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Sample records for disease mimicking swine

  1. Kawasaki Disease Mimicking Retropharyngeal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Srividhya, Vazhkudai Sridharan; Vasanthi, Thiruvengadam; Shivbalan, Somu

    2010-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limiting febrile mucocutaneous vasculitis of infants and young children. Retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy is a rare presentation of Kawasaki disease. We present a case of Kawasaki disease mimicking a retropharyngeal abscess, with upper airway obstruction resulting in delayed diagnosis. PMID:20635457

  2. Hyperganglionosis mimicking Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Athow, A C; Filipe, M I; Drake, D P

    1991-01-01

    Three patients with hyperganglionosis are reported in whom an initial diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease was suspected. In one patient there was a classic presentation with constipation, in another Hirschsprung's disease coexisted, and in the third the initial inadequate suction rectal biopsy specimen was suggestive of Hirschsprung's disease on acetylcholinesterase staining. Evidence of hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the intermuscular and submucosal plexuses on a full thickness bowel biopsy specimen was used to confirm the diagnosis of hyperganglionosis, suggested by the characteristic demonstration of moderate increase in the number of acetylcholinesterase stained nerve fibres in the lamina propria mucosae on rectal biopsy. Surgical management was guided by clinical signs. Two patients had colonic resections; the third had temporary stomal diversion. Hyperganglionosis is rarer than Hirschsprung's disease but is known to mimic it. We suggest full thickness bowel specimens are needed to confirm the diagnosis and that inadequate rectal suction biopsies must be interpreted with caution. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1755642

  3. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease...

  4. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease...

  5. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease...

  6. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease...

  7. UPDATE ON SWINE DISEASE AND GENOMICS RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will summarize advances in swine genomics and how it has altered approaches for swine disease and vaccination research. The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive p...

  8. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where...

  9. Anorectal syphilis mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mesut; Memisoglu, Reşat; Aydin, Selda; Tabak, Omur; Mete, Bilgül; Memisoglu, Necat; Tabak, Fehmi

    2011-10-01

    Anorectal syphilis, one of the great masqueraders in medicine, can be difficult to diagnose not only because of its variable symptoms but also because it is hard to think of unless a detailed history about sexual preferences and practices, including homosexuality, has been gathered. With increasing acceptance of sexual activity in our culture, despite moral and religious issues, various forms of sex have led to many different clinical conditions of sexually transmitted diseases. In this report, we describe a rare case of primary anorectal syphilis with clinical, endoscopic and histologic features that was misdiagnosed as Crohn's disease. PMID:21437679

  10. [Mediterranean lymphoma mimicking Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Jouini, S; Ayadi, K; Mokrani, A; Wachuku, E; Hmouda, H; Gourdie, R

    2001-07-01

    We report an uncommon localization of mediterranean lymphoma of the terminal ileum in a 28 year-old male patient. Ultrasound and Computed Tomography showed moderate regular and symmetrical intestinal wall thickening simulating Crohn's disease. We highlight the role of computed tomography in the diagnosis, staging and detection of complications. PMID:11507451

  11. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease mimicking lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To describe the features and clinical implications of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNB) in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease manifesting as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. Among a cohort of 388 patients with NTM pulmonary disease, 14 patients with clinically and radiologically suspected lung cancer were included in our study. Two chest radiologists evaluated CT features, including lesion type (nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation), morphologic features (margin, degree of enhancement, calcification), and presence of accompanying findings suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease (bronchiectasis with clustered centrilobular nodules or upper-lobe cavitary lesions) by consensus. Diagnostic procedures for microbiologic diagnosis of NTM disease and clinical outcome were reviewed. Incidence of NTM pulmonary disease presenting as solitary nodule/mass (n = 8) or mass-like consolidation (n = 6) was 3.6% (14 of 388). Most lesions were detected incidentally during routine health check-up or evaluation of other disease (11 of 14, 79%). Lesions typically showed poor contrast-enhancement (9 of 12) and internal calcification (6 of 14). No lesions had CT features suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease. All 4 lesions for which PET/CT imaging was performed showed strong fluorodeoxyglucose uptake simulating malignant lesions (mean, 4.9; range, 3.6–7.8). PCNB revealed mycobacterial histology in 6 of 11 specimens and positive culture results were obtained for 7 of 7 specimens. NTM pulmonary disease may present as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. CT features and PCNB are important to diagnose NTM disease mimicking lung cancer to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:27367996

  12. Abdominal Mondor disease mimicking acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Schuppisser, Myriam; Khallouf, Joe; Abbassi, Ziad; Erne, Michel; Vettorel, Denise; Paroz, Alexandre; Naiken, Surennaidoo P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mondor disease (MD), a superficial thrombophlebitis of the thoraco-epigastric veins and their confluents is rarely reported in the literature. The superior epigastric vein is the most affected vessel but involvement of the inferior epigastric vessels or their branches have also been described. There is no universal consensus on treatment in the literature but most authors suggest symptomatic treatment with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Case report We report the case of a marathon runner who presented with right iliac fossa pain mimicking the clinical symptomatology of an acute appendicitis. The history and the calculated Alvarado score were not in favor of an acute appendicitis. This situation motivated multiple investigations and we finally arrived at the diagnosis of MD. Discussion Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common cause of surgical emergencies and one of the most frequent indications for an urgent abdominal surgical procedure around the world. In some cases, right lower quadrant pain remains unclear in spite of US, CT scan, and exclusion of urological and gynecological causes, thus we need to think of some rare pathologies like MD. Conclusion MD is often mentioned in the differential diagnosis of breast pathologies but rarely in abdominal pain assessment. It should be mentioned in the differential diagnosis of the right lower quadrant pain when the clinical presentation is unclear and when acute appendicitis has been excluded. Awareness of MD can avoid misdiagnosis and decrease extra costs by sparing unnecessary imaging. PMID:26803533

  13. Advancing swine models for human health and diseases.

    PubMed

    Walters, Eric M; Prather, Randall S

    2013-01-01

    Swine models are relatively new kids on the block for modeling human health and diseases when compared to rodents and dogs. Because of the similarity to humans in size, physiology, and genetics, the pig has made significant strides in advancing the understanding of the human condition, and is thus an excellent choice for an animal model. Recent technological advances to genetic engineering of the swine genome enhance the utility of swine as models of human genetic diseases. PMID:23829105

  14. Mesenteric castleman disease mimicking superior mesenteric artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Yang Jin; Kim, Young-Wook

    2015-02-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is known as a lymphoproliferative disorder, which is most commonly located in the mediastinum. CD occurring in the mesentery is very rare. We report a case of CD in the mesentery, which is mimicking a superior mesenteric artery aneurysm on computed tomography image. PMID:25463333

  15. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  16. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  17. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  18. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  19. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  20. Munchausen syndrome mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine physical illness

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jaime; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Xavier, Miguel; Gusmão, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is a disorder in which patients intentionally produce symptoms mimicking physical or psychiatric illnesses with the aim to assume the sick role and to gain medical attention. Once a patient receives a Munchausen syndrome diagnosis every complaint made thence tends to be regarded with scepticism by clinical staff. However, it is possible that a bona fide illness, which might be disregarded, may coexist in these patients. We report a case of MS mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine acute physical illness. Despite the initial doubts about the veracity of the latter, due to its prompt recognition, treatment was successful. PMID:22798096

  1. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 94.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... where swine vesicular disease exists. 94.12 Section 94.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  2. Retroperitoneal Castleman's disease mimicking soft tissue tumour.

    PubMed

    Pandya, B; Ghosh, S K; Chude, G; Rajmohan, M V; Narang, R

    2007-08-01

    Castleman's disease is a type of non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disease having lymph nodal hyperplasia. It has two distinct microscopic types: hyaline-vascular type and plasma cell type. Clinically, it may present either as a solitary mass, most commonly in the mediastinum, or as a multicentric form whose features are generalized lymph-adenopathy, splenomegaly and involvement of other organs like the lungs and kidneys. Here we report a case of isolated retroperitoneal Castleman's disease, which presented as a lump in the iliac fossa in a young female. A clinico-radio-logical diagnosis of retroperitoneal soft tissue tumour was made and the patient underwent complete surgical excision. The exact diagnosis was only obtained at histopathology and there is no evidence of recurrence at six months follow-up. PMID:23132970

  3. Infections and skin diseases mimicking diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common condition that often prompts parents to seek medical attention. Irritant diaper dermatitis is by far the most common cause, but numerous potentially serious diseases can present with changes of the skin in the diaper area. The differential diagnosis can include psoriasis, metabolic disorders, rare immune diseases and infection. Clinical examination can be helpful in distinguishing the underlying cause. General screening laboratory tests, as well as select testing when a specific condition is suspected, can be used to challenge or confirm the putative diagnosis. PMID:27311780

  4. Bartonella endocarditis mimicking adult Still's disease.

    PubMed

    De Clerck, K F; Van Offel, J F; Vlieghe, E; Van Marck, E; Stevens, W J

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to the University Hospital of Antwerp with a clinical picture suggestive of adult Still's disease. Even though a transoesophageal echocardiography showed endocarditis of the aortic valve, blood cultures remained negative. Additional serological testing revealed a positive result for Bartonella henselae. Histology of the supraclavicular lymph node showed a reactive lymph node with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Bartonella henselae. Prednisolone treatment was started in a dosage of 10 mg per day and rifampicin 600 mg/d in combination with doxycyclin 200 mg/d was given for 6 months. During therapy the patient gradually improved and signs of endocarditis disappeared on echocardiography. PMID:18714850

  5. The potential risk of infectious disease dissemination via artificial insemination in swine.

    PubMed

    Althouse, G C; Rossow, K

    2011-09-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is one of the most widely used assisted reproductive technologies in swine. To maintain a healthy semen trade, it is crucial that diligence be given to managing and minimizing the chance of extended semen playing an epidemiological role in the transmission of infectious disease. In swine, pathogens of primary importance, which may be transmitted through semen include Aujeszky's disease, brucellosis, chlamydophilosis, porcine circovirus type 2, classical swine fever, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis, parvovirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, rubulavirus, foot-and-mouth disease and swine vesicular disease. This paper will summarise the current state of knowledge pertaining to these pathogens in relation to swine AI. PMID:21884281

  6. An attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain reduces disease severity, fecal shedding, and gastrointestinal colonization in swine due to virulent S. Typhimurium challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Salmonella serovars frequently colonize swine without causing overt disease. Pathogen interventions are needed to limit Salmonella colonization in swine. Vaccination with an attenuated Salmonella strain may reduce pathogen carriage in swine and enhance food safety. Methods: Swine study ...

  7. Bartonella henselae Infection: An Uncommon Mimicker of Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Maritsi, Despoina N; Zarganis, Diagoras; Metaxa, Zoi; Papaioannou, Georgia; Vartzelis, George

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was negative. Abdominal imaging demonstrated multifocal lesions of the liver and spleen (later proved to be granulomata), chest X-ray showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and ophthalmology review revealed uveitis. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards sarcoidosis. Subsequently, raised titers (IgM 1 : 32, IgG 1 : 256) against Bartonella confirmed the diagnosis of B. henselae infection. She was treated with gentamycin followed by ciprofloxacin; repeat investigations showed complete resolution of findings. The presence of hepatic and splenic lesions in children with bartonellosis is well documented. Our case, however, exhibited certain unusual findings such as the coexistence of acute ocular and systemic involvement in an immunocompetent host. Serological testing is an inexpensive and effective way to diagnose bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients; we suggest that bartonella serology is included in the baseline tests performed on children with prolonged fever even in the absence of contact with cats in countries where bartonellosis is prevalent. PMID:23424700

  8. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  9. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  10. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  11. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE...

  12. Contribution of Bordetella bronchiseptica Filamentous Hemagglutinin and Pertactin to Respiratory Disease in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease in pigs is the most important health concern for swine producers today. Bordetella bronchiseptica is widely prevalent in swine populations and has multiple roles in respiratory disease. It is the primary etiologic agent of atrophic rhinitis, bronchopneumonia in young pigs, and ha...

  13. Contribution of Bordetella bronchiseptica Filamentous Hemagglutinin and Pertactin to Respiratory Disease in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease in pigs is the most important health concern for swine producers today. Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. It is a primary etiologic agent of atrophic rhinitis, bronchopneumonia in young pigs, and has been ...

  14. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...

  15. Common swine models of cardiovascular disease for research and training.

    PubMed

    Crisóstomo, Verónica; Sun, Fei; Maynar, Manuel; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Blanco, Virginia; Garcia-Lindo, Monica; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major health concern and therefore an important topic in biomedical research. Large animal models allow researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of new cardiovascular procedures in systems that resemble human anatomy; additionally, they can be used to emulate scenarios for training purposes. Among the many biomedical models that are described in published literature, it is important that researchers understand and select those that are best suited to achieve the aims of their research, that facilitate the humane care and management of their research animals and that best promote the high ethical standards required of animal research. In this resource the authors describe some common swine models that can be easily incorporated into regular practices of research and training at biomedical institutions. These models use both native and altered vascular anatomy of swine to carry out research protocols, such as testing biological reactions to implanted materials, surgically creating aneurysms using autologous tissue and inducing myocardial infarction through closed-chest procedures. Such models can also be used for training, where native and altered vascular anatomy allow medical professionals to learn and practice challenging techniques in anatomy that closely simulates human systems. PMID:26814353

  16. [Graft-versus-host disease as the cause of symptoms mimicking Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tuchocka-Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Kołczewska, Aleksandra; Majewski, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    A case of chronic graft-versus-host disease (chronic GvHD) mimicking symptoms associated with idiopathic Sjögren's syndrome is presented. Hypotheses on the pathophysiological origin of clinical syndromes associated with graft-versus-host disease are discussed. PMID:17474179

  17. Feral swine brucellosis in the United States and prospective genomic techniques for disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Owen P; Corn, Joseph L; Schmit, Brandon S; Keim, Paul S; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2013-09-27

    Brucellosis is a common infection of feral swine throughout the United States. With the recent expansion of feral swine populations across the country, this disease poses an increasing threat to agriculture and hunters. The standard approach to Brucella surveillance in feral swine has been serological testing, which gives an indication of past exposure and is a rapid method of determining populations where Brucella is present. More in-depth analyses require bacterial isolation to determine the Brucella species and biovar involved. Ultimately, for a comprehensive understanding of Brucella epizootiology in feral swine, incorporation of genotyping assays has become essential. Fortunately, the past decade has given rise to an array of genetic tools for assessing Brucella transmission and dispersal. This review aims to synthesize what is known about brucellosis in feral swine and will cover prospective genomic techniques that may be utilized to develop more complete understanding of the disease and its transmission history. PMID:23548760

  18. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (9 CFR, chapter III), including requirements that the pork or pork products be prepared only in... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE...

  19. One world, one health: the threat of emerging swine diseases. A North American perspective.

    PubMed

    Davies, P R

    2012-03-01

    The predicted expansion of global livestock populations to meet the food and fibre demands of the growing human population raises numerous concerns, including the implications for disease emergence. The evolution of animal production in developed countries has been marked by substantial reduction in farm numbers with correspondingly larger herd sizes, specialization of enterprises, concentration or ownership and vertical integration. Innovations in the structure and operations of swine production have been largely driven by efforts to improve swine health, and the impact of several important swine diseases has declined. Productivity in swine production and the safety of pork products have increased markedly. The most significant emerging infectious diseases of pigs over the last decades have been highly host-specific viruses rather than multihost pathogens. While some bacterial pathogens of pigs have increased in importance in modern systems, improved management systems and biosecurity have enabled herd sizes to increase without negative impact on swine health. The most vulnerable scenario for disease emergence in swine, particularly for zoonotic agents, may be rapid expansion and intensification of swine industries in developing countries without incorporating the stringent biosecurity measures and veterinary oversight that have helped maintain the health and productivity of large herds in North America. Factors that may influence disease emergence in the long term include regulatory measures (particularly related to antimicrobial use), genetics and feeding practices. PMID:25471242

  20. VIRUS VACCINE RESEARCH AT THE NATIONAL ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER: LESSONS FROM SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS AND BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing emergence of novel subtypes and genetic variants of swine influenza viruses (SIV) causing swine flu challenges our ability to effectively manage this high morbidity disease among swine. New strategic approaches for vaccine development must be considered to keep up with the ever-evolv...

  1. Factitious disorder mimicking addiction to levodopa in a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Júnior, Antônio L; Cardoso, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    We report a 43-year-old woman with early-onset Parkinson's disease in whom neurological control was impaired by psychiatric co-morbidity including major depression and panic disorder. The patient also met criteria for factitious disorder that mimicked dopamine dysregulation syndrome resulting in severe clinical and social disability. PMID:16100983

  2. Multicentric Castleman Disease With Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Mimicking IgG4-related Disease: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Zoshima, Takeshi; Yamada, Kazunori; Hara, Satoshi; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Harada, Kenichi; Sato, Yasuharu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder with heterogenous clinical symptoms and involves systemic organs in addition to lymph nodes. Elevated serum IgG4 levels and IgG4-positive plasma cell (IgG4+PC) infiltrates have been reported in lymph nodes, lung and skin in some multicentric Castleman disease cases, resembling IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) histologically. However, no report has been available regarding IgG4+PC infiltration in the kidneys of multicentric Castleman disease. Here, we report 2 cases of multicentric Castleman disease complicated by IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) histologically. However, there has been no report published on PC-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis, lymphadenopathy, with numerous IgG4+PC infiltration, and elevated serum IgG4 levels, mimicking IgG4-RD. The blood examinations revealed systemic inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. Corticosteroid therapy was partially effective in both cases, and combination therapy of corticosteroid and tocilizumab was needed in both cases. Moreover, after triple therapy with corticosteroid, rituximab and cyclophosphamide were used in 1 case to tame the severe inflammation. The present cases suggest that if continuously elevated serum C-reactive protein levels and partial corticosteroid responsiveness are encountered, multicentric Castleman disease should be considered rather than IgG4-RD as a differential diagnosis even if serum IgG4 is elevated and IgG4+PCs infiltrate systemic organs. PMID:26598921

  3. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 94.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... where swine vesicular disease exists. 94.12 Section 94.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  4. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... where swine vesicular disease exists. 94.12 Section 94.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  5. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 94.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... where swine vesicular disease exists. 94.12 Section 94.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  6. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 94.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... where swine vesicular disease exists. 94.12 Section 94.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  7. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Sainz, I; Ramanathan, P; O'Donnell, V; Diaz-San Segundo, F; Velazquez-Salinas, L; Sturza, D F; Zhu, J; de los Santos, T; Borca, M V

    2015-09-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNα) can effectively inhibit or abort a viral infection within the host. It has been reported that IFN induction and production is hindered during classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. Most of those studies have been performed in vitro, making it difficult to elucidate the actual role of IFNs during CSFV infection in swine. Here, we report the effect of IFNα treatment (delivered by a replication defective recombinant human adenovirus type 5, Ad5) in swine experimentally infected with highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia. Treatment with two different subtypes of IFNα delayed the appearance of CSF-related clinical signs and virus replication although it did not prevent lethal disease. This is the first report describing the effect of IFNα treatment during CSFV infection in swine. PMID:26004252

  8. Munchausen syndrome by proxy mimicking as Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Owain, Mohammed; Al-Zaidan, Hamad; Al-Hashem, Amal; Kattan, Hoda; Al-Dowaish, Abdullah

    2010-08-01

    Although rare, Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MBP) is a potentially life-threatening form of child abuse. Here, we report a 19-month-old female infant who presented with hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent septicemia. She was initially thought to have myelodysplastic syndrome. Further hematological and immunological investigations revealed no cause. beta-Glucosylceramidase enzyme activity on dried blood spot was suggestive of Gaucher disease. However, the enzyme level on cultured skin fibroblast was not consistent with Gaucher disease. The first hint about MBP was the recurrent sepsis with numerous gram negative rods. Furthermore, the mother's behavior and health history raised our suspicion about MBP. The child showed significant improvement after she was separated from the mother for a week. Finally, the mother confessed that she was spitting in local herbs and injecting it into the central line. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of MBP resembling in its presentation Gaucher disease. This case should alert the general and specialized pediatricians about MBP, as it may mimic metabolic diseases like Gaucher disease. PMID:20039062

  9. Emphysema mimicking interstitial lung disease: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, Kasper S.; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Rasmussen, Finn; Hilberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Honeycombing in general is a sign of severe end-stage fibrosis. Here we present two cases, where the combination of emphysema, acute inflammation and pulmonary embolism gave an appearance of honeycombing seen in pulmonary fibrosis. HRCT interpretation in the evaluation of acutely ill patients with pulmonary infection is a challenge. Our case reports emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, when it comes to patients with suspected complicated pulmonary diseases. At the same time they give very realistic examples of the challenges found in diagnosing patients with simultaneous acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:26236586

  10. Bleb point: mimicker of pneumothorax in bullous lung disease.

    PubMed

    Gelabert, Christopher; Nelson, Mathew

    2015-05-01

    In patients presenting with severe dyspnea, several diagnostic challenges arise in distinguishing the diagnosis of pneumothorax versus several other pulmonary etiologies like bullous lung disease, pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Distinguishing between large pulmonary bullae and pneumothorax is of the utmost importance, as the acute management is very different. While multiple imaging modalities are available, plain radiographs may be inadequate to make the diagnosis and other advanced imaging may be difficult to obtain. Ultrasound has a very high specificity for pneumothorax. We present a case where a large pulmonary bleb mimics the lung point and therefore inaccurately suggests pneumothorax. PMID:25987927

