstrate that the observed deficits in thalamic sensitivity to brief gaps in noise arise from reduced neural population activity following noise offsets, but not onsets. These results reveal dissociable sound-onset-sensitive and sound-offset-sensitive channels underlying auditory temporal processing, and suggest that gap-detection deficits can arise from specific impairment of the sound-offset-sensitive channel. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The experimental and modeling results reported here suggest a new hypothesis regarding the mechanisms of temporal processing in the auditory system. Using a mouse model of auditory temporal processing deficits, we demonstrate the existence of specific abnormalities in auditory thalamic activity following sound offsets, but not sound onsets. These results reveal dissociable sound-onset-sensitive and sound-offset-sensitive mechanisms underlying auditory processing of temporally varying sounds. Furthermore, the

  10. Auditory color constancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluender, Keith R.; Kiefte, Michael

    2003-10-01

    It is both true and efficient that sensorineural systems respond to change and little else. Perceptual systems do not record absolute level be it loudness, pitch, brightness, or color. This fact has been demonstrated in every sensory domain. For example, the visual system is remarkable at maintaining color constancy over widely varying illumination such as sunlight and varieties of artificial light (incandescent, fluorescent, etc.) for which spectra reflected from objects differ dramatically. Results will be reported for a series of experiments demonstrating how auditory systems similarly compensate for reliable characteristics of spectral shape in acoustic signals. Specifically, listeners' perception of vowel sounds, characterized by both local (e.g., formants) and broad (e.g., tilt) spectral composition, changes radically depending upon reliable spectral composition of precursor signals. These experiments have been conducted using a variety of precursor signals consisting of meaningful and time-reversed vocoded sentences, as well as novel nonspeech precursors consisting of multiple filter poles modulating sinusoidally across a source spectrum with specific local and broad spectral characteristics. Constancy across widely varying spectral compositions shares much in common with visual color constancy. However, auditory spectral constancy appears to be more effective than visual constancy in compensating for local spectral fluctuations. [Work supported by NIDCD DC-04072.

  11. On the Origin and Spread of the Scab Disease of Apple: Out of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Valdebenito Sanhueza, Rosa-Maria; Sbaghi, Mohamed; Le Cam, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus responsible for apple scab, a disease that has invaded almost all apple growing regions worldwide, with the corresponding adverse effects on apple production. Monitoring and predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies require knowledge of the origin, introduction pathways, and population biology of pathogen populations. Analysis of the variation of genetic markers using the inferential framework of population genetics offers the potential to retrieve this information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in 1,273 strains of V. inaequalis representing 28 orchard samples from seven regions in five continents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (88%) was distributed within localities, which is consistent with extensive historical migrations of the fungus among and within regions. Despite this shallow population structure, clustering analyses partitioned the data set into separate groups corresponding roughly to geography, indicating that each region hosts a distinct population of the fungus. Comparison of the levels of variability among populations, along with coalescent analyses of migration models and estimates of genetic distances, was consistent with a scenario in which the fungus emerged in Central Asia, where apple was domesticated, before its introduction into Europe and, more recently, into other continents with the expansion of apple growing. Across the novel range, levels of variability pointed to multiple introductions and all populations displayed signatures of significant post-introduction increases in population size. Most populations exhibited high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles across loci, indicating recombination both in native and introduced areas. Conclusions/Significance Venturia inaequalis is a model of invasive phytopathogenic fungus that has now reached the

  12. Hwanggunchungyitang prevents cadmium-induced ototoxicity through suppression of the activation of caspase-9 and extracellular signal-related kinase in auditory HEI-OC1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jin; Shin, Bong-Gi; Choi, In-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Cheol; Myung, Noh-Yil; Moon, Phil-Dong; Lee, Jeong-Han; An, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyung; Lee, Joo-Young; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Rae-Kil; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Um, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2009-02-01

    Hwanggunchungyitang (HGCYT) is a newly designed herbal drug formula for the purpose of treating auditory diseases. A number of heavy metals have been associated with toxic effects to the peripheral or central auditory system. Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. However, the auditory effect of Cd(2+) is not poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether HGCYT prevent the ototoxic effects induced by Cd(2+) in auditory cell line, HEI-OC1. HGCYT inhibited the cell death, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), activation of caspase-9, and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) induced by Cd(2+). In addition, we observed that cochlear hair cells in middle turn were damaged by Cd(2+). However, HGCYT prevented the destruction of hair cell arrays of the rat primary organ of Corti explants in the presence of Cd(2+). These results support the notion that ROS are involved in Cd(2+) ototoxicity and suggest HGCYT therapeutic usefulness, against Cd(2+)-induced activation of caspase-9 and ERK. PMID:19182378

  13. [A comparison of the performances between healthy older adults and persons with Alzheimer's disease on the Rey auditory verbal learning test and the Test de rappel libre/rappel indicé 16 items].

    PubMed

    Drolet, Valérie; Vallet, Guillaume T; Imbeault, Hélène; Lecomte, Sarah; Limoges, Frédérique; Joubert, Sven; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the performances of healthy elderly (n=40) and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=40) on the RL/RI 16, a French adaptation of the Free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) and on the Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT). These two verbal episodic memory tests are frequently used in clinical practice in French-speaking populations. Results showed that the RAVLT demonstrated a slightly better sensitivity and sensibility than the RL/RI 16. The RAVLT allowed to classify participants of the two groups without any overlap. Moreover, no floor effect was observed in the RAVLT in AD and ceiling effects were less pronounced in normal controls that in the RL/RI 16. Results observed in the RL/RI 16 showed important ceiling effects and a decline in performance on free recall throughout trials in AD patients. Nonetheless, the latter tool was less sensitive to recency effects than the RAVLT and may thus provide a more realistic view of the long-term memory performance of these patients. The semantic cues provided in the RL/RI 16 appeared to increase intrusions in AD whereas the interference list in the RAVLT was the first source of false recognitions in both healthy elderly and AD. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates both the advantages and disadvantages of these two tools in the evaluation of episodic memory in elderly with and without cognitive deficits. PMID:24939409

  14. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  15. The prevalence and risk factors of cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease in Wuhan, Central China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not clear and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is often associated with IBD patients. The etiologic link between IBD and CMV infection needs to be studied. The objective of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CMV in a cohort of IBD patients from Central China. Methods Two hundred and twenty six IBD patients (189 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 37 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD)), and 290 age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited. CMV DNA was detected by nested PCR, while serum anti-CMV IgG and anti-CMV IgM was determined by ELISAs. Colonoscopy/enteroscopy with biopsy of diseased tissues and subsequent H&E stain were then conducted in IBD patients with positive anti-CMV IgM. Finally, we analyzed the prevalence and clinical risk factors of CMV infection in IBD patients. Results The prevalence of CMV DNA and anti-CMV IgG positive rate in IBD patients were 84.07% and 76.11%, respectively, higher than those in healthy controls (59.66% and 50.69%, respectively, P < 0.05), However, anti-CMV IgM positive rate was no different with healthy controls (1.77% vs 0.34%, P = 0.235). In univariate analysis of risk factors, the recent use of corticosteroid was associated with increase of CMV DNA and IgM positive rate in UC (P = 0.035 and P = 0.015, respectively), aminosalicylic acid drug therapy was correlated with positivity of CMV DNA and IgG in UC and CMV DNA in CD (P = 0.041, P < 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively), the treatment of immunosuppresent was correlated with CMV IgM (P < 0.001). Furthermore, patients with severe UC were significantly associated with CMV DNA and IgM (P = 0.048 and P = 0.031, respectively). Malnutrition (albumin < 35 G/L) was also found to be related with CMV recent infection (P = 0.031). In multivariate analysis of risk factors in UC, pancolitis was significantly associated with CMV DNA positivity

  16. Principles of auditory information-processing derived from neuroethology.

    PubMed

    Suga, N

    1989-09-01

    For auditory imaging, a bat emits orientation sounds (pulses) and listens to echoes. The parameters characterizing a pulse-echo pair each convey particular types of biosonar information. For example, a Doppler shift (a difference in frequency between an emitted pulse and its echo) carries velocity information. For a 61-kHz sound, a 1.0-kHz Doppler shift corresponds to 2.8 ms-1 velocity. The delay of the echo from the pulse conveys distance (range) information. A 1.0-ms echo delay corresponds to a target distance of 17 cm. The auditory system of the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnelli, from Central America solves the computational problems in analyzing these parameters by creating maps in the cerebral cortex. The pulse of the mustached bat is complex. It consists of four harmonics, each of which contains a long constant-frequency (CF) component and a short frequency-modulated (FM) component. Therefore, there are eight components in the emitted pulse (CF1-4 and FM1-4). The CF signal is particularly suited for target velocity measurement, whereas the FM signal is suited for target distance measurement. Since the eight components differ from each other in frequency, they are analyzed in parallel at different regions of the basilar membrane in the inner ear. Then, they are separately coded by primary auditory neurons and are sent up to the auditory cortex through several auditory nuclei. During the ascent of the signals through these auditory nuclei, neurons responding to the FM components process range information, while other neurons responding to the CF components process velocity information. A comparison of the data obtained from the mustached bat with those obtained from other species illustrates both the specialized neural mechanisms specific to the bat's auditory system, and the general neural mechanisms which are probably shared with many different types of animals. PMID:2689566

  17. An auditory feature detection circuit for sound pattern recognition

    PubMed Central

    Schöneich, Stefan; Kostarakos, Konstantinos; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    From human language to birdsong and the chirps of insects, acoustic communication is based on amplitude and frequency modulation of sound signals. Whereas frequency processing starts at the level of the hearing organs, temporal features of the sound amplitude such as rhythms or pulse rates require processing by central auditory neurons. Besides several theoretical concepts, brain circuits that detect temporal features of a sound signal are poorly understood. We focused on acoustically communicating field crickets and show how five neurons in the brain of females form an auditory feature detector circuit for the pulse pattern of the male calling song. The processing is based on a coincidence detector mechanism that selectively responds when a direct neural response and an intrinsically delayed response to the sound pulses coincide. This circuit provides the basis for auditory mate recognition in field crickets and reveals a principal mechanism of sensory processing underlying the perception of temporal patterns. PMID:26601259

  18. Cortical auditory disorders: clinical and psychoacoustic features.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, M F; Geehan, G R

    1988-01-01

    The symptoms of two patients with bilateral cortical auditory lesions evolved from cortical deafness to other auditory syndromes: generalised auditory agnosia, amusia and/or pure word deafness, and a residual impairment of temporal sequencing. On investigation, both had dysacusis, absent middle latency evoked responses, acoustic errors in sound recognition and matching, inconsistent auditory behaviours, and similarly disturbed psychoacoustic discrimination tasks. These findings indicate that the different clinical syndromes caused by cortical auditory lesions form a spectrum of related auditory processing disorders. Differences between syndromes may depend on the degree of involvement of a primary cortical processing system, the more diffuse accessory system, and possibly the efferent auditory system. Images PMID:2450968

  19. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  20. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S

    2014-12-19

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  1. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  2. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  3. Modeling neural adaptation in the frog auditory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotton, Janine; McArthur, Kimberly; Bohara, Amit; Ferragamo, Michael; Megela Simmons, Andrea

    2005-09-01

    Extracellular recordings from the auditory midbrain, Torus semicircularis, of the leopard frog reveal a wide diversity of tuning patterns. Some cells seem to be well suited for time-based coding of signal envelope, and others for rate-based coding of signal frequency. Adaptation for ongoing stimuli plays a significant role in shaping the frequency-dependent response rate at different levels of the frog auditory system. Anuran auditory-nerve fibers are unusual in that they reveal frequency-dependent adaptation [A. L. Megela, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 1155-1162 (1984)], and therefore provide rate-based input. In order to examine the influence of these peripheral inputs on central responses, three layers of auditory neurons were modeled to examine short-term neural adaptation to pure tones and complex signals. The response of each neuron was simulated with a leaky integrate and fire model, and adaptation was implemented by means of an increasing threshold. Auditory-nerve fibers, dorsal medullary nucleus neurons, and toral cells were simulated and connected in three ascending layers. Modifying the adaptation properties of the peripheral fibers dramatically alters the response at the midbrain. [Work supported by NOHR to M.J.F.; Gustavus Presidential Scholarship to K.McA.; NIH DC05257 to A.M.S.

  4. Cortical development and neuroplasticity in Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anu; Cardon, Garrett

    2015-12-01

    Cortical development is dependent to a large extent on stimulus-driven input. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) is a recently described form of hearing impairment where neural dys-synchrony is the predominant characteristic. Children with ANSD provide a unique platform to examine the effects of asynchronous and degraded afferent stimulation on cortical auditory neuroplasticity and behavioral processing of sound. In this review, we describe patterns of auditory cortical maturation in children with ANSD. The disruption of cortical maturation that leads to these various patterns includes high levels of intra-individual cortical variability and deficits in cortical phase synchronization of oscillatory neural responses. These neurodevelopmental changes, which are constrained by sensitive periods for central auditory maturation, are correlated with behavioral outcomes for children with ANSD. Overall, we hypothesize that patterns of cortical development in children with ANSD appear to be markers of the severity of the underlying neural dys-synchrony, providing prognostic indicators of success of clinical intervention with amplification and/or electrical stimulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled <Auditory Synaptology>. PMID:26070426

  5. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in a patient with Crohn's disease after treatment with infliximab and corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Emma-Lee; Dimou, James

    2016-08-01

    Aspergillus species are emerging as a significant cause of pneumonia mortality in immune compromised hosts, with haematological spread being a rare and life-threatening complication. The central nervous system (CNS) as a site for extrapulmonary spread is rarer still. We report a case of CNS disseminated aspergillosis in a patient treated with corticosteroids and infliximab, an immunomodulatory agent commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, and review the available literature regarding this rare pathology. PMID:27050914

  6. Auditory perspective taking.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners. PMID:23096077

  7. Lesion-induced insights in the plasticity of the insect auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    The auditory networks of Orthoptera offer a model system uniquely suited to the study of neuronal connectivity and lesion-dependent neural plasticity. Monaural animals, following the permanent removal of one ear in nymphs or adults, adjust their auditory pathways by collateral sprouting of afferents and deafferented interneurons which connect to neurons on the contralateral side. Transient lesion of the auditory nerve allows us to study regeneration as well as plasticity processes. After crushing the peripheral auditory nerve, the lesioned afferents regrow and re-establish new synaptic connections which are relevant for auditory behavior. During this process collateral sprouting occurs in the central nervous networks, too. Interestingly, after regeneration a changed neuronal network will be maintained. These paradigms are now been used to analyze molecular mechanism in neuronal plasticity on the level of single neurons and small networks. PMID:23986709

  8. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  9. Hearing loss in Pompe disease revisited: results from a study of 24 children

    PubMed Central

    van Capelle, Carine I.; Goedegebure, Andre; Homans, Nienke C.; Hoeve, Hans L. J.; Reuser, Arnold J.

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the auditory function in Pompe patients. Hearing loss has been reported in classic infantile patients, but it is still unknown whether central nervous system involvement interferes with auditory function and whether enzyme replacement therapy can improve hearing. Auditory function has not been studied in children with milder forms of the disease. We analyzed repetitive auditory brainstem response measurements and pure tone audiometry in 24 children with Pompe disease. Only 1 of 13 patients with milder phenotypes showed recurrent conductive hearing loss, while 10 out of 11 classic infantile patients had sensorineural hearing defects. These patients also had a high prevalence of conductive hearing loss. Five patients showed evidence of mild retrocochlear pathology, suggestive of glycogen accumulation in the central nervous system. Hearing loss persisted during therapy in all patients. The results emphasize the need for careful monitoring of auditory function in classic infantile Pompe patients, and for early implementation of hearing aids to protect speech and language development. PMID:20596893

  10. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  11. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-01

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration. PMID:27145914

  12. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  13. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  14. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p<0.0001) and wave V (t(50)=19.730; p<0.0001) but no delay in wave I (p=0.548). They also had significantly longer latencies than controls for interwave intervals I–III, III–V, and I–V (all t(50)> 7.501; p<0.0001), consisting with delayed central conduction time of brainstem neural transmission. Highly exposed children showed significant evidence of inflammatory markers and their auditory and vestibular nuclei accumulated α synuclein and/or β amyloid 1–42. Medial superior olive neurons, critically involved in BAEPs, displayed significant pathology. Children’s exposure to urban air pollution increases their risk for auditory and vestibular impairment. PMID:21458557

  15. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential Abnormalities in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sharat; Baweja, Pooja; Mittal, Shallu; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, Kamal D; Sharma, Raghuvansh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus represents a syndrome complex in which multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system, are affected. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 126 diabetic males, aged 35-50 years, and 106 age-matched, healthy male volunteers. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded and the results were analyzed statistically using student's unpaired t-test. The data consisted of wave latencies I, II, III, IV, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V, separately for both ears. Results: The latency of wave IV was significantly delayed only in the right ear, while the latency of waves III, V and interpeak latencies III-V, I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally in diabetic males. However, no significant difference was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latency of wave IV unilaterally in the left ear and the latencies of waves I, II and interpeak latency I-III bilaterally. Conclusion: Diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected with fair accuracy with auditory evoked potential studies. PMID:23378959

  16. Electrophysiological study of auditory development.

    PubMed

    Lippé, S; Martinez-Montes, E; Arcand, C; Lassonde, M

    2009-12-15

    Cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) testing, a non-invasive technique, is widely employed to study auditory brain development. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of the auditory electrophysiological signal without addressing specific abilities such as speech or music discrimination. We were interested in the temporal and spectral domains of conventional auditory evoked potentials. We analyzed cerebral responses to auditory stimulation (broadband noises) in 40 infants and children (1 month to 5 years 6 months) and 10 adults using high-density electrophysiological recording. We hypothesized that the adult auditory response has precursors that can be identified in infant and child responses. Results confirm that complex adult CAEP responses and spectral activity patterns appear after 5 years, showing decreased involvement of lower frequencies and increased involvement of higher frequencies. In addition, time-locked response to stimulus and event-related spectral pertubation across frequencies revealed alpha and beta band contributions to the CAEP of infants and toddlers before mutation to the beta and gamma band activity of the adult response. A detailed analysis of electrophysiological responses to a perceptual stimulation revealed general development patterns and developmental precursors of the adult response. PMID:19665050

  17. Touch activates human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Martin; Caetano, Gina; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2006-05-01

    Vibrotactile stimuli can facilitate hearing, both in hearing-impaired and in normally hearing people. Accordingly, the sounds of hands exploring a surface contribute to the explorer's haptic percepts. As a possible brain basis of such phenomena, functional brain imaging has identified activations specific to audiotactile interaction in secondary somatosensory cortex, auditory belt area, and posterior parietal cortex, depending on the quality and relative salience of the stimuli. We studied 13 subjects with non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for auditory brain areas that would be activated by touch. Vibration bursts of 200 Hz were delivered to the subjects' fingers and palm and tactile pressure pulses to their fingertips. Noise bursts served to identify auditory cortex. Vibrotactile-auditory co-activation, addressed with minimal smoothing to obtain a conservative estimate, was found in an 85-mm3 region in the posterior auditory belt area. This co-activation could be related to facilitated hearing at the behavioral level, reflecting the analysis of sound-like temporal patterns in vibration. However, even tactile pulses (without any vibration) activated parts of the posterior auditory belt area, which therefore might subserve processing of audiotactile events that arise during dynamic contact between hands and environment. PMID:16488157

  18. Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in central Australia prior to conjugate vaccine: a 16-year study.