  11. Lymphomatosis cerebri mimicking iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivero Sanz, Elena; Torralba Cabeza, Miguel Ángel; Portugal, Francisco Sanjuán; García-Bragado, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomatosis cerebri (LC) is a rare variant of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) whereby individual lymphoma cells infiltrate the cerebral white matter without causing a mass effect. The disease characteristically presents as a rapidly progressive dementia, which opens an ample differential diagnosis of toxic, metabolic, neurodegenerative and infective causes. Other presentations also include changes in personality, myoclonus and psychotic symptoms. Here we report a patient who presented with a rapidly progressive dementia with a unique surgical history of a dural mater graft in the 1970s. The diagnosis of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) was initially considered. However, the patient’s clinical status deteriorated rapidly with no response to symptomatic treatment and she died 2 months after symptom onset. A diagnosis of T-type LC was reached at autopsy. PMID:25199185

  12. Focal fatty infiltration of the liver mimicking metastatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Y.

    1990-01-01

    We report the mistaken diagnosis of metastatic liver disease by ultrasonography in a patient with congestive heart failure and focal fatty infiltration of the liver. Multiple echogenic space-occupying lesions in the liver can be caused by benign conditions as well as tumour deposits and in a debilitated patient the possibility of focal fatty infiltration should always be considered. Images Figure 1 PMID:2201014

  13. Mimicking Retinal Development and Disease With Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Divya; Phillips, Jenny; Joseph Phillips, M; Gamm, David M

    2016-04-01

    As applications of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) continue to be refined and pursued, it is important to keep in mind that the strengths and weaknesses of this technology lie with its developmental origins. The remarkable capacity of differentiating hPSCs to recapitulate cell and tissue genesis has provided a model system to study stages of human development that were not previously amenable to investigation and experimentation. Furthermore, demonstration of developmentally appropriate, stepwise differentiation of hPSCs to specific cell types offers support for their authenticity and their suitability for use in disease modeling and cell replacement therapies. However, limitations to farming cells and tissues in an artificial culture environment, as well as the length of time required for most cells to mature, are some of the many issues to consider before using hPSCs to study or treat a particular disease. Given the overarching need to understand and modulate the dynamics of lineage-specific differentiation in stem cell cultures, this review will first examine the capacity of hPSCs to serve as models of retinal development. Thereafter, we will discuss efforts to model retinal disorders with hPSCs and present challenges that face investigators who aspire to use such systems to study disease pathophysiology and/or screen for therapeutics. We also refer readers to recent publications that provide additional insight and details on these rapidly evolving topics. PMID:27116663

  14. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease mimicking lung cancer: Clinicoradiologic features and diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    To describe the features and clinical implications of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNB) in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease manifesting as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy.Among a cohort of 388 patients with NTM pulmonary disease, 14 patients with clinically and radiologically suspected lung cancer were included in our study. Two chest radiologists evaluated CT features, including lesion type (nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation), morphologic features (margin, degree of enhancement, calcification), and presence of accompanying findings suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease (bronchiectasis with clustered centrilobular nodules or upper-lobe cavitary lesions) by consensus. Diagnostic procedures for microbiologic diagnosis of NTM disease and clinical outcome were reviewed.Incidence of NTM pulmonary disease presenting as solitary nodule/mass (n = 8) or mass-like consolidation (n = 6) was 3.6% (14 of 388). Most lesions were detected incidentally during routine health check-up or evaluation of other disease (11 of 14, 79%). Lesions typically showed poor contrast-enhancement (9 of 12) and internal calcification (6 of 14). No lesions had CT features suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease. All 4 lesions for which PET/CT imaging was performed showed strong fluorodeoxyglucose uptake simulating malignant lesions (mean, 4.9; range, 3.6-7.8). PCNB revealed mycobacterial histology in 6 of 11 specimens and positive culture results were obtained for 7 of 7 specimens.NTM pulmonary disease may present as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. CT features and PCNB are important to diagnose NTM disease mimicking lung cancer to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:27367996

  15. An osteoporotic fracture mimicking cervical dystonia in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Caroline; Ronan, Lindsay; Sheridan, Ray; Pearce, Vaughan

    2013-09-01

    We report on a case of a 65-year-old (CD) woman who sustained an atraumatic neck fracture. A combination of Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuations, chronic cervical dystonia and osteoporosis provided the basis for this interesting diagnosis. Mrs CD had progressed to complex phase idiopathic Parkinson's disease within 13 years of diagnosis. During this time she remained independent, only using a wheelchair when her motor fluctuations were bad. In 2011, she developed a sudden onset of neck spasm and occipital neuralgia, initially attributed to severe spasmodic cervical dystonia. Despite a titration regime of analgesics and weaning off of her Parkinson's disease medications, the pain persisted. An X-ray of her cervical spine showed degenerative discopathies from C4 to C7. Mrs CD underwent a trial of Botox injections to no avail and she was admitted acutely under the spinal team after an MRI of her spine showed abnormal oedema of the odontoid peg. Subsequent CT diagnosed a type II fracture of the odontoid peg on the background of severe osteoporotic bone (spinal T score -3.4 on subsequent DEXA scan) and she underwent a successful occipital cervical fusion of C1-C6. What makes this case interesting is the fact that this lady's profound powerful neck movements on a background of osteoporosis led to fracture of her neck. Post-operatively, she admitted to non-adherence to her bisphosphonates, prioritising levodopa in the morning with food rather than taking her alendronate on an empty stomach. She is now pain free and receives annual zolendronate infusions. PMID:23672934

  16. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  17. Sandhoff disease mimicking adult-onset bulbospinal neuronopathy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P K; Young, E; King, R H

    1989-09-01

    A 32 year old male is described with an onset of upper limb postural tremor in adolescence followed by muscle cramps. Progressive proximal amyotrophy and weakness in the limbs developed late in the third decade. Examination disclosed, in addition, bilateral facial weakness and mild dysarthria. Enzyme studies revealed hexosaminidase A and B deficiency, indicating a diagnosis of Sandhoff disease. Intra-axonal membranocytoplasmic bodies were present in a rectal biopsy. The presentation, which resembled that of X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy, widens the clinical spectrum for disorders related to G(M2) gangliosidosis. PMID:2795083

  18. Laboratory-scale inactivation of African swine fever virus and swine vesicular disease virus in pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Turner, C; Williams, S M

    1999-07-01

    Two methods were evaluated for the inactivation of African swine fever (ASV) and swine vesicular disease (SVD) viruses in pig slurry: chemical treatment and heat treatment. The addition of NaOH or Ca(OH)2 at different concentration/time combinations at 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C was examined, as was virus stability at different temperature/time combinations. ASF virus (ASFV) was less resistant to both methods than SVD virus (SVDV). In slurry from one source, ASFV was inactivated at 65 degrees C within 1 min, whereas SVDV required at least 2 min at 65 degrees C. However, it was found that thermal inactivation depended on the characteristics of the slurry used. Addition of 1% (w/v) of NaOH or Ca(OH)2 caused the inactivation of ASFV within 150 s at 4 degrees C; 0.5% (w/v) NaOH or Ca(OH)2 required 30 min for inactivation. NaOH or Ca(OH)2 (1% (w/v)) was not effective against SVDV at 22 degrees C after 30 min, and 1.5% (w/v) NaOH or Ca(OH)2 caused inactivation of SVDV at both 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C. At higher chemical concentrations or temperatures, ASFV and SVDV inactivation was faster in slurry than in buffered medium. PMID:10432596

  19. 78 FR 24670 - Notice of a Determination Regarding the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions in Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ..., on December 18, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 74787-74788, Docket No. APHIS-2012... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 Notice of a Determination Regarding the Swine... and Bolzano are free of swine vesicular disease. Based on an assessment of the animal health status...

  20. Type III interferon protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years we have developed novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) including the use of biotherapeutics such as interferons (IFN) delivered by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Swine can be sterilely protected after vaccination with an Ad5 that encodes po...

  1. First Complete Coding Sequence of a Spanish Isolate of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a porcine pathogen and a member of the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. The SVDV genome is composed of a single-stranded RNA molecule of positive polarity. Here, we report the first complete sequence of the coding region of a Spanish SVDV isolate (SPA/1/'93). PMID:26941157

  2. ‘Crohn'z meanz Heinz’: foreign body inflammatory mass mimicking Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Visagan, R; Grossman, R; Dimitriadis, P A; Desai, A

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a patient with a presumed diagnosis of Crohn's disease for 6 years turning out to be an unusual inflammatory mass caused by ileal perforation due to a foreign body. When surgical intervention became necessary for admissions with recurrent obstruction, laparoscopy revealed an inflammatory mass in the terminal ileum, exposing two pieces of plastic bearing the word ‘Heinz’. Resection of the inflammatory mass led to the complete resolution of symptoms. Histology from the operative specimen showed no features of Crohn's disease. There were no granulomas and no fissuring ulcers. This case highlights that an inflammatory mass in the small intestine caused by the perforation of ingested foreign body can mimic Crohn's disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a synthetic plastic packaging causing ileo-caecal junctional perforation mimicking Crohn’s disease. PMID:23749825

  3. Hepatic Mucormycosis Mimicking Veno-occlusive Disease: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Friess, Stuart H; Dehner, Louis P

    2016-01-01

    The clinical history of a 12-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who suffered from relapsed pre-B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia with clinical symptoms of hepatic veno-occlusive disease and death is reported. The postmortem findings were significant for hepatic mucormycosis with selective involvement of the central veins, sinusoids, and portal tracts resulting in obstruction of the outflow tract and massive hepatocellular necrosis. Hematogenous dissemination of mucormycosis causing acute splenitis and hemorrhagic intestinal necrosis were also observed. To our knowledge, mucormycosis invasion of the central veins, sinusoids, and portal tracts by fungal hyphae resulting in a syndrome mimicking hepatic veno-occlusive disease has not been previously reported. PMID:26366930

  4. OctreoScan positive Crohn's disease mimicking an ileal carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Marko, Jamie; Lamba, Reema; Miller, Frank; Buchman, Alan; Spies, Stewart; Nikolaidis, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors have been identified in many tissues throughout the human body. Alterations in the expression of somatostatin receptors have been reported in many disease states including both tumorous and nontumorous conditions. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy utilizing OctreoScan (Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO), a radiolabled form of octreotide, has been reported to be a highly sensitive imaging technique for identifying pathology, such as neuroendocrine tumors, that are somatostatin receptor dense. Unfortunately, many conditions cause an increase in the quantity of somatostatin receptors and therefore may cause false positive Octreoscans. In this report, we discuss the alterations in somatostatin receptors that occur with Crohn's disease and describe a case of an OctreoScan-positive inflammatory mass mimicking a carcinoid tumor. PMID:18097293

  5. Parameter Values for Epidemiological Models of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Kinsley, Amy C.; Patterson, Gilbert; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Craft, Meggan E.; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain, and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection), probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread), and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 days; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Finally, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions. PMID:27314002

  6. Miniature Swine as a Clinically Relevant Model of Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Huang, Christene A; Orf, Katherine; Bronson, Roderick T; Sachs, David H; Spitzer, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Miniature swine provide a preclinical model of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for studies of graft-versus-host disease. HCT between MHC-matched or ‑mismatched pigs can be performed to mimic clinical scenarios with outcomes that closely resemble those observed in human HCT recipients. With myeloablative conditioning, HCT across MHC barriers is typically fatal, with pigs developing severe (grade III or IV) GVHD involving the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and skin. Unlike rodent models, miniature swine provide an opportunity to perform extended longitudinal studies on individual animals, because multiple tissue biopsies can be harvested without the need for euthanasia. In addition, we have developed a swine GVHD scoring system that parallels that used in the human clinical setting. Given the similarities of GVHD in pigs and humans, we hope that the use of this scoring system facilitates clinical and scientific discourse between the laboratory and the clinic. We anticipate that results of swine studies will support the development of new strategies to improve the identification and treatment of GVHD in clinical HCT scenarios. PMID:26473348

  7. Scenario tree model for animal disease freedom framed in the OIE context using the example of a generic swine model for Aujeszky's disease in commercial swine in Canada.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André

    2016-01-01

    "Freedom from animal disease" is an ambiguous concept that may have a different meaning in trade and science. For trade alone, there are different levels of freedom from OIE listed diseases. A country can: be recognized by OIE to be "officially free"; self-declare freedom, with no official recognition by the OIE; or report animal disease as absent (no occurrence) in six-monthly reports. In science, we apply scenario tree models to calculate the probability of a population being free from disease at a given prevalence to provide evidence of freedom from animal disease. Here, we link science with application by describing how a scenario tree model may contribute to a country's claim of freedom from animal disease. We combine the idea of a standardized presentation of scenario tree models for disease freedom and having a similar model for two different animal diseases to suggest that a simple generic model may help veterinary authorities to build and evaluate scenario tree models for disease freedom. Here, we aim to develop a generic scenario tree model for disease freedom that is: animal species specific, population specific, and has a simple structure. The specific objectives were: to explore the levels of freedom described in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code; to describe how scenario tree models may contribute to a country's claim of freedom from animal disease; and to present a generic swine scenario tree model for disease freedom in Canada's domestic (commercial) swine applied to Aujeszky's disease (AD). In particular, to explore how historical survey data, and data mining may affect the probability of freedom and to explore different sampling strategies. Finally, to frame the generic scenario tree model in the context of Canada's claim of freedom from AD. We found that scenario tree models are useful to support a country's claim of freedom either as "recognized officially free" or as part of a self-declaration but the models should not stand alone in a

  8. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. PMID:25776540

  9. Characterization of Multiple-Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Diseased Chickens and Swine in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hanchun; Chen, Sheng; White, David G.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Walker, Robert; Meng, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from diseased piglets (n = 89) and chickens (n = 71) in China were characterized for O serogroups, virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons, and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. O78 was the most common serogroup identified (63%) among the chicken E. coli isolates. Most isolates were PCR positive for the increased serum survival gene (iss; 97%) and the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin gene (tsh; 93%). The O serogroups of swine E. coli were not those typically associated with pathogenic strains, nor did they posses common characteristic virulence factors. Twenty-three serogroups were identified among the swine isolates; however, 38% were O nontypeable. Overall, isolates displayed resistance to nalidixic acid (100%), tetracycline (98%), sulfamethoxazole (84%), ampicillin (79%), streptomycin (77%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (76%). Among the fluoroquinolones, resistance ranged between 64% to levofloxacin, 79% to ciprofloxacin, and 95% to difloxacin. DNA sequencing of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions of 39 nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli isolates revealed that a single gyrA mutation was found in all of the isolates; mutations in parC together with double gyrA mutations conferred high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin MIC, ≥8 μg/ml). Class 1 integrons were identified in 17 (19%) isolates from swine and 42 (47%) from chickens. The majority of integrons possessed genes conferring resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim. These findings suggest that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates, including fluoroquinolone-resistant variants, are commonly present among diseased swine and chickens in China, and they also suggest the need for the introduction of surveillance programs in China to monitor antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria that can be potentially transmitted to humans from food animals. PMID:15297487

  10. Wegener’s granulomatosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease and presenting with chronic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Shahedi, Kamyar; Hanna, Ramy Magdy; Melamed, Oleg; Wilson, James

    2013-01-01

    Wegener’s granulomatosis, also known as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, is a small vessel vasculitis with primarily pulmonary, renal, and sinus disease manifestations. The prevalence of Wegener’s granulomatosis is three cases per 100,000 patients. Cardiovascular, neurologic, cutaneous, and joint manifestations have been reported in many case reports and case series. Gastrointestinal manifestations are less noted in Wegener’s granulomatosis, although they have been previously reported in the form of intestinal perforation and intestinal ischemia. Additionally, there are characteristic findings of vasculitis that are noted with active Wegener’s granulomatosis of the small bowel. We report a case of an elderly patient who presented with weight loss, diarrhea, and hematochezia. His symptoms were chronic and had lasted for more than 1 year before diagnosis. Inflammatory bowel disease or chronic enteritis due to Salmonella arizonae because of reptile exposure originally were suspected as etiologies of his presentation. The findings of proteinuria, renal failure, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis on renal biopsy, in conjunction with an elevated c-ANCA titer, confirmed the diagnosis of Wegener’s granulomatosis with associated intestinal vasculitis. This case demonstrates an atypical presentation of chronic duodenitis and jejunitis secondary to Wegener’s granulomatosis, which mimicked inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24124396

  11. Extensive cervical lymphadenitis mimicking bacterial adenitis as the first presentation of Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Felipe de Souza; da Silva, Marco Felipe Castro; Kozu, Kátia Tomie; Camargo, Luís Fernando Aranha; Rossi, Flávia Feijó Panico; Silva, Clovis Artur; Campos, Lúcia Maria de Arruda

    2015-01-01

    Cervical adenitis >1.5cm in diameter is the less frequently observed criteria in patients with Kawasaki disease and it is usually found in association with other symptoms during the acute phase. Moreover, the finding of fever and lymphadenitis with intense local signs of inflammation and phlegmon is rarely seen as the initial manifestation of Kawasaki disease. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy who had cervical lymphadenitis with adjacent cellulitis and phlegmon mimicking bacterial adenitis as the first presentation of Kawasaki disease. The patient had fever, cervical lymphadenitis with adjacent cellulitis, and severe headache. Cefadroxil was prescribed based on the clinical diagnosis of bacterial adenitis. Because he remained febrile and phlogistic signs worsened, after 1 day of hospitalization, antibiotics were administrated intravenously (ceftriaxone and oxacillin). The computed tomography of the neck showed primary infectious/inflammatory process. On the fourth day, the patient had dry and scaly lips, and treatment with oxacillin was replaced by clindamycin because the patient was still febrile. On the ninth day, he presented non-exudative bilateral conjunctival injection. On the tenth day of febrile disease, a rash appeared on his trunk, hands and feet. Patient’s symptoms resolved after intravenous administration of immunoglobulin (2g/kg/dose), and he was discharged 2 days later. On the 14th day, the patient had lamellar desquamation of fingers. Kawasaki disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in children with febrile cervical lymphadenitis unresponsive to empiric antibiotics even if they have adjacent cellulitis and phlegmon. PMID:26132362

  12. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  13. Structural vulnerability of the French swine industry trade network to the spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rautureau, S; Dufour, B; Durand, B

    2012-07-01

    The networks generated by live animal movements are the principal vector for the propagation of infectious agents between farms, and their topology strongly affects how fast a disease may spread. The structural characteristics of networks may thus provide indicators of network vulnerability to the spread of infectious disease. This study applied social network analysis methods to describe the French swine trade network. Initial analysis involved calculating several parameters to characterize networks and then identifying high-risk subgroups of holdings for different time scales. Holding-specific centrality measurements ('degree', 'betweenness' and 'ingoing infection chain'), which summarize the place and the role of holdings in the network, were compared according to the production type. In addition, network components and communities, areas where connectedness is particularly high and could influence the speed and the extent of a disease, were identified and analysed. Dealer holdings stood out because of their high centrality values suggesting that these holdings may control the flow of animals in part of the network. Herds with growing units had higher values for degree and betweenness centrality, representing central positions for both spreading and receiving disease, whereas herds with finishing units had higher values for in-degree and ingoing infection chain centrality values and appeared more vulnerable with many contacts through live animal movements and thus at potentially higher risk for introduction of contagious diseases. This reflects the dynamics of the swine trade with downward movements along the production chain. But, the significant heterogeneity of farms with several production units did not reveal any particular type of production for targeting disease surveillance or control. Besides, no giant strong connected component was observed, the network being rather organized according to communities of small or medium size (<20% of network size

  14. In vitro activity and rodent efficacy of clinafloxacin for bovine and swine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Michael T.; Quesnell, Rebecca; Tiwari, Raksha; LeMay, Mary; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Clinafloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone that was originally developed and subsequently abandoned in the late 1990s as a human health antibiotic for respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of clinafloxacin as a possible treatment for respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended procedures with recent strains from the Zoetis culture collection. Rodent efficacy was determined in CD-1 mice infected systemically or intranasally with bovine Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, or swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and administered clinafloxacin for determination of ED50 (efficacious dose-50%) values. The MIC90 values for clinafloxacin against bovine P. multocida, M. haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and M. bovis were 0.125, 0.5, 0.125, and 1 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 values against swine P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, S. suis, and M. hyopneumoniae were í0.03, í0.03, 0.125, and í0.008 μg/ml, respectively. Efficacy in mouse models showed average ED50 values of 0.019 mg/kg/dose in the bovine M. haemolytica systemic infection model, 0.55 mg/kg in the bovine P. multocida intranasal lung challenge model, 0.08 mg/kg/dose in the bovine P. multocida systemic infection model, and 0.7 mg/kg/dose in the swine A. pleuropneumoniae systemic infection model. Clinafloxacin shows good in vitro activity and efficacy in mouse models and may be a novel treatment alternative for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. PMID:23785362

  15. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Kidney Disease: A Comprehensive Pictorial Review of the Imaging Spectrum, Mimickers, and Clinicopathological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Nieun; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) has recently been demonstrated to be an important part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). However, since IgG4-KD is still relatively unfamiliar to radiologists and physicians as compared to IgG4-SD involving other organs, it could, therefore, be easily missed. In this article, we present a comprehensive pictorial review of IgG4-KD with regards to the imaging spectrum, mimickers, and clinicopathologic characteristics, based on our clinical experience with 48 patients during the past 13 years, as well as a literature review. Awareness of the broad imaging spectrum of IgG4-KD and differential diagnosis from its mimickers will thus facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26357500

  16. Distribution and interspecies contact of feral swine and cattle on rangeland in south Texas: implications for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Susan M; Scott, H Morgan; de la Garza, Guadalupe R; Deck, Aubrey L; Cathey, James C

    2010-01-01

    The last outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States occurred in 1929. Since that time, numbers and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) have increased greatly, especially in the southern states. This creates a potential risk to livestock production because swine are susceptible to, and can be carriers of, several economically harmful diseases of livestock. Most importantly, swine are potent amplifiers of FMD virus. In this study, global positioning system (GPS) collars were placed on rangeland cattle (Bos indicus x taurus) and feral swine to determine shared habitat use by these species on a large ranch in south Texas from 2004 to 2006. The aim was to identify locations and rates of interspecies contact that may result in effective transfer of FMD virus, should an outbreak occur. In shrubland and riparian areas, animals were dispersed, so contacts within and between species were relatively infrequent. Indirect contacts, whereby cattle and feral swine used the same location (within 20 m) within a 360-min period, occurred primarily at water sources, and seasonally in irrigated forage fields and along ranch roads. Direct contacts between species (animals <20 m apart and within 15 min) were rare and occurred primarily at water sources. Changes in ranch management practices are suggested to reduce interspecies contact should an FMD disease outbreak occur. This information can also be used to improve current epidemiologic models to better fit free-ranging animal populations. PMID:20090028

  17. Search for rare liver diseases: the case of glycosylation defects mimicking Wilson Disease.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Vajro, Pietro; Lefeber, Dirk; Adamowicz, Maciej; Tanner, Stuart

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric hepatology appears to be a very specific field of paediatrics which deals mainly with rare diseases although clinical features can be commonly found - like increased activity of transaminases. Some of these rare diseases like Wilson disease are commonly looked for and recently Wilsonian like phenotypes have been described which additionally presented with abnormal glycosylation of the plasma protein transferrin. In a subgroup of those patients with specific additional clinical symptoms (cleft uvula, low blood sugar, rhabdomyolysis and dilated cardiomyopathy) phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency was identified. We recommend screening for abnormal glycosylation of the plasma protein transferrin in children with unexplained liver injury. PMID:24972800

  18. Cloned Viral Protein Vaccine for Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Responses in Cattle and Swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleid, Dennis G.; Yansura, Daniel; Small, Barbara; Dowbenko, Donald; Moore, Douglas M.; Grubman, Marvin J.; McKercher, Peter D.; Morgan, Donald O.; Robertson, Betty H.; Bachrach, Howard L.

    1981-12-01

    A DNA sequence coding for the immunogenic capsid protein VP3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus A12, prepared from the virion RNA, was ligated to a plasmid designed to express a chimeric protein from the Escherichia coli tryptophan promoter-operator system. When Escherichia coli transformed with this plasmid was grown in tryptophan-depleted media, approximately 17 percent of the total cellular protein was found to be an insoluble and stable chimeric protein. The purified chimeric protein competed equally on a molar basis with VP3 for specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. When inoculated into six cattle and two swine, this protein elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protection against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

  19. Swine Dysentery: Aetiology, Pathogenicity, Determinants of Transmission and the Fight against the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Arguello, Héctor; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Swine Dysentery (SD) is a severe mucohaemorhagic enteric disease of pigs caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which has a large impact on pig production and causes important losses due to mortality and sub-optimal performance. Although B. hyodysenteriae has been traditionally considered a pathogen mainly transmitted by direct contact, through the introduction of subclinically infected animals into a previously uninfected herd, recent findings position B. hyodysenteriae as a potential threat for indirect transmission between farms. This article summarizes the knowledge available on the etiological agent of SD and its virulence traits, and reviews the determinants of SD transmission. The between-herds and within-herd transmission routes are addressed. The factors affecting disease transmission are thoroughly discussed, i.e., environmental survival of the pathogen, husbandry factors (production system, production stage, farm management), role of vectors, diet influence and interaction of the microorganism with gut microbiota. Finally, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to fight against the disease are briefly described. PMID:23665849

  20. Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Khan, Saara A.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown potential as a complementary modality to white light cystoscopy (WLC), the gold standard for imaging bladder cancer. OCT can visualize sub-surface details of the bladder wall, which enables it to stage cancers and detect tumors that are otherwise invisible to WLC. Currently, OCT systems have too slow a speed and too small a field of view for comprehensive bladder imaging, which limits its clinical utility. Validation and feasibility testing of technological refinements aimed to provide faster imaging and wider fields of view necessitates a realistic bladder phantom. We present a novel process to fabricate the first such phantom that mimics both the optical and morphological properties of layers of the healthy and pathologic bladder wall as they characteristically appear with OCT. The healthy regions of the silicone-based phantom comprises three layers: the urothelium, lamina propria and muscularis propria, each containing an appropriate concentration of titanium dioxide to mimic its distinct scattering properties. As well, the layers each possess a unique surface appearance imposed by a textured mold. Within this phantom, pathologic tissue-mimicking regions are created by thickening specific layers or creating inclusions that disrupt the layered appearance of the bladder wall, as is characteristic of bladder carcinomas. This phantom can help to evaluate the efficacy of new OCT systems and software for tumor localization. Moreover, the procedure we have developed is highly generalizable for the creation of OCT-relevant, multi-layer phantoms for tissues that incorporate diseased states characterized by the loss of layered structures.

  1. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  2. 77 FR 74787 - Notice of Availability of an Evaluation of the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... in the Federal Register (64 FR 34155-34168, Docket No. 98-090-1) a proposal to amend the regulations... April 7, 2003, in the Federal Register (68 FR 16922-16941, Docket No. 98-090-5), APHIS recognized only... an Evaluation of the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions in Italy AGENCY: Animal...

  3. Porcine Interferon Gamma Promotes a Protective Innate Immune Response Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently demonstrated that the synergistic action of type I and II interferons (IFN) can rapidly protect swine against challenge with a low dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). While we did not detect antiviral activity or the presence of IFN alpha or gamma in any of the protected an...

  4. Serological survey of veterinarians to assess the zoonotic potential of three emerging swine diseases in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, J F; Rosas-Estrada, K; Pulido-Camarillo, E; de la Peña-Moctezuma, A; Castillo-Juárez, H; Ramírez-Mendoza, H

    2014-03-01

    We conducted an immunological assay of blood samples taken from 85 swine-specialist veterinarians attending the Congress of the Mexican Association of Swine Specialist Veterinarians in Mexico in 2011. Serum samples were assayed for Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and Leptospira spp. antibodies. Using a hemagglutination inhibition test, we registered 2.3% and 27% seropositivity for PorPV and EMCV, respectively. Using viral neutralization tests, we registered 5.8% and 47% seropositivity for PorPV and EMCV, respectively. For Leptospira spp., we registered a seropositivity of 38.8%. The variables (sex, age, years of exposure, number of visited farms, biosecurity level and region) showed no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the seropositivity for EMCV, PorPV and Leptospira spp. except for number of visited farms on HI seropositivity for EMCV (P < 0.05; odds ratio: 1.38). The data obtained provide information on the epidemiology of emerging diseases with zoonotic potential in occupational risk groups. PMID:23734711

  5. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health. PMID:27224214

  6. Swine immune system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probably no area of veterinary medicine has seen a greater explosion in knowledge then the immune system and its implications in disease and vaccination. In this chapter on the Swine Immune System for the 10th Edition of Diseases of Swine we expand on the information provided in past editions by in...

  7. Swine influenza virus: epidemiology and vaccine concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is a primary cause of respiratory disease in swine and a component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Influenza viruses are an important health and economic concern for swine producers throughout the world. Swine operations may be affected by...

  8. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome with autoimmune-like liver disease and enteropathy mimicking celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Veropalumbo, Claudio; Campanozzi, Angelo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Correra, Antonio; Raia, Valeria; Vajro, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Liver abnormalities that normalize during infancy as well an enteropathy are reported in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The pathogenesis of both conditions is unknown. We report two SDS cases with autoimmune-like (antismooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody positivity) liver disease and antigliadin antibody positive inflammatory enteropathy. Hypertransaminasemia did not resolve after immunosuppressive therapy and/or a gluten-free diet. These transient autoimmune phenomena and gut-liver axis perturbations may have played a role in transient SDS hepatopathy and enteropathy. Our report may stimulate other studies to define the relationship between the SDS genetic defect and intestinal permeability as the pathogenic mechanism underlying SDS related liver and intestinal inflammation. PMID:25129842

  9. Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepin, Kim; Davis, Amy J.; Beasley, James; Boughton, Raoul; Campbell, Tyler; Cooper, Susan; Gaston, Wes; Hartley, Stephen B.; Kilgo, John C.; Wisely, Samantha; Wyckoff, Christy; VerCauteren, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Contact rates vary widely among individuals in socially structured wildlife populations. Understanding the interplay of factors responsible for this variation is essential for planning effective disease management. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a socially structured species which pose an increasing threat to livestock and human health, and little is known about contact structure. We analyzed 11 GPS data sets from across the United States to understand the interplay of ecological and demographic factors on variation in co-location rates, a proxy for contact rates. Between-sounder contact rates strongly depended on the distance among home ranges (less contact among sounders separated by >2 km; negligible between sounders separated by >6 km), but other factors causing high clustering between groups of sounders also seemed apparent. Our results provide spatial parameters for targeted management actions, identify data gaps that could lead to improved management and provide insight on experimental design for quantitating contact rates and structure.

  10. One world--one health: the threat of emerging swine diseases. An Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ayudhya, S Nuntawan Na; Assavacheep, P; Thanawongnuwech, R

    2012-03-01

    Owing to the expanding globalization, the trans-boundary spread of an epizootic can easily result from uncontrolled animal movements and human traffic. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a major trans-boundary disease in most Asian countries. Its sporadic re-emergence suggests that collaborative FMD control strategies should be uniformly implemented in endemic countries to ensure the overall national herd vaccination coverage, biocontainment when outbreaks occur, and strict biosecurity control of animal movement between countries. Sustained commitments from governments, cooperative diplomatic relationships, and public awareness campaigns are critical to FMD control, to ensure collaboration among veterinarians, traders and farmers throughout Southeast Asia (SEA). Recently, highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) and porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) spread from China to Southeast Asian countries, causing major economic losses. Foot and mouth disease, HP-PRRS, and PED currently remain endemic and may continue to sporadically re-emerge, owing to inadequate public health management and/or biosecurity failures. Therefore, the risk factors must be identified to better understand the epidemiology of these diseases in an effort to develop effective control measures. International coordination through the establishment of a collaborative network supported by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) should be implemented to prevent trans-boundary transmission among countries. This review discusses trans-boundary swine diseases of particular importance to SEA, including FMD, HP-PRRS and PED, with a primary focus on major factors contributing to the spread of these diseases and important control measures, reflecting the impact of globalization on disease control and surveillance. PMID:25471241

  11. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future. PMID:19802552

  12. Emergence of a Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Lineage in Diseased Swine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Masahiro; Hikoda, Yuna; Fujii, Yuki; Murata, Misato; Miyoshi, Hirotsugu; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Taketoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Akiba, Masato

    2016-04-01

    EnterotoxigenicEscherichia coli(ETEC) and Shiga toxin-producingE. coli(STEC) are important causes of diarrhea and edema disease in swine. The majority of swine-pathogenicE. colistrains belong to a limited range of O serogroups, including O8, O138, O139, O141, O147, O149, and O157, which are the most frequently reported strains worldwide. However, the circumstances of ETEC and STEC infections in Japan remain unknown; there have been few reports on the prevalence or characterization of swine-pathogenicE. coli In the present study, we determined the O serogroups of 967E. coliisolates collected between 1991 and 2014 from diseased swine in Japan, and we found that O139, O149, O116, and OSB9 (O serogroup ofShigella boydiitype 9) were the predominant serogroups. We further analyzed these four O serogroups using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing, and virulence factor profiling. Most of the O139 and O149 strains formed serogroup-specific PFGE clusters (clusters I and II, respectively), whereas the O116 and OSB9 strains were grouped together in the same cluster (cluster III). All of the cluster III strains belonged to a single sequence type (ST88) and carried genes encoding both enterotoxin and Shiga toxin. This PFGE cluster III/ST88 lineage exhibited a high level of multidrug resistance (to a median of 10 antimicrobials). Notably, these bacteria were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Thus, this lineage should be considered a significant risk to animal production due to the toxigenicity and antimicrobial resistance of these bacteria. PMID:26865687

  13. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical...

  14. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical...

  15. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical...

  16. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical...

  17. Monitoring the Spread of Swine Enteric Coronavirus Diseases in the United States in the Absence of a Regulatory Framework

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Andres M.; Alba, Anna; Goede, Dane; McCluskey, Brian; Morrison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The reporting and monitoring of swine enteric coronavirus diseases (SECD), including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine delta coronavirus, in the United States have been challenging because of the initial absence of a regulatory framework and the emerging nature of these diseases. The National Animal Health Laboratory Network, the Emergency Management and Response System, and the Swine Health Monitoring Project were used to monitor the disease situation between May 2013 and March 2015. Important differences existed between and among them in terms of nature and extent of reporting. Here, we assess the implementation of these systems from different perspectives, including a description and comparison of collected data, disease metrics, usefulness, simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, representativeness, timeliness, and stability. This assessment demonstrates the limitations that the absence of premises identification imposes on certain animal health surveillance and response databases, and the importance of federally regulated frameworks in collecting accurate information in a timely manner. This study also demonstrates the value that the voluntary and producer-organized systems may have in monitoring emerging diseases. The results from all three data sources help to establish the baseline information on SECD epidemiological dynamics after almost 3 years of disease occurrence in the country. PMID:27014703

  18. Viral meningitis epidemics and a single, recent, recombinant and anthroponotic origin of swine vesicular disease virus

    PubMed Central

    Bruhn, Christian A. W.; Nielsen, Sandra C. Abel; Samaniego, Jose Alfredo; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions remain, including the full biological ancestry of the virus, and its geographical and temporal origin. Methodology: We sequenced near-complete genomes of 27 SVDV and 13 coxsackievirus B5 samples, all originally isolated between 1966 and 2006, and analysed these in conjunction with existing sequences and historical information. Results: While analyses incorporating 24 additional near-complete SVDV genomic sequences indicate clear signs of within-SVDV recombination, all 51 SVDV isolates remain monophyletic. This supports a hypothesis of a single anthroponotic transfer origin. Analysis of individual coding and non-coding regions supports that SVDV has a recombinant origin between coxsackievirus B5 and another Enterovirus B serotype, most likely coxsackievirus A9. Extensive Bayesian sequence-based analysis of the time of the most recent common ancestor of all analysed sequences places this within a few years around 1961. Epidemiological evidence points to China as an origin, but there are no available samples to test this conclusively. Conclusions and implications: Historical investigation and the clinical aspects of the involved Enterovirus B serotypes, makes the current results consistent with a hypothesis stating that SVDV originated through co-infection, recombination, and a single anthroponotic event, during large viral meningitis epidemics around 1960/1961 involving the ancestral serotypes. The exact geographical origin of SVDV may remain untestable due to historical aspects. PMID:26508717

  19. Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units: economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Fasina, F O; Lazarus, D D; Spencer, B T; Makinde, A A; Bastos, A D S

    2012-06-01

    African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of effective biosecurity against African swine fever. The outcomes suggest that pig production is a profitable venture that can generate a profit of approximately US$109,637.40 per annum and that an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has the potential to cause losses of up to US$910,836.70 in a single year. The implementation of biosecurity and its effective monitoring can prevent losses owing to ASF and is calculated to give a benefit-cost ratio of 29. A full implementation of biosecurity will result in a 9.70% reduction in total annual profit, but is justified in view of the substantial costs incurred in the event of an ASF outbreak. Biosecurity implementation is robust and capable of withstanding changes in input costs including moderate feed price increases, higher management costs and marginal reductions in total outputs. It is concluded that biosecurity is a key to successful pig production in an endemic situation. PMID:21929615

  20. Ménétrier’s Disease: Its Mimickers and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Won Jae; Coffey, Robert J.; Washington, Mary Kay

    2016-01-01

    Ménétrier’s disease is a rare protein-losing hypertrophic gastropathy. Histologically, it can be mistaken for other disorders showing hypertrophic gastropathy. The pathogenesis of Ménétrier’s disease is not fully understood; however, it appears that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, transforming growth factor alpha, contributes to the pathogenesis of this disorder. In this review, we will discuss disease entities that can mimic Ménétrier’s disease and the role of EGFR signaling in Ménétrier’s disease. PMID:26689786

  1. Appendiceal Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease Mimicking Appendiceal Tumor or Appendicitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Won Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an autoimmune disease that forms tumorous lesions. Several cases involving various organs are reported, however, IgG4-related disease involving appendix has not been reported yet. In this report, we presented a case of IgG4-related disease of appendix, which raised a suspicion of appendiceal tumor or usual appendicitis and, therefore, led to unnecessary surgical resection. IgG4-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a mass-like swelling of the appendix, in order to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:26798216

  2. Primary cystic peritoneal masses and mimickers: spectrum of diseases with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Arraiza, María; Metser, Ur; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Khalili, Korosh; Hanbidge, Anthony; Kennedy, Erin; Ghai, Sangeet

    2015-04-01

    Cystic lesions within the peritoneum have been classified classically according to their lining on histology into four categories-endothelial, epithelial, mesothelial, and others (germ cell tumors, sex cord gonadal stromal tumors, cystic mesenchymal tumors, fibrous wall tumors, and infectious cystic peritoneal lesions). In this article, we will proceed to classify cystic peritoneal lesions focusing on the degree of radiological complexity into three categories-simple cystic, mildly complex, and cystic with solid component lesions. Many intra-abdominal collections within the peritoneal cavity such as abscess, seroma, biloma, urinoma, or lymphocele may mimic primary peritoneal cystic masses and need to be differentiated. Clinical history and imaging features may help differentiate intra-abdominal collections from primary peritoneal masses. Lymphangiomas are benign multilocular cystic masses that can virtually occur in any location within the abdomen and insinuate between structures. Ultrasound may help differentiate enteric duplication cysts from other mesenteric and omental cysts in the abdomen. Double-layered wall along the mesenteric side of bowel may suggest its diagnosis in the proper clinical setting. Characteristic imaging features of hydatid cysts are internal daughter cysts, floating membranes and matrix, peripheral calcifications, and collagenous pericyst. Non-pancreatic psuedocysts usually have a fibrotic thick wall and chylous content may lead to a fat-fluid level. Pseudomyxoma peritonei appears as loculated fluid collections in the peritoneal cavity, omentum, and mesentery and may scallop visceral surfaces. Many of the primary cystic peritoneal masses have specific imaging features which can help in accurate diagnosis and management of these entities. Knowledge of the imaging spectrum of cystic peritoneal masses is necessary to distinguish from other potential cystic abdominal mimicker masses. PMID:25269999

  3. Sudden death following AV node ablation in a man with Fabry disease mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Odette A; Lynch, Matthew; Parsons, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    We present a case of Fabry disease with an uncommon pattern of asymmetrical hypertrophy with septal prominence resulting in an erroneous diagnosis of hypertrophic cardilmyopathy clinically. The deceased presented for a medicolegal autopsy following his sudden death after an AV node ablation. Fabry disease continues to be an important misdiagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a clinical setting. Early diagnosis of Fabry disease is essential so that early treatment can be instituted. PMID:27213840

  4. Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking meningioma in a child: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, K; Bagdi, N; Sunitha, P; Ghosal, N

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of extensive involvement of isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman's disease (RDD) in a child. Our case is unique because it presents with involvement of the middle cranial fossa, cavernous sinus, pituitary gland, orbit, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. Previous cases of intracranial RDD in children have reported separate involvement of cavernous sinus, suprasellar region, and frontal and petroclival regions. Involvement of the pituitary gland has so far not been reported. A 14-year-old male presented with a medical history of loss of vision, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and abnormal prolactin and cortisol levels. Radiologically the diagnosis was meningioma. The histopathological diagnosis was RDD with emperipolesis and S-100 positivity. RDD is a histiocytic proliferation of unknown aetiology, which commonly affects lymph nodes. Uncommonly it involves the extranodal sites and rarely the central nervous system (CNS). 80 cases of RDD involving CNS have been reported in the literature, and only 5 were in children. Although the definitive diagnosis of RDD disease is based on the histopathology report, it should be included in the differentials of a lesion mimicking meningioma especially in children. PMID:21697409

  5. Pulmonary Disease Secondary to Reflux Mimicking Interstitial Pneumonia in Systemic Sclerosis: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Ricardo Azêdo de Luca; Mazolli Veiga, Nathalia; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Mocarzel, Luis Otávio Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a complex disease due to the variety of clinical presentations, often superimposed on other conditions, related or not to the connective tissue. We report a 43-year-old Brazilian woman with limited systemic sclerosis and pulmonary symptoms secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease, with a clinical presentation similar to a diffuse interstitial lung disease. Because of the frequency of interstitial lung injury due to systemic sclerosis, this was an important differential diagnosis, which could be excluded after optimized treatment of reflux disease, with clinical and radiological improvement. Clinical management of patients with collagen diseases requires clinician skills to identify the natural history and understand its nuances. This is a common situation in clinical practice, but with a few discussions in international literature. PMID:26885429

  6. Pulmonary Disease Secondary to Reflux Mimicking Interstitial Pneumonia in Systemic Sclerosis: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Montes, Ricardo Azêdo de Luca; Mazolli Veiga, Nathalia; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Mocarzel, Luis Otávio Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a complex disease due to the variety of clinical presentations, often superimposed on other conditions, related or not to the connective tissue. We report a 43-year-old Brazilian woman with limited systemic sclerosis and pulmonary symptoms secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease, with a clinical presentation similar to a diffuse interstitial lung disease. Because of the frequency of interstitial lung injury due to systemic sclerosis, this was an important differential diagnosis, which could be excluded after optimized treatment of reflux disease, with clinical and radiological improvement. Clinical management of patients with collagen diseases requires clinician skills to identify the natural history and understand its nuances. This is a common situation in clinical practice, but with a few discussions in international literature. PMID:26885429

  7. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  8. Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax, reared for mass release do not carry and spread foot-and-mouth disease virus and classical swine fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transporting live screwworms Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel for developing new strains from countries where foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and classical swine fever (CSF) are endemic, to the mass rearing facilities in Mexico and Panama may introduce these exotic diseases. This study was conducted to...