    PubMed

    Torzillo, Paul J; Morey, Frances; Gratten, Mike; Murphy, Denise; Matters, Rex; Dixon, Jeannette

    2007-03-22

    This study reports a 16-year prospective surveillance of invasive disease isolates in central Australian Aborigines. There were 621 (89.6% of total) isolates recovered from Aborigines. The mortality in children less than 5 years of age was 4% but rose to 34.5% in those over 49 years of age. The study documented continuing high rates of disease overall, but with significant reductions in incidence rates for children. In children under 2 years of age, the incidence fell by 32% from 2053 per 100,000 in the period 1985-1990 to 1184 per 100,000 in the period 1996-2000. Rates of disease in adults showed no reduction despite an adult immunisation programme with 23 valent vaccine which occurred in the 1990s. Epidemics of serotypes 1, 5 and 12F were documented during the study period. PMID:17030079

  19. Synaptic plasticity in the auditory system: a review.

    PubMed

    Friauf, Eckhard; Fischer, Alexander U; Fuhr, Martin F

    2015-07-01

    Synaptic transmission via chemical synapses is dynamic, i.e., the strength of postsynaptic responses may change considerably in response to repeated synaptic activation. Synaptic strength is increased during facilitation, augmentation and potentiation, whereas a decrease in synaptic strength is characteristic for depression and attenuation. This review attempts to discuss the literature on short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the auditory brainstem of mammals and birds. One hallmark of the auditory system, particularly the inner ear and lower brainstem stations, is information transfer through neurons that fire action potentials at very high frequency, thereby activating synapses >500 times per second. Some auditory synapses display morphological specializations of the presynaptic terminals, e.g., calyceal extensions, whereas other auditory synapses do not. The review focuses on short-term depression and short-term facilitation, i.e., plastic changes with durations in the millisecond range. Other types of short-term synaptic plasticity, e.g., posttetanic potentiation and depolarization-induced suppression of excitation, will be discussed much more briefly. The same holds true for subtypes of long-term plasticity, like prolonged depolarizations and spike-time-dependent plasticity. We also address forms of plasticity in the auditory brainstem that do not comprise synaptic plasticity in a strict sense, namely short-term suppression, paired tone facilitation, short-term adaptation, synaptic adaptation and neural adaptation. Finally, we perform a meta-analysis of 61 studies in which short-term depression (STD) in the auditory system is opposed to short-term depression at non-auditory synapses in order to compare high-frequency neurons with those that fire action potentials at a lower rate. This meta-analysis reveals considerably less STD in most auditory synapses than in non-auditory ones, enabling reliable, failure-free synaptic transmission even at

  20. Encoding frequency contrast in primate auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brian H.; Semple, Malcolm N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in amplitude and frequency jointly determine much of the communicative significance of complex acoustic signals, including human speech. We have previously described responses of neurons in the core auditory cortex of awake rhesus macaques to sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) signals. Here we report a complementary study of sinusoidal frequency modulation (SFM) in the same neurons. Responses to SFM were analogous to SAM responses in that changes in multiple parameters defining SFM stimuli (e.g., modulation frequency, modulation depth, carrier frequency) were robustly encoded in the temporal dynamics of the spike trains. For example, changes in the carrier frequency produced highly reproducible changes in shapes of the modulation period histogram, consistent with the notion that the instantaneous probability of discharge mirrors the moment-by-moment spectrum at low modulation rates. The upper limit for phase locking was similar across SAM and SFM within neurons, suggesting shared biophysical constraints on temporal processing. Using spike train classification methods, we found that neural thresholds for modulation depth discrimination are typically far lower than would be predicted from frequency tuning to static tones. This “dynamic hyperacuity” suggests a substantial central enhancement of the neural representation of frequency changes relative to the auditory periphery. Spike timing information was superior to average rate information when discriminating among SFM signals, and even when discriminating among static tones varying in frequency. This finding held even when differences in total spike count across stimuli were normalized, indicating both the primacy and generality of temporal response dynamics in cortical auditory processing. PMID:24598525

  1. Influence of aging over 10 years on auditory and vestibular functions in three patients with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takeshi; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2011-05-01

    The influence of aging on hearing and vestibular function in patients with auditory neuropathy has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate how hearing and vestibular function in this disease change with aging. The subjects were three female patients with auditory neuropathy. We checked their hearing and vestibular function by speech discrimination tests, ABR, ECochG, DPOAE, caloric test, damped-rotational chair test, and VEMPs. In all three patients, speech discrimination ability and vestibular function markedly declined with aging. However, speech language understanding and higher brain function were less affected by aging. PMID:21198343

  2. Recent viroid disease outbreaks in greenhouse tomatoes in North and Central America and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse tomato productions in North America have suffered from several high profile viroid disease outbreaks in recent years. In this presentation, I will summarize and briefly describe each of these viroid disease outbreak and their relationship. What are viroids and their transmission through ...

  3. Psychology of auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  4. Central nervous system disease and genital disease in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are associated with different herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Cornelis; van de Bildt, Marco; van Run, Peter; de Jong, Anton; Getu, Sarah; Verjans, Georges; Osterhaus, Albert; Kuiken, Thijs

    2016-01-01

    Herpesvirus infection causes disease of variable severity in many species, including cetaceans. However, little is known about herpesvirus infection in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), despite being widespread in temperate coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, we examined harbor porpoises that stranded alive in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany between 2000 and 2014 for herpesvirus infection and associated disease. Porpoises that died or had to be euthanized were autopsied, and samples were collected for virological and pathological analyses. We found one known herpesvirus (Phocoena phocoena herpesvirus type 1, PPHV-1)--a gammaherpesvirus--and two novel herpesviruses (PPHV-2 and PPHV-3)--both alphaherpesviruses--in these porpoises. A genital plaque, in which PPHV-1 was detected, occurred in 1% (1/117) of porpoises. The plaque was characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and intranuclear inclusion bodies that contained herpesvirus-like particles, and that stained positive by a PPHV-1-specific in situ hybridization test. PPHV-2 occurred in the brain of 2% (1/74) of porpoises. This infection was associated with lymphocytic encephalitis, characterized by neuronal necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies containing herpesvirus-like particles. PPHV-3 had a prevalence of 5% (4/74) in brain tissue, 5% (2/43) in blowhole swabs, and 2% (1/43) in genital swabs, but was not associated with disease. Phylogenetically, PPHV-1 was identical to a previously reported herpesvirus from a harbor porpoise, PPHV-2 showed closest identity with two herpesviruses from dolphins, and PPHV-3 showed closest identity with a cervid herpesvirus. In conclusion, harbor porpoises may be infected with at least three different herpesviruses, one of which can cause clinically severe neurological disease. PMID:26861818

  5. THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Central neck dissection: a step forward in the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sitges-Serra, Antonio; Lorente, Leyre; Mateu, Germán; Sancho, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    Since its introduction in the '70s and '80s, CND for papillary cancer is here to stay. Compartment VI should always be explored during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) for obvious lymph node metastases. These can be easily spotted by an experienced surgeon or, eventually, by frozen section. No doubt, obvious nodal disease in the Delphian, paratracheal and subithsmic areas should be dissected in a comprehensive manner (therapeutic central neck dissection), avoiding the selective removal of suspicious nodes. Available evidence for routine prophylactic CND is not completely satisfactory. Our group's opinion, however, is that it reduces or even eliminates the need for repeat surgery in the central neck, better defines the extent (and stage) of the disease and provides a further argument against routine radioiodine ablation. Thus, PTC is becoming more and more a surgical disease that can be cured by optimized surgery alone in the majority of cases. Prophylactic CND, however, involves a higher risk for the parathyroid function and should be skilfully performed, preferably only on the same side as the primary tumour and preserving the cervical portion of the thymus. PMID:26088823

  6. Raccoon Roundworm Infection Associated with Central Nervous System Disease and Ocular Disease - Six States, 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Anita D; Abanyie, Francisca; Blumberg, Dean; Chin-Hong, Peter; Coulter, Katrina S; Cunningham, Dennis; Huskins, W Charles; Langelier, Charles; Reid, Michael; Scott, Brian J; Shirley, Debbie-Ann; Babik, Jennifer M; Belova, Aleksandra; Sapp, Sarah G H; McAuliffe, Isabel; Rivera, Hilda N; Yabsley, Michael J; Montgomery, Susan P

    2016-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis, predominantly found in raccoons, is a ubiquitous roundworm found throughout North America. Although raccoons are typically asymptomatic when infected with the parasite, the larval form of Baylisascaris procyonis can result in fatal human disease or severe neurologic outcomes if not treated rapidly. In the United States, Baylisascaris procyonis is more commonly enzootic in raccoons in the midwestern and northeastern regions and along the West Coast (1). However, since 2002, infections have been documented in other states (Florida and Georgia) and regions (2). Baylisascariasis is not a nationally notifiable disease in the United States, and little is known about how commonly it occurs or the range of clinical disease in humans. Case reports of seven human baylisascariasis cases in the United States diagnosed by Baylisascaris procyonis immunoblot testing at CDC are described, including review of clinical history and laboratory data. Although all seven patients survived, approximately half were left with severe neurologic deficits. Prevention through close monitoring of children at play, frequent handwashing, and clearing of raccoon latrines (communal sites where raccoons defecate) are critical interventions in curbing Baylisascaris infections. Early treatment of suspected cases is critical to prevent permanent sequelae. PMID:27608169

  7. Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.

    PubMed

    Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2013-09-25

    Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810

  8. MicroRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker for disease course monitoring in primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Kuhnhenn, Jan; Schlegel, Uwe; Schmiegel, Wolf; Hahn, Stephan; Schroers, Roland

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis of primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (PCNSL) largely depends on histopathology of tumor biopsies. Recently, we identified miRNAs detected in the CSF of PCNSL patients as novel non-invasive biomarkers for this disease. In combined analyses of miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-92 CSF levels, it was possible to differentiate PCNSL from other neurological disorders. In the current study, we first confirmed our previous findings in an enlarged PCNSL cohort (n = 39; sensitivity 97.4 %). Also, we sought to establish the potential role of CSF miRNAs as biomarkers for disease course monitoring. In sequential miRNA measurements in CSF derived from nine patients with different disease courses, an intriguing correlation of miRNA levels and PCNSL status during treatment and/or disease follow-up was demonstrated. Finally, we demonstrated that miRNA levels in serum of PCNSL patients (n = 14) were not elevated as compared to controls. In summary, this study provides the first evidence that CSF miRNAs have the potential as biomarkers for treatment monitoring and disease follow-up of patients with PCNSL. PMID:22729947

  9. The Central Role of the Gut Microbiota in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Caroline Marcantonio; Vieira, Angélica Thomaz; Vinolo, Marco Aurelio Ramirez; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Curi, Rui; Martins, Flaviano dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and obesity. Perturbations in the microbiota composition result in a deficient immune response and impaired tolerance to commensal microorganisms. Due to altered microbiota composition which is associated to some inflammatory diseases, several strategies, such as the administration of probiotics, diet, and antibiotic usage, have been utilized to prevent or ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recent evidence showing that the gut microbiota controls immune system function and onset, development, and resolution of some common inflammatory diseases. PMID:25309932

  10. Antioxidants in Central Nervous System Diseases: Preclinical Promise and Translational Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Chandrashekhar D.; Gadal, Sunyana; Mhatre, Molina; Williamson, Kelly S.; Pye, Quentin N.; Hensley, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and stroke (brain ischemia/reperfusion injury). The availability of transgenic and toxin-inducible models of these conditions has facilitated the preclinical evaluation of putative antioxidant agents ranging from prototypic natural antioxidants such as vitamin E (α-tocopherol) to sophisticated synthetic free radical traps and catalytic oxidants. Literature review shows that antioxidant therapies have enjoyed general success in preclinical studies across disparate animal models, but little benefit in human intervention studies or clinical trials. Recent high-profile failures of vitamin E trials in Parkinson’s disease, and nitrone therapies in stroke, have diminished enthusiasm to pursue antioxidant neuroprotectants in the clinic. The translational disappointment of antioxidants likely arises from a combination of factors including failure to understand the drug candidate’s mechanism of action in relationship to human disease, and failure to conduct preclinical studies using concentration and time parameters relevant to the clinical setting. This review discusses the rationale for using antioxidants in the prophylaxis or mitigation of human neurodiseases, with a critical discussion regarding ways in which future preclinical studies may be adjusted to offer more predictive value in selecting agents for translation into human trials. PMID:18997301

  11. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – a non-invasive method in evaluating focal and diffuse central nervous system disease

    PubMed Central

    Scheau, C; Preda, EM; Popa, GA; Ghergus, AE; Capsa, RA; Lupescu, IG

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is a non-invasive method, which can be performed following a routine Magnetic Resonance investigation within the same examination, and can provide very useful molecular information related to the metabolism and function of the normal and pathological structures of the brain. Its role is increasing in the establishment of a clear diagnosis, in both focal and diffuse central nervous system diseases, and the tendency is to replace the histopathology test, in certain cases, with similar or sometimes better diagnostic accuracy. This paper summarizes the principle, method, and main clinical applications, standing as a guide to procedure performing and results interpretation. PMID:23346244

  12. Genomic sequence analysis of a new reassortant infectious bursal disease virus from commercial broiler flocks in Central China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Pei; Ma, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Geng; Li, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Xiao-Yun; Cui, Bao-An; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2013-09-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence of a reassortant infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) HN isolate from commercial broiler flocks in central China. The genome consisted of 3,232 and 2,652 nucleotides in the coding regions of segments A and B, respectively. Alignment of both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genome segments A and B of HN were derived from the attenuated strain B87 and the VV strain OKYM. This is a new reassortant IBDV strain that has emerged in nature, involving segment A of a cell-culture-adapted attenuated vaccine strain B87. PMID:23543159

  13. Individual differences in auditory abilities.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500

  14. Behavioral and EEG Evidence for Auditory Memory Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Maya E.; Knight, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of motivated forgetting using the Think/No-Think (TNT) paradigm is receiving increased attention with a particular focus on the mechanisms that enable memory suppression. However, most TNT studies have been limited to the visual domain. To assess whether and to what extent direct memory suppression extends across sensory modalities, we examined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of auditory TNT in healthy young adults by adapting the TNT paradigm to the auditory modality. Behaviorally, suppression of memory strength was indexed by prolonged response time (RTs) during the retrieval of subsequently remembered No-Think words. We examined task-related EEG activity of both attempted memory retrieval and inhibition of a previously learned target word during the presentation of its paired associate. Event-related EEG responses revealed two main findings: (1) a centralized Think > No-Think positivity during auditory word presentation (from approximately 0–500 ms); and (2) a sustained Think positivity over parietal electrodes beginning at approximately 600 ms reflecting the memory retrieval effect which was significantly reduced for No-Think words. In addition, word-locked theta (4–8 Hz) power was initially greater for No-Think compared to Think during auditory word presentation over fronto-central electrodes. This was followed by a posterior theta increase indexing successful memory retrieval in the Think condition. The observed event-related potential pattern and theta power analysis are similar to that reported in visual TNT studies and support a modality non-specific mechanism for memory inhibition. The EEG data also provide evidence supporting differing roles and time courses of frontal and parietal regions in the flexible control of auditory memory. PMID:27064461

  15. Behavioral and EEG Evidence for Auditory Memory Suppression.

    PubMed

    Cano, Maya E; Knight, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of motivated forgetting using the Think/No-Think (TNT) paradigm is receiving increased attention with a particular focus on the mechanisms that enable memory suppression. However, most TNT studies have been limited to the visual domain. To assess whether and to what extent direct memory suppression extends across sensory modalities, we examined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of auditory TNT in healthy young adults by adapting the TNT paradigm to the auditory modality. Behaviorally, suppression of memory strength was indexed by prolonged response time (RTs) during the retrieval of subsequently remembered No-Think words. We examined task-related EEG activity of both attempted memory retrieval and inhibition of a previously learned target word during the presentation of its paired associate. Event-related EEG responses revealed two main findings: (1) a centralized Think > No-Think positivity during auditory word presentation (from approximately 0-500 ms); and (2) a sustained Think positivity over parietal electrodes beginning at approximately 600 ms reflecting the memory retrieval effect which was significantly reduced for No-Think words. In addition, word-locked theta (4-8 Hz) power was initially greater for No-Think compared to Think during auditory word presentation over fronto-central electrodes. This was followed by a posterior theta increase indexing successful memory retrieval in the Think condition. The observed event-related potential pattern and theta power analysis are similar to that reported in visual TNT studies and support a modality non-specific mechanism for memory inhibition. The EEG data also provide evidence supporting differing roles and time courses of frontal and parietal regions in the flexible control of auditory memory. PMID:27064461

  16. [Polyneuropathy and central nervous system diseases before and after heart transplantation. Is cyclosporin neurotoxic?].