  9. Experimental reproduction of porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (mystery swine disease) by infection with Lelystad virus: Koch's postulates fulfilled.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, C; Wensvoort, G; Pol, J M

    1991-07-01

    Aerosol exposure of eight pregnant sows to cell-culture- propagated Lelystad virus resulted in clinical signs characteristic of so-called mystery swine disease. After an incubation of 4-7 days, all sows were inappetant and listless for 6-9 days. Two sows developed a transient red-blue discolouration of the ears ('abortus blauw' or blue ear disease) accompanied by abdominal respiration, and two had a fever for one day only. One sow aborted at 109 days of gestation. The other seven sows, farrowing between 113 and 117 days of gestation, gave birth to numerous mummified, dead, and weak piglets. Of these seven, the mean number of piglets born dead to each sow was 4.6 and the mean number born alive was 7.7; 3.1 piglets per sow (40%) died within the first week. Lelystad virus was isolated from 31 piglets, which were born dead or died shortly after birth. Antibody was detected in precolostral blood samples or ascitic fluids of 23 piglets, a finding which demonstrated transplacental passage of the virus in six out of eight litters. We conclude that Lelystad virus is the causal agent of mystery swine disease. Since its aetiology is no longer a mystery, we propose the more appropriate name 'porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (PEARS)'. PMID:1949539

  10. Miniature Swine for Preclinical Modeling of Complexities of Human Disease for Translational Scientific Discovery and Accelerated Development of Therapies and Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Schomberg, Dominic T; Tellez, Armando; Meudt, Jennifer J; Brady, Dane A; Dillon, Krista N; Arowolo, Folagbayi K; Wicks, Joan; Rousselle, Serge D; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan

    2016-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer, are the leading cause of death in the world. The cost, both monetary and time, of developing therapies to prevent, treat, or manage these diseases has become unsustainable. A contributing factor is inefficient and ineffective preclinical research, in which the animal models utilized do not replicate the complex physiology that influences disease. An ideal preclinical animal model is one that responds similarly to intrinsic and extrinsic influences, providing high translatability and concordance of preclinical findings to humans. The overwhelming genetic, anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological similarities to humans make miniature swine an ideal model for preclinical studies of human disease. Additionally, recent development of precision gene-editing tools for creation of novel genetic swine models allows the modeling of highly complex pathophysiology and comorbidities. As such, the utilization of swine models in early research allows for the evaluation of novel drug and technology efficacy while encouraging redesign and refinement before committing to clinical testing. This review highlights the appropriateness of the miniature swine for modeling complex physiologic systems, presenting it as a highly translational preclinical platform to validate efficacy and safety of therapies and devices. PMID:26839324

  11. Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (< 2 herds per day) in an epidemic wave along contiguous habitat for several years, before dying out (when the epidemic arrived at the end of a contiguous sub-population or at a low density wild pig area). The low incidence rate indicates that surveillance for wildlife disease epidemics caused by short lived infections will be most efficient when surveillance is based on detection and investigation of clinical events, although this may not always be practical. Epidemics could be contained and eradicated with culling (aerial shooting) or vaccination when these were adequately implemented. It was apparent that the spatial structure, ecology and behaviour of wild populations must be accounted for during disease management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain

  12. 78 FR 58512 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Collection; Swine Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of... the interstate spread of swine diseases and protect swine health. DATES: We will consider all comments... the regulations to prevent the interstate spread of swine diseases and to protect swine...

  13. Cheek and periorbital peculiar discoid lupus erythematosus: rare clinical presentation mimicking tinea faciei, cutaneous granulomatous disease or blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomoko; Umemoto, Naoka; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Wakatabi, Koji; Iida, Eri; Masaki, Masumi; Kakurai, Maki; Demitsu, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    We present clinically peculiar facial discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) that mimicked tinea faciei. Although DLE is a chronic autoimmune dermatosis, it has a variety of rare clinical presentations, including periorbital DLE, comedonic DLE and hypertrophic DLE recently. In this case, a scaly, erythematous lesion on the eyelid and the central healed, mildly elevated, annularly distributed facial DLE mimicked tinea faciei, complicating our diagnosis. PMID:25969679

  14. Filamin A mutation may be associated with diffuse lung disease mimicking bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature newborns.

    PubMed

    Lord, Amanda; Shapiro, Adam J; Saint-Martin, Christine; Claveau, Martine; Melançon, Serge; Wintermark, Pia

    2014-11-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common long-term complication in premature newborns requiring ventilatory support and is the most common cause of chronic diffuse lung disease in this population. We present the clinical course of a premature newborn with a complicated neonatal respiratory course that was initially thought to be related to BPD, but it did not respond to the typical therapies for this condition. Due to the findings of periventricular nodular heterotopia, the diagnosis of a filamin A gene mutation was eventually made, which explained the respiratory pathology of this patient. When time of onset and clinical course do not correlate with typical BPD, one should consider alternative diagnoses in premature infants, including neonatal diffuse lung disease. PMID:25053830

  15. Neuro-Behçet's disease mimicking a cerebral tumor: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Ho; Jung, Myung-Keun; Bang, Cha-Ok; Park, Hyung-Kook; Sung, Ki-Bum; Ahn, Moo-Young; Bae, Won-Kyeong; Chi, Je G.

    2002-01-01

    We report a rare case of neuro-Behcet's disease (NBD) presenting as an inflammatory pseudotumor in the brain. A 52-year-old woman was evaluated for subacute dizziness and headache. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a right cerebellar mass, which disappeared 2 weeks later. After a year, recurrent mucocutaneous manifestations of Beh et's disease were observed. Immunosuppressant and steroid maintenance treatment were started. She experienced two more neurologic attacks and brain MR imaging revealed an enhancing mass in the right temporal lobe. The second attack showed a good response to steroid pulse therapy, but the third attack did not respond to steroid and her neurologic signs suggested an impending transtentorial hernia. The right temporal lobectomy was performed for the purpose of life-saving. The pathologic finding of the mass was a chronic inflammatory vasculitis, compatible with NBD. PMID:12378032

  16. Osteoid osteoma of the lunatum mimicking Kienböck’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Güner, Mehmet Derviş; Kamburoğlu, Haldun Onuralp; Bektaş, Umut; Ay, Şadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hands, especially lunatum, are involved very rarely with osteoid osteoma. This report presents an osteoid osteoma of the lunatum, which was previously misdiagnosed as Kienböck’s disease and had undergone surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging may lead the clinician to misdiagnose because of the excessive bone edema around the carpus. The operation should be planned according to radiography and computed tomography findings.

  17. Changes Mimicking New Leptomeningeal Disease After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Muscal, Jodi A.; Jones, Jeremy Y.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Bertuch, Alison A.; Su, Jack; Woo, Shiao Y.; Mahoney, Donald H.; Chintagumpala, Murali

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Acute and late changes in magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric brain have been described after radiotherapy (RT). We report the post-RT neuroimaging changes in the posterior fossa after intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) in children with medulloblastoma and contrast them with those of leptomeningeal disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 53 consecutive children with medulloblastoma who were treated with craniospinal RT followed by IMRT to the posterior fossa and chemotherapy between 1997 and 2006. Results: After IMRT to the posterior fossa, 8 (15%) of 53 patients developed increased fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery signal changes in the brainstem or cerebellum and patchy, multifocal, nodular contrast enhancement at a median of 6 months. The enhancement superficially resembled leptomeningeal disease. However, the enhancement resolved without intervention at a median of 6 months later. The accompanying fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery signal changes occasionally preceded the enhancement, were often parenchymal in location, and resolved or persisted to a lesser degree. All 8 patients with transient magnetic resonance imaging changes in the posterior fossa were alive at last follow-up. In contrast, leptomeningeal disease occurred in 8 (15%) of our 53 patients at a median of 19.5 months after IMRT completion. Of these 8 patients, 7 demonstrated initial nodular enhancement outside the conformal field, and 7 patients died. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging changes can occur in the posterior fossa of children treated with IMRT for medulloblastoma. In our experience, these transient changes occur at a characteristic time and location after RT, allowing them to be distinguished from leptomeningeal disease.

  18. Voriconazole-Induced Periostitis Mimicking Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Annie; Rondelli, Damiano; Patel, Pritesh

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole is an established first-line agent for treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). It is associated with the uncommon complication of periostitis. We report this complication in a 58-year-old female undergoing HSCT. She was treated with corticosteroids with minimal improvement. The symptoms related to periostitis can mimic chronic graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing HSCT and clinicians should differentiate this from other diagnoses and promptly discontinue therapy. PMID:27403356

  19. [A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease, mimicking hot tub lung].

    PubMed

    Sato, Nagato; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Nagata, Makoto; Hagiwara, Koichi; Kanazawa, Minoru

    2006-12-01

    A 56-year-old man in whom reticulonodular shadows had been noted on a previous chest radiography study was admitted to our hospital with complaint of exertional dyspnea in March 2004. His thoracic computed tomography (CT) showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and multiple centrilobular small nodules in both lung fields. Lymphocytes occupied a high proportion in the cells recovered from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These findings were compatible with those for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Histopathological findings observed in the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy specimens included necrotizing granulomas, organizing pneumonia associated with collective epithelioid cell granulomas without necrosis, and alveolar septal thickening with lymphocyte infiltration that showed a centrilobular distribution. These findings were also compatible with those for hot tub lung. Further information that supported the diagnosis were the identifications of Mycobacterium avium complex in his sputum by acid-fast bacteriological culture as well as positive for Mycobacterium avium polymerase chain reaction in lung specimen. He responded well to corticosteroid therapy, resulting in improvement in his clinical condition as well as in his chest radiographs. He was later put on an antituberculosis therapy, and the corticosteroid therapy was discontinued. This led to an exacerbation of his disease and corticosteroid therapy was restarted. It is not long time since the disease was first recognized, and thus few cases have been reported in Japan. Our report may provide valuable information on the disease in this country. PMID:17233395

  20. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL...

  1. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL...

  2. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL...

  3. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL...

  4. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  5. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  6. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  7. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  8. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  9. Prominent scapulae mimicking an inherited myopathy expands the phenotype of CHD7-related disease.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Gina L; Ma, Alan; Sival, Deborah; Wong, Monica T Y; Peduto, Tony; Menezes, Manoj P; Young, Helen; Waddell, Leigh; Ghaoui, Roula; Needham, Merrilee; Lek, Monkol; North, Kathryn N; MacArthur, Daniel G; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny Ma; Clarke, Nigel F

    2016-08-01

    CHD7 variants are a well-established cause of CHARGE syndrome, a disabling multi-system malformation disorder that is often associated with deafness, visual impairment and intellectual disability. Less severe forms of CHD7-related disease are known to exist, but the full spectrum of phenotypes remains uncertain. We identified a de novo missense variant in CHD7 in a family presenting with musculoskeletal abnormalities as the main manifestation of CHD7-related disease, representing a new phenotype. The proband presented with prominent scapulae, mild shoulder girdle weakness and only subtle dysmorphic features. Investigation revealed hypoplasia of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles and semicircular canal defects, but he did not fulfill diagnostic criteria for CHARGE syndrome. Although the shoulders are often sloping and anteverted in CHARGE syndrome, the underlying neuromuscular cause has never been investigated. This report expands the phenotypes associated with CHD7 mutations to include a musculoskeletal presentation, with hypoplasia of the shoulder and neck muscles. CHD7 should be considered in patients presenting in childhood with stable scapular winging, particularly if accompanied by dysmorphic features and balance difficulties. PMID:26813943

  10. Autoimmune encephalitis mimicking sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Jia-Tang; Wang, Ruo-Xi; Zhao, Wei; Tan, Qing-Che; Liu, Ruo-Zhuo; Wang, Xiang-Qing; Huang, Xu-Sheng; Yu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-06-15

    Autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies are most likely to be misdiagnosed as sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Our goal was to delineate patients who were initially suspected to have CJD but were later found to have AE. We performed a retrospective clinical review of cases of individuals and made a comparison between groups of patients diagnosed with sCJD and AE. Patients who had rapidly progressing dementia and focal neurological impairment, such as aphasia, gait disturbance, visual disturbance, and depression, at onset were diagnosed with sCJD, whereas epilepsy, hyponatremia and dysautonomia were strong hints for AE. Fluoroscope-positron emission tomography (PET) of patients with AE revealed variable metabolism and normative and long-term immunosuppression were less likely to relapse. PMID:27235341

  11. Meningeal supratentorial hemangioblastoma in a patient with von hippel-lindau disease mimicking angioblastic menigioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Park, Ik-Seong; Jo, Kwang Wook

    2013-11-01

    Hemangioblastomas are sporadic tumors found in the cerebellum or spinal cord. Supratentorial hemangioblastomas are rare, and those with meningeal involvement are extremely rare and have been reported in only approximately 130 patients. Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old female patient with supratentorial meningeal hemangioblastoma detected 5 years after surgical resection of an infratentorial hemangioblastoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome are at risk for developing multiple hemangioblastomas, with new tumor formation and growth and possible meningeal infiltration. Regular lifelong follow-up in at-risk patients is recommended and should include the differential diagnosis of dural-based tumors such as angioblastic meningioma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24379949

  12. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  13. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  14. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  15. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  16. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  17. Type I and II Interferons Activate the Innate Immune System to Promote Early Protection of Swine Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated that the synergistic action of type I and II interferons (IFN) can rapidly protect swine against challenge with a low dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Protection correlated with an upregulation of some IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), including IP-10, INDO, and OAS in PB...

  18. Delivery of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Empty Capsid Subunit Antigen with Nonstructural Protein 2B Improves Protection of Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector carrying the capsid (P1-2A) and 3C protease coding regions as well as a portion of the 2B coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) (Ad5-A24) protects cattle and swine from direct inocula...

  19. Differences in Pathogenesis for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the Mouse Versus the Swine Model Identify Bacterial Gene Products Required for Systemic but not Gastrointestinal Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last several decades, the mouse model of Typhoid fever has been an extremely productive model to investigate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenesis. The mouse is the paradigm for investigating systemic disease due to infection by Salmonella; however, the swine model of gastro...

  20. Direct contact transmission of three different foot-and-mouth disease virus strains in swine demonstrates important strain-specific differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel direct contact transmission model for the study of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection of swine was utilized to investigate transmission characteristics of three FMDV strains belonging to serotypes A, O and Asia1. Each strain demonstrated distinct transmission characteristics and r...

  1. Clinical outcome of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome mimicking acute biliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seong Yong; Kim, Jin Il; Cheung, Dae Young; Cho, Se Hyun; Park, Soo-Heon; Han, Joon-Yeol; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. METHODS: The clinical courses of patients that visited St. Mary’s Hospital with abdominal pain from January 2005 to December 2006 and were diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome were examined. RESULTS: Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome was identified in 22 female patients of childbearing age; their mean age was 31.0 ± 8.1 years. Fourteen of these cases presented with pain in the upper right abdomen alone or together with pain in the lower abdomen, and six patients presented with pain only in the lower abdomen. The first impression at the time of visit was acute cholecystitis or cholangitis in 10 patients and acute appendicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease in eight patients. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed by abdominal computer tomography (CT), and the results of abdominal sonography were normal for 10 of these patients. Chlamydia trichomatis was isolated from 18 patients. Two patients underwent laparoscopic adhesiotomy and 20 patients were completely cured by antibiotic treatment. CONCLUSION: For women of childbearing age with acute pain in the upper right abdomen alone or together with pain in the lower abdomen, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome should be considered during differential diagnosis. Moreover, in cases suspected to be Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, abdominal CT, rather than abdominal sonography, assists in the diagnosis. PMID:19058334

  2. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 98 Importation of Live Swine, Swine... Europe that we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever (CSF). We are also proposing to add Liechtenstein to the list of regions we consider free from swine vesicular disease (SVD) and to the list...

  3. Urticaria mimickers in children.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Anubhav N; Mathes, Erin F

    2013-01-01

    Acute urticaria is a self-limited cutaneous condition marked by transient, erythematous, and pruritic wheals. It is a hypersensitivity response that is often secondary to infection, medications, or food allergies in children. In contrast, the urticarial "mimickers" described in this review article are often seen in the context of fever and extracutaneous manifestations in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis ranges from benign and self-limited hypersensitivity responses to multisystem inflammatory diseases. Establishing the correct diagnosis of an urticarial rash in a pediatric patient is necessary to both prevent an unnecessary work up for self-limited conditions and to appropriately recognize and evaluate multisystem inflammatory disorders. Herein, we describe two cases to illustrate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, histopathology and differential diagnoses for several mimickers of acute urticaria including: urticaria multiforme, serum sickness like reaction, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy, systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, and urticarial vasculitis. PMID:24552410

  4. Comparison of disease trends in the Ontario swine population using active practitioner-based surveillance and passive laboratory-based surveillance (2007–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, Rocio; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    A concern about emerging swine diseases led to a pilot study to determine the feasibility of an active surveillance system referred to as the Ontario Swine Veterinary-based Surveillance System (OSVS). The OSVS recorded the incidence of various syndromes and investigated potential outbreaks. However, validation of the disease patterns observed was needed. The objective of this study was to compare the disease patterns observed in the OSVS system with submission data obtained from a regional diagnostic laboratory — the Animal Health Laboratory (AHL). Higher rates of submission were reported to the OSVS compared with AHL records. However, OSVS and AHL data captured similar trends of disease. The OSVS data captured potential outbreaks that were not reflected in the laboratory data. Validation of active and passive syndromic surveillance data is necessary, and efforts should be made to integrate these types of data sources. PMID:24155479

  5. Computer-aided assessment of pulmonary disease in novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza on CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The 2009 pandemic is a global outbreak of novel H1N1 influenza. Radiologic images can be used to assess the presence and severity of pulmonary infection. We develop a computer-aided assessment system to analyze the CT images from Swine-Origin Influenza A virus (S-OIV) novel H1N1 cases. The technique is based on the analysis of lung texture patterns and classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Pixel-wise tissue classification is computed from the SVM value. The method was validated on four H1N1 cases and ten normal cases. We demonstrated that the technique can detect regions of pulmonary abnormality in novel H1N1 patients and differentiate these regions from visually normal lung (area under the ROC curve is 0.993). This technique can also be applied to differentiate regions infected by different pulmonary diseases.