    PubMed

    Porschke, H; Strenge, H; Stauch, C

    1991-10-18

    In a cross-sectional study, 52 patients (44 men, 8 women, mean age 50.6 [19-68] years) were investigated clinically and electrophysiologically for evidence of peripheral and central nervous system damage before and after heart transplantation. 20 patients were investigated before heart transplantation (group 1), 16 at 7 days to 5 months after transplantation (early post-operative group; group 2) and 16 at 6 to 32 months after transplantation (late post-operative group; group 3). Nerve conduction studies (median, peroneal and sural nerves) revealed polyneuropathy in 14 out of 16 patients in group 2, significantly more than in group 1 (11 out of 19) and group 3 (9 out of 16). The mean blood cyclosporin concentration was 656 ng/ml in group 2 and 409 ng/ml in group 3 (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3 with polyneuropathy had significantly higher cyclosporin concentrations than patients without polyneuropathy (505 vs 284 ng/ml; P less than 0.01). Among patients who had undergone operations, there were no noteworthy differences between the mean cyclosporin concentrations and clinical data in those with or without central nervous system lesions. There is preliminary evidence of a neurotoxic effect of cyclosporin on the peripheral but not the central nervous system. PMID:1935623

  17. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS): Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25558415

  18. Bullous pemphigoid and neurodegenerative diseases: a study in a setting of a Central European university dermatology department.

    PubMed

    Pietkiewicz, Paweł; Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Bartkiewicz, Paweł; Dmochowski, Marian

    2016-08-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering dermatosis of the elderly mediated by IgG and IgE antibodies to skin hemidesmosomal proteins, BP180 and/or BP230, that occur physiologically also in neuronal tissue. It was reported that BP is associated with neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We performed a retrospective study in a setting of a Central European university dermatology department on prevalence of ND in 94 BP patients. 26 out of 94 BP patients had at least one ND. ND included: Parkinson's disease, dementia, stroke, hear loss, tinnitus, blindness, vertigo, neurosyphilis, systemic sclerosis, and epilepsy. Since population aging is conceivably responsible for the rising number of BP cases as a result of immunosenescence-related phenomena, the plausible BP-specific immunopathogenetic relationship between BP and ND deserves to be further experimentally explored. PMID:26420424

  19. NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors in auditory transmission in the barn owl inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D E; Knudsen, E I

    1994-10-01

    The pharmacology of auditory responses in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the barn owl was investigated by iontophoresis of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists into two different functional subdivisions of the IC, the external nucleus (ICx) and the lateral shell of the central nucleus (lateral shell), both of which carry out important computations in the processing of auditory spatial information. Combined application of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) and the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-5-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) significantly reduced auditory-evoked spikes at all sites in these two subdivisions, and completely eliminated responses at many locations. This suggests that excitatory amino acid receptors mediate the bulk, if not all, of auditory responses in the ICx and lateral shell. NMDA and non-NMDA receptors contributed differently to auditory responses in the two subdivisions. In the ICx, AP5 significantly reduced the number of auditory-evoked spikes at every site tested. On average, AP5 eliminated 55% of auditory-evoked spikes at multiunit sites and 64% at single-unit sites in this structure. In contrast, in the lateral shell, AP5 significantly reduced responses at less than half the sites tested, and, on average, AP5 eliminated only 19% of spikes at multiunit sites and 25% at single-unit sites. When the magnitude of response blockade produced by AP5 at individual multiunit sites was normalized to adjust for site-to-site differences in the efficacy of iontophoresed AP5 and CNQX, AP5 blockade was still significantly greater in the ICx than the lateral shell. CNQX application strongly reduced responses in both subdivisions. These data suggest that NMDA receptor currents make a major contribution to auditory responses in the ICx, while they make only a small contribution to auditory responses in the lateral shell. Non-NMDA receptor currents, on the other hand, contribute to auditory responses in both

  20. Chronic inflammatory airway diseases: the central role of the epithelium revisited.

    PubMed

    Gohy, S T; Hupin, C; Pilette, C; Ladjemi, M Z

    2016-04-01

    The respiratory epithelium plays a critical role for the maintenance of airway integrity and defense against inhaled particles. Physical barrier provided by apical junctions and mucociliary clearance clears inhaled pathogens, allergens or toxics, to prevent continuous stimulation of adaptive immune responses. The "chemical barrier", consisting of several anti-microbial factors such as lysozyme and lactoferrin, constitutes another protective mechanism of the mucosae against external aggressions before adaptive immune response starts. The reconstruction of damaged respiratory epithelium is crucial to restore this barrier. This review examines the role of the airway epithelium through recent advances in health and chronic inflammatory diseases in the lower conducting airways (in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Better understanding of normal and altered epithelial functions continuously provides new insights into the physiopathology of chronic airway diseases and should help to identify new epithelial-targeted therapies. PMID:27021118

  1. Emergence of Spatial Stream Segregation in the Ascending Auditory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Justin D.; Bremen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Stream segregation enables a listener to disentangle multiple competing sequences of sounds. A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that cortical neurons in anesthetized cats exhibit spatial stream segregation (SSS) by synchronizing preferentially to one of two sequences of noise bursts that alternate between two source locations. Here, we examine the emergence of SSS along the ascending auditory pathway. Extracellular recordings were made in anesthetized rats from the inferior colliculus (IC), the nucleus of the brachium of the IC (BIN), the medial geniculate body (MGB), and the primary auditory cortex (A1). Stimuli consisted of interleaved sequences of broadband noise bursts that alternated between two source locations. At stimulus presentation rates of 5 and 10 bursts per second, at which human listeners report robust SSS, neural SSS is weak in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), it appears in the nucleus of the brachium of the IC (BIN) and in approximately two-thirds of neurons in the ventral MGB (MGBv), and is prominent throughout A1. The enhancement of SSS at the cortical level reflects both increased spatial sensitivity and increased forward suppression. We demonstrate that forward suppression in A1 does not result from synaptic inhibition at the cortical level. Instead, forward suppression might reflect synaptic depression in the thalamocortical projection. Together, our findings indicate that auditory streams are increasingly segregated along the ascending auditory pathway as distinct mutually synchronized neural populations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Listeners are capable of disentangling multiple competing sequences of sounds that originate from distinct sources. This stream segregation is aided by differences in spatial location between the sources. A possible substrate of spatial stream segregation (SSS) has been described in the auditory cortex, but the mechanisms leading to those cortical responses are unknown. Here, we investigated SSS in

  2. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production. PMID:21752410

  3. Context effects on auditory distraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  4. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music ('musicophilia') occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25929717

  5. Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens. PMID:22460397

  6. Comparison of Computed Tomography and Cineangiography in the Demonstration of Central Pulmonary Arteries in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Taneja, Karuna; Sharma, Sanjiv; Kumar, Krishan; Rajani, Mira

    1996-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for central pulmonary artery pathology in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) and right ventricular outflow obstruction. Methods: We compared contrast-enhanced CT and cine pulmonary arteriography in 24 patients with CCHD to assess central pulmonary arteries including the confluence. Both investigations were interpreted by a cardiac radiologist in a double-blinded manner at an interval of 3 weeks. Angiography was used as the gold standard for comparison. Results: The sensitivity for visualization of main pulmonary artery (MPA), right pulmonary artery (RPA), left pulmonary artery (LPA), and confluence on CT was 94%, 100%, 92.8%, and 92.8%, respectively. Diagnostic specificity for the same entities was 28.5%, 100%, 80%, and 50%, respectively. The positive predictive value for each was 76.2%, 100%, 94.1%, and 72.2%, respectively. The low specificity of CT in the evaluation of the MPA and the confluence is perhaps due to distorted right ventricular outflow anatomy in CCHD. Large aortopulmonary collaterals in this region were mistaken for the MPA in some patients with pulmonary atresia. Conclusion: CT is a useful, relatively noninvasive, imaging technique for the central pulmonary arteries in selected patients. It can supplement diagnostic information from angiography but cannot replace it. LPA demonstration on axial images alone is inadequate.

  7. Fall risk is associated with amplified functional connectivity of the central executive network in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Katz, Keren; Herman, Talia; Jacob, Yael; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Hendler, Talma; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-11-01

    Falls are debilitating problems that markedly impact the health-related quality of life of many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies point to the role of executive function and attention in falls; however, the brain mechanisms underlying these relationships are less clear. Here, we aim to evaluate the brain mechanisms underlying the role of executive function in falls. Patients with PD who were fallers (n = 27) or non-fallers (n = 53) and 27 healthy older adults were examined in a cross-sectional study. Gray matter volumes of the caudate head and posterior putamen were evaluated, as these striatal regions play a role in the executive and the sensorimotor cortico-striatal networks, respectively. The functional connectivity of the central executive network and of the sensorimotor network was measured using intrinsic brain connectivity during resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to non-fallers and healthy controls, fallers had lower gray matter volume in the caudate head, but not in the posterior putamen, and increased connectivity between posterior partial regions of the central executive network, with no difference within the sensorimotor network. Mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationships between caudate head gray matter volume and fall history and risk were mediated by increased connectivity within the central executive network, apparently via attentional changes. The above findings provide additional converging evidence for the involvement of executive-related brain changes in falls in PD and support the important role of attention and executive function in fall risk. PMID:26233691

  8. Effects of Auditory Input in Individuation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Under many conditions auditory input interferes with visual processing, especially early in development. These interference effects are often more pronounced when the auditory input is unfamiliar than when the auditory input is familiar (e.g. human speech, pre-familiarized sounds, etc.). The current study extends this research by examining how…

  9. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  10. White-tailed deer harvest from the chronic wasting disease eradication zone in south-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Sausen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope=0.003, 95% CI=0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope=0.071, 95% CI=0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD infection (slope=-0.041, 95% CI=-0.056- -0.027). Concomitantly, harvest was not impacted in areas where landowners signed a petition protesting intensive deer reduction (slope=-0.00006, 95% CI=-0.0005-0.0003). Our results suggest that the success of programs designed to reduce deer populations for disease control or to reduce overabundance in Wisconsin are dependent on landowner and hunter participation. We recommend that programs or actions implemented to eradicate or mitigate the spread of CWD should monitor and assess deer population reduction and evaluate factors affecting program success to improve methods to meet management goals.

  11. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  12. Time Estimation in Alzheimer's Disease and the Role of the Central Executive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papagno, Costanza; Allegra, Adele; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of short-term memory and attention in time estimation. For this purpose we studied prospective time verbal estimation in 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and compared their performance with that of 21 matched normal controls in two different conditions: during a digit span task and during an…

  13. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  14. Plasticity of peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity in Emei music frog.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dian; Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs. PMID:23029243

  15. Vestibular receptors contribute to cortical auditory evoked potentials☆

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P.M.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Kluk, Karolina; Whittle, Elizabeth; Colebatch, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic sensitivity of the vestibular apparatus is well-established, but the contribution of vestibular receptors to the late auditory evoked potentials of cortical origin is unknown. Evoked potentials from 500 Hz tone pips were recorded using 70 channel EEG at several intensities below and above the vestibular acoustic threshold, as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). In healthy subjects both auditory mid- and long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), consisting of Na, Pa, N1 and P2 waves, were observed in the sub-threshold conditions. However, in passing through the vestibular threshold, systematic changes were observed in the morphology of the potentials and in the intensity dependence of their amplitude and latency. These changes were absent in a patient without functioning vestibular receptors. In particular, for the healthy subjects there was a fronto-central negativity, which appeared at about 42 ms, referred to as an N42, prior to the AEP N1. Source analysis of both the N42 and N1 indicated involvement of cingulate cortex, as well as bilateral superior temporal cortex. Our findings are best explained by vestibular receptors contributing to what were hitherto considered as purely auditory evoked potentials and in addition tentatively identify a new component that appears to be primarily of vestibular origin. PMID:24321822

  16. Electrophysiological characterization of adult-onset Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Iodice, Rosa; Dubbioso, Raffaele; Topa, Antonietta; Ruggiero, Lucia; Pisciotta, Chiara; Esposito, Marcello; Tozza, Stefano; Santoro, Lucio; Manganelli, Fiore

    2015-01-15

    In infantile and juvenile Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease electrophysiological studies have shown central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system abnormalities. However, an extensive electrophysiological evaluation of CNS and PNS in adult form of NPC is still lacking. The aim of the study is to assess in adult-onset NPC disease the involvement of CNS and PNS by a multimodal electrophysiological approach. Three patients affected by adult form of NPC disease underwent electrophysiological evaluation including nerve conduction study (NCS), magnetic motor (MEPs), visual (VEPs), somatosensory (SSEPs) and brainstem auditory (BAEPs) evoked potentials. NCS, MEPs, VEPs and upper limb SSEPs were normal. Lower limb SSEPs were abnormal in all patients and abnormalities were consistent with a length-dependent process affecting the central somatosensory pathway. BAEPs were abnormal in all patients with both peripheral and central impairment of auditory pathway. Our electrophysiological findings suggest that auditory and lower limb somatosensory pathways are constantly affected in adult-onset form of NPC disease. The involvement of PNS, pyramidal, visual and upper limb somatosensory pathways might occur later during the course of disease. PMID:25537619

  17. Representation of sound localization cues in the auditory thalamus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Proctor, L; Konishi, M

    1997-09-16

    Barn owls can localize a sound source using either the map of auditory space contained in the optic tectum or the auditory forebrain. The auditory thalamus, nucleus ovoidalis (N.Ov), is situated between these two auditory areas, and its inactivation precludes the use of the auditory forebrain for sound localization. We examined the sources of inputs to the N.Ov as well as their patterns of termination within the nucleus. We also examined the response of single neurons within the N.Ov to tonal stimuli and sound localization cues. Afferents to the N.Ov originated with a diffuse population of neurons located bilaterally within the lateral shell, core, and medial shell subdivisions of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Additional afferent input originated from the ipsilateral ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. No afferent input was provided to the N.Ov from the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus or the optic tectum. The N.Ov was tonotopically organized with high frequencies represented dorsally and low frequencies ventrally. Although neurons in the N.Ov responded to localization cues, there was no apparent topographic mapping of these cues within the nucleus, in contrast to the tectal pathway. However, nearly all possible types of binaural response to sound localization cues were represented. These findings suggest that in the thalamo-telencephalic auditory pathway, sound localization is subserved by a nontopographic representation of auditory space. PMID:9294226

  18. Impact of the augmentation time ratio on direct measurement of central aortic pressure in the presence of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Nishizaki, Yuji; Yamazoe, Masahiro; Komatsu, Ikki; Asano, Taku; Mitsuhashi, Hirotsugu; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    The augmentation index measured by using the central artery pressure is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, no study has examined the role of the time duration of the central artery pressure on CAD. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the central blood pressure time duration and the presence of CAD. All patients without a history of revascularization or prior myocardial infarction who underwent an elective coronary angiography at one of the two hospitals from January to September 2013 were analyzed. CAD was defined as a significant stenosis in one of the main coronary branches. The augmentation time ratio was defined as the ratio of the reflection to peak systolic time T2T1 duration divided by the peak systolic time to aortic notch T3T2 duration. We analyzed the relationship between the central pressure waveform (not only augmentation pressure) and the presence of CAD. A total of 146 (57.3%) out of 255 patients had a significant CAD. T2T1 duration was longer in the CAD group than the no CAD group, and the T3T2 duration was shorter in the CAD group than the no CAD group. The augmentation time ratio (T2T1/T3T2) was significantly larger in the CAD group than in the no CAD group. The augmentation index and augmentation pressure were lower in the no CAD group, but this difference was not statistically significant. The augmentation time ratio was an independent factor related to no CAD, especially in patients with a high augmentation index (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.63). The augmentation time ratio was an independent factor related to the presence of CAD. PMID:25854988

  19. Early auditory enrichment with music enhances auditory discrimination learning and alters NR2B protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Cai, Rui; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the functional development of auditory system is substantially influenced by the structure of environmental acoustic inputs in early life. In our present study, we investigated the effects of early auditory enrichment with music on rat auditory discrimination learning. We found that early auditory enrichment with music from postnatal day (PND) 14 enhanced learning ability in auditory signal-detection task and in sound duration-discrimination task. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in NMDA receptor subunit NR2B protein expression in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, we found that auditory enrichment with music starting from PND 28 or 56 did not influence NR2B expression in the auditory cortex. No difference was found in the NR2B expression in the inferior colliculus (IC) between music-exposed and normal rats, regardless of when the auditory enrichment with music was initiated. Our findings suggest that early auditory enrichment with music influences NMDA-mediated neural plasticity, which results in enhanced auditory discrimination learning. PMID:18706452

  20. Central histamine H3 receptor signaling negatively regulates susceptibility to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Teuscher, Cory; Subramanian, Meena; Noubade, Rajkumar; Gao, Jian Feng; Offner, Halina; Zachary, James F.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.