  6. Phylogeography of Swine Influenza H3N2 in the United States: Translational Public Health for Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Scotch, Matthew; Mei, Changjiang

    2012-01-01

    The field of phylogeography has received a lot of attention for its application to molecular evolution and geographic migration of species. More recent work has included infectious diseases especially zoonotic RNA viruses like influenza and rabies. Phylogeography of viruses has the potential to advance surveillance at agencies such as public health departments, agriculture departments, and wildlife agencies. However, little is known about how these agencies could use phylogeography for applied surveillance and the integration of animal and human sequence data. Here, we highlight its potential to support ‘translational public health’ that could bring sequence data to the forefront of surveillance. We focus on swine influenza H3N2 because of the recent link to a variant form in humans. We discuss the implications to applied surveillance and the need for an integrated biomedical informatics approach for adoption at agencies of animal and public health. PMID:23137647

  7. [Porcine malignant catarrhal fever: diagnostic findings and first detection of the pathogenic agent in diseased swine in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Albini, S; Zimmermann, W; Neff, F; Ehlers, B; Häni, H; Li, H; Hüssy, D; Casura, Ch; Engels, M; Ackermann, M

    2003-02-01

    For the first time Ovine Herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) was identified in Swiss pigs as the causative agent of Porcine Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF). Diseased animals from two farms were observed to show weakness, anorexia, fever up to 41 degrees C, and neurological symptoms, i.e. ataxia, convulsions and hyperesthesia, erosion on the snout and in the oral and nasal mucosa, as well as multiple skin lesions. Histopathological findings included severe non-purulent inflammation with mononuclear cell infiltration in several organs. Most dominant were meningo-encephalitis, disseminated nephritis as well as purulent catarrhalic bronchopneumonia. The findings were quite reminiscent of the lesions due to MCF in cattle and give therefore substantial proof to use Porcine Malignant Catarrhal Fever as the term for the disease. Identification of the causative agent was done with a quantitative PCR specific for OvHV-2. Different tissues from diseased animals were positive. Furthermore, one animal which had been ill for more than five days tested positive for antibodies against an epitope conserved among MCF viruses. Serum samples from diseased animals reacted negative towards Classical Swine Fever- and Pseudorabies virus antigen. A weakly positive reaction against porcine enterovirus type I argued against the involvement of enteroviruses in the observed disease. Moreover, by means of different conventional PCRs, we detected the newly discovered porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses for the first time in Switzerland and could at the same time exclude their involvement in Porcine Malignant Catarrhal Fever. PMID:12649951

  8. The natural history of porcine circovirus type 2: from an inoffensive virus to a devastating swine disease?

    PubMed

    Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija; Cortey, Martí

    2013-07-26

    The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the natural history of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection and its related diseases. The perception about PCV2 as a significant pathogen has markedly changed in the last 15 years. The ubiquitous nature of the virus, the retrospective evidence of this infection long before disease association, the multifactorial aetio-pathogenesis of PCV2-systemic disease (SD) and the lack of consistent demonstration of Koch's postulates caused great controversy about the real causal capabilities of this virus. The advent of vaccines against PCV2 radically changed such perception and this virus is nowadays regarded as a very important pig pathogen. Moreover, the current PCV2 vaccines are ones of the most widely used in pig producing countries. On the other hand, how the virus causes disease is still a not fully solved complex scientific question, but host, infection timing and the virus itself are pivotal factors to consider explaining disease presentation at an individual level. The appearance of PCV2-SD as an epidemic problem at the end of 1990 s or early-mid 2000s might be related with a number of known and unknown variables. Based on available data, the international trade of pigs may have played a major role in the dissemination of more susceptible swine genetic lines as well as in the global PCV2 genotype replacement (PCV2b over PCV2a) during such period. PMID:23380460

  9. Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks. PMID:26302164

  10. Field efficacy of an inactivated bivalent influenza vaccine in a multi-site swine production system during an outbreak of systemic porcine circovirus associated disease.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Catherine E; Martin, S Wayne; Christensen, Jette; Friendship, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is a disease of significance for the swine industry, and vaccination is often recommended as a way to reduce its impact on production. The efficacy of SI vaccines is well established under experimental conditions, but information about field efficacy is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial inactivated bivalent (H1N1/H3N2) vaccine under conditions of natural exposure to a field SI variant. To accomplish our goal we used a randomized, blinded, field trial in 2 cohorts of finisher pigs in a multi-site swine production system located in southern Ontario. During the trial, this herd experienced an outbreak of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD). The efficacy of the SI vaccine was assessed through its effect on average daily weight gain, and serological responses to SI over time. The effect of vaccination on pig growth was different in the 2 cohorts. Weight gain was higher in vaccinated pigs than in control pigs in Cohort 1, but was numerically higher for control pigs than for vaccinated pigs in Cohort 2. Vaccination against swine influenza, in a herd experiencing an outbreak of PCVAD, was of questionable value. PMID:20592840

  11. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  12. A Rare Case of Pott’s Disease (Spinal Tuberculosis) Mimicking Metastatic Disease in the Southern Region of Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Osmanagic, Azra; Emamifar, Amir; Bang, Jacob Christian; Hansen, Inger Marie Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 78 Final Diagnosis: Pott’s disease Symptoms: Back pain • nausea • vomiting • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: MRI Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Pott’s disease (PD) or spinal tuberculosis is a rare condition which accounts for less than 1% of total tuberculosis (TB) cases. The incidence of PD has recently increased in Europe and the United States, mainly due to immigration; however, it is still a rare diagnosis in Scandinavian countries, and if overlooked it might lead to significant neurologic complications. Case Report: A 78-year-old woman, originally from Eastern Europe, presented to the emergency department with a complaint of nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and severe back pain. On admission she was febrile and had leukocytosis and increased C-reactive protein. Initial spinal x-ray was performed and revealed osteolytic changes in the vertebral body of T11 and T12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine illustrated spondylitis of T10, T11, and T12, with multiple paravertebral and epidural abscesses, which was suggestive of PD. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the patient’s gastric fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT). Based on MRI and PCR findings, standard treatment for TB was initiated. Results of the spine biopsy and culture showed colonies of MT and confirmed the diagnosis afterwards. Due to the instability of the spine and severe and continuous pain, spine-stabilizing surgery was performed. Her TB was cured after nine months of treatment. Conclusions: PD is an important differential diagnosis of malignancy that should be diagnosed instantly. History of exposure to TB and classic radiologic finding can help make the diagnosis. PMID:27272065

  13. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  14. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED...

  15. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED...

  16. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED...

  17. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED...

  18. Swine Influenza Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On April 24, 2009, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) confirmed an influenza epidemic was occurring in people and the genetic lineage was most closely related to influenza viruses known to be circulating in swine. The outbreak epicenter appeared to be in central Mexico and the virus spread to th...

  19. African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E C; Hutchings, G H; Mukarati, N; Wilkinson, P J

    1998-04-30

    Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with African swine fever (ASF) virus. Little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. This study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is able to infect the tick vector O. moubata. These ticks were able to transmit the disease to pigs. The virus persists in the lymphatic tissues for less than 34 weeks. Bushpigs infected with LIL 20/l virus but not VIC T90/l virus transmitted infection to in-contact pigs. Infected domestic pigs did not transmit the infection to in-contact bushpigs. ASF virus was able to replicate in in vitro cultures of bushpig leucocytes and endothelial cells. Recovered bushpigs could be reinfected with some strains of virus but not others. While it has been demonstrated that bushpigs remain carriers of ASFV following infection a complete understanding of their significance in the epidemiology of the disease awaits further investigations of their association with O. moubata. PMID:9659687

  20. A Rare Case of Pott's Disease (Spinal Tuberculosis) Mimicking Metastatic Disease in the Southern Region of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Osmanagic, Azra; Emamifar, Amir; Christian Bang, Jacob; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pott's disease (PD) or spinal tuberculosis is a rare condition which accounts for less than 1% of total tuberculosis (TB) cases. The incidence of PD has recently increased in Europe and the United States, mainly due to immigration; however, it is still a rare diagnosis in Scandinavian countries, and if overlooked it might lead to significant neurologic complications. CASE REPORT A 78-year-old woman, originally from Eastern Europe, presented to the emergency department with a complaint of nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and severe back pain. On admission she was febrile and had leukocytosis and increased C-reactive protein. Initial spinal x-ray was performed and revealed osteolytic changes in the vertebral body of T11 and T12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine illustrated spondylitis of T10, T11, and T12, with multiple paravertebral and epidural abscesses, which was suggestive of PD. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the patient's gastric fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT). Based on MRI and PCR findings, standard treatment for TB was initiated. Results of the spine biopsy and culture showed colonies of MT and confirmed the diagnosis afterwards. Due to the instability of the spine and severe and continuous pain, spine-stabilizing surgery was performed. Her TB was cured after nine months of treatment. CONCLUSIONS PD is an important differential diagnosis of malignancy that should be diagnosed instantly. History of exposure to TB and classic radiologic finding can help make the diagnosis. PMID:27272065

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: An update on an emerging and re-emerging viral disease of swine.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognized in the late 1980’s in North America and Europe the syndrome that caused reproductive and respiratory problems in swine was initially called “Mystery Swine Disease” and is now termed “Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)”. In the early 1990’s an arterivirus, referred to as ...

  2. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice versa. Here the importance of swine as a biomedical model, current technologies to produce genetically enhanced swine, current biomedical models, and how the completion of the swine genome will promote swine as a biomedical model are discussed. Conclusions The completion of the swine genome will enhance the continued use and development of swine as models of human health, syndromes and conditions. PMID:23151353

  3. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  4. Epstein-Barr virus-induced autoimmune responses. II. Immunoglobulin G autoantibodies to mimicking and nonmimicking epitopes. Presence in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, J H; Nguyen, M D; Valbracht, J R; Patrick, K; Rhodes, G H

    1995-01-01

    During infectious mononucleosis, IgM autoantibodies are generated to a protein, p542, which contains a glycine-rich 28-mer epitope cross-reactive with the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 through Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1's glycine/alanine repeat. In normal individuals it is uncommon to find IgG anti-p542, but among patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ulcerative colitis high IgG anti-p542 (> 3 SD above the mean of normal 20-50 yr controls) occurred frequently. Lesser elevations occurred in Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease, but none with chronic hepatitis B infection. The reactive epitopes on p542 were mapped with deletion mutants, which indicated that the glycine-rich 28-mer was the major antigenic determinant, with lesser antibody responses to other epitopes. We conclude that normally there is an inability to generate IgG autoantibodies to the cross-reactive (mimicking) epitope of the p542 host protein, but that this inability is overcome in a proportion of patients with autoimmune disease. We conclude also that non-cross-reactive autoepitopes exist on p542 protein, to which IgG autoantibodies can commonly be formed in autoimmune disorders. The mechanisms responsible for the latter must involve different mechanisms than those responsible for autoantibodies to the mimicking epitope. Images PMID:7533789

  5. Recoding structural glycoprotein E2 in classical swine fever virus (CSFV) produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Risatti, Guillermo R; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Carlson, Jolene; Alfano, Marialexia; Rodriguez, Luis L; Carrillo, Consuelo; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-07-01

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) mainly involves vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Experimental CSFV LAVs has been lately developed through reverse genetics using several different approaches. Here we present that codon de-optimization in the major CSFV structural glycoprotein E2 coding region, causes virus attenuation in swine. Four different mutated constructs (pCSFm1-pCSFm4) were designed using various mutational approaches based on the genetic background of the highly virulent strain Brescia (BICv). Three of these constructs produced infectious viruses (CSFm2v, CSFm3v, and CSFm4v). Animals infected with CSFm2v presented a reduced and extended viremia but did not display any CSF-related clinical signs. Animals that were infected with CSFm2v were protected against challenge with virulent parental BICv. This is the first report describing the development of an attenuated CSFV experimental vaccine by codon usage de-optimization, and one of the few examples of virus attenuation using this methodology that is assessed in a natural host. PMID:27110709

  6. Carotid Endothelial VCAM-1 Is an Early Marker of Carotid Atherosclerosis and Predicts Coronary Artery Disease in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Masseau, I.; Bowles, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine if endothelial VCAM-1 (eVCAM-1) expression in the common carotid artery (CCA) would correlate with predictive markers of atherosclerotic disease, would precede reduction of markers of endothelial cell function and would predict coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results Carotid arterial segments (bifurcation, proximal and distal CCA) were harvested from 14 and 24 month-old male castrated familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, a model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Quantification of local expression of eVCAM-1, intimal macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, intima-media (I/M) ratio, intima-media thickness (IMT), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) in selected regions of the carotids revealed a relationship between local inflammation and atheroscle-rotic plaque progression. Importantly, inflammation was not uniform throughout the CCA. Endo-thelial VCAM-1 expression was the greatest at the bifurcation and increased with age. Finally, eV-CAM-1 best estimated the severity of CAD compared to blood levels of glucose, hypercholestero-lemia, carotid IMT, and p-eNOS. Conclusion Our data suggested that eVCAM-1 was closely associated with atherosclerotic plaque progression and preceded impairment of EDD. Thus, this study supported the use of carotid VCAM-1 targeting agents to estimate the severity of CAD. PMID:26702331

  7. Full protection of swine against foot-and-mouth disease by a bivalent B-cell epitope dendrimer peptide.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Esther; Guerra, Beatriz; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Defaus, Sira; Dekker, Aldo; Andreu, David; Sobrino, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have reported (Cubillos et al., 2008) that a synthetic dendrimeric peptide consisting of four copies of a B-cell epitope [VP1(136-154)] linked through thioether bonds to a T-cell epitope [3A(21-35)] of FMDV [B4T(thi)] elicits potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confers solid protection in pigs to type C FMDV challenge. Herein we show that downsized versions of this peptide bearing two copies of a B-cell epitope from a type O isolate and using thioether [B2T(thi)] or maleimide [B2T(mal)] conjugation chemistries for their synthesis elicited in swine similar or higher B and T-cell specific responses than tetravalent B4T(thi). Moreover, while partial protection was observed in animals immunized with B4T(thi) (60%) and B2T(thi) (80%), B2T(mal) conferred full (100%) protection against FMDV challenge, associated to high levels of circulating IgG2 and mucosal IgGA, and entirely prevented virus shedding. Interestingly, B2T(mal) is also the most advantageous option in terms of synthetic practicality. Taken together, the results reported here point out to B2T(mal) as a highly valuable, cost-effective FMDV candidate vaccine. PMID:26956030

  8. Use of H-Index and Other Bibliometric Indicators to Evaluate Research Productivity Outcome on Swine Diseases.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Ivan; Cortey, Martí; Olvera, Àlex; Segalés, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    H-index is the most commonly applied tool to evaluate scientific productivity. In this study, the use of the H-index to evaluate scientific production in swine veterinary medicine was explored. A database of 137 pig infectious agents was constructed, including its taxonomic division, zoonotic potential, status as emerging pathogen and whether it was OIE-listed. The H-index and the total number of citations were calculated for those pathogens, the location of the affiliation of the first author of each paper included in the H-index core was registered and, for the ten pathogens with the highest H-index, evolution over time was measured. H-index values were compared to the M quotient, A-index, G-index, HG-index and the G/H ratio. H-indices were found to be severely affected by search accuracy and the database was hand curated. Swine pathogen H-indexes were highly dispersed ranging from 0 to 106 and were generally higher for pathogens causing endemic diseases in large pig producing countries. Indeed, the three top pathogens were Escherichia coli, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Porcine circovirus type 2 with H-indices 106, 95 and 85, respectively. H-indices of viruses and bacteria were significantly higher (P<0.001) than other pathogen types. Also, non-zoonotic pathogens had higher H-indices than zoonotic pathogens (p<0.009) while no differences could be found for being listed by the OIE. For emerging diseases, only non-emerging viruses had higher H-index (p = 0.02). The study of H-indexes over time revealed three general patterns and that they had increased mainly after the 1980's. As expected, there were strong geographic patterns in terms of authorship and North America (38%) and Europe (46%) coped the majority of the papers. Finally, in order to quantify the contribution of a subject to a specific field, a new index "Deciphering Citations Organized by Subject" (Dcos) is proposed. PMID:26930283

  9. Use of H-Index and Other Bibliometric Indicators to Evaluate Research Productivity Outcome on Swine Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Olvera, Àlex; Segalés, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    H-index is the most commonly applied tool to evaluate scientific productivity. In this study, the use of the H-index to evaluate scientific production in swine veterinary medicine was explored. A database of 137 pig infectious agents was constructed, including its taxonomic division, zoonotic potential, status as emerging pathogen and whether it was OIE-listed. The H-index and the total number of citations were calculated for those pathogens, the location of the affiliation of the first author of each paper included in the H-index core was registered and, for the ten pathogens with the highest H-index, evolution over time was measured. H-index values were compared to the M quotient, A-index, G-index, HG-index and the G/H ratio. H-indices were found to be severely affected by search accuracy and the database was hand curated. Swine pathogen H-indexes were highly dispersed ranging from 0 to 106 and were generally higher for pathogens causing endemic diseases in large pig producing countries. Indeed, the three top pathogens were Escherichia coli, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Porcine circovirus type 2 with H-indices 106, 95 and 85, respectively. H-indices of viruses and bacteria were significantly higher (P<0.001) than other pathogen types. Also, non-zoonotic pathogens had higher H-indices than zoonotic pathogens (p<0.009) while no differences could be found for being listed by the OIE. For emerging diseases, only non-emerging viruses had higher H-index (p = 0.02). The study of H-indexes over time revealed three general patterns and that they had increased mainly after the 1980’s. As expected, there were strong geographic patterns in terms of authorship and North America (38%) and Europe (46%) coped the majority of the papers. Finally, in order to quantify the contribution of a subject to a specific field, a new index “Deciphering Citations Organized by Subject” (Dcos) is proposed. PMID:26930283

  10. Atypical Cogan's syndrome mimicking encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lepur, Dragan; Vranjican, Zoran; Himbele, Josip; Barsić, Bruno; Klinar, Igor

    2004-01-01

    Cogan's syndrome is a rare autoimmune multisystem disease. The main clinical features of typical Cogan's syndrome are vestibuloauditory dysfunction and interstitial keratitis. The authors present a case of atypical Cogan's syndrome with headache, fever, deafness, trigeminal neuralgia and electroencephalographic abnormality which mimicked viral encephalitis. PMID:15307593

  11. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive physiology. Swine have been used extensively for studies of infectious disease processes and analyses of preventative strategies, inc...

  12. Serological and Molecular Detection of Senecavirus A Associated with an Outbreak of Swine Idiopathic Vesicular Disease and Neonatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Rademacher, Chris; Linhares, Daniel; Harmon, Karen; Rotolo, Marisa; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Piñeyro, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    We performed a longitudinal field study in a swine breeding herd that presented with an outbreak of vesicular disease (VD) that was associated with an increase in neonatal mortality. Initially, a USDA Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) investigation confirmed the presence of Senecavirus A (SVA) and ruled out the presence of exotic agents that produce vesicular lesions, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus and others. Subsequently, serum samples, tonsil swabs, and feces were collected from sows (n = 22) and their piglets (n = 33) beginning 1 week after the onset of the clinical outbreak and weekly for 6 weeks. The presence of SVA RNA was evaluated in all specimens collected by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting a conserved region of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). The serological response (IgG) to SVA was evaluated by the weekly testing of sow and piglet serum samples on a SVA VP1 recombinant protein (rVP1) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The rVP1 ELISA detected seroconversion against SVA in clinically affected and non-clinically affected sows at early stages of the outbreak as well as maternal SVA antibodies in offspring. Overall, the absence of vesicles (gross lesions) in SVA-infected animals and the variability of RT-qPCR results among specimen type demonstrated that a diagnostic algorithm based on the combination of clinical observations, RT-qPCR in multiple diagnostic specimens, and serology are essential to ensure an accurate diagnosis of SVA. PMID:27225408

  13. Thirty-Five-Year Presence of African Swine Fever in Sardinia: History, Evolution and Risk Factors for Disease Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mur, L; Atzeni, M; Martínez-López, B; Feliziani, F; Rolesu, S; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the implementation of control efforts and funds to fight against the disease, African swine fever (ASF) has been present in Sardinia since 1978. It has caused serious problems for both the industrial pig sector and the regional authorities in Sardinia, as well as the economy of Italy and the European Union, which annually supports the costly eradication programme. During this time, ASF has persisted, especially in the central-east part of Sardinia where almost 75% of the total outbreaks are concentrated. The Sardinian pig sector is clearly divided into two categories based on the specialization and industrialization of production: industrial farms, which represents only 1.8% of the farms in the island and non-professional holdings, which are comprised of small producers (90% of pig holdings have <15 pigs) and apply little to no biosecurity measures. Additionally, illegally raised pigs are still bred in free-ranging systems in certain isolated parts of the island, despite strict regulations. The illegal raising of pigs, along with other high-risk management practices (e.g., use of communal areas) are likely the primary reasons for endemic persistence of the virus in this area. The compensation provided to the farmers, and other aspects of the eradication programme have also negatively influenced eradication efforts, indicating that socio-cultural and economic factors play an important role in the epidemiology of ASF on the island. The aim of this study was to comprehensively review the evolution of the 35-year presence of ASF in Sardinia, including control measures, and the environmental and socio-economic factors that may have contributed to disease endemicity on the island. The present review highlights the need for a coordinated programme that considers these socio-economic and environmental factors and includes an assessment of new cost-effective control strategies and diagnostic tools for effectively controlling ASF in Sardinia. PMID:25212957

  14. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. (a) Pork and pork...

  15. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products....

  16. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. (a) Pork and pork...

  17. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products....

  18. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN AORTAS AND CORONARY ARTERIES OF SWINE WITH VON WILLEBRAND'S DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of coronary and aortic atherosclerosis was determined after balloon catheter injury of coronary arteries and administration of an atherogenic diet in normal pigs and pigs that were homozygous and heterozygous for von Willebrand's disease. Coronary atherosclerosis ...

  19. Experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae challenge in swine: Comparison of computed tomographic and radiographic findings during disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In pigs, diseases of the respiratory tract like pleuropneumonia due to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection have led to high economic losses for decades. Further research on disease pathogenesis, pathogen-host-interactions and new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are needed. In most studies, a large number of experimental animals are required to assess lung alterations at different stages of the disease. In order to reduce the required number of animals but nevertheless gather information on the nature and extent of lung alterations in living pigs, a computed tomographic scoring system for quantifying gross pathological findings was developed. In this study, five healthy pigs served as control animals while 24 pigs were infected with App, the causative agent of pleuropneumonia in pigs, in an established model for respiratory tract disease. Results Computed tomographic (CT) findings during the course of App challenge were verified by radiological imaging, clinical, serological, gross pathology and histological examinations. Findings from clinical examinations and both CT and radiological imaging, were recorded on day 7 and day 21 after challenge. Clinical signs after experimental App challenge were indicative of acute to chronic disease. Lung CT findings of infected pigs comprised ground-glass opacities and consolidation. On day 7 and 21 the clinical scores significantly correlated with the scores of both imaging techniques. At day 21, significant correlations were found between clinical scores, CT scores and lung lesion scores. In 19 out of 22 challenged pigs the determined disease grades (not affected, slightly affected, moderately affected, severely affected) from CT and gross pathological examination were in accordance. Disease classification by radiography and gross pathology agreed in 11 out of 24 pigs. Conclusions High-resolution, high-contrast CT examination with no overlapping of organs is superior to radiography in the

  20. Atypical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia mimicking frontal Pick's disease: a report of an autopsy case with a clinical course of 15 years.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, K; Haga, C; Kobayashi, T; Morimatsu, Y; Nakano, I; Matsushita, M

    2001-06-01

    This report concerns an autopsy case of atypical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with dementia mimicking frontal Pick's disease. The patient was a Japanese woman without hereditary burden who was 45 years old at the time of death. She developed abnormal behavior and amnesia at age 30, followed by disinhibition, aspontaneity, urinary incontinence, abulia, and rectal incontinence. Neurological signs compatible with ALS developed about 14 years after the disease onset. No respirator was used throughout the clinical course. Macroscopically, neuropathological examination showed atrophy of the frontotemporal lobes with accentuation in the convexities of the frontal lobes. Histologically, there was neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, substantia nigra, brain stem motor nuclei, and anterior horns of the spinal cord, in addition to marked degeneration of the pyramidal tracts. Ubiquitin-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions were present in the frontotemporal cortical layer II neurons and motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. In the hippocampal dentate granular cells, many ubiquitin-immunoreactive neurites were present without ubiquitin-immunoreactive intraneuronal inclusions. Based on these clinicopathological findings and a review of the literature, we concluded that our case was atypical ALS with dementia of long disease duration. We also note the possibility that motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia with a long clinical course may develop into ALS in the final stage of the illness. PMID:11515792

  1. Subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: A comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Magaldi, Monica; Rosas, Maria F.; Borrego, Belen; Brocchi, Emiliana; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-05-10

    The intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in IBRS-2 cells were analyzed. Fluorescence to new SVDV capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsRNA. As in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of SVDV capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2C, 2BC and 3A. These results suggest that assembly of capsid proteins is associated to the replication complex. Confocal microscopy showed a decreased fluorescence to ER markers (calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), and disorganization of cis-Golgi gp74 and trans-Golgi caveolin-1 markers in SVDV- and FMDV-, but not in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells. Electron microscopy of SVDV-infected cells at an early stage of infection revealed fragmented ER cisternae with expanded lumen and accumulation of large Golgi vesicles, suggesting alterations of vesicle traffic through Golgi compartments. At this early stage, FMDV induced different patterns of ER fragmentation and Golgi alterations. At later stages of SVDV cytopathology, cells showed a completely vacuolated cytoplasm containing vesicles of different sizes. Cell treatment with brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi complex, reduced SVDV ({approx} 5 log) and VSV ({approx} 4 log) titers, but did not affect FMDV growth. Thus, three viruses, which share target tissues and clinical signs in natural hosts, induce different intracellular effects in cultured cells.