    2007-01-01

    Histamine (HA), a biogenic amine with a broad spectrum of activities in both physiological and pathological settings, plays a key regulatory role in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the autoimmune model of multiple sclerosis. HA exerts its effect through four G protein-coupled receptors designated HA receptor H1, H2, H3, and H4. We report here that, compared with wild-type animals, mice with a disrupted HA H3 receptor (H3RKO), the expression of which is normally confined to cells of the nervous system, develop more severe disease and neuroinflammation. We show that this effect is associated with dysregulation of blood–brain barrier permeability and increased expression of MIP-2, IP-10, and CXCR3 by peripheral T cells. Our data suggest that pharmacological targeting of the H3R may be useful in preventing the development and formation of new lesions in multiple sclerosis, thereby significantly limiting the progression of the disease. PMID:17548817

  1. Central catecholamine metabolism in vivo and the cognitive and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, J J; Stanley, M; Kaplan, R D; Sweeney, J; Neophytides, A

    1983-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) in unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease were 45% of levels in control subjects. Levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and platelet monoamine oxidase activity (MAO) did not differ. Within the Parkinson's disease group platelet MAO B activity correlated with HVA (an MAO B substrate) but not MHPG (an MAO A substrate). A mild global dementia was found that did not correlate with the more severe motor deficit. There was a negative correlation between the motor deficit and HVA levels but not with MHPG. Cognitive functioning correlated positively with platelet MAO, and the ratio of HVA to MHPG levels and negatively with MHPG alone. It is postulated that dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity or the functional balance between these systems may contribute to the observed cognitive dysfunction. PMID:6644314

  2. Primary central nervous system lymphomas and related diseases: Pathological characteristics and discussion of the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Muta, Hiroko; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Although primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS are designated as primary CNS lymphomas according to the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue in 2008, a variety of other lymphomas (Burkitt lymphomas, EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly) and related diseases (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) that are also found in the CNS have been spotlighted in recent years. The histopathology of primary CNS Burkitt lymphomas mimics that of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS after steroid administration. Therefore, for correct diagnosis of the involved lymphoma, comprehensive fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis for c-MYC and BCL2 is recommended in all primary CNS lymphoma cases with aggressive clinical course, multifocal involvement of the CNS, and a high proliferation index. The pathological characteristics of primary CNS EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly have similarities with those of the latency phenotype III, EBV lymphoproliferative disorders that arise in the setting of immunodeficiency. These age-related lymphomas usually occur in elderly immunocompetent patients, and the incidence of this disease was estimated to range from 4.0% to 13.6% of all primary CNS lymphomas. Shorter overall survival has been reported for patients with this disease. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a systemic, EBV-driven, angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder. Primary LYG that shows distinct clinicopathological features compared with systemic LYG was recently reported. Finally, this review focuses on the relationship between primary CNS lymphomas and demyelinating diseases, and the concomitant use of intraoperative cytology and frozen sections that are helpful in rapid intraoperative diagnosis. PMID:26607855

  3. The Multiple Sclerosis Degradome: Enzymatic Cascades in Development and Progression of Central Nervous System Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scarisbrick, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    An array of studies implicate different classes of protease and their endogenous inhibitors in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis based on expression patterns in MS lesions, sera, and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Growing evidence exists regarding their mechanistic roles in inflammatory and neurodegenerative aspects of this disease. Proteolytic events participate in demyelination, axon injury, apoptosis, and development of the inflammatory response including immune cell activation and extravasation, cytokine and chemokine activation/inactivation, complement activation, and epitope spreading. The potential significance of proteolytic activity to MS therefore relates not only to their potential use as important biomarkers of disease activity, but additionally as prospective therapeutic targets. Experimental data indicate that understanding the net physiological consequence of altered protease levels in MS development and progression necessitates understanding protease activity in the context of substrates, endogenous inhibitors, and proteolytic cascade interactions, which together make up the MS degradome. This review will focus on evidence regarding the potential physiologic role of those protease families already identified as markers of disease activity in MS; that is, the metallo-, serine, and cysteine proteases. PMID:18219817

  4. Glia and TRPM2 Channels in Plasticity of Central Nervous System and Alzheimer's Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Jackson, Michael F.; Xie, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity refers to the ability of neurons to strengthen or weaken synaptic efficacy in response to activity and is the basis for learning and memory. Glial cells communicate with neurons and in this way contribute in part to plasticity in the CNS and to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease in which impaired synaptic plasticity is causally implicated. The transient receptor potential melastatin member 2 (TRPM2) channel is a nonselective Ca2+-permeable channel expressed in both glial cells (microglia and astrocytes) and neurons. Recent studies indicated that TRPM2 regulates synaptic plasticity as well as the activation of glial cells. TRPM2 also modulates oxidative stress and inflammation through interaction with glial cells. As both oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in AD pathology, this suggests a possible contribution of TRPM2 to disease processes. Through modulating the homeostasis of glutathione, TRPM2 is involved in the process of aging which is a risk factor of AD. These results potentially point TRPM2 channel to be involved in AD through glial cells. This review summarizes recent advances in studying the contribution of TRPM2 in health and in AD pathology, with a focus on contributions via glia cells. PMID:26942016

  5. Glia and TRPM2 Channels in Plasticity of Central Nervous System and Alzheimer's Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jackson, Michael F; Xie, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity refers to the ability of neurons to strengthen or weaken synaptic efficacy in response to activity and is the basis for learning and memory. Glial cells communicate with neurons and in this way contribute in part to plasticity in the CNS and to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease in which impaired synaptic plasticity is causally implicated. The transient receptor potential melastatin member 2 (TRPM2) channel is a nonselective Ca(2+)-permeable channel expressed in both glial cells (microglia and astrocytes) and neurons. Recent studies indicated that TRPM2 regulates synaptic plasticity as well as the activation of glial cells. TRPM2 also modulates oxidative stress and inflammation through interaction with glial cells. As both oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in AD pathology, this suggests a possible contribution of TRPM2 to disease processes. Through modulating the homeostasis of glutathione, TRPM2 is involved in the process of aging which is a risk factor of AD. These results potentially point TRPM2 channel to be involved in AD through glial cells. This review summarizes recent advances in studying the contribution of TRPM2 in health and in AD pathology, with a focus on contributions via glia cells. PMID:26942016

  6. The Role of the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems in Rotator Cuff Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bachasson, Damien; Singh, Anshuman; Shah, Sameer; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) disease is an extremely common condition associated with shoulder pain, reduced functional capacities and impaired quality of life. It primarily involves alterations in tendon health and mechanical properties that can ultimately lead to tendon failure. RC tendon tears induce progressive muscular changes that negatively impact surgical reparability of the RC tendons and clinical outcomes. At the same time, a significant base of clinical data suggests a relatively weak relationship between RC integrity and clinical presentation, emphasizing the multifactorial aspects of RC disease. This review aims to summarize the potential contribution of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal neural factors that may: (i) exacerbate structural and functional muscle changes induced by tendon tear, (ii) compromise the reversal of these changes during surgery and rehabilitation, (iii) contribute to pain generation and persistence of pain, iv) impair shoulder function through reduced proprioception, kinematics and muscle recruitment, and iv) help to explain interindividual differences and response to treatment. Given the current clinical and scientific interest in peripheral nerve injury in the context of RC disease and surgery, we carefully reviewed this body of literature with a particular emphasis for suprascapular neuropathy that has generated a large number of studies in the past decade. Within this process, we highlight the gaps in current knowledge and suggest research avenues for scientists and clinicians. PMID:26189809

  7. A central role for dityrosine crosslinking of Amyloid-β in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of insoluble amyloid plaques in the neuropil composed of highly stable, self-assembled Amyloid-beta (Aβ) fibrils. Copper has been implicated to play a role in Alzheimer’s disease. Dimers of Aβ have been isolated from AD brain and have been shown to be neurotoxic. Results We have investigated the formation of dityrosine cross-links in Aβ42 formed by covalent ortho-ortho coupling of two tyrosine residues under conditions of oxidative stress with elevated copper and shown that dityrosine can be formed in vitro in Aβ oligomers and fibrils and that these links further stabilize the fibrils. Dityrosine crosslinking was present in internalized Aβ in cell cultures treated with oligomeric Aβ42 using a specific antibody for dityrosine by immunogold labeling transmission electron microscopy. Results also revealed the prevalence of dityrosine crosslinks in amyloid plaques in brain tissue and in cerebrospinal fluid from AD patients. Conclusions Aβ dimers may be stabilized by dityrosine crosslinking. These results indicate that dityrosine cross-links may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and can be generated by reactive oxygen species catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. The observation of increased Aβ and dityrosine in CSF from AD patients suggests that this could be used as a potential biomarker of oxidative stress in AD. PMID:24351276

  8. Central Dog-ma Disease Detectives: A Molecular Biology Inquiry Activity for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Yuh, P.; Black, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) and Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS) are programs at the University of California at Santa Cruz designed to support minority undergraduate students majoring in the sciences. Each summer MARC/MBRS sponsors a Summer Institute that involves week long "rotations" with different faculty mentors. In 2008, the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program (PDP) was responsible for overseeing one week of the Summer Institute, and designed it to be a Biomedical Short Course. As part of this short course, we designed a four-hour activity in which students collected their own data and explored relationships between the basic biomolecules DNA, RNA, and protein. The goal was to have the students use experimental data to support their explanation of the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology. Here we describe details of our activity and provide a post-teaching reflection on its success.

  9. Auditory processing and morphological anomalies in medial geniculate nucleus of Cntnap2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dongnhu T; Rendall, Amanda R; Castelluccio, Brian C; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fitch, R Holly

    2015-12-01

    Genetic epidemiological studies support a role for CNTNAP2 in developmental language disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, specific language impairment, and dyslexia. Atypical language development and function represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with evidence suggesting that aberrant auditory processing-including impaired spectrotemporal processing and enhanced pitch perception-may both contribute to an anomalous language phenotype. Investigation of gene-brain-behavior relationships in social and repetitive ASD symptomatology have benefited from experimentation on the Cntnap2 knockout (KO) mouse. However, auditory-processing behavior and effects on neural structures within the central auditory pathway have not been assessed in this model. Thus, this study examined whether auditory-processing abnormalities were associated with mutation of the Cntnap2 gene in mice. Cntnap2 KO mice were assessed on auditory-processing tasks including silent gap detection, embedded tone detection, and pitch discrimination. Cntnap2 knockout mice showed deficits in silent gap detection but a surprising superiority in pitch-related discrimination as compared with controls. Stereological analysis revealed a reduction in the number and density of neurons, as well as a shift in neuronal size distribution toward smaller neurons, in the medial geniculate nucleus of mutant mice. These findings are consistent with a central role for CNTNAP2 in the ontogeny and function of neural systems subserving auditory processing and suggest that developmental disruption of these neural systems could contribute to the atypical language phenotype seen in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:26501174

  10. Turning down the noise: the benefit of musical training on the aging auditory brain.

    PubMed

    Alain, Claude; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Hutka, Stefanie; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Age-related decline in hearing abilities is a ubiquitous part of aging, and commonly impacts speech understanding, especially when there are competing sound sources. While such age effects are partially due to changes within the cochlea, difficulties typically exist beyond measurable hearing loss, suggesting that central brain processes, as opposed to simple peripheral mechanisms (e.g., hearing sensitivity), play a critical role in governing hearing abilities late into life. Current training regimens aimed to improve central auditory processing abilities have experienced limited success in promoting listening benefits. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that in young adults, musical training positively modifies neural mechanisms, providing robust, long-lasting improvements to hearing abilities as well as to non-auditory tasks that engage cognitive control. These results offer the encouraging possibility that musical training might be used to counteract age-related changes in auditory cognition commonly observed in older adults. Here, we reviewed studies that have examined the effects of age and musical experience on auditory cognition with an emphasis on auditory scene analysis. We infer that musical training may offer potential benefits to complex listening and might be utilized as a means to delay or even attenuate declines in auditory perception and cognition that often emerge later in life. PMID:23831039

  11. The temporal relationship between the brainstem and primary cortical auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Shaw, N A

    1995-10-01

    Many methods are employed in order to define more precisely the generators of an evoked potential (EP) waveform. One technique is to compare the timing of an EP whose origin is well established with that of one whose origin is less certain. In the present article, the latency of the primary cortical auditory evoked potential (PCAEP) was compared to each of the seven subcomponents which compose the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP). The data for this comparison was derived from a retrospective analysis of previous recordings of the PCAEP and BAEP. Central auditory conduction time (CACT) was calculated by subtracting the latency of the cochlear nucleus BAEP component (wave III) from that of the PCAEP. It was found that CACT in humans is 12 msec which is more than double that of central somatosensory conduction time. The interpeak latencies between BAEP waves V, VI, and VII and the PCAEP were also calculated. It was deduced that all three waves must have an origin rather more caudally within the central auditory system than is commonly supposed. In addition, it is demonstrated that the early components of the middle latency AEP (No and Na) largely reside within the time domain between the termination of the BAEP components and the PCAEP which would be consistent with their being far field reflections of midbrain and subcortical auditory activity. It is concluded that as the afferent volley ascends the central auditory pathways, it generates not a sequence of high frequency BAEP responses but rather a succession of slower post-synaptic waves. The only means of reconciling the timing of the BAEP waves with that of the PCAEP is to assume that the generation of all the BAEP components must be largely restricted to a quite confined region within the auditory nerve and the lower half of the pons. PMID:8711132

  12. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  13. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  14. Regular patterns stabilize auditory streams.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Denham, Susan L; Gyimesi, Kinga; Winkler, István

    2010-12-01

    The auditory system continuously parses the acoustic environment into auditory objects, usually representing separate sound sources. Sound sources typically show characteristic emission patterns. These regular temporal sound patterns are possible cues for distinguishing sound sources. The present study was designed to test whether regular patterns are used as cues for source distinction and to specify the role that detecting these regularities may play in the process of auditory stream segregation. Participants were presented with tone sequences, and they were asked to continuously indicate whether they perceived the tones in terms of a single coherent sequence of sounds (integrated) or as two concurrent sound streams (segregated). Unknown to the participant, in some stimulus conditions, regular patterns were present in one or both putative streams. In all stimulus conditions, participants' perception switched back and forth between the two sound organizations. Importantly, regular patterns occurring in either one or both streams prolonged the mean duration of two-stream percepts, whereas the duration of one-stream percepts was unaffected. These results suggest that temporal regularities are utilized in auditory scene analysis. It appears that the role of this cue lies in stabilizing streams once they have been formed on the basis of simpler acoustic cues. PMID:21218898

  15. Dynamics of auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Working memory denotes the ability to retain stimuli in mind that are no longer physically present and to perform mental operations on them. Electro- and magnetoencephalography allow investigating the short-term maintenance of acoustic stimuli at a high temporal resolution. Studies investigating working memory for non-spatial and spatial auditory information have suggested differential roles of regions along the putative auditory ventral and dorsal streams, respectively, in the processing of the different sound properties. Analyses of event-related potentials have shown sustained, memory load-dependent deflections over the retention periods. The topography of these waves suggested an involvement of modality-specific sensory storage regions. Spectral analysis has yielded information about the temporal dynamics of auditory working memory processing of individual stimuli, showing activation peaks during the delay phase whose timing was related to task performance. Coherence at different frequencies was enhanced between frontal and sensory cortex. In summary, auditory working memory seems to rely on the dynamic interplay between frontal executive systems and sensory representation regions. PMID:26029146

  16. Intrathecal synthesis of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in viral and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gallo, P; Sivieri, S; Rinaldi, L; Yan, X B; Lolli, F; De Rossi, A; Tavolato, B

    1994-10-01

    The intrathecal synthesis of interleukin 10 (IL-10) was investigated in 120 paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum specimens from patients with various inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). IL-10 was not demonstrated in the sera, but detectable levels were found in the CSF from: patients with acute viral ("aseptic") meningitis, but only within 48-72 h of symptom onset; human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-infected patients with HIV-related encephalitis/leukoencephalopathy or cryptococcal meningitis; a patient with primary B cell lymphoma of the CNS, and a patient with encephalomeningeal sarcoidosis (in whom IL-10 was demonstrated in all CSF collected over a period of 6-months). In chronic meningeal infections/inflammations, IL-10 seems to be continuously produced within the CSF. Our findings suggest that IL-10, a cytokine which exerts many immunosuppressive actions, may play different immunomodulatory roles in CNS diseases; in particular, its intrathecal synthesis may explain why some infectious and inflammatory meningeal diseases may have slow development and chronic evolution. PMID:7836946

  17. Systemic Therapy for HER2-Positive Central Nervous System Disease: Where We Are and Where Do We Go From Here?

    PubMed

    Teplinsky, Eleonora; Esteva, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer are at an increased risk of developing brain metastases. The incidence and prevalence of central nervous system (CNS) disease are increasing due to improved survival, which can be attributed to better systemic therapies for extracranial disease. The current standard of care for brain metastases includes a combination of surgery and/or radiation. Systemic therapies are typically reserved for patients with intracranial progression following radiation, due to their limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. None of the available anti-HER2 agents (trastuzumab, lapatinib, pertuzumab, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1)) are currently approved for the treatment of brain metastases. Research is underway evaluating novel anti-HER2 agents, which have demonstrated CNS activity. This article discusses the current data on using anti-HER2 therapies to treat CNS disease as well as the newer anti-HER2 agents, which may overcome the current challenges faced in treating brain metastases in the HER2-positive patient population. PMID:26314739

  18. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  19. The role of transposable elements in health and diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Dubnau, Joshua; Ponomarev, Igor; Gage, Fred H

    2013-11-01

    First discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1940s, transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that in some cases have the ability to move along chromosomes or "transpose" in the genome. This revolutionary finding was initially met with resistance by the scientific community and viewed by some as heretical. A large body of knowledge has accumulated over the last 60 years on the biology of TEs. Indeed, it is now known that TEs can generate genomic instability and reconfigure gene expression networks both in the germline and somatic cells. This review highlights recent findings on the role of TEs in health and diseases of the CNS, which were presented at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience meeting. The work of the speakers in this symposium shows that TEs are expressed and active in the brain, challenging the dogma that neuronal genomes are static and revealing that they are susceptible to somatic genomic alterations. These new findings on TE expression and function in the CNS have major implications for understanding the neuroplasticity of the brain, which could hypothetically have a role in shaping individual behavior and contribute to vulnerability to disease. PMID:24198348

  20. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Andrew J.; Lips, Karen R.; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-01-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. PMID:20643927

  1. Evaluation of AAV-mediated Gene Therapy for Central Nervous System Disease in Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII

    PubMed Central

    Gurda, Brittney L; De Guilhem De Lataillade, Adrien; Bell, Peter; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Ping; Bagel, Jessica; Vite, Charles H; Sikora, Tracey; Hinderer, Christian; Calcedo, Roberto; Yox, Alexander D; Steet, Richard A; Ruane, Therese; O'Donnell, Patricia; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M; Casal, Margret; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease arising from mutations in β-d-glucuronidase (GUSB), which results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation and a variety of clinical manifestations including neurological disease. Herein, MPS VII dogs were injected intravenously (i.v.) and/or intrathecally (i.t.) via the cisterna magna with AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors carrying the canine GUSB cDNA. Although i.v. injection alone at 3 days of age resulted in normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GUSB activity, brain tissue homogenates had only ~1 to 6% normal GUSB activity and continued to have elevated GAG storage. In contrast, i.t. injection at 3 weeks of age resulted in CSF GUSB activity 44-fold normal while brain tissue homogenates had >100% normal GUSB activity and reduced GAGs compared with untreated dogs. Markers for secondary storage and inflammation were eliminated in i.t.-treated dogs and reduced in i.v.-treated dogs compared with untreated dogs. Given that i.t.-treated dogs expressed higher levels of GUSB in the CNS tissues compared to those treated i.v., we conclude that i.t. injection of AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors is more effective than i.v. injection alone in the large animal model of MPS VII. PMID:26447927

  2. Separate Evolution of Virulent Newcastle Disease Viruses from Mexico and Central America

    PubMed Central

    Hamal, Krishna R.; Miller, Patti J.; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Brown, Corrie C.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Gongora, Victor; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of Newcastle disease (ND) in poultry was reported in Belize in 2008. The characteristics of three virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from this outbreak (NDV-Belize-3/08, NDV-Belize-4/08, and NDV-Belize-12/08) were assessed by genomic analysis and by clinicopathological characterization in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The results showed that all three strains belong to NDV genotype V and are virulent, as assessed by the intracerebral pathogenicity index and the polybasic amino acid sequence at the fusion protein cleavage site. In 4-week-old SPF chickens, NDV-Belize-3/08 behaved as a typical velogenic viscerotropic NDV strain, causing severe necrohemorrhagic lesions in the lymphoid organs, with systemic virus distribution. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple NDV genotype V representatives revealed that genotype V can be divided into three subgenotypes, namely, Va, Vb, and Vc, and that all tested Belizean isolates belong to subgenotype Vb. Furthermore, these isolates are nearly identical to a 2007 isolate from Honduras and appear to have evolved separately from other contemporary viruses circulating in Mexico, clustering into a new clade within NDV subgenotype Vb. PMID:24523463

  3. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. PMID:20643927

  4. The Role of Transposable Elements in Health and Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Dubnau, Joshua; Ponomarev, Igor

    2013-01-01

    First discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1940s, transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that in some cases have the ability to move along chromosomes or “transpose” in the genome. This revolutionary finding was initially met with resistance by the scientific community and viewed by some as heretical. A large body of knowledge has accumulated over the last 60 years on the biology of TEs. Indeed, it is now known that TEs can generate genomic instability and reconfigure gene expression networks both in the germline and somatic cells. This review highlights recent findings on the role of TEs in health and diseases of the CNS, which were presented at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience meeting. The work of the speakers in this symposium shows that TEs are expressed and active in the brain, challenging the dogma that neuronal genomes are static and revealing that they are susceptible to somatic genomic alterations. These new findings on TE expression and function in the CNS have major implications for understanding the neuroplasticity of the brain, which could hypothetically have a role in shaping individual behavior and contribute to vulnerability to disease. PMID:24198348

  5. Evaluation of AAV-mediated Gene Therapy for Central Nervous System Disease in Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII.