  2. Patterns of gene expression in swine macrophages infected with classical swine fever virus detected by microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine that is characterized by fever, hemorrhage, leukopenia, abortion, and high mortality. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is classified as a Pestivirus, along with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus...

  3. Advances in Swine biomedical Model Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease pro...

  4. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or...

  5. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-0333) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.9, see the List of CFR Sections... where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  6. Immune Evasion During Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Infection of Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induc...

  7. Severe Q fever community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) mimicking Legionnaires' disease: Clinical significance of cold agglutinins, anti-smooth muscle antibodies and thrombocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Nausheen, Sara; Busch, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Atypical community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may be caused by zoonotic or nonpulmonary pathogens. However, atypical pathogens are systemic infectious disease accompanied by pneumonia in contrast with typical bacterial pathogens with infection limited to the lungs and absent extrapulmonary findings. Clinically and radiologically, the atypical CAP pathogens that most closely resemble each other are psittacosis, Q fever, and Legionnaires' disease. Psittacosis can usually be readily suspected or eliminated on the basis of a recent psittacine bird contact history. The 2 atypical pneumonias that most closely resemble each other clinically are Q fever and Legionnaires' disease. The epidemiology of Q fever is related to livestock, and sporadic cases are related to contact to parturient cats. In nonendemic areas, Q fever CAP mimics Legionnaires' disease most closely. Both Q fever and Legionella CAP have several clinical and laboratory features in common. However, there are subtle but important differences that allow the astute clinician to differentiate between these 2 disorders on the basis of clinical and nonspecific laboratory findings before definitive diagnostic tests results are reported. We report a case of severe Q fever CAP mimicking Legionnaires' disease in a young adult normal host. Her initial zoonotic contact history was negative, and her clinical presentation suggested Legionnaires' disease as the most likely diagnosis. Against the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease was the patient's age and occurrence of the disease in spring time. In contrast, Legionnaires' disease is usually an infection of older individuals and occurs in late summer/fall. Although the patient did not have splenomegaly, a common finding in Q fever CAP, she did have mild hepatomegaly. Hepatomegaly is a uncommon in Q fever CAP but is not a feature of Legionnaires' disease. In the absence of a positive zoonotic contact history, the cardinal findings pointing to the diagnosis of Q fever in this

  8. Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S

    2014-01-01

    Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety. PMID:25114385

  9. [Effect of immunostimulating agents on the occurrence of puerperal diseases in swine].

    PubMed

    Wawron, W

    1997-06-01

    Investigations were done on effects of levamisol, chlormetine and biomast Cu. 22 upon the periparturient disease piglets. It was proved that levamisol and chlormetine applied prophylactically in immunostimulative doses at the last period of pregnancy exerted a favourable influence on the health state of sows after delivery. The piglets after sows previously subjected to immunostimulation with levamisol and chlormetine showed higher body mass gains per day, higher body mass on the 28th day after delivery, smaller number of diarrhoeas and death rate. A number of the reared piglets per one sow was also bigger. Preventive application of biomast administered at the end of pregnancy period turned out to be little effective in prophylaxis of periparturient diseases in sows. However, a positive influence of the above mentioned immunostimulation was stated in reference to some health and breeding indices. PMID:9303854

  10. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  11. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron Am; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, Js Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. PMID:27113719

  12. Isolation and characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses associated with the 2013 disease outbreak in US swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was detected for the first time in US swine in April 2013 and has caused significant economic loss. Obtaining a US PEDV isolate that can grow efficiently in cell culture is critical for PEDV pathogenesis study, diagnostic assays and vaccine development. It was ...

  13. 75 FR 33574 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Information Collection; Swine Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... interstate spread of swine diseases and protect swine health and to request extension of approval of the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations to prevent the interstate spread of swine diseases and...

  14. [The therapeutic effect of central nervous stimulants in edema disease of swine].

    PubMed

    Orban, P; Bilkei Papp, G; Bölcskei, A

    1993-12-01

    During a natural outbreak of edema disease in different farms 160 weaned piglets showing the clinical symptoms of palpebral edema, mental discomfort and apathy were selected and divided into three groups. The groups were treated as follows: Group 1 (51 piglets) received twice daily one i. m. dose of Gentamycin (11 mg/kg body weight), Prednisolone (1 mg/kg body weight), Melperone (4 mg/kg body weight) for 3 days. Group 2 (55 piglets) received twice daily one i. m. dose of Amphetaminum Phosphoricum 1 mg/kg body weight for 3 days. Group 3 (54 piglets) untreated control. The result showed that group 2 treated with stimulant of the central nervous system gave the best results concerning survival. It ist the authors opinion that concerning clinical symptoms and therapy further classification is necessary. PMID:7907469

  15. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE... Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF...

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of 18 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable viral diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Shimaa M G; Ali, Haytham; Chase, Christopher C L; Cepica, Arnost

    2015-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, powerful state-of-the-art gene amplification technique used for the rapid diagnosis and early detection of microbial diseases. Many LAMP assays have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. We review the LAMP assays that have been developed for the detection of 18 viruses deemed notifiable of ruminants, swine and poultry by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). LAMP provides a fast (the assay often takes less than an hour), low cost, highly sensitive, highly specific and less laborious alternative to detect infectious disease agents. The LAMP procedure can be completed under isothermal conditions so thermocyclers are not needed. The ease of use of the LAMP assay allows adaptability to field conditions and works well in developing countries with resource-limited laboratories. However, this technology is still underutilized in the field of veterinary diagnostics despite its huge capabilities. PMID:25900363

  17. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in swine: implications for animal production and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Astiz, S; Ovilo, C; Lopez-Bote, C J; Torres-Rovira, L; Barbero, A; Ayuso, M; Garcia-Contreras, C; Vazquez-Gomez, M

    2016-07-01

    The concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) addresses, from a large set of epidemiological evidences in human beings and translational studies in animal models, both the importance of genetic predisposition and the determinant role of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on adult morphomics and homeostasis. Compelling evidences suggest that both overnutrition and undernutrition may modify the intrauterine environment of the conceptus and may alter the expression of its genome and therefore its phenotype during prenatal and postnatal life. In fact, the DOHaD concept is an extreme shift in the vision of the factors conditioning adult phenotype and supposes a drastic change from a gene-centric perspective, only modified by lifestyle and nutritional strategies during juvenile development and adulthood, to a more holistic approach in which environmental, parental, and prenatal conditions are strongly determining postnatal development and homeostasis. The implications of DOHaD are profound in all the mammalian species and the present review summarizes current knowledge on causes and consequences of DOHaD in pigs, both for meat production and as a well-recognized model for biomedicine research. PMID:27238437

  18. Inoculation of swine with foot-and-mouth disease SAP-mutant virus induces early protection against disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (L^pro) cleaves itself from the viral polyprotein and cleaves the translation initiation factor eIF4G. As a result, host cell translation is inhibited, affecting the host innate immune response. We have demonstrated that L^pro is also associated ...

  19. Serological response of swine to an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain that reduces gastrointestinal colonization, fecal shedding and disease due to virulent Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp. Interventions are needed to limit Salmonella colonization of swine to enhance food safety. An attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant strain (BBS 202) was tested in swine to determine whether vaccination could provide protect...

  20. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  1. Mutations in classical swine fever virus NS4B affect virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a virus causing a severe disease in swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of NS4B in highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor like domain (TIR...

  2. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of teeth with primary endodontic lesions mimicking periodontal disease: three cases with long-term follow ups

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A tooth with primary endodontic disease that demonstrates a periodontal defect might be extracted because of misdiagnosis as severe periodontal disease or a vertical root fracture. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the long-term survival of endodontically treated teeth, which had been initially considered unsavable. With meticulous evaluation including the patient's dental history, clinical and radiographic examinations, teeth with primary endodontic lesions could be differentiated and saved after proper root canal treatment. Pain history, vitality test, and radiographic examinations, as well as a general periodontal condition check with periodontal probing on an affected tooth, might be the key methods to differentiate endodontic pathosis from that of periodontal disease. PMID:24516831

  4. Extra-articular Tenosynovial Chondromatosis Mimicking a Neoplastic Disease in the First Web Space of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Cebesoy, Oguz; Isik, Mustafa; Subasi, Mehmet; Karsli, Burcin; Pamukcu, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    Tenosynovial chondromatosis is a very rare disease. The most common symptom is a slowly enlarging soft tissue mass, which may be painful or cause limitation of joint motion. Plain radiograph may appear normal during early phases of the disease, but subsequent imaging may be necessary to exclude other pathologies. Nonoperative treatment may be elected for some patients, but a synovectomy and the removal of loose bodies are indicated for persistent symptoms. This report describe a case with a multinodular cartilaginous proliferation and rice body in the first web space of the hand, similar to synovial chondromatosis, but arising in the tenosynovial membranes. PMID:23071886

  5. Using national movement databases to help inform responses to swine disease outbreaks in Scotland: the impact of uncertainty around incursion time

    PubMed Central

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A.; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K.; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Modelling is an important component of contingency planning and control of disease outbreaks. Dynamic network models are considered more useful than static models because they capture important dynamic patterns of farm behaviour as evidenced through animal movements. This study evaluates the usefulness of a dynamic network model of swine fever to predict pre-detection spread via movements of pigs, when there may be considerable uncertainty surrounding the time of incursion of infection. It explores the utility and limitations of animal movement data to inform such models and as such, provides some insight into the impact of improving traceability through real-time animal movement reporting and the use of electronic animal movement databases. The study concludes that the type of premises and uncertainty of the time of disease incursion will affect model accuracy and highlights the need for improvements in these areas. PMID:26833241

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Genes for Nine Different Virulence Factors Associated with Escherichia coli that Cause Diarrhea and Edema Disease in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiplex PCR assay was developed for detection and characterization of pathogenic E. coli that cause diarrhea and Edema Disease in swine. This PCR assay was designed as a single reaction for detecting five different adhesins (K88, K99, 987P, F41 and F18), three enterotoxins (LT, STaP, STb), and ...

  7. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  8. Sporadically second localization of cerebellar hemangioblastoma in sella turcica mimicking a meningioma with no associated von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Aymeric; Bouazza, Schaharazad; Polivka, Marc; George, Bernard; Bresson, Damien

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with a gradual bilateral decrease in visual acuity. Imaging showed lesion in the sella turcica diagnosed as meningioma but proving secondarily to be a hemangioblastoma. His neurosurgical history included a resection of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma 30 years ago. To our knowledge, such a hemangioblastoma second localization from the infratentorial to supratentorial has not been reported in the literature for patients not presenting with von Hippel-Lindau disease. PMID:25817084

  9. Exuberant cortical thymocyte proliferation mimicking T-lymphoblastic lymphoma within recurrent large inguinal lymph node masses of localized Castleman disease.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Rina; Nathwani, Bharat N; Yiakoumis, Xanthi; Moschogiannis, Maria; Sachanas, Sotirios; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Pangalis, Gerassimos A

    2015-07-01

    We report a 13-year-old adolescent girl, the youngest thus far, with "an indolent T-lymphoblastic" proliferation (~10%) that uniquely presented within recurrent, large inguinal lymph node masses in a predominating (90%) background of Castleman disease. These nodal masses were resected thrice; the patient is well 5 years after diagnosis without further treatment. Histologically, the features of Castleman disease, hyaline vascular type, were present. Importantly, the interfollicular T-lymphoblastic component occurred as multiple clusters and islands of variable shapes and sizes composed of small "lymphoblasts" indistinguishable from normal cortical thymocytes but without thymic epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, these lymphoblasts were consistent with the intermediate stage of T-cell differentiation (TdT(+)CD34(-)CD99(+)CD1a(+)CD2(+)CD3(+)CD4(+)CD8(+)CD5(+)CD7(+)CD10(+) [subset]), with 80% Ki-67. Molecularly, the T cells were nonclonal. Our case provides evidence for the benign nature of this highly unusual and poorly understood entity; because the current terminology can be readily misinterpreted as an indolent lymphoblastic lymphoma, we suggest a new term accurately reflecting this entity. PMID:25953658

  10. Pseudotumoral hemicerebellitis as a mimicker of Lhermitte-Duclos disease in children: does neuroimaging help to differentiate them?

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Steinlin, Maja; Toelle, Sandra P; Beck, Jürgen; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings of children with pseudotumoral hemicerebellitis (PTHC) and Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) may be very similar. The differentiation between these entities, however, is important because their management and prognosis are different. We report on three children with PTHC. For all three children, in the acute situation, the differentiation between PTHC and LDD was challenging. A review of the literature shows that a detailed evaluation of conventional and neuroimaging data may help to differentiate between these two entities. A striated folial pattern, brainstem involvement, and prominent veins surrounding the thickened cerebellar foliae on susceptibility weighted imaging favor LDD, while post-contrast enhancement and an increased choline peak on (1)H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggest PTHC. PMID:26649682

  11. Influenza exposure in United States feral swine populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.; DeYoung, R.W.; Pabilonia, K.; Avery, M.L.; Sullivan, H.; Clark, L.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Swine play an important role in the disease ecology of influenza. Having cellular receptors in common with birds and humans, swine provide opportunities for mixed infections and potential for genetic reassortment between avian, human, and porcine influenza. Feral swine populations are rapidly expanding in both numbers and range and are increasingly coming into contact with waterfowl, humans, and agricultural operations. In this study, over 875 feral swine were sampled from six states across the United States for serologic evidence of exposure to influenza. In Oklahoma, Florida, and Missouri, USA, no seropositive feral swine were detected. Seropositive swine were detected in California, Mississippi, and Texas, USA. Antibody prevalences in these states were 1% in Mississippi, 5% in California, and 14.4% in Texas. All seropositive swine were exposed to H3N2 subtype, the predominant subtype currently circulating in domestic swine. The only exceptions were in San Saba County, Texas, where of the 15 seropositive samples, four were positive for H1N1 and seven for both H1N1 and H3N2. In Texas, there was large geographical and temporal variation in antibody prevalence and no obvious connection to domestic swine operations. No evidence of exposure to avian influenza in feral swine was uncovered. From these results it is apparent that influenza in feral swine poses a risk primarily to swine production operations. However, because feral swine share habitat with waterfowl, prey on and scavenge dead and dying birds, are highly mobile, and are increasingly coming into contact with humans, the potential for these animals to become infected with avian or human influenza in addition to swine influenza is a distinct possibility. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  12. Development of a live attenuated antigenic marker classical swine fever vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical Swine Fever, caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease affecting swine worldwide. The two main strategies for disease control are prophylactic vaccination and non-vaccination “stamping out” policies. In a vaccination-to-live strategy, marker vaccines coul...

  13. Small-scale pig farmers’ behavior, silent release of African swine fever virus and consequences for disease spread

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Zagmutt, Francisco J.; Porphyre, Thibaud; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-01-01

    The expanding distribution of African swine fever (ASF) is threatening the pig industry worldwide. Most outbreaks occur in backyard and small-scale herds, where poor farmers often attempt to limit the disease’s economic consequences by the emergency sale of their pigs. The risk of African swine fever virus (ASFV) release via this emergency sale was investigated. Simulation modeling was used to study ASFV transmission in backyard and small-scale farms as well as the emergency sale of pigs, and the potential impact of improving farmers and traders’ clinical diagnosis ability–its timeliness and/or accuracy–was assessed. The risk of ASFV release was shown to be high, and improving farmers’ clinical diagnosis ability does not appear sufficient to effectively reduce this risk. Estimates obtained also showed that the distribution of herd size within the backyard and small-scale sectors influences the relative contribution of these farms to the risk of release of infected pigs. These findings can inform surveillance and control programs. PMID:26610850

  14. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases-A Danish case study of foot and mouth disease and swine fever.

    PubMed

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette; Houe, Hans; Mortensen, Sten; Rattenborg, Erik; Tamstorf, Trine Vig; Zobbe, Henrik; Christensen, Tove

    2016-09-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid by the pig and cattle industries, respectively. Data were retrieved from multiple sources such as databases, legal documents, official statistics, yearly reports and expert opinions. As no previous studies have assessed such costs, data collection and estimation procedures were discussed and decided upon in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated in the analysis by assuming that the FMD/SF shares of costs as well as total costs for each activity could take on a most likely as well as a minimum and maximum value. A high degree of transparency was prioritized in the cost analysis, which enables reproducibility and easy access to conducting sensitivity analyses. A total of 27 FMD/SF preventive activities were identified. The estimated median (minimum-maximum) of total costs amounted to €32 (18-50) million in 2013. The single most costly FMD/SF related activity, amounting to €8 (5-13) million or 26% of total costs, was a national legal requirement to clean lorries immediately after transportation of live animals. The distribution of costs between stakeholders was estimated to be as follows: pig industry 63%, cattle industry 27%, and the public authorities 10%. Most of the activities focused on reducing the probability of spreading FMD/SF, while only a few activities were directed mainly towards reducing the probability of introduction. Legally required FMD/SF activities (mainly based on EU legislation) accounted

  15. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  16. Melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh; Samet, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Melorheostosis is an uncommon, sporadic, sclerosing bone lesion that may affect the adjacent soft tissues. It has been associated with many entities such as osteopoikilosis, soft tissue vascular malformations, bone and soft tissue tumors, nephrotic syndrome, segmental limb contractures, osteosarcoma, desmoid tumor, and mesenteric fibromatosis. Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign neoplasia of the hyaline cartilage presenting as nodules in the subsynovial tissue of a joint or tendon sheath. The intra-articular extension of melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis has not been reported before. In this article, the authors describe an unusual case mimicking synovial chondromatosis arising as a result of melorheostosis and their characteristic imaging findings. PMID:25971832

  17. An rfaH mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium is attenuated in swine and reduces intestinal colonization, fecal shedding, and disease severity due to virulent Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., and interventions are needed to limit colonization of swine to enhance food safety and reduce environmental contamination. We evaluated the attenuation and potential vaccine use in pigs of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant of r...

  18. Characterization of an Influenza A Virus Isolated from Pigs During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease in Swine and People at a County Fair in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2007, pigs and people became clinically affected by an influenza-like illness during attendance at an Ohio county fair. Influenza A virus was identified from pigs and people, and the virus isolates were characterized as swine H1N1 similar to the swine H1N1 viruses currently circulating in...

  19. Suitability and limitations of portion-specific abattoir data as part of an early warning system for emerging diseases of swine in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abattoir data have the potential to provide information for geospatial disease surveillance applications, but the quality of the data and utility for detecting disease outbreaks is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify non-disease factors that may bias these data for disease surveillance and 2) determine if major disease events that took place during the study period would be captured using multi-level modelling and scan statistics. We analyzed data collected at all provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario, Canada during 2001-2007. During these years there were outbreaks of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and swine influenza that produced widespread disease within the province. Negative binomial models with random intercepts for abattoir, to account for repeated measurements within abattoirs, were created. The relationships between partial carcass condemnation rates for pneumonia and nephritis with year, season, agricultural region, stock price, and abattoir processing capacity were explored. The utility of the spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters of high partial carcass condemnation rates in space, time, and space-time was investigated. Results Non-disease factors that were found to be associated with lung and kidney condemnation rates included abattoir processing capacity, agricultural region and season. Yearly trends in predicted condemnation rates varied by agricultural region, and temporal patterns were different for both types of condemnations. Some clusters of high condemnation rates of kidneys with nephritis in time and space-time preceded the timeframe during which case clusters were detected using traditional laboratory data. Yearly kidney condemnation rates related to nephritis lesions in eastern Ontario were most consistent with the trends that were expected in relation to the documented disease outbreaks. Yearly lung condemnation

  20. ATTENUATION OF AN H3N2 SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS UTILIZING A REVERSE GENETICS APPROACH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of swine caused by type A influenza viruses. Before 1998, mainly Aclassical@ H1N1 SI viruses (SIV) were isolated from swine in the United States. Since then, antigenetically distinct reassortant H1 and H3 SIVs have been identified as causative ag...