    PubMed

    Gurda, Brittney L; De Guilhem De Lataillade, Adrien; Bell, Peter; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Ping; Bagel, Jessica; Vite, Charles H; Sikora, Tracey; Hinderer, Christian; Calcedo, Roberto; Yox, Alexander D; Steet, Richard A; Ruane, Therese; O'Donnell, Patricia; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M; Casal, Margret; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease arising from mutations in β-d-glucuronidase (GUSB), which results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation and a variety of clinical manifestations including neurological disease. Herein, MPS VII dogs were injected intravenously (i.v.) and/or intrathecally (i.t.) via the cisterna magna with AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors carrying the canine GUSB cDNA. Although i.v. injection alone at 3 days of age resulted in normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GUSB activity, brain tissue homogenates had only ~1 to 6% normal GUSB activity and continued to have elevated GAG storage. In contrast, i.t. injection at 3 weeks of age resulted in CSF GUSB activity 44-fold normal while brain tissue homogenates had >100% normal GUSB activity and reduced GAGs compared with untreated dogs. Markers for secondary storage and inflammation were eliminated in i.t.-treated dogs and reduced in i.v.-treated dogs compared with untreated dogs. Given that i.t.-treated dogs expressed higher levels of GUSB in the CNS tissues compared to those treated i.v., we conclude that i.t. injection of AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors is more effective than i.v. injection alone in the large animal model of MPS VII. PMID:26447927

  6. The Encoding of Auditory Objects in Auditory Cortex: Insights from Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jonathan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory objects, like their visual counterparts, are perceptually defined constructs, but nevertheless must arise from underlying neural circuitry. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of the neural responses of human subjects listening to complex auditory scenes, we review studies that demonstrate that auditory objects are indeed neurally represented in auditory cortex. The studies use neural responses obtained from different experiments in which subjects selectively listen to one of two competing auditory streams embedded in a variety of auditory scenes. The auditory streams overlap spatially and often spectrally. In particular, the studies demonstrate that selective attentional gain does not act globally on the entire auditory scene, but rather acts differentially on the separate auditory streams. This stream-based attentional gain is then used as a tool to individually analyze the different neural representations of the competing auditory streams. The neural representation of the attended stream, located in posterior auditory cortex, dominates the neural responses. Critically, when the intensities of the attended and background streams are separately varied over a wide intensity range, the neural representation of the attended speech adapts only to the intensity of that speaker, irrespective of the intensity of the background speaker. This demonstrates object-level intensity gain control in addition to the above object-level selective attentional gain. Overall, these results indicate that concurrently streaming auditory objects, even if spectrally overlapping and not resolvable at the auditory periphery, are individually neurally encoded in auditory cortex, as separate objects. PMID:24841996

  7. Multi-sensory integration in brainstem and auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2012-11-16

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a physical sound stimulus. It is thought to arise from aberrant neural activity within central auditory pathways that may be influenced by multiple brain centers, including the somatosensory system. Auditory-somatosensory (bimodal) integration occurs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), where electrical activation of somatosensory regions alters pyramidal cell spike timing and rates of sound stimuli. Moreover, in conditions of tinnitus, bimodal integration in DCN is enhanced, producing greater spontaneous and sound-driven neural activity, which are neural correlates of tinnitus. In primary auditory cortex (A1), a similar auditory-somatosensory integration has been described in the normal system (Lakatos et al., 2007), where sub-threshold multisensory modulation may be a direct reflection of subcortical multisensory responses (Tyll et al., 2011). The present work utilized simultaneous recordings from both DCN and A1 to directly compare bimodal integration across these separate brain stations of the intact auditory pathway. Four-shank, 32-channel electrodes were placed in DCN and A1 to simultaneously record tone-evoked unit activity in the presence and absence of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) electrical activation. Bimodal stimulation led to long-lasting facilitation or suppression of single and multi-unit responses to subsequent sound in both DCN and A1. Immediate (bimodal response) and long-lasting (bimodal plasticity) effects of Sp5-tone stimulation were facilitation or suppression of tone-evoked firing rates in DCN and A1 at all Sp5-tone pairing intervals (10, 20, and 40 ms), and greater suppression at 20 ms pairing-intervals for single unit responses. Understanding the complex relationships between DCN and A1 bimodal processing in the normal animal provides the basis for studying its disruption in hearing loss and tinnitus models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience

  8. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients' speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  9. Multi-sensory integration in brainstem and auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Basura, Gregory J.; Koehler, Seth D.; Shore, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a physical sound stimulus. It is thought to arise from aberrant neural activity within central auditory pathways that may be influenced by multiple brain centers, including the somatosensory system. Auditory-somatosensory (bimodal) integration occurs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), where electrical activation of somatosensory regions alters pyramidal cell spike timing and rates of sound stimuli. Moreover, in conditions of tinnitus, bimodal integration in DCN is enhanced, producing greater spontaneous and sound-driven neural activity, which are neural correlates of tinnitus. In primary auditory cortex (A1), similar auditory-somatosensory integration has been described in the normal system (Lakatos et al. 2007), where sub-threshold multisensory modulation may be a direct reflection of subcortical multisensory responses (Tyll et al. 2011). The present work utilized simultaneous recordings from both DCN and A1 to directly compare bimodal integration across these separate brain stations of the intact auditory pathway. Four-shank, 32-channel electrodes were placed in DCN and A1 to simultaneously record tone-evoked unit activity in the presence and absence of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) electrical activation. Bimodal stimulation led to long-lasting facilitation or suppression of single and multi-unit responses to subsequent sound in both DCN and A1. Immediate (bimodal response) and long-lasting (bimodal plasticity) effects of Sp5-tone stimulation were facilitation or suppression of tone-evoked firing rates in DCN and A1 at all Sp5-tone pairing intervals (10, 20, & 40ms), and greater suppression at 20ms pairing-intervals for single unit responses.. Understanding the complex relationships between DCN and A1 bimodal processing in the normal animal provides the basis for studying its disruption in hearing loss and tinnitus models. PMID:22995545

  10. Biases in Visual, Auditory, and Audiovisual Perception of Space

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Brian; Wozny, David R.; Shams, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Localization of objects and events in the environment is critical for survival, as many perceptual and motor tasks rely on estimation of spatial location. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that spatial localizations should generally be accurate. Curiously, some previous studies have reported biases in visual and auditory localizations, but these studies have used small sample sizes and the results have been mixed. Therefore, it is not clear (1) if the reported biases in localization responses are real (or due to outliers, sampling bias, or other factors), and (2) whether these putative biases reflect a bias in sensory representations of space or a priori expectations (which may be due to the experimental setup, instructions, or distribution of stimuli). Here, to address these questions, a dataset of unprecedented size (obtained from 384 observers) was analyzed to examine presence, direction, and magnitude of sensory biases, and quantitative computational modeling was used to probe the underlying mechanism(s) driving these effects. Data revealed that, on average, observers were biased towards the center when localizing visual stimuli, and biased towards the periphery when localizing auditory stimuli. Moreover, quantitative analysis using a Bayesian Causal Inference framework suggests that while pre-existing spatial biases for central locations exert some influence, biases in the sensory representations of both visual and auditory space are necessary to fully explain the behavioral data. How are these opposing visual and auditory biases reconciled in conditions in which both auditory and visual stimuli are produced by a single event? Potentially, the bias in one modality could dominate, or the biases could interact/cancel out. The data revealed that when integration occurred in these conditions, the visual bias dominated, but the magnitude of this bias was reduced compared to unisensory conditions. Therefore, multisensory integration not only improves the

  11. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients’ speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  12. [Role and actions of the orphan rare diseases reference center for central hypersomnias in France].

    PubMed

    Vecchierini, M-F; Léger, D; Arnufl, I; Dauvilliers, Y

    2013-02-01

    Narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy), idiopathic hypersomnia (with or without long sleep duration) and Kleine - Levin syndrome are the main central rare hypersomnias. They may be considered models to help us to better understand the mechanisms controlling sleep and waking regulation in humans. When creating the national centers for rare hypersomnias, the aims were: 1) screening and earlier treatment of patients with hypersomnia; 2) improving patient care with guidelines, a specific patient's card, coordination of treatments between centers and professionals, and the development of new treatments; 3) encouraging research studies into the epidemiology, pathophysiology and genotype/phenotype through the creation of clinical, DNA, sera and cerebrospinal fluid banks; 4) increasing public awareness among patients and their relatives, the general public and in the mass media of rare hypersomnias; and 5) regular evaluation of our activities. These goals appear to have been achieved over the past 5 years. However, there are now financial difficulties to be faced, given the increasing demands of patients and professionals while having to stay within the same limited budgets. PMID:23452773

  13. Central role of the brain in stress and adaptation: Links to socioeconomic status, health, and disease

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain is the key organ of stress reactivity, coping, and recovery processes. Within the brain, a distributed neural circuitry determines what is threatening and thus stressful to the individual. Instrumental brain systems of this circuitry include the hippocampus, amygdala, and areas of the prefrontal cortex. Together, these systems regulate physiological and behavioral stress processes, which can be adaptive in the short-term and maladaptive in the long-term. Importantly, such stress processes arise from bidirectional patterns of communication between the brain and the autonomic, cardiovascular, and immune systems via neural and endocrine mechanisms underpinning cognition, experience, and behavior. In one respect, these bidirectional stress mechanisms are protective in that they promote short-term adaptation (allostasis). In another respect, however, these stress mechanisms can lead to a long-term dysregulation of allostasis in that they promote maladaptive wear-and-tear on the body and brain under chronically stressful conditions (allostatic load), compromising stress resiliency and health. This review focuses specifically on the links between stress-related processes embedded within the social environment and embodied within the brain, which is viewed as the central mediator and target of allostasis and allostatic load. PMID:20201874

  14. Disseminated BK type polyomavirus infection in an AIDS patient associated with central nervous system disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vallbracht, A.; Löhler, J.; Gossmann, J.; Glück, T.; Petersen, D.; Gerth, H. J.; Gencic, M.; Dörries, K.

    1993-01-01

    A 27-year-old man with hemophilia type A and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developed a subacute meningoencephalitis, associated with a normotensive internal hydrocephalus, 14 weeks before his death. From cerebrospinal fluid and brain autopsy material, a virus could be isolated and was classified by Southern blot analysis and restriction endonuclease reactions as the human polyomavirus BK. The postmortem findings of polyomavirus antigen and BK virus DNA in various cell types of the kidneys, lungs, and central nervous system strongly suggest that BK virus was the causative agent of a tubulointerstitial nephropathy, an interstitial desquamative pneumonitis, and a subacute meningoencephalitis with accentuation of the ventricular and meningeal surfaces of the brain. Besides distinctive cytopathic effects, the presence of intranuclear inclusions was a prominent histopathological feature. Therefore, the human polyomavirus BK should be regarded as a new candidate on the still growing list of opportunistic pathogens in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8391217

  15. In vivo imaging in autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    Intravital imaging is becoming more popular and is being used to visualize cellular motility and functions. In contrast to in vitro analysis, which resembles in vivo analysis, intravital imaging can be used to observe and analyze cells directly in vivo. In this review, I will summarize recent imaging studies of autoreactive T cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) and provide technical background. During their in vivo journey, autoreactive T cells interact with many different cells. At first, autoreactive T cells interact with endothelial cells in the airways of the lung or with splenocytes, where they acquire a migratory phenotype to infiltrate into the CNS. After arriving at the CNS, they interact with endothelial cells of the leptomeningeal vessels or the choroid plexus before passing through the blood-brain barrier. CNS-infiltrating T cells become activated by recognizing endogenous autoantigens presented by local antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This activation was visualized in vivo by using protein-based sensors. One such sensor detects changes in intracellular calcium concentration as an early marker of T cell activation. Another sensor detects translocation of Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) from cytosol to nucleus as a definitive sign of T cell activation. Importantly, intravital imaging is not just used to visualize cellular behavior. Together with precise analysis, intravital imaging deepens our knowledge of cellular functions in living organs and also provides a platform for developing therapeutic treatments. PMID:26935215

  16. Close association between valvar heart disease and central nervous system manifestations in the antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krause, I; Lev, S; Fraser, A; Blank, M; Lorber, M; Stojanovich, L; Rovensky, J; Chapman, J; Shoenfeld, Y

    2005-01-01

    Background: Heart valves lesions and central nervous system involvement are among the most common manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Objective: To evaluate possible interrelations between these manifestations in a large group of APS patients. Methods: 284 APS patients were evaluated retrospectively, 159 of whom had primary APS. Cardiac–CNS associations were determined for the entire study population, and for subgroups of patients with primary APS or APS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Results: Significant associations where found between cardiac vegetations and epilepsy (p<0.02), and between cardiac valve thickening or dysfunction and migraine (p = 0.002). Borderline association was found between valvar vegetations and migraine (p = 0.09). A significant association was also found between all valvar lesions and stroke or transient ischaemic attacks. Subanalyses showed that patients with primary APS had significant associations between cardiac valve pathology and all CNS manifestations, while patients with APS associated with SLE had no such associations. Conclusions: The study suggests potential differences in biological behaviour between primary APS and APS associated with SLE. The presence of cardiac valve pathology may be a risk factor for several types of CNS involvement in PAPS. PMID:15778242

  17. Evolutionary adaptations for the temporal processing of natural sounds by the anuran peripheral auditory system.

    PubMed

    Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Sensory systems function most efficiently when processing natural stimuli, such as vocalizations, and it is thought that this reflects evolutionary adaptation. Among the best-described examples of evolutionary adaptation in the auditory system are the frequent matches between spectral tuning in both the peripheral and central auditory systems of anurans (frogs and toads) and the frequency spectra of conspecific calls. Tuning to the temporal properties of conspecific calls is less well established, and in anurans has so far been documented only in the central auditory system. Using auditory-evoked potentials, we asked whether there are species-specific or sex-specific adaptations of the auditory systems of gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) to the temporal modulations present in conspecific calls. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) constructed from auditory steady-state responses revealed that each species was more sensitive than the other to the modulation rates typical of conspecific advertisement calls. In addition, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to paired clicks indicated relatively better temporal resolution in green treefrogs, which could represent an adaptation to the faster modulation rates present in the calls of this species. MRTFs and recovery of ABRs to paired clicks were generally similar between the sexes, and we found no evidence that males were more sensitive than females to the temporal modulation patterns characteristic of the aggressive calls used in male-male competition. Together, our results suggest that efficient processing of the temporal properties of behaviorally relevant sounds begins at potentially very early stages of the anuran auditory system that include the periphery. PMID:25617467

  18. Evolutionary adaptations for the temporal processing of natural sounds by the anuran peripheral auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Schrode, Katrina M.; Bee, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sensory systems function most efficiently when processing natural stimuli, such as vocalizations, and it is thought that this reflects evolutionary adaptation. Among the best-described examples of evolutionary adaptation in the auditory system are the frequent matches between spectral tuning in both the peripheral and central auditory systems of anurans (frogs and toads) and the frequency spectra of conspecific calls. Tuning to the temporal properties of conspecific calls is less well established, and in anurans has so far been documented only in the central auditory system. Using auditory-evoked potentials, we asked whether there are species-specific or sex-specific adaptations of the auditory systems of gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) to the temporal modulations present in conspecific calls. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) constructed from auditory steady-state responses revealed that each species was more sensitive than the other to the modulation rates typical of conspecific advertisement calls. In addition, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to paired clicks indicated relatively better temporal resolution in green treefrogs, which could represent an adaptation to the faster modulation rates present in the calls of this species. MRTFs and recovery of ABRs to paired clicks were generally similar between the sexes, and we found no evidence that males were more sensitive than females to the temporal modulation patterns characteristic of the aggressive calls used in male–male competition. Together, our results suggest that efficient processing of the temporal properties of behaviorally relevant sounds begins at potentially very early stages of the anuran auditory system that include the periphery. PMID:25617467

  19. Cochlear Injury and Adaptive Plasticity of the Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; Troiani, Diana; Petrosini, Laura; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that cochlear stressors as noise exposure and aging can induce homeostatic/maladaptive changes in the central auditory system from the brainstem to the cortex. Studies centered on such changes have revealed several mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult (noise trauma, drug-, or age-related injury). The oxidative stress is central to current theories of induced sensory-neural hearing loss and aging, and interventions to attenuate the hearing loss are based on antioxidant agent. The present review addresses the recent literature on the alterations in hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons due to noise-induced oxidative stress in the cochlea, as well on the impact of cochlear damage on the auditory cortex neurons. The emerging image emphasizes that noise-induced deafferentation and upward spread of cochlear damage is associated with the altered dendritic architecture of auditory pyramidal neurons. The cortical modifications may be reversed by treatment with antioxidants counteracting the cochlear redox imbalance. These findings open new therapeutic approaches to treat the functional consequences of the cortical reorganization following cochlear damage. PMID:25698966

  20. Synchrony of auditory brain responses predicts behavioral ability to keep still in children with autism spectrum disorder: Auditory-evoked response in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Remijn, Gerard B; Oi, Manabu; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The auditory-evoked P1m, recorded by magnetoencephalography, reflects a central auditory processing ability in human children. One recent study revealed that asynchrony of P1m between the right and left hemispheres reflected a central auditory processing disorder (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) in children. However, to date, the relationship between auditory P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and the comorbidity of hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown. In this study, based on a previous report of an asynchrony of P1m in children with ADHD, to clarify whether the P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization is related to the symptom of hyperactivity in children with ASD, we investigated the relationship between voice-evoked P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and hyperactivity in children with ASD. In addition to synchronization, we investigated the right-left hemispheric lateralization. Our findings failed to demonstrate significant differences in these values between ASD children with and without the symptom of hyperactivity, which was evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule, Generic (ADOS-G) subscale. However, there was a significant correlation between the degrees of hemispheric synchronization and the ability to keep still during 12-minute MEG recording periods. Our results also suggested that asynchrony in the bilateral brain auditory processing system is associated with ADHD-like symptoms in children with ASD. PMID:27551667

  1. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: a rare disease of the skin and central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ujjawal; Das, Urmila; Pandit, Alak; Debnath, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a recessively inherited disease caused by a deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase with presenting features of congenital ichthyosis, spastic diplegia or tetraplegia, and mental retardation. The basic pathogenic mechanism is deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, which may lead to an accumulation of long-chain fatty alcohols hampering cell membrane integrity, which further disrupts the barrier function of skin and white matter of the brain. MRI of the brain shows diffuse symmetrical white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted sequences. Although there is no definitive cure for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, most patients survive until adulthood and management involves therapies directed towards controlling specific problems. We present a case of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome with classical clinical and MRI features, including a few distinctly atypical characteristics in various attributes. PMID:27095813

  2. Auditory Short-Term Memory Capacity Correlates with Gray Matter Density in the Left Posterior STS in Cognitively Normal and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Ramsden, Sue; Ellis, Caroline; Burnett, Stephanie; Megnin, Odette; Catmur, Caroline; Schofield, Tom M.; Leff, Alex P.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of auditory STM is its item-limited processing capacity. We investigated whether auditory STM capacity correlated with regional gray and white matter in the structural MRI images from 74 healthy adults, 40 of whom had a prior diagnosis of developmental dyslexia whereas 34 had no history of any cognitive impairment. Using…

  3. Global genetic analysis in mice unveils central role for cilia in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Klena, Nikolai T; Gabriel, George C; Liu, Xiaoqin; Kim, Andrew J; Lemke, Kristi; Chen, Yu; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Devine, William; Damerla, Rama Rao; Chang, Chienfu; Yagi, Hisato; San Agustin, Jovenal T; Thahir, Mohamed; Anderton, Shane; Lawhead, Caroline; Vescovi, Anita; Pratt, Herbert; Morgan, Judy; Haynes, Leslie; Smith, Cynthia L; Eppig, Janan T; Reinholdt, Laura; Francis, Richard; Leatherbury, Linda; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K; Tobita, Kimimasa; Pazour, Gregory J; Lo, Cecilia W

    2015-05-28

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent birth defect, affecting nearly 1% of live births; the incidence of CHD is up to tenfold higher in human fetuses. A genetic contribution is strongly suggested by the association of CHD with chromosome abnormalities and high recurrence risk. Here we report findings from a recessive forward genetic screen in fetal mice, showing that cilia and cilia-transduced cell signalling have important roles in the pathogenesis of CHD. The cilium is an evolutionarily conserved organelle projecting from the cell surface with essential roles in diverse cellular processes. Using echocardiography, we ultrasound scanned 87,355 chemically mutagenized C57BL/6J fetal mice and recovered 218 CHD mouse models. Whole-exome sequencing identified 91 recessive CHD mutations in 61 genes. This included 34 cilia-related genes, 16 genes involved in cilia-transduced cell signalling, and 10 genes regulating vesicular trafficking, a pathway important for ciliogenesis and cell signalling. Surprisingly, many CHD genes encoded interacting proteins, suggesting that an interactome protein network may provide a larger genomic context for CHD pathogenesis. These findings provide novel insights into the potential Mendelian genetic contribution to CHD in the fetal population, a segment of the human population not well studied. We note that the pathways identified show overlap with CHD candidate genes recovered in CHD patients, suggesting that they may have relevance to the more complex genetics of CHD overall. These CHD mouse models and >8,000 incidental mutations have been sperm archived, creating a rich public resource for human disease modelling. PMID:25807483

  4. Global genetic analysis in mice unveils central role for cilia in congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Klena, Nikolai T.; Gabriel, George C; Liu, Xiaoqin; Kim, Andrew J.; Lemke, Kristi; Chen, Yu; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Devine, William; Damerla, Rama Rao; Chang, Chien-fu; Yagi, Hisato; San Agustin, Jovenal T.; Thahir, Mohamed; Anderton, Shane; Lawhead, Caroline; Vescovi, Anita; Pratt, Herbert; Morgan, Judy; Haynes, Leslie; Smith, Cynthia L.; Eppig, Janan T.; Reinholdt, Laura; Francis, Richard; Leatherbury, Linda; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K.; Tobita, Kimimasa; Pazour, Gregory J.; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent birth defect, affecting nearly 1% of live births1, but the incidence of CHD is up to ten fold higher in human fetuses2,3. A genetic contribution is strongly suggested by the association of CHD with chromosome abnormalities and high recurrence risk4. Here we report findings from a recessive forward genetic screen in fetal mice, showing the cilium and cilia transduced cell signaling play important roles in the pathogenesis of CHD. The cilium is an evolutionarily conserved organelle projecting from the cell surface with essential roles in diverse cellular processes. Using echocardiography, we ultrasound scanned 87,355 chemically mutagenized C57BL/6J fetal mice and recovered 218 CHD mouse models. Whole exome sequencing identified 91 recessive CHD mutations in 61 genes. This included 34 cilia-related genes, 16 genes involved in cilia transduced cell signaling, and 10 genes regulating vesicular trafficking, a pathway important for ciliogenesis and cell signaling. Surprisingly, many CHD genes encoded interacting proteins, suggesting an interactome protein network may provide a larger genomic context for CHD pathogenesis. These findings provide novel insights into the potential Mendelian genetic contribution to CHD in the fetal population, a segment of the human population not well studied. We note pathways identified show overlap with CHD candidate genes recovered in CHD patients5, suggesting they may have relevance to the more complex genetics of CHD overall. These CHD mouse models and >8,000 incidental mutations are sperm archived, creating a rich public resource for human disease modeling. PMID:25807483

  5. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Long-term outcomes of the treatment of central precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Federica; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Gori, Davide; Ghizzoni, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    GnRH analogues (GnRHa) are the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty (CPP), with the main objective to recover the height potential compromised by the premature fusion of growth cartilages. The aim of this review was to analyze long-term effects of GnRHa on height, body weight, reproductive function, and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with CPP, as well as the potential predictors of outcome. Because randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness and long-term outcomes of treatment are not available, only qualified conclusions about the efficacy of interventions can be drawn. GnRHa treatment appears to improve adult height in girls with CPP, especially if diagnosed before the age of 6, whereas a real benefit in terms of adult height is still controversial in patients with the onset of puberty between 6 and 8 years of age. No height benefit was shown in patients treated after 8 years. Gonadal function is promptly restored in girls after cessation of treatment, and reproductive potential appears normal in young adulthood. Data are conflicting on the long-term risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome in both treated and untreated women. Fat mass is increased at the start of treatment but normalizes thereafter, and GnRHa itself does not seem to have any long-term effect on BMI. Similarly, analogue treatment does not appear to have a negative impact on BMD. Owing to the paucity of data available, no conclusions can be drawn on the repercussions of CPP and/or its treatment on the timing of menopause and on the health of the offspring. PMID:26466612

  6. Central Nervous System Disease in Hematological Malignancies: Historical Perspective and Practical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Thiel, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 5-year survival rates are approaching 90% in children and 50% in adults who are receiving contemporary risk-directed treatment protocols. Current efforts focus not only on further improving cure rate but also on patient quality of life. Hence, all protocols decrease or limit the use of cranial irradiation as central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy, even in patients with high-risk presenting features, such as the presence of leukemia cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (even resulting from traumatic lumbar puncture), adverse genetic features, T-cell immunophenotype, and a large leukemia-cell burden. Current strategies for CNS-directed therapy involve effective systemic chemotherapy (eg, dexamethasone, high-dose methotrexate, intensive asparaginase, ifosfamide) and early intensification and optimization of intrathecal therapy. Options under investigation for the treatment of relapsed or refractory CNS leukemia in ALL patients include thiotepa and intrathecal liposomal cytarabine. CNS involvement in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is associated with young age, advanced stage, number of extranodal sites, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and International Prognostic Index score. Refractory CNS lymphoma in patients with NHL carries a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 2 to 6 months; the most promising treatment, autologous stem cell transplant, can extend median survival from 10 to 26 months. CNS prophylaxis is required during the initial treatment of NHL subtypes that carry a high risk of CNS relapse, such as B-cell ALL, Burkitt’s lymphoma, and lymphoblastic lymphoma. The use of CNS prophylaxis in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is controversial because of the low risk of CNS relapse (~5%) in this population. In this article, we review current and past practice of intrathecal therapy in ALL and NHL and the risk-models that aim to identify predictors of CNS relapse in NHL. PMID:19660680

  7. Disease Transmission by Misfolded Prion-Protein Isoforms, Prion-Like Amyloids, Functional Amyloids and the Central Dogma.

    PubMed

    Daus, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    In 1982, the term "prions" (proteinaceous infectious particles) was coined to specify a new principle of infection. A misfolded isoform of a cellular protein has been described as the causative agent of a fatal neurodegenerative disease. At the beginning of prion research scientists assumed that the infectious agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) was a virus, but some unconventional properties of these pathogens were difficult to bring in line with the prevailing viral model. The discovery that prions (obviously devoid of any coding nucleic acid) can store and transmit information similarly to DNA was initially even denoted as being "heretical" but is nowadays mainly accepted by the scientific community. This review describes, from a historical point of view, how the "protein-only hypothesis" expands the Central Dogma. Definition of both, the prion principle and the Central Dogma, have been essential steps to understand information storage and transfer within and among cells and organisms. Furthermore, the current understanding of the infectivity of prion-proteins after misfolding is summarized succinctly. Finally, prion-like amyloids and functional amyloids, as found in yeast and bacteria, will be discussed. PMID:26742083

  8. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases: risk assessment, general considerations and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Is'haqi, Arman; Is'haqi, Mohammad Ali; Jafari, Nematollah Jonaidi; Rahamaty, Fatemeh; Banki, Abdolali

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors. PMID:25183325

  9. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases: risk assessment, general considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Morteza; Is'haqi, Arman; Is'haqi, Mohammad Ali; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahamaty, Fatemeh; Banki, Abdolali

    2014-08-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors. PMID:25183325

  10. Disease Transmission by Misfolded Prion-Protein Isoforms, Prion-Like Amyloids, Functional Amyloids and the Central Dogma

    PubMed Central

    Daus, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    In 1982, the term “prions” (proteinaceous infectious particles) was coined to specify a new principle of infection. A misfolded isoform of a cellular protein has been described as the causative agent of a fatal neurodegenerative disease. At the beginning of prion research scientists assumed that the infectious agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) was a virus, but some unconventional properties of these pathogens were difficult to bring in line with the prevailing viral model. The discovery that prions (obviously devoid of any coding nucleic acid) can store and transmit information similarly to DNA was initially even denoted as being “heretical” but is nowadays mainly accepted by the scientific community. This review describes, from a historical point of view, how the “protein-only hypothesis” expands the Central Dogma. Definition of both, the prion principle and the Central Dogma, have been essential steps to understand information storage and transfer within and among cells and organisms. Furthermore, the current understanding of the infectivity of prion-proteins after misfolding is summarized succinctly. Finally, prion-like amyloids and functional amyloids, as found in yeast and bacteria, will be discussed. PMID:26742083

  11. Brainstem auditory evoked potential in clinical hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Kumar, Naresh; Behera, Joshil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Das, Sibadatta; Madan, Harnam Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The association of hypothyroidism with impairment of hearing is known to occur. It may be of any kind i. e., conductive, sensorineural or mixed. The aim of this study is to assess auditory pathway by brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in newly diagnosed patients of clinical hypothyroidism and healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (Group I) and 25 patients of newly diagnosed clinical hypothyroidism (Group II). The recording was taken by using RMS EMG EP MK2 equipment. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired Student's t test. Results: There was a significant increase in wave IV (5.16 ± 0.85 ms) and wave V (6.17 ± 0.89 ms) latencies of right ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to wave IV (4.66 ± 0.39 ms) and wave V (5.49 ± 0.26 ms) of Group I. Wave V of left ear BAEP of Group II was also prolonged (6 ± 0.61 ms) in comparison to Group I (5.47 ± 0.35 ms). There was a significant difference in inter-peak latencies IPL I -V (4.44 ± 0.66 ms) and IPL III -V (2.2 ± 0.5 ms) of right ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to IPL I -V (3.94 ± 0.31 ms) and IPL III -V (1.84 ± 0.34 ms) of Group I. A significant prolongation was also found of IPL I -V (4.36 ± 0.59 ms) and IPL III -V (2.2 ± 0.42 ms) of left ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to IPL I -V (3.89 ± 0.3 ms) and IPL III -V (1.85 ± 0.3 ms) of Group I. Conclusion: Prolongation of wave IV and V along with inter-peak latencies in BAEP of both ears suggests that central auditory pathway is affected significantly in clinical hypothyroid patients. PMID:26229759

  12. Processing of frequency and location in human subcortical auditory structures.

    PubMed

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2015-01-01

    To date it remains largely unknown how fundamental aspects of natural sounds, such as their spectral content and location in space, are processed in human subcortical structures. Here we exploited the high sensitivity and specificity of high field fMRI (7 Tesla) to examine the human inferior colliculus (IC) and medial geniculate body (MGB). Subcortical responses to natural sounds were well explained by an encoding model of sound processing that represented frequency and location jointly. Frequency tuning was organized in one tonotopic gradient in the IC, whereas two tonotopic maps characterized the MGB reflecting two MGB subdivisions. In contrast, no topographic pattern of preferred location was detected, beyond an overall preference for peripheral (as opposed to central) and contralateral locations. Our findings suggest the functional organization of frequency and location processing in human subcortical auditory structures, and pave the way for studying the subcortical to cortical interaction required to create coherent auditory percepts. PMID:26597173

  13. Processing of frequency and location in human subcortical auditory structures

    PubMed Central

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2015-01-01

    To date it remains largely unknown how fundamental aspects of natural sounds, such as their spectral content and location in space, are processed in human subcortical structures. Here we exploited the high sensitivity and specificity of high field fMRI (7 Tesla) to examine the human inferior colliculus (IC) and medial geniculate body (MGB). Subcortical responses to natural sounds were well explained by an encoding model of sound processing that represented frequency and location jointly. Frequency tuning was organized in one tonotopic gradient in the IC, whereas two tonotopic maps characterized the MGB reflecting two MGB subdivisions. In contrast, no topographic pattern of preferred location was detected, beyond an overall preference for peripheral (as opposed to central) and contralateral locations. Our findings suggest the functional organization of frequency and location processing in human subcortical auditory structures, and pave the way for studying the subcortical to cortical interaction required to create coherent auditory percepts. PMID:26597173

  14. Experimental study of displays in contralateral acoustic reflex auditory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dragan, S P; Bogomolov, A V; Kotlyar-Shapirov, A D; Kondrat'eva, E A

    2016-05-01

    The results of an experimental study of manifestations of the acoustic reflex with contralateral auditory stimulation at a frequency of 1 kHz are presented, and the principal possibility and informativeness of its use for diagnosing the diseases of the organ of hearing are demonstrated. The principal difference of the developed approach is the use of polyharmonic signal for measuring acoustic reflex manifestations during contralateral stimulation, which allows accelerating the examination procedure. PMID:27417727

  15. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (MLAEP) in Workers with and without Tinnitus who are Exposed to Occupational Noise

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is an important occupational health concern, but few studies have focused on the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure. Thus, we analyzed the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure who had normal hearing threshold, and compared middle latency auditory evoked potential in those with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Material/Methods Sixty individuals (30 with and 30 without tinnitus) underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, immittance measures, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies between 0.25–8 kHz, and middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Results Quantitative analysis of latencies and amplitudes of middle latency auditory evoked potential showed no significant differences between the groups with and without tinnitus. In the qualitative analysis, we found that both groups showed increased middle latency auditory evoked potential latencies. The study group had more alterations of the “both” type regarding the Na-Pa amplitude, while the control group had more “electrode effect” alterations, but these alterations were not significantly different when compared to controls. Conclusions Individuals with normal hearing with or without tinnitus who are exposed to occupational noise have altered middle latency auditory evoked potential, suggesting impairment of the auditory pathways in cortical and subcortical regions. Although differences did not reach significance, individuals with tinnitus seemed to have more abnormalities in components of the middle latency auditory evoked potential when compared to individuals without tinnitus, suggesting alterations in the generation and transmission of neuroelectrical impulses along the auditory pathway. PMID:26358094

  16. Neuronal connectivity and interactions between the auditory and limbic systems. Effects of noise and tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Kari Suzanne; Canlon, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic experience such as sound, noise, or absence of sound induces structural or functional changes in the central auditory system but can also affect limbic regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus. The amygdala is particularly sensitive to sound with valence or meaning, such as vocalizations, crying or music. The amygdala plays a central role in auditory fear conditioning, regulation of the acoustic startle response and can modulate auditory cortex plasticity. A stressful acoustic stimulus, such as noise, causes amygdala-mediated release of stress hormones via the HPA-axis, which may have negative effects on health, as well as on the central nervous system. On the contrary, short-term exposure to stress hormones elicits positive effects such as hearing protection. The hippocampus can affect auditory processing by adding a temporal dimension, as well as being able to mediate novelty detection via theta wave phase-locking. Noise exposure affects hippocampal neurogenesis and LTP in a manner that affects structural plasticity, learning and memory. Tinnitus, typically induced by hearing malfunctions, is associated with emotional stress, depression and anatomical changes of the hippocampus. In turn, the limbic system may play a role in the generation as well as the suppression of tinnitus indicating that the limbic system may be essential for tinnitus treatment. A further understanding of auditory-limbic interactions will contribute to future treatment strategies of tinnitus and noise trauma. PMID:22440225