  1. Development of a simple and rapid diagnosis method for swine edema disease to specifically detect Stx2e protein by immunochromatographic test.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Tsuji, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Edema disease in piglets is caused by Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e)-producing Escherichia coli. However, there is currently no available Stx2e-specific immunochromatographic test strip to differentiate Stx2e from other types of Shiga toxin 2. In the present study, to develop an Stx2e-specific immunochromatographic test strip, we isolated nine different monoclonal antibody-producing hybridoma clones from Stx2e toxoid-immunized mice and confirmed that six antibodies were A subunit-specific whereas three antibodies were B subunit-specific. Only one A subunit-specific monoclonal antibody (45B2) was cross-reactive with prototype Stx2 (Stx2a) at the same sensitivity, but the remaining eight monoclonal antibodies were not. In immunochromatographic tests using the highly sensitive antibodies, test strips using some combinations of gold colloid-conjugated monoclonal antibody with the B subunit-specific monoclonal antibody on the membrane detected Stx2e, but not other types of Shiga toxin 2. These test strips had the ability to detect Stx2e in the culture supernatant of clinically isolated Stx2e gene-positive strains, but not in those of Stx2e gene-negative strains. These results indicate that our test strip is practical for the specific detection of Stx2e to diagnose swine edema disease. PMID:26996467

  2. Rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus by high-speed real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    High sensitivity, minor risk of cross-contamination and in particular the rapid reaction time make quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays well suited for outbreak investigations as well as for monitoring epidemics of pathogens. In this study qPCR assays for three highly contagious animal diseases, namely foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD), influenza A (IA) and classical swine fever (CSF) have been developed. Furthermore, an amplification control targeting 18S ribosomal RNA was included. Each assay was validated with samples from infected animals using three different standard qPCR-machines in two thermal profiles: one standard and one high-speed approach, respectively. The high-speed PCR assays allowed the reliable diagnosis of FMD, influenza A and CSF in less than 28 min with an analytical sensitivity of at least 200 genome copies/μl in every case, with slight differences regarding reaction time and sensitivity for the individual PCR-cycler instruments. Therefore, the newly established rapid RT-PCR systems will be a valuable method for the monitoring and control of these three important viruses and will be a robust option for the development of novel molecular pen-side tests. PMID:23702025

  3. African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Penrith, Mary-Louise

    2009-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100% mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents--Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959) and the Caucasus (2007). It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus. PMID:19967933

  4. Quantifying the global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled wit...

  5. Patterns of Cellular Gene Expression in Swine Macrophages Infected with Highly Virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain Brescia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental exposure of swine to highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) strain Brescia causes an invariably fatal disease of all infected animals by 8 to 14 days post-infection. Host mechanisms involved in this severe outcome of infection have not been clearly established. To understa...

  6. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  7. Subaortic membrane mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark Joseph; Arruda-Olson, Adelaide; Gersh, Bernard; Geske, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old man was referred for progressive angina and exertional dyspnoea refractory to medical therapy, with a presumptive diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed asymmetric septal hypertrophy without systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leaflet and with no dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. However, the LVOT velocity was elevated at rest as well as with provocation, without the characteristic late peaking obstruction seen in HCM. Focused TTE to evaluate for suspected fixed obstruction demonstrated a subaortic membrane 2.2 cm below the aortic valve. Coronary CT angiography confirmed the presence of the subaortic membrane and was negative for concomitant coronary artery disease. Surgical resection of the subaortic membrane and septal myectomy resulted in significant symptomatic relief and lower LVOT velocities on postoperative TTE. This case reminds the clinician to carefully evaluate for alternative causes of LVOT obstruction, especially subaortic membrane, as a cause of symptoms mimicking HCM. PMID:26538250

  8. Delivery of Both Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural and Nonstructural Antigens Improves Protection of Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of one of the most contagious diseases affecting cloven-hoofed animals and is the most important constraint on trade in live animals and animal products. The current vaccine has limitations when used in disease-free countries including dif...

  9. Influenza and cardiovascular disease: does swine-origin, 2009 H1N1 flu virus represent a risk factor, an acute trigger, or both?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-02-01

    Influenza infection has become an important focus of both public and medical attention because of high-level perceived clinical and public health effects, enormously amplified by the current and ongoing 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, sustained by the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). The current transmission of this virus among humans appears much higher than that traditionally observed with seasonal influenza, raising several outbreaks of febrile respiratory infection ranging in severity from self-limited to severe, even life-threatening disease. Reliable biological and clinical evidence support a significant association between influenza infection and cardiovascular disorders, so that S-IOV might also be regarded as a potential multifaceted bioweapon able to affect the function of the cardiovascular system through a kaleidoscope of humoral, biological, and biochemical mechanisms. In acute coronary ischemic episodes, on one hand, it seems reasonable to consider any acute influenza virus infection as a precipitating factor that is the final event propelling predisposed individuals (e.g., those with preexisting coronary artery disease) over a threshold that precipitates the development of infarction in synergy with other well-known triggers. On the other hand, influenza virus-induced endothelial dysfunction, modification of lipoprotein metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque outgrowth, and inflammation additionally support the role of influenza infection as a strong cardiovascular risk factor. Comprehensive information regarding the 2009 H1N1 infection remains limited, so that it seems unreasonable to draw definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, current recorded mortality data would lead us to conclude that this new virus might represent a sinister threat to humankind, with cardiovascular mortality risk highlighting an additional crucial role for increasing further the alert against this threat. It also seems reasonable to support calls for vaccination against these

  10. The Amino Acid Substitution Q65H in the 2C Protein of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus Confers Resistance to Golgi Disrupting Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Caridi, Flavia; González-Magaldi, Mónica; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Sobrino, Francisco; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a porcine pathogen and a member of the species Enterovirus B within the Picornaviridae family. Brefeldin A (BFA) is an inhibitor of guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf proteins that induces Golgi complex disassembly and alters the cellular secretory pathway. Since BFA has been shown to inhibit the RNA replication of different enteroviruses, including SVDV, we have analyzed the effect of BFA and of golgicide A (GCA), another Golgi disrupting drug, on SVDV multiplication. BFA and GCA similarly inhibited SVDV production. To investigate the molecular basis of the antiviral effect of BFA, SVDV mutants with increased resistance to BFA were isolated. A single amino acid substitution, Q65H, in the non-structural protein 2C was found to be responsible for increased resistance to BFA. These results provide new insight into the relationship of enteroviruses with the components of the secretory pathway and on the role of SVDV 2C protein in this process. PMID:27199941

  11. New Insights on the Management of Wildlife Diseases Using Multi-State Recapture Models: The Case of Classical Swine Fever in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sophie; Toigo, Carole; Hars, Jean; Pol, Françoise; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Depner, Klaus; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique

    2011-01-01

    Background The understanding of host-parasite systems in wildlife is of increasing interest in relation to the risk of emerging diseases in livestock and humans. In this respect, many efforts have been dedicated to controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in the European Wild Boar. But CSF eradication has not always been achieved even though vaccination has been implemented at a large-scale. Piglets have been assumed to be the main cause of CSF persistence in the wild since they appeared to be more often infected and less often immune than older animals. However, this assumption emerged from laboratory trials or cross-sectional surveys based on the hunting bags. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present paper we conducted a capture-mark-recapture study in free-ranging wild boar piglets that experienced both CSF infection and vaccination under natural conditions. We used multi-state capture recapture models to estimate the immunization and infection rates, and their variations according to the periods with or without vaccination. According to the model prediction, 80% of the infected piglets did not survive more than two weeks, while the other 20% quickly recovered. The probability of becoming immune did not increase significantly during the summer vaccination sessions, and the proportion of immune piglets was not higher after the autumn vaccination. Conclusions/Significance Given the high lethality of CSF in piglets highlighted in our study, we consider unlikely that piglets could maintain the chain of CSF virus transmission. Our study also revealed the low efficacy of vaccination in piglets in summer and autumn, possibly due to the low palatability of baits to that age class, but also to the competition between baits and alternative food sources. Based on this new information, we discuss the prospects for the improvement of CSF control and the interest of the capture-recapture approach for improving the understanding of wildlife diseases. PMID:21977225

  12. Porcine type I interferon rapidly protects swine against challenge with multiple serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that rapidly replicates and spreads within infected animals and into the environment. Vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, but prior to this time vaccinated animals are still suscep...

  13. Suppression of Swine NK Cell Function During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects cloven-hoofed animals and causes an economically devastating disease. This highly acute infection has multiple negative effects on the innate response, presumably contributing to the rapid spread of virus within the host. Understanding the regulation of in...

  14. Constitutively active IRF7/IRF3 fusion protein completely protects swine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. Several serotype specific vaccine formulations exist but require about 5-7 days to induce protective immunity. Our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine ...

  15. IgA antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Control of the disease involves the use of killed virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. However, the primary site of replication of FMDV after natural infection is the pharyngeal area and...

  16. Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Netanel; Ben-Itzhak, Ofer; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    In a patient with systemic multiorgan disease with overlapping features, the differential diagnosis included infectious diseases, malignancies, and systemic autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. We present an unusual case of a young male with B cell lymphoma who presented with symptoms mimicking systemic vasculitis and review the existing literature. PMID:27293945

  17. African swine fever virus Georgia isolate harboring deletions of MGF360 and MGF505 genes is attenuated in swine and confers protection against challenge with the virulent parental virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The control of African Swine Fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Experimental vaccines h...

  18. Deletion of African swine fever virus Georgia 2007 virulence-associated gene 9GL (B119L) leads to virus attenuation in swine at low doses while inducing an effective protection against homologous challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for swine breeding. The control of African Swine Fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Experimental vaccines...

  19. Preclinical Diagnosis of African Swine Fever in Contact-Exposed Swine by a Real-Time PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zsak, L.; Borca, M. V.; Risatti, G. R.; Zsak, A.; French, R. A.; Lu, Z.; Kutish, G. F.; Neilan, J. G.; Callahan, J. D.; Nelson, W. M.; Rock, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    A fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) PCR assay for African swine fever virus (ASFV) was developed and evaluated in experimentally infected swine. This sensitive and specific one-step single-tube assay, which can be performed in 2 h or less, detected viral DNA in tonsil scraping samples 2 to 4 days prior to onset of clinical disease. Thus, the assay would have application for preclinical diagnosis of African swine fever and surveillance and/or emergency management of a disease outbreak. PMID:15634958

  20. Preclinical diagnosis of African swine fever in contact-exposed swine by a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Zsak, L; Borca, M V; Risatti, G R; Zsak, A; French, R A; Lu, Z; Kutish, G F; Neilan, J G; Callahan, J D; Nelson, W M; Rock, D L

    2005-01-01

    A fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) PCR assay for African swine fever virus (ASFV) was developed and evaluated in experimentally infected swine. This sensitive and specific one-step single-tube assay, which can be performed in 2 h or less, detected viral DNA in tonsil scraping samples 2 to 4 days prior to onset of clinical disease. Thus, the assay would have application for preclinical diagnosis of African swine fever and surveillance and/or emergency management of a disease outbreak. PMID:15634958

  1. Knowledge and behavior in an animal disease outbreak - Evidence from the item count technique in a case of African swine fever in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Randrianantoandro, Tiana N; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

    2015-03-01

    Pig production in Madagascar is not sufficient for domestic consumption. Unfortunately, African swine fever (ASF), which is a severe disease, is endemic in Madagascar and constitutes a constant threat for farmers. Therefore, ASF must be eradicated in order to guarantee the development of pig production. One of the main strategies in controlling ASF is stamping out which requires the farmers' collaboration in reporting cases or suspected cases. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of farmers who knowingly sell ASF-infected meat without reporting. Since selling ASF-infected meat is prohibited by the government, we used the item count technique (ICT), an indirect questioning technique appropriate for measuring the proportion of people engaged in sensitive behavior, for one subsample, while another subsample was asked directly whether they sell ASF-infected meat. Based on the ICT, approximately 73.2% of farmers who have experienced ASF sell the ASF-infected meat. This estimate was not statistically different from that obtained by direct questioning. In the 28% of interviewed farmers who believe ASF can affect humans, the ICT yielded a higher estimate than did direct questioning, indicating that pig farmers who sell ASF-infected meat hide that fact because of their belief that infected meat might harm human consumers, not because of the law. The ICT was thus a suitable technique to address the problem of sensitive behavior. In the case of ASF outbreaks, the Malagasy government should enforce the law more strictly and provide compensation as incentive for reporting cases. PMID:25591977

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients have greater systemic responsiveness to ex vivo stimulation with swine dust extract and its components versus healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Harting, Janel R.; Gleason, Angela; Romberger, Debra J.; Von Essen, Susanna G.; Qiu, Fang; Alexis, Neil; Poole, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an airway and systemic inflammatory response. Bioaerosols/organic dusts are important agricultural pollutants that may lead to COPD. These environments are complex containing a rich source of various microbial components. The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with COPD have enhanced systemic responsiveness to settled swine facility organic dust extract (ODE) or its main pathogenic components (peptidoglycan [PGN], lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) versus healthy volunteers. A modified whole blood assay (WBA) that included occupational levels of ODE and concentrations of LPS and PGN found in ODE was used to determine systemic responsiveness (mediator release), and sputum inflammatory markers were measured to explore for systemic and airway associations. Sputum samples were evaluated for cell counts, and TNF-α, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-6, and IL-10. Ex vivo whole blood stimulation with ODE, LPS, and PGN each resulted in significant mediator release in all subjects, the highest occurring with ODE; PGN resulted in significantly enhanced TNF-α and IL-8 as compared to LPS. COPD subjects demonstrated greater systemic responsiveness using the modified WBA versus healthy controls. Within COPD subjects, blood baseline TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 and ODE, PGN, and LPS-stimulated IL-8 levels significantly correlated with lung function. In conclusion, dust-induced mediator release was robust, and PGN, in part, resembled dust-induced mediator release. Subjects with COPD demonstrated increased mediator release following ex vivo whole blood stimulation with bioaerosol components suggesting that circulating blood cells in COPD subjects may be primed to respond greater to microbial/inflammatory insult. PMID:23116451

  3. Swine Influenza Viruses: a North American Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease that represents a health and economic threat to both humans and animals worldwide. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern U.S. in 1918, coinciding with the human influenza pandemic known as the Spanish flu. Since that time swin...

  4. Implementation and validation of an economic module in the Be-FAST model to predict costs generated by livestock disease epidemics: Application to classical swine fever epidemics in Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carrión, E; Ivorra, B; Martínez-López, B; Ramos, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-04-01

    Be-FAST is a computer program based on a time-spatial stochastic spread mathematical model for studying the transmission of infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. The present work describes a new module integrated into Be-FAST to model the economic consequences of the spreading of classical swine fever (CSF) and other infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. CSF is financially one of the most damaging diseases in the swine industry worldwide. Specifically in Spain, the economic costs in the two last CSF epidemics (1997 and 2001) reached jointly more than 108 million euros. The present analysis suggests that severe CSF epidemics are associated with significant economic costs, approximately 80% of which are related to animal culling. Direct costs associated with control measures are strongly associated with the number of infected farms, while indirect costs are more strongly associated with epidemic duration. The economic model has been validated with economic information around the last outbreaks in Spain. These results suggest that our economic module may be useful for analysing and predicting economic consequences of livestock disease epidemics. PMID:26875754

  5. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217.001 PMID:27113719

  6. 76 FR 34032 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Information Collection; Swine Health Protection AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... interstate spread of swine diseases and to request extension of approval of the information collection to protect swine health. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before August 9,...

  7. IgA antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) specific antibodies, specifically neutralizing antibodies, are known to protect against virus infection in vitro and are predictive of protection in vivo. Of interest is the role of antibodies against FMDV in mucosal secretions, in particular in the oropharyngeal ...

  8. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: effect of duration of antigen expression on immunogenicity in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adenoviral (Ad5)-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) subunit vaccine, Ad5-A24, is an effective alternative to the current inactivated whole virus vaccine and has a number of advantages including no requirement for infectious FMDV and DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals...

  9. Interferon Alpha Production by Swine Dendritic Cells is Inhibited During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (IFN). We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong IFN response indic...

  10. Immunoprotective mechanisms in swine within the "grey zone" in antibody response after immunization with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liu; Feng, Xia; Jin, Ye; Ma, Junwu; Cai, Hu; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2016-07-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Vaccination represents one approach for limiting the effects of FMD. The level of protection in vaccinated animals after challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is closely related to the antibody titer, which can be classified into three zones: a "white zone", a "grey zone", and a "black zone". The aim of the present study was to clarify the immunoprotective mechanisms operating in the grey zone, in which vaccinated animals have intermediate antibody titers, making it difficult to predict the level of protection. Thirty-three pigs were used to analyze the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in whole blood and the expression levels of 40 cytokines before vaccination and challenge. The antibody titer in pigs in the grey zone ranged from 1:6-1:45. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte subpopulations, expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, IL-18, and monocyte interferon gamma inducing factor (MIG), and of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1α, transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), and TWEAK R varied between protected and unprotected animals. The results of this study suggest that the cellular immune response is the key factor responsible for immunoprotection in vaccinated animals with antibody titers within the grey zone. PMID:27067203

  11. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  12. Origin of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from swine affected by PCV2-associated diseases in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novosel, D; Tuboly, T; Csagola, A; Lorincz, M; Cubric-Curik, V; Jungic, A; Curik, I; Segalés, J; Cortey, M; Lipej, Z

    2014-04-26

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes some of the most significant economic losses in pig production. Several multisystemic syndromes have been attributed to PCV2 infection, which are known as PCV2-associated diseases (PCVDs). This study investigated the origin and evolution of PCV2 sequences in domestic pigs and wild boars affected by PCVDs in Croatia. Viral sequences were recovered from three wild boars diagnosed with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD), 63 fetuses positive for PCV2 DNA as determined by PCR, 14 domestic pigs affected with PCV2-SD (displaying severe interstitial nephritis) and five domestic pigs with proliferative and necrotising pneumonia. Seventeen complete PCV2 genomes were recovered. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on median-joining phylogenetic networks, amino acid alignments and principal coordinate analysis were performed using complete genomes, as well as complete and partial ORF sequences for ORF1 and ORF2. Two of the 17 PCV2 sequences belonged to PCV2a, 14 to PCV2b and one was unclustered. PCV2b was the predominant genotype in Croatia and has been linked to international trade as a route of introduction. Correlation between particular viral strains with PCVDs is lacking. PMID:24591478

  13. Antigenic and genetic analysis of a recently isolated H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Olsen, C W; McGregor, M W; Cooley, A J; Schantz, B; Hotze, B; Hinshaw, V S

    1993-10-01

    Hemagglutinins (HA) of H1N1 swine influenza viruses isolated in the United States have remained antigenically and genetically conserved for many years. In contrast to such conservation, the HA of A/Swine/Nebraska/1/92 (Sw/Neb) could readily be distinguished from those of contemporary porcine viruses. Twenty-eight amino acid mutations differentiated the HA of Sw/Neb and A/Swine/Indiana/1726/88, the most recent H1N1 swine influenza virus for which HA sequence data were available. Among these differences were mutations at potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites and charge changes at many residues. The Sw/Neb virus also could be differentiated from other swine influenza viruses in hemagglutination-inhibition assays with monoclonal antibodies to recent H1 swine HA. Nonetheless, overall sequence analysis of the HA and the nucleoprotein genes of Sw/Neb indicated that this virus was more closely related genetically to classic H1N1 swine influenza viruses than to H1N1 avian or human viruses. Infection of swine with Sw/Neb under experimental conditions induced clinical signs and lesions typical of swine influenza. However, affected swine in the field had high, persistent fevers, but relatively mild signs of respiratory tract disease. This study indicated that an antigenically and genetically novel variant of swine influenza virus was detected in the United States. PMID:8250388

  14. Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis Mimicking Tracheal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Tanrıverdi, Elif; Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Uzun, Oğuz; Gül, Şule; Çörtük, Mustafa; Yaşar, Zehra; Acat, Murat; Arda, Naciye; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare presentation and accounts for about 1% of benign tumors in this area. The diagnosis of disease is delayed due to nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Therapeutic approaches are required to control progressive pulmonary symptoms for most of the patients. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man admitted with progressive dyspnea to our institution for further evaluation and management. He was initially diagnosed with and underwent management for bronchial asthma for two years but had persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Pulmonary computed tomography scan revealed severe endotracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed endotracheal mass obstructing 70% of the distal trachea and mimicking a neoplastic lesion. The mass was successfully resected by mechanical resection, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and Nd-YAG laser during rigid bronchoscopy. Biopsy materials showed deposits of amorphous material by hematoxylin and eosin staining and these deposits were selectively stained with Congo Red. Although this is a rare clinical condition, this case indicated that carrying out a bronchoscopy in any patient complaining of atypical bronchial symptoms or with uncontrolled asthma is very important. PMID:27594885

  15. Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis Mimicking Tracheal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Uzun, Oğuz; Yaşar, Zehra; Acat, Murat; Arda, Naciye; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare presentation and accounts for about 1% of benign tumors in this area. The diagnosis of disease is delayed due to nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Therapeutic approaches are required to control progressive pulmonary symptoms for most of the patients. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man admitted with progressive dyspnea to our institution for further evaluation and management. He was initially diagnosed with and underwent management for bronchial asthma for two years but had persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Pulmonary computed tomography scan revealed severe endotracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed endotracheal mass obstructing 70% of the distal trachea and mimicking a neoplastic lesion. The mass was successfully resected by mechanical resection, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and Nd-YAG laser during rigid bronchoscopy. Biopsy materials showed deposits of amorphous material by hematoxylin and eosin staining and these deposits were selectively stained with Congo Red. Although this is a rare clinical condition, this case indicated that carrying out a bronchoscopy in any patient complaining of atypical bronchial symptoms or with uncontrolled asthma is very important. PMID:27594885

  16. Governmental provisions to manage and eradicate feral swine in areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Shuman, Rebecca M

    2015-03-01

    Feral swine (wild hogs) are one of the most widely distributed free-ranging mammals in the world. In the United States, feral swine serve as game animals for the sport of hunting in some areas, while they are nuisance species at other locations. Increasing feral swine populations creates negative impacts to growing crops, native plant communities, and wildlife. Feral swine can also serve as reservoirs for a number of bacterial and viral diseases that can infect wild animals, livestock, and humans. The US state governments are adopting statutes and regulations to reduce the growth and dispersal of feral swine populations. An analysis of these provisions suggests that while they seek to control feral swine populations, they are unlikely to provide any significant relief from damages to crops and native ecosystems. More localized reduction plans and a national disease control program are suggested to assuage damages being wrought by these invasive animals. PMID:24845195

  17. North American soft ticks (Ornithodoros spp.): biology and feral swine parasitism as risks for the emergence of African swine fever in the U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Swine Fever (ASF) is an emerging arboviral disease that affects pigs. The causative agent is the double-stranded DNA African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV). Several soft tick species in the genus Ornithodoros are known arthropod vectors of ASFV. Infection with ASFV can result in a hemorrhagic synd...