  17. Auditory event-related potentials associated with perceptual reversals of bistable pitch motion

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Gray D.; Pitts, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) experiments have consistently identified two components associated with perceptual transitions of bistable visual stimuli, the “reversal negativity” (RN) and the “late positive complex” (LPC). The RN (~200 ms post-stimulus, bilateral occipital-parietal distribution) is thought to reflect transitions between neural representations that form the moment-to-moment contents of conscious perception, while the LPC (~400 ms, central-parietal) is considered an index of post-perceptual processing related to accessing and reporting one’s percept. To explore the generality of these components across sensory modalities, the present experiment utilized a novel bistable auditory stimulus. Pairs of complex tones with ambiguous pitch relationships were presented sequentially while subjects reported whether they perceived the tone pairs as ascending or descending in pitch. ERPs elicited by the tones were compared according to whether perceived pitch motion changed direction or remained the same across successive trials. An auditory reversal negativity (aRN) component was evident at ~170 ms post-stimulus over bilateral fronto-central scalp locations. An auditory LPC component (aLPC) was evident at subsequent latencies (~350 ms, fronto-central distribution). These two components may be auditory analogs of the visual RN and LPC, suggesting functionally equivalent but anatomically distinct processes in auditory vs. visual bistable perception. PMID:25152722

  18. Complications following central corpectomy in 468 consecutive patients with degenerative cervical spine disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sauradeep; Nair, Bijesh R; Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was performed to describe the incidence and predictors of perioperative complications following central corpectomy (CC) in 468 consecutive patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of a cohort of patients who had undergone surgery for CSM (n = 338) or OPLL (n = 130) performed by a single surgeon over a 15-year period. All patients underwent uninstrumented CC with autologous iliac crest or fibular strut grafting. Preoperative clinical and imaging details were collected, and the type and incidence of complications were studied. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to establish risk factors for the development of perioperative complications. RESULTS Overall, 12.4% of patients suffered at least 1 complication following CC. The incidence of major complications was as follows: C-5 radiculopathy, 1.3%; recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, 0.4%; dysphagia, 0.8%; surgical-site infection, 3.4%; and dural tear, 4.3%. There was 1 postoperative death (0.2%). On multivariate analysis, patients in whom the corpectomy involved the C-4 vertebral body (alone or as part of multilevel CC) were significantly more likely to suffer complications (p = 0.004). OPLL and skip corpectomy were risk factors for dural tear (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). No factors were found to be significantly associated with postoperative C-5 palsy, dysphagia, or acute graft extrusion on univariate or multivariate analysis. Patients who underwent multilevel CC were predisposed to surgical-site infections, with a slight trend toward statistical significance (p = 0.094). The occurrence of a complication after surgery significantly increased the mean duration of postoperative hospital stay from 5.0 ± 2.3 days to 8.9 ± 6 days (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Complications following CC for CSM or OPLL are infrequent, but they significantly prolong

  19. Nitric Oxide is a Central Common Metabolite in Vascular Dysfunction Associated with Diseases of Human Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Andrea; Fuenzalida, Bárbara; Barros, Eric; Sobrevia, Bastián; Salsoso, Rocío; Sáez, Tamara; Villalobos, Roberto; Silva, Luis; Chiarello, Indira; Toledo, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Sanhueza, Carlos; Pardo, Fabián; Sobrevia, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal supraphysiological hypercholesterolaemia (MSPH) are pregnancy-related conditions that cause metabolic disruptions leading to alterations of the mother, fetus and neonate health. These syndromes result in fetoplacental vascular dysfunction, where nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role. PE characterizes by abnormal increase in the placental blood pressure and a negative correlation between NO level and fetal weight, suggesting that increased NO level and oxidative stress could be involved. GDM courses with macrosomia along with altered function of the fetal cardiovascular system and fetoplacental vasculature. Even when NO synthesis in the fetoplacental vasculature is increased, NO bioavailability is reduced due to the higher oxidative stress seen in this disease. In MSPH, there is an early development of atherosclerotic lesions in fetal and newborn arteries, altered function of the fetoplacental vasculature, and higher markers of oxidative stress in fetal blood and placenta, thus, vascular alterations related with NO metabolism occur as a consequence of this syndrome. Potential mechanisms of altered NO synthesis and bioavailability result from transcriptional and post-translational NO synthases (NOS) modulation, including phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles, coupling/uncoupling of NOS, tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability, calcium/calmodulin-NOS and caveolin-1-NOS interaction. Additionally, oxidative stress also plays a role in the reduced NO bioavailability. This review summarizes the available information regarding lower NO bioavailability in these pregnancy pathologies. A common NO-dependent mechanism in PE, GDM and MSPH contributing to fetoplacental endothelial dysfunction is described. PMID:26899560

  20. Hope: a construct central to living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Milne, Linda; Moyle, Wendy; Cooke, Marie

    2009-12-01

    Background.  Hope plays an integral role in health and illness and may assist individuals to cope in difficult and adverse circumstances, for instance when living with an illness such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which can demand continuous adaptation. Aim.  This paper reports the meaning of hope in people living with COPD as described by seven participants involved in a home-based pulmonary maintenance program. Methods.  Using an interpretive phenomenological approach a purposive sample of seven participants were interviewed to understand participants' experiences of the phenomena of hope. An interpretative description is provided. Results.  Thematic analysis revealed a number of themes, including that hope persists despite chronic illness and the unpredictable dilemmas of living with COPD. Many benefits were found to be gained from involvement in a home-based pulmonary maintenance program, including increasing exercise capacity, hope and wellbeing. Conclusion.  Despite the limitations imposed by living with COPD participants revealed a determination to live as normal a life as possible. The pulmonary maintenance program was pivotal in assisting participants to improve exercise capacity, hope and wellbeing. Nurses may have a role to play in helping people with COPD maintain or regain hope. PMID:20925855

  1. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    PubMed

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  2. Organization of projection neurons and local neurons of the primary auditory center in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Eriko; Seki, Haruyoshi; Asai, Tomonori; Morimoto, Takako; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Ito, Kei; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2016-04-15

    Acoustic communication between insects serves as an excellent model system for analyzing the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory information processing. The detailed organization of auditory neural circuits in the brain has not yet been described. To understand the central auditory pathways, we used the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model and performed a large-scale analysis of the interneurons associated with the primary auditory center. By screening expression driver strains and performing single-cell labeling of these strains, we identified 44 types of interneurons innervating the primary auditory center. Five types were local interneurons whereas the other 39 types were projection interneurons connecting the primary auditory center with other brain regions. The projection neurons comprised three frequency-selective pathways and two frequency-embracive pathways. Mapping of their connection targets revealed that five neuropils in the brain-the wedge (WED), anterior ventrolateral protocerebrum, posterior ventrolateral protocerebrum (PVLP), saddle (SAD), and gnathal ganglia (GNG)-were intensively connected with the primary auditory center. In addition, several other neuropils, including visual and olfactory centers in the brain, were directly connected to the primary auditory center. The distribution patterns of the spines and boutons of the identified neurons suggest that auditory information is sent mainly from the primary auditory center to the PVLP, WED, SAD, GNG, and thoracico-abdominal ganglia. Based on these findings, we established the first comprehensive map of secondary auditory interneurons, which indicates the downstream information flow to parallel ascending pathways, multimodal pathways, and descending pathways. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1099-1164, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26854012

  3. Functional mapping of the auditory tract in rodent tinnitus model using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da Jung; Han, Mun; Jin, Seong-Uk; Lee, Sang Heun; Park, Ilyong; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Kwon, Tae-Jun; Lee, Hui Joong; Cho, Jin Ho; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Chang, Yongmin

    2014-10-15

    Animal models of salicylate-induced tinnitus have demonstrated that salicylate modulates neuronal activity in several brain structures leading to neuronal hyperactivity in auditory and non-auditory brain areas. In addition, these animal tinnitus models indicate that tinnitus can be a perceptual consequence of altered spontaneous neural activity along the auditory pathway. Peripheral and/or central effects of salicylate can account for neuronal activity changes in salicylate-induced tinnitus. Because of this ambiguity, an in vivo imaging study would be able to address the peripheral and/or central involvement of salicylate-induced tinnitus. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a novel manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) method to map the in vivo functional auditory tract in a salicylate-induced tinnitus animal model by administrating manganese through the round window. We found that acute salicylate-induced tinnitus resulted in higher manganese uptake in the cochlea and in the central auditory structures. Furthermore, serial MRI scans demonstrated that the manganese signal increased in an anterograde fashion from the cochlea to the cochlear nucleus. Therefore, our in vivo MEMRI data suggest that acute salicylate-induced tinnitus is associated with higher spontaneous neural activity both in peripheral and central auditory pathways. PMID:24983712

  4. Functional Changes in the Human Auditory Cortex in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Profant, Oliver; Tintěra, Jaroslav; Balogová, Zuzana; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Jilek, Milan; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years) and compared the results with young subjects (auditory cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC) leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing. PMID:25734519

  5. AAV-mediated gene delivery in a feline model of Sandhoff disease corrects lysosomal storage in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Hannah E; McCurdy, Victoria J; Eaton, Samuel C; Wilson, Diane U; Johnson, Aime K; Randle, Ashley N; Bradbury, Allison M; Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Baker, Henry J; Hudson, Judith A; Cox, Nancy R; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Seyfried, Thomas N; Martin, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex), resulting in the inability to catabolize ganglioside GM2 within the lysosomes. SD presents with an accumulation of GM2 and its asialo derivative GA2, primarily in the central nervous system. Myelin-enriched glycolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, are also decreased in SD corresponding with dysmyelination. At present, no treatment exists for SD. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic benefit of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy in the treatment of SD in murine and feline models. In this study, we treated presymptomatic SD cats with AAVrh8 vectors expressing feline Hex in the thalamus combined with intracerebroventricular (Thal/ICV) injections. Treated animals showed clearly improved neurologic function and quality of life, manifested in part by prevention or attenuation of whole-body tremors characteristic of untreated animals. Hex activity was significantly elevated, whereas storage of GM2 and GA2 was significantly decreased in tissue samples taken from the cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, and cervical spinal cord. Treatment also increased levels of myelin-enriched cerebrosides and sulfatides in the cortex and thalamus. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of AAV for feline SD and suggests a similar potential for human SD patients. PMID:25873306

  6. AAV-Mediated Gene Delivery in a Feline Model of Sandhoff Disease Corrects Lysosomal Storage in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Hannah E.; McCurdy, Victoria J.; Eaton, Samuel C.; Wilson, Diane U.; Johnson, Aime K.; Randle, Ashley N.; Bradbury, Allison M.; Gray-Edwards, Heather L.; Baker, Henry J.; Hudson, Judith A.; Cox, Nancy R.; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Seyfried, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex), resulting in the inability to catabolize ganglioside GM2 within the lysosomes. SD presents with an accumulation of GM2 and its asialo derivative GA2, primarily in the central nervous system. Myelin-enriched glycolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, are also decreased in SD corresponding with dysmyelination. At present, no treatment exists for SD. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic benefit of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy in the treatment of SD in murine and feline models. In this study, we treated presymptomatic SD cats with AAVrh8 vectors expressing feline Hex in the thalamus combined with intracerebroventricular (Thal/ICV) injections. Treated animals showed clearly improved neurologic function and quality of life, manifested in part by prevention or attenuation of whole-body tremors characteristic of untreated animals. Hex activity was significantly elevated, whereas storage of GM2 and GA2 was significantly decreased in tissue samples taken from the cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, and cervical spinal cord. Treatment also increased levels of myelin-enriched cerebrosides and sulfatides in the cortex and thalamus. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of AAV for feline SD and suggests a similar potential for human SD patients. PMID:25873306

  7. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected. Results A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species. Conclusions The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region. PMID:25183130

  8. In-vivo treatment with 5-azacytidine causes degeneration of central lymphatic organs and induces autoimmune disease in the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Schauenstein, K.; Csordas, A.; Krömer, G.; Dietrich, H.; Wick, G.

    1991-01-01

    In-vitro evidence suggests that DNA methylation may be involved in the development of forbidden immune responses that can result in autoimmune disease. In the present study we examined in-vivo effects of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC), a substance that inhibits DNA methylation, on the immune system and the occurrence of a spontaneous autoimmune disease in the chicken model. We found that (1) treatment of young normal chickens with 1.0 mg/kg 5-azaC on 7 consecutive days caused a rapid degeneration of the central lymphoid organs thymus and bursa; (2) this regimen with 5-azaC apparently inhibited B cell maturation, as the frequency of cytoplasmic Ig+ plasma cells in the bone marrow was found to be significantly reduced, whereas the total number of bone marrow cells was unchanged; and (3) a chronic low-dose (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) application of 5-azaC through 6 weeks was found to significantly enhance the spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in newly hatched chickens of the Cornell C strain, as determined by anti-thyroglobulin autoantibody titres and histological analysis of thyroid gland infiltration. The possible implications of these data for the generation of pathogenic autoimmune responses are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1726865

  9. Central nervous system demyelinating diseases and recombinant hepatitis B vaccination: a critical systematic review of scientific production.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sernández, V; Figueiras, A

    2013-08-01

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis has not yet been fully described. A potential link between the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and an increased risk of onset or exacerbation of multiple sclerosis emerged in the mid-1990s, leading to several spontaneous reports and studies investigating this association. We conducted a critical systematic review aimed at assessing whether hepatitis B vaccination increases the risk of onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis and other central nervous system demyelinating diseases. MEDLINE and EMBASE were used as data sources, and the search covered the period between 1981 and 2011. Twelve references met the inclusion criteria. No significant increased risk of onset or relapse of the diseases considered was associated with hepatitis B vaccination, except in one study. Most studies included in this review displayed methodological limitations and heterogeneity among them, which rendered it impossible to draw robust conclusions about the safety of hepatitis B vaccination in healthy subjects and patients with multiple sclerosis. Therefore, on the basis of current data there is no need to modify the vaccination recommendations; however, there is a need to improve the quality of observational studies with emphasis on certain considerations that are discussed in this review. PMID:23086181

  10. Impaired Tilt Perception in Parkinson’s Disease: A Central Vestibular Integration Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Giovanni; Wicki, Andrea; Baumann, Christian R.; Straumann, Dominik; Palla, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impaired balance control is a hallmark symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Altered sensory-motor integration contributes to the deficiency. We aimed to determine whether impaired vestibular signal processing added to the disorder. We exposed patients (N = 11; 68±6y) and age-matched healthy subjects (hS: N = 19; 65±11y) on a motion platform in complete darkness to two consecutive forward tilt movements (12 series; N = 24; overall 288 trials) and asked them to indicate which tilt was perceived larger. By combing tilt movements with translations we manipulated vestibular sensory input in order to investigate whether putative impairment resulted from a deficiency of the sensory organs (semicircular canals in ‘single-SCC-cue-condition’, otoliths in ‘single-OT-cue-condition’) themselves or to a sensory integration failure (‘multi-cue-condition’). Results Tilt discrimination in the multi-cue-condition was inferior in patients compared to hS (p = 0.02). No significant differences between the two groups were found for both single-cue-conditions. Comparison of multi-cue-condition with a prediction resulting from the combination of both single-cue-conditions by optimal observer theory revealed that patients (p = 0.04), in contrast to hS, failed to efficiently combine SCC and OT information to improve tilt perception. Conclusion We found that PD patients distinguished forward tilts less precise than hS, suggesting impaired vestibular perception. Tilt discrimination in patients, moreover, did not improve as much as in hS in conditions where both SCC and OT information was available compared to conditions where only SCC or OT cues were activated. The latter provides evidence that tilt misperception in PD most likely results from an integration failure of vestibular signals. PMID:25874868

  11. Prognostic Significance of Central Pulse Pressure for Mortality in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Receiving Repeated Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mao-Jen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Hau-De; Lin, Chung-Sheng; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a life-threatening medical emergency which needs urgent medical attention. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common and necessary for patients with CAD, but it has not completely evaluated in cases with repeated PCI. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the risk factors and prognosis in patients with CAD requiring repeated PCI. This is a prospective observational study. A total of 1126 patients with CAD requiring PCI took part in this study. Clinical parameters including baseline characteristics, hemodynamic data, location of vascular lesions, SYNTAX score, left ventricular ejection fraction, central pulse pressure (CPP), central aortic systolic pressure (CSP), risk factors, and invasive strategies were analyzed to identify the risk factors for patients requiring repeated PCI. We further analyzed the prognosis, including risk for myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular (CV) mortality, and all-cause mortality, in patients with repeated PCI. Among patients with PCI, 276 received repeated PCI. Patients in the repeated PCI group had a higher CPP (66.7 vs 62.5 mm Hg; P = 0.006), CSP (139.9 vs 135.9 mm Hg; P = 0.017), and male preponderance (P = 0.012). Drugs including diuretics, beta-blockers (BBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), and aspirin were all used more frequently in the repeated PCI group (all P < 0.05). Freedom from MI was lower in the repeated PCI group than in the single PCI group (P < 0.001). Logistic regression revealed that CPP, CSP, number of diseased vessels, male sex, usage of diuretics, BBs, ACEIs, and MI were all predictors for requiring repeated PCI (all P < 0.05). In addition, CPP was a predictor for MI attack, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality in the repeated PCI group (P = 0.010, P = 0.041, P = 0.004, respectively). Elevated CPP, CSP, male sex, multiple diseased vessels, and the usage of diuretics, BBs, ACEIs, and MI

  12. Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Hill, Ashley E

    2014-12-01

    The central United States (U.S.) has a large livestock population including cattle, swine, sheep and goats. Simulation models were developed to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential FMD virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation only scenario. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, a simulated population of 151,620 livestock operations characterized by latitude and longitude, production type, and herd size was generated. For the simulations, a single 17,000 head feedlot was selected as the initial latently infected herd in an otherwise susceptible population. Direct and indirect contact rates between herds were based on survey data of livestock producers in Kansas and Colorado. Control methods included ring vaccination around infected herds. Feedlots ≥3000 head were either the only production type that was vaccinated or were assigned the highest vaccination priority. Simulated vaccination scenarios included low and high vaccine capacity, vaccination zones of 10 km or 50 km around detected infected premises, and vaccination trigger of 10 or 100 detected infected herds. Probability of transmission following indirect contact, movement controls and contact rate parameters were considered uncertain and so were the subjects of sensitivity analysis. All vaccination scenarios decreased number of herds depopulated but not all decreased outbreak duration. Increased size of the vaccination zone during an outbreak decreased the length of the outbreak and number of herds destroyed. Increased size of the vaccination zone primarily resulted in vaccinating feedlots ≥3000 head across a larger area. Increasing the vaccination capacity had a smaller impact on the outbreak and may not be feasible if

  13. Prognostic Significance of Central Pulse Pressure for Mortality in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Receiving Repeated Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao-Jen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Hau-De; Lin, Chung-Sheng; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a life-threatening medical emergency which needs urgent medical attention. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common and necessary for patients with CAD, but it has not completely evaluated in cases with repeated PCI. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the risk factors and prognosis in patients with CAD requiring repeated PCI.This is a prospective observational study. A total of 1126 patients with CAD requiring PCI took part in this study. Clinical parameters including baseline characteristics, hemodynamic data, location of vascular lesions, SYNTAX score, left ventricular ejection fraction, central pulse pressure (CPP), central aortic systolic pressure (CSP), risk factors, and invasive strategies were analyzed to identify the risk factors for patients requiring repeated PCI. We further analyzed the prognosis, including risk for myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular (CV) mortality, and all-cause mortality, in patients with repeated PCI.Among patients with PCI, 276 received repeated PCI. Patients in the repeated PCI group had a higher CPP (66.7 vs 62.5 mm Hg; P = 0.006), CSP (139.9 vs 135.9 mm Hg; P = 0.017), and male preponderance (P = 0.012). Drugs including diuretics, beta-blockers (BBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), and aspirin were all used more frequently in the repeated PCI group (all P < 0.05). Freedom from MI was lower in the repeated PCI group than in the single PCI group (P < 0.001). Logistic regression revealed that CPP, CSP, number of diseased vessels, male sex, usage of diuretics, BBs, ACEIs, and MI were all predictors for requiring repeated PCI (all P < 0.05). In addition, CPP was a predictor for MI attack, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality in the repeated PCI group (P = 0.010, P = 0.041, P = 0.004, respectively).Elevated CPP, CSP, male sex, multiple diseased vessels, and the usage of diuretics, BBs, ACEIs, and MI were predictors

  14. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: A healthy-aging perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2014-01-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals - over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds - renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own ‚privileged‘ temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. PMID:24956028

  15. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  16. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.

  17. The human auditory evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Figures are presented of computer-averaged auditory evoked responses (AERs) that point to the existence of a completely endogenous brain event. A series of regular clicks or tones was administered to the ear, and 'odd-balls' of different intensity or frequency respectively were included. Subjects were asked either to ignore the sounds (to read or do something else) or to attend to the stimuli. When they listened and counted the odd-balls, a P3 wave occurred at 300msec after stimulus. When the odd-balls consisted of omitted clicks or tone bursts, a similar response was observed. This could not have come from auditory nerve, but only from cortex. It is evidence of recognition, a conscious process.

  18. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  19. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast.

    PubMed

    Locke, Shannon M; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static "snapshot" model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation. PMID:27291488

  20. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Shannon M.; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static “snapshot” model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation. PMID:27291488

  1. Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  2. The Neuro-Immune Pathophysiology of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Systemic Immune-Inflammatory and Neuro-Immune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Galecki, Piotr; Walder, Ken; Maes, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many patients with systemic immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, including depression, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's disease, cancer, cardiovascular disorder, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, endure pathological levels of fatigue. The aim of this narrative review is to delineate the wide array of pathways that may underpin the incapacitating fatigue occurring in systemic and neuro-inflammatory disorders. A wide array of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), bioenergetic, and neurophysiological abnormalities are involved in the etiopathology of these disease states and may underpin the incapacitating fatigue that accompanies these disorders. This range of abnormalities comprises: increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interferon (IFN) α; O&NS-induced muscle fatigue; activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Cycle through pathogen-associated (PAMPs) and damage-associated (DAMPs) molecular patterns, including heat shock proteins; altered glutaminergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission; mitochondrial dysfunctions; and O&NS-induced defects in the sodium-potassium pump. Fatigue is also associated with altered activities in specific brain regions and muscle pathology, such as reductions in maximum voluntary muscle force, downregulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis master gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, a shift to glycolysis and buildup of toxic metabolites within myocytes. As such, both mental and physical fatigue, which frequently accompany immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, are the consequence of interactions between multiple systemic and central pathways. PMID:25598355

  3. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  4. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Mortality for Cancer and Chronic Diseases in Central Italy, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    D’Ippoliti, Daniela; Santelli, Enrica; De Sario, Manuela; Scortichini, Matteo; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Background In several volcanic areas of Italy, arsenic levels exceed European regulatory limits (10 μg/L in drinking water). There is still uncertainty about health risks from arsenic at low-medium doses (<100 μg/L). Objectives A large population-based study using an administrative cohort of residents in the Viterbo province (Central Italy), chronically exposed to low-medium arsenic levels via drinking water, was investigated to evaluate the effects of a lifetime exposure to arsenic on mortality from cancers and chronic diseases. Methods The study population consisted of 165,609 residents of 17 municipalities, followed from 1990 until 2010. Average individual arsenic exposure at the first residence (AsI) was estimated through a space-time modeling approach using residential history and arsenic concentrations from water supply. A time-dependent Cumulative Arsenic dose Indicator (CAI) was calculated, accounting for daily water intake and exposure duration. Mortality Hazard Ratios (HR) were estimated by gender for different diseases using Cox proportional models, adjusting for individual and area-level confounders. A flexible non-parametric approach was used to investigate dose-response relationships. Results Mean AsI exposure was 19.3 μg/L, and average exposure duration was 39.5 years. Associations of AsI and CAI indicators with several diseases were found, with greatest risks found for lung cancer in both sexes (HR = 2.61 males; HR = 2.09 females), myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease and COPD in males (HR = 2.94; HR = 2.44; HR = 2.54 respectively) and diabetes in females (HR = 2.56). For lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases dose-response relationship is modelled by piecewise linear functions revealing effects even for doses lower than 10 μg/L, and no threshold dose value was identified as safe for health. Conclusions Results provide new evidence for risk assessment of low-medium concentrations of arsenic and contribute to the ongoing debate

  5. From Central Pattern Generator to Sensory Template in the Evolution of Birdsong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Masakazu

    2010-01-01

    Central nervous networks, be they a part of the human brain or a group of neurons in a snail, may be designed to produce distinct patterns of movement. Central pattern generators can account for the development and production of normal vocal signals without auditory feedback in non-songbirds. Songbirds need auditory feedback to develop and…

  6. Demodulation processes in auditory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feth, Lawrence L.

    1994-08-01

    The long range goal of this project is the understanding of human auditory processing of information conveyed by complex, time-varying signals such as speech, music or important environmental sounds. Our work is guided by the assumption that human auditory communication is a 'modulation - demodulation' process. That is, we assume that sound sources produce a complex stream of sound pressure waves with information encoded as variations ( modulations) of the signal amplitude and frequency. The listeners task then is one of demodulation. Much of past. psychoacoustics work has been based in what we characterize as 'spectrum picture processing.' Complex sounds are Fourier analyzed to produce an amplitude-by-frequency 'picture' and the perception process is modeled as if the listener were analyzing the spectral picture. This approach leads to studies such as 'profile analysis' and the power-spectrum model of masking. Our approach leads us to investigate time-varying, complex sounds. We refer to them as dynamic signals and we have developed auditory signal processing models to help guide our experimental work.

  7. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers. PMID:15940990

  8. Auditory Beat Stimulation and its Effects on Cognition and Mood States

    PubMed Central

    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke Caroline; Reber, Thomas P.; Fell, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood states. Here, we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation (ABS). We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to ABS and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural-beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural- and binaural-beat frequencies in cognition and mood states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of ABS. PMID:26029120

  9. Behavioral Dependence of Auditory Cortical Responses

    PubMed Central

    Osmanski, Michael S.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Neural responses in the auditory cortex have historically been measured from either anesthetized or awake but non-behaving animals. A growing body of work has begun to focus instead on recording from auditory cortex of animals actively engaged in behavior tasks. These studies have shown that auditory cortical responses are dependent upon the behavioral state of the animal. The longer ascending subcortical pathway of the auditory system and unique characteristics of auditory processing suggest that such dependencies may have a more profound influence on cortical processing in auditory system compared to other sensory systems. It is important to understand the nature of these dependencies and their functional implications. In this article, we review the literature on this topic pertaining to cortical processing of sounds. PMID:25690831

  10. Phonological Processing in Human Auditory Cortical Fields

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Herron, Timothy J.; Cate, Anthony D.; Kang, Xiaojian; Yund, E. W.

    2011-01-01

    We used population-based cortical-surface analysis of functional magnetic imaging data to characterize the processing of consonant–vowel–consonant syllables (CVCs) and spectrally matched amplitude-modulated noise bursts (AMNBs) in human auditory cortex as subjects attended to auditory or visual stimuli in an intermodal selective attention paradigm. Average auditory cortical field (ACF) locations were defined using tonotopic mapping in a previous study. Activations in auditory cortex were defined by two stimulus-preference gradients: (1) Medial belt ACFs preferred AMNBs and lateral belt and parabelt fields preferred CVCs. This preference extended into core ACFs with medial regions of primary auditory cortex (A1) and the rostral field preferring AMNBs and lateral regions preferring CVCs. (2) Anterior ACFs showed smaller activations but more clearly defined stimulus preferences than did posterior ACFs. Stimulus preference gradients were unaffected by auditory attention suggesting that ACF preferences reflect the automatic processing of different spectrotemporal sound features. PMID:21541252

  11. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  12. Coexistence of tinnitus and hyperacusis in individuals with auditory dys-synchrony: A single case study

    PubMed Central

    Megha, K. N.; Adithya, Sugathan; Keerthana, K. P.; Konadath, Sreeraj

    2016-01-01

    Summary Certain clinical pathologies affecting the ear and hearing mechanism may co-exist. It is necessary to probe in detail into such conditions so that the pathophysiology is well understood. This research paper through a single case study tries to explain the probable pathophysiology behind coexistence of three different clinical conditions namely auditory dys-synchrony, hyperacusis and tinnitus. These conditions are common in the clinics, but the coexistence of all the three is rare and demands explanation beyond what is available in the literature. The assumed model highlights involvement of the outer hair cell's motor function in the cochlea along with the auditory central gain mechanism to explain possible pathophysiology behind coexistence of the three conditions. This model will provide insight into the probable link between the contribution of peripheral and central structures of hearing in generating tinnitus and hyperacusis in individuals having auditory dys-synchrony. PMID:26989651

  13. Perinatal Asphyxia Affects Rat Auditory Processing: Implications for Auditory Perceptual Impairments in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strata, Fabrizio; Stoianov, Ivilin P.; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Bonham, Ben; Martone, Tiziana; Kenet, Tal; Chang, Edward F.; Vincenti, Vincenzo; Merzenich, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia, a naturally and commonly occurring risk factor in birthing, represents one of the major causes of neonatal encephalopathy with long term consequences for infants. Here, degraded spectral and temporal responses to sounds were recorded from neurons in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of adult rats exposed to asphyxia at birth. Response onset latencies and durations were increased. Response amplitudes were reduced. Tuning curves were broader. Degraded successive-stimulus masking inhibitory mechanisms were associated with a reduced capability of neurons to follow higher-rate repetitive stimuli. The architecture of peripheral inner ear sensory epithelium was preserved, suggesting that recorded abnormalities can be of central origin. Some implications of these findings for the genesis of language perception deficits or for impaired language expression recorded in developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, contributed to by perinatal asphyxia, are discussed. PMID:21203459

  14. Review of auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R; Benjamin, C

    1991-12-01

    Subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments using auditory stimuli have yielded only a modicum of support for the contention that such activation produces predictable behavioral changes. Problems in many auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments indicate that those predictions have not been tested adequately. The auditory mode of presentation, however, has several methodological advantages over the visual one, the method used in the vast majority of subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments. Consequently, it should be considered in subsequent research in this area. PMID:1805167

  15. Topographic Distribution of Stimulus-Specific Adaptation across Auditory Cortical Fields in the Anesthetized Rat

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Diego, Javier; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) in single neurons of the auditory cortex was suggested to be a potential neural correlate of the mismatch negativity (MMN), a widely studied component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP) that is elicited by changes in the auditory environment. However, several aspects on this SSA/MMN relation remain unresolved. SSA occurs in the primary auditory cortex (A1), but detailed studies on SSA beyond A1 are lacking. To study the topographic organization of SSA, we mapped the whole rat auditory cortex with multiunit activity recordings, using an oddball paradigm. We demonstrate that SSA occurs outside A1 and differs between primary and nonprimary cortical fields. In particular, SSA is much stronger and develops faster in the nonprimary than in the primary fields, paralleling the organization of subcortical SSA. Importantly, strong SSA is present in the nonprimary auditory cortex within the latency range of the MMN in the rat and correlates with an MMN-like difference wave in the simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP). We present new and strong evidence linking SSA at the cellular level to the MMN, a central tool in cognitive and clinical neuroscience. PMID:26950883

  16. Auditory processing abilities in children with chronic otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Khavarghazalani, Bahare; Farahani, Farhad; Emadi, Maryam; Hosseni Dastgerdi, Zahra

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion The study results indicate that children with a history of otitis media with effusion (OME) suffer from auditory processing disorder to some degree. The findings support the hypothesis that fluctuating hearing loss may affect central auditory processing during critical periods. Objectives Evidence suggests that prolonged OME in children can result in an auditory processing disorder, presumably because hearing has been disrupted during an important developmental period. A lack of auditory stimulation leads to the abnormal development of the hearing pathways in the brain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OME on binaural auditory function and auditory temporal processing. Method In the present study, the dichotic digit test (DDT) was used for binaural hearing, and the gap in noise (GIN) test was used to evaluate temporal hearing processing. Results The average values of GIN differed significantly between children with a history of OME and normal controls (p < 0.001). The mean values of the DDT score were significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.002). PMID:26881324

  17. Immediate manifestation of acoustic trauma in the auditory cortex is layer specific and cell type dependent.

    PubMed

    Novák, Ondřej; Zelenka, Ondřej; Hromádka, Tomáš; Syka, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to loud sounds damages the auditory periphery and induces maladaptive changes in central parts of the auditory system. Diminished peripheral afferentation and altered inhibition influence the processing of sounds in the auditory cortex. It is unclear, however, which types of inhibitory interneurons are affected by acoustic trauma. Here we used single-unit electrophysiological recording and two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized mice to evaluate the effects of acute acoustic trauma (125 dB SPL, white noise, 5 min) on the response properties of neurons in the core auditory cortex. Electrophysiological measurements suggested the selective impact of acoustic trauma on inhibitory interneurons in the auditory cortex. To further investigate which interneuronal types were affected, we used two-photon calcium imaging to record the activity of neurons in cortical layers 2/3 and 4, specifically focusing on parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SST+) interneurons. Spontaneous and pure-tone-evoked firing rates of SST+ interneurons increased in layer 4 immediately after acoustic trauma and remained almost unchanged in layer 2/3. Furthermore, PV+ interneurons with high best frequencies increased their evoked-to-spontaneous firing rate ratios only in layer 2/3 and did not change in layer 4. Finally, acoustic trauma unmasked low-frequency excitatory inputs only in layer 2/3. Our results demonstrate layer-specific changes in the activity of auditory cortical inhibitory interneurons within minutes after acoustic trauma. PMID:26823513

  18. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Vowels by Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Zarita Caplan; Erber, Norman P.

    1982-01-01

    Vowels were presented through auditory, visual, and auditory-visual modalities to 18 hearing impaired children (12 to 15 years old) having good, intermediate, and poor auditory word recognition skills. All the groups had difficulty with acoustic information and visual information alone. The first two groups had only moderate difficulty identifying…

  19. The Effects of Auditory Stimulation on Auditory Processing Disorder: A Summary of the Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Swain, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The study's purpose is to determine the efficacy of the Tomatis Method of auditory stimulation as a therapeutic intervention for Auditory Processing Disorders (APD). Forty-one subjects (18 females, 23 males; 4.3-19.8 years old) were evaluated for APD. Performance on standardized tests indicated weaknesses with auditory processing skills. Each…

  20. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    PubMed

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  1. Seeing the Song: Left Auditory Structures May Track Auditory-Visual Dynamic Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  2. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis) infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108 PMID:20799946

  3. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    PubMed Central

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  4. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area.

    PubMed

    Giret, Nicolas; Menardy, Fabien; Del Negro, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer, and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird's own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of information about the

  5. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area

    PubMed Central

    Giret, Nicolas; Menardy, Fabien; Del Negro, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer, and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird's own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of information about the

  6. Targeting Human Central Nervous System Protein Kinases: An Isoform Selective p38αMAPK Inhibitor That Attenuates Disease Progression in Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first kinase inhibitor drug approval in 2001 initiated a remarkable decade of tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs for oncology indications, but a void exists for serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor drugs and central nervous system indications. Stress kinases are of special interest in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders due to their involvement in synaptic dysfunction and complex disease susceptibility. Clinical and preclinical evidence implicates the stress related kinase p38αMAPK as a potential neurotherapeutic target, but isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor candidates are lacking and the mixed kinase inhibitor drugs that are promising in peripheral tissue disease indications have limitations for neurologic indications. Therefore, pursuit of the neurotherapeutic hypothesis requires kinase isoform selective inhibitors with appropriate neuropharmacology features. Synaptic dysfunction disorders offer a potential for enhanced pharmacological efficacy due to stress-induced activation of p38αMAPK in both neurons and glia, the interacting cellular components of the synaptic pathophysiological axis, to be modulated. We report a novel isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor, MW01-18-150SRM (=MW150), that is efficacious in suppression of hippocampal-depe