  18. Network, cluster and risk factor analyses for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome using data from swine sites participating in a disease control program.

    PubMed

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Poljak, Z

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe networks of Ontario swine sites and their service providers (including trucking, feed, semen, gilt and boar companies); to categorize swine sites into clusters based on site-level centrality measures, and to investigate risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) using information gathered from the above-mentioned analyses. All 816 sites included in the current study were enrolled in the PRRS area regional control and elimination projects in Ontario. Demographics, biosecurity and network data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and PRRS status was determined on the basis of available diagnostic tests and assessment by site veterinarians. Two-mode networks were transformed into one-mode dichotomized networks. Cluster and risk factor analyses were conducted separately for breeding and growing pig sites. In addition to the clusters obtained from cluster analyses, other explanatory variables of interest included: production type, type of animal flow, use of a shower facility, and number of neighboring swine sites within 3km. Unadjusted univariable analyses were followed by two types of adjusted models (adjusted for production systems): a generalizing estimation equation model (GEE) and a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results showed that the gilt network was the most fragmented network, followed by the boar and truck networks. Considering all networks simultaneously, approximately 94% of all swine sites were indirectly connected. Unadjusted risk factor analyses showed significant associations between almost all predictors of interest and PRRS positivity, but these disappeared once production system was taken into consideration. Finally, the vast majority of the variation on PRRS status was explained by production system according to GLMM, which shows the highly correlated nature of the data, and raises the point that interventions at this level could potentially have high

  19. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Feral Swine Pseudorabies Virus Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Aujesky’s Disease or pseudorabies, is one of the oldest recognized swine diseases. It is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alpha-herpesvirus that can induce respiratory disease, reproductive failure, and affect the central nervous system. PRV vaccines, in conjunction with serologi...

  20. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 94.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY... importation of any ruminant or swine or any fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of any ruminant or swine 1...

  1. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 94.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY... importation of any ruminant or swine or any fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of any ruminant or swine 1...

  2. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY... ruminant or swine or any fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of any ruminant or swine 1 that originates in...

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV. PMID:23826638

  4. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kj; Basu, Arup; Khana, Shilpi; Wattal, Chand

    2015-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is a disease which is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. In the areas where people eat crab/crayfish this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid antituberculosis treatment for a non-tubercular condition. We are reporting a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis who had been treated for tuberculosis. PMID:27604443

  5. Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against

  6. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Mimicking Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Argun Baris, Serap; Onyilmaz, Tuğba; Basyigit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Hasim

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as tuberculosis infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The clinical symptoms of the diseases are nonspecific. Chronic cough is the major symptom of the disease. The diagnosis is often delayed due to its nonspecific presentation and misdiagnosed as bronchial asthma. This case is presented to recall the notion that the endobronchial tuberculosis can mimic asthma and the importance of bronchoscopic evaluation in a patient with chronic cough and treatment resistant asthma. PMID:26798513

  7. Nuclear inclusions mimicking poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 inclusions in a case of inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia with a novel mutation in the valosin-containing protein gene.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shiro; Shimizu, Toshio; Komori, Takashi; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Minami, Narihiro; Hayashi, Yukiko K

    2016-07-01

    A middle-aged Japanese man presented with slowly progressive asymmetric weakness of legs and arm but had neither ptosis nor dysphagia. He had a family history of similar condition suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. A muscle biopsy showed mixture of neurogenic atrophy and myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. Furthermore we found intranuclear inclusions that had a fine structure mimicking that of inclusions reported in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Immunohistochemical staining for polyadenylate-binding nuclear protein 1, which is identified within the nuclear inclusions of OPMD, demonstrated nuclear positivity in this case. However, OPMD was thought unlikely based on the clinical features and results of genetic analyses. Instead, a novel mutation in valosin-containing protein, c.376A>T (p.Ile126Phe), was revealed. A diagnosis of inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia was made. This is the first report of polyadenylate-binding nuclear protein 1-positive nuclear inclusions in the muscle of this condition. PMID:27209344

  8. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  9. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  10. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  11. Identification of an NTPase motif in classical swine fever virus NS4B protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of swine caused by CSF virus (CSFV), a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family. Here, we have identified, within CSFV non-structural (NS) protein NS4B, conserved sequence el...

  12. Pathogenesis Studies of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus and Pseudorabies Virus From Wild Pigs In Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years in the United States the epidemiology and ecology of swine flu and pseudorabies has been dynamic. Swine flu is caused by influenza A virus and the disease was first recognized in pigs concurrent with the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic in humans. Pigs displayed clinical signs simil...

  13. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. A study examining the effect o...

  14. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SWINE LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN (SLA) CLASS I GENES IN OUTBRED PIG POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and in transplantation. Study of SLA influence requires accurate and effective typing methods. We developed a simple and rapid method to t...

  15. Molecular characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes in outbred pig populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune, disease and vaccine responses. Thus, understanding how SLA gene polymorphism affects immunity, especially in outbred pig populations with a diverse genetic background, requires accu...

  16. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. The effect of coinfection of S...

  17. Gene expression changes in the swine microbiota with the in-feed antibiotic carbadox

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Administering antibiotics to livestock and poultry can treat and prevent disease while improving feed efficiency. Carbadox is an in-feed antibiotic, commonly used in swine production to prevent swine dysentery and promote animal growth. Carbadox has been shown to induce bacteriophages in some cultiv...

  18. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ewelukwa, Ofor; Ali, Omair; Akram, Salma

    2014-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish tumour-like masses in the wall of the GB. This article reports on a 74-year-old woman with XGC mimicking GB cancer. PMID:24811556

  19. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ewelukwa, Ofor; Ali, Omair; Akram, Salma

    2014-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish tumour-like masses in the wall of the GB. This article reports on a 74-year-old woman with XGC mimicking GB cancer. PMID:24811556

  20. [Epizoologic studies of the detection of antibodies against Aujeszky's disease virus in sera and blood eluates of swine from Thailand using ELISA ("Enzygnost," Behring), serum neutralization test and "Aujeszky Latex Kit" (Iffa Merieux)].

    PubMed

    Leamcharaskul, P; Renner-Müller, I C; Munz, E; Reimann, M

    1990-08-01

    The results of three tests for Aujeszky's disease were analysed and compared. The presence of Aujeszky's antibodies was determined by "Enzyme-linked-Immunosorbent-Assays" (ELISA, "Enzygnost"), Behring company, Marburg; "Serum-Neutralization-Tests" (SNT); and "Latex Agglutination-Tests" (LT, "Aujeszky-Latex-Kit"), Iffa Merieux company, Laupheim. Whole blood and sera samples were taken from 805 swine from 26 of Thailand's provinces. These samples were analysed to determine if eluates of whole blood on filter paper were as effective as corresponding sera samples in determining the presence of Aujeszky's disease antibodies. From a total of 805 samples, 26% of the serum and 18% of the blood eluate samples showed a positive result when tested by the ELISA method. Clearly, testing whole blood eluates provides results which are inferior to results from sera samples. Therefore the ELISA whole blood eluates test can only be recommended with reservations. Further testing was done on 645 serum samples using SNT. Samples tested were those which gave negative, suspicious, or weakly positive results when tested by ELISA. Using SNT, 23% of these showed a positive result. Many serum and blood eluate samples were also tested by LT. Most of these test samples were chosen because they were deemed suspicious. Suspicious samples were defined as those which had deviant test results. According to these results the sensitivity of LT was between the sensitivity of SNT and ELISA. Owner survey responses tended to state that few animals had been vaccinated. This coupled with the frequency of antibody occurrence proves the high rate of infection among Thailand's swine population. PMID:2169687

  1. Solitary intracranial tuberculoma mimicking a malignant tumor in a patient without tubercular lesions or a history of disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A.; Sua, Luz F.; Astudillo, Miryam; Bravo, Luis E.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral tuberculoma is a rare cause of intracranial mass. In Latin America and Colombia where tuberculosis is endemic, it represents between 5 and 30% of brain tumours. A 53-year-old Colombian woman was admitted to a third-level hospital in Cali, Colombia, after reporting loss of consciousness, headache, paresthesia, and flight of ideas for a two-week period. Imaging studies showed a left frontal mass of malignant appearance whose first possible diagnosis was metastatic neoplasia or glioma. With the initial results, absence of history of chronic infectious diseases and a history of thyroidectomy, a surgical procedure was carried out and a histopathological and molecular evaluation was conducted. The pathology report noted necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and tissue staining and molecular tests for detection of M. tuberculosis were positive and the patient was managed with anti-tubercular treatment. Intracranial masses are frequently targeted as a malignant neoplastic disease for surgical treatment. Considering an infectious etiology must be a diagnostic option. PMID:23725511

  2. Assay of florfenicol in swine feed: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John M; Gilewicz, Rosalia; Freehauf, Keith; Fetter, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Nuflor (florfenicol) Premix for Swine was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for control of swine respiratory disease (SRD). A simple method for the assay of florfenicol in Type C medicated swine feeds was recently evaluated as part of a 4-laboratory study. Florfenicol is extracted from ground feed with acetonitrile-water by shaking and sonication. An Envi-Carb solid-phase extraction cartridge is used to clean up the extract, retaining matrix interferences while allowing florfenicol to elute. The collected eluent is diluted and injected into a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic system. Samples are quantitated by external standard analysis versus multilevel calibration solutions. The procedure is suitable for the quantification of swine feeds in mash or pellet form medicated with 100-300 mg/kg florfenicol. The interlaboratory study was conducted according to Guidance 136 issued by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine. The feeds used to evaluate method performance represented different feed compositions (starter and finisher) and manufacturers. The sponsor and 3 independent laboratories obtained mean recoveries (+/-SD) from fortified swine feeds of 100.7% (+/-2.0%), 99.6% (+/-2.8%), 98.8% (+/-1.4%), and 99.3% (+/-1.7%), respectively. Excellent agreement of the results of the assay of blind samples of commercial swine mash and pelleted feeds between laboratories demonstrates that the method is rugged and reproducible. PMID:19382592

  3. Influenza A virus pathogenesis and vaccination in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of pigs that is characterized by fever followed by lethargy, anorexia, and serous nasal discharge. The disease progresses rapidly and may be complicated when associated with other respiratory pathogens. Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most preval...

  4. Limbic and nigral Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease pathology mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy in a 75-year-old man with preserved cardiac uptake of MIBG.

    PubMed

    Kasahata, Naoki; Uchihara, Toshiki; Orimo, Satoshi; Nakamura, Ayako; Makita, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A 75-year-old man developed l-dopa non-responsive parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, neck dorsiflexion, and dementia. Atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum on MRI and normal myocardial uptake of MIBG led to the clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Autopsy revealed depigmentation of the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus. Alzheimer's disease pathology was advanced with PSP-like neurofibrillary tangles distribution, and Lewy bodies were abundant in limbic lobe, while scarce in lower brainstem nuclei. Tuft-shaped astrocytes were not apparent. Although decreased myocardial uptake of MIBG is a rule in patients harboring Lewy bodies, its normal uptake may be related to their absence in lower brainstem nuclei. PMID:22886008

  5. Serological and bacteriological study of swine brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lord, V R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Marcano, M J; Melendez, G

    1997-01-01

    A serological and bacteriological study was performed with sera taken from 2,228 swine from six states in Venezuela. None of the animals were vaccinated against brucellosis, and the prevalence of the disease varied from 5 to 89% on farms located in these states. Our studies indicated that the animals could be categorized into four groups depending on the degree of reactivity in serological tests. Brucella suis biovar 1 was isolated from the lymph nodes, spleens, and semen samples of seropositive animals and identified by oxidative metabolic techniques. B. suis could not be isolated from tissues of seronegative swine even from farms with cases of the disease (detected by serology). Results suggest that, although the immunodiffusion assay using Brucella melitensis B115 polysaccharide B or B. abortus 1119-3 O-polysaccharide could be useful in the detection of active infections, it is perhaps not as sensitive as some of the other standard serological tests used in this study for the detection of swine brucellosis. PMID:8968931

  6. African Swine Fever Virus Georgia isolate harboring deletions of 9GL and MGF360/505 genes in highly attenuated in swine but does not confer protection against parental virus challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) produces a contagious disease of domestic pigs that results in severe economic consequences to the swine industry. Control of the disease has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. We recently reported the development of two experimental vaccine strains (...

  7. Myositis ossificans: the mimicker

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Arunkumar; Sarawagi, Radha; Prakash, Manikka Lakshmanan

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with upper backache and a painful swelling in the right paraspinal region for 7 days. He had no history of trauma. MRI showed a non-specific ill-defined heterogeneous lesion, which showed intense postcontrast enhancement. Ultrasonogram showed a peripheral sheet of calcification around the lesion. A CT scan showed a faint rim of calcification, which increased in thickness over weeks, confirming the diagnosis as myositis ossificans. We present our approach to the case and also review the imaging features of different stages of the disease process and their differentials. PMID:24326436

  8. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  9. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  10. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  11. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  12. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  13. Association of swine influenza H1N1 pandemic virus (SIV-H1N1p) with porcine respiratory disease complex in sows from commercial pig farms in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Luisa Fernanda Mancipe; Ramírez Nieto, Gloria; Alfonso, Victor Vera; Correa, Jairo Jaime

    2014-08-01

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a serious health problem that mainly affects growing and finishing pigs. PRDC is caused by a combination of viral and bacterial agents, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Myh), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), Pasteurella multocida and Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). To characterize the specific role of swine influenza virus in PRDC presentation in Colombia, 11 farms from three major production regions in Colombia were examined in this study. Nasal swabs, bronchial lavage and lung tissue samples were obtained from animals displaying symptoms compatible with SIV. Isolation of SIV was performed in 9-day embryonated chicken eggs or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Positive isolates, identified via the hemagglutination inhibition test, were further analyzed using PCR. Overall, 7 of the 11 farms were positive for SIV. Notably, sequencing of the gene encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) protein led to grouping of strains into circulating viruses identified during the human outbreak of 2009, classified as pandemic H1N1-2009. Serum samples from 198 gilts and multiparous sows between 2008 and 2009 were obtained to determine antibody presence of APP, Myh, PCV2 and PRRSV in both SIV-H1N1p-negative and -positive farms, but higher levels were recorded for SIV-H1N1p-positive farms. Odds ratio (OR) and P values revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in PRDC presentation in gilts and multiparous sows of farms positive for SIV-H1N1p. Our findings indicate that positive farms have increased risk of PRDC presentation, in particular, PCV2, APP and Myh. PMID:25160760

  14. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine...

  15. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine...

  16. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine...

  17. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180

  18. Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura C; Jiang, Zhihua; Sang, Yongming; Harhay, Gregory P; Lager, Kelly M

    2014-06-15

    Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm the current annotation of pig IFITM1, IFITM2, IFITM3, IFITM5, IFITM1L1 and IFITM1L4, manually annotated IFITM1L2, IFITM1L3, IFITM5L, IFITM3L1 and IFITM3L2, and provide expressed sequence tag (EST) and/or mRNA evidence, not contained with the NCBI Reference Sequence database (RefSeq), for the existence of IFITM6, IFITM7 and a new IFITM1-like (IFITM1LN) gene in pigs. Phylogenic analyses showed seven porcine IFITM genes with highly conserved human/mouse orthologs known to have anti-viral activity. Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling (DGETP) of swine tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) of pigs infected with swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus or porcine circovirus type 2 over 14 days post-inoculation (dpi) showed that gene expression abundance differs dramatically among pig IFITM family members, ranging from 0 to over 3000 tags per million. In particular, SIV up-regulated IFITM1 by 5.9 fold at 3 dpi. Bayesian framework further identified pig IFITM1 and IFITM3 as differentially expressed genes in the overall transcriptome analysis. In addition to being a component of protein complexes involved in homotypic adhesion, the IFITM1 is also associated with pathways related to regulation of cell proliferation and IFITM3 is involved in immune responses. PMID:24656980

  19. Disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Tony A; Holcomb, Maura J; Motaparthi, Kiran; Grekin, Sarah J; Hsu, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    A 34-year-old, HIV-positive man living in Texas presented with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, myalgias, oral ulcers, and papules on his chest, back, face, and extremities, including the palms. Initially secondary syphilis was suspected. However, RPR was negative. Histopathologic examination revealed a lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous intra-histiocytic fungal organisms. GMS and PAS stains were positive, consistent with the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis clinically mimicking secondary syphilis. PMID:22136866

  20. Malignant Catatonia Mimicking Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dailin

    2013-01-01

    Malignant catatonia is an unusual and highly fatal neuropsychiatric condition which can present with clinical and biochemical manifestations similar to those of pheochromocytoma. Differentiating between the two diseases is essential as management options greatly diverge. We describe a case of malignant catatonia in a 20-year-old male who presented with concurrent psychotic symptoms and autonomic instability, with markedly increased 24-hour urinary levels of norepinephrine at 1752 nmol/day (normal, 89–470 nmol/day), epinephrine at 1045 nmol/day (normal, <160 nmol/day), and dopamine at 7.9 μmol/day (normal, 0.4–3.3 μmol/day). The patient was treated with multiple sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete clinical resolution. Repeat urine collections within weeks of this presenting event revealed normalization or near normalization of his catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Malignant catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the hypercatecholamine state, particularly in a patient who also exhibits concurrent catatonic features. PMID:24251048

  1. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  2. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  3. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  4. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  5. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  6. Identification of peptides fromm foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins bound by class I swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) alleles, SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analysis of peptide binding to porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules has not been extensively performed. Critical to understanding the adaptive immune response of swine to infection is characterization of Swine Leucocyte Antigens (SLA) class I and class II peptide bind...

  7. Establishment of swine interleukin-6 sandwich ELISA.

    PubMed

    Nuntaprasert, A; Mori, Y; Tsukiyama-Kohara, K; Kai, C

    2005-03-01

    We established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for swine interleukin-6 (SwIL-6), which was applied for detection of SwIL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Anti-SwIL-6 rabbit- and goat-polyclonal antibodies, and monoclonal antibody (mAb) were prepared, conforming that all of the antibodies were reactive with recombinant SwIL-6 by Western blotting and indirect ELISA. A sandwich ELISA was developed using the mAb as a capture antibody and biotinylated goat-polyclonal antibody as a detection antibody. The detection limit of the sandwich ELISA for rSwIL-6 was 49pg/ml and did not show cross-reactivity with swine IL-1b, IL-4, IL-8, IL-18, IL-12, and IFN-g. Using the ELISA, SwIL-6 was detected in culture medium of the monocytes stimulated with PHA-P and PMA, and the plasma or the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. This ELISA for SwIL-6 may be useful for understanding the role of this cytokine in various swine diseases. PMID:15582688

  8. Novel swine virulence determinant in the left variable region of the African swine fever virus genome.

    PubMed

    Neilan, J G; Zsak, L; Lu, Z; Kutish, G F; Afonso, C L; Rock, D L

    2002-04-01

    Previously we have shown that the African swine fever virus (ASFV) NL gene deletion mutant E70DeltaNL is attenuated in pigs. Our recent observations that NL gene deletion mutants of two additional pathogenic ASFV isolates, Malawi Lil-20/1 and Pr4, remained highly virulent in swine (100% mortality) suggested that these isolates encoded an additional virulence determinant(s) that was absent from E70. To map this putative virulence determinant, in vivo marker rescue experiments were performed by inoculating swine with infection-transfection lysates containing E70 NL deletion mutant virus (E70DeltaNL) and cosmid DNA clones from the Malawi NL gene deletion mutant (MalDeltaNL). A cosmid clone representing the left-hand 38-kb region (map units 0.05 to 0.26) of the MalDeltaNL genome was capable of restoring full virulence to E70DeltaNL. Southern blot analysis of recovered virulent viruses confirmed that they were recombinant E70DeltaNL genomes containing a 23- to 28-kb DNA fragment of the Malawi genome. These recombinants exhibited an unaltered MalDeltaNL disease and virulence phenotype when inoculated into swine. Additional in vivo marker rescue experiments identified a 20-kb fragment, encoding members of multigene families (MGF) 360 and 530, as being capable of fully restoring virulence to E70DeltaNL. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of the left variable region of the E70DeltaNL and Malawi Lil-20/1 genomes identified an 8-kb deletion in the E70DeltaNL isolate which resulted in the deletion and/or truncation of three MGF 360 genes and four MGF 530 genes. A recombinant MalDeltaNL deletion mutant lacking three members of each MGF gene family was constructed and evaluated for virulence in swine. The mutant virus replicated normally in macrophage cell culture but was avirulent in swine. Together, these results indicate that a region within the left variable region of the ASFV genome containing the MGF 360 and 530 genes represents a previously unrecognized virulence

  9. Novel Swine Virulence Determinant in the Left Variable Region of the African Swine Fever Virus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Neilan, J. G.; Zsak, L.; Lu, Z.; Kutish, G. F.; Afonso, C. L.; Rock, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    Previously we have shown that the African swine fever virus (ASFV) NL gene deletion mutant E70ΔNL is attenuated in pigs. Our recent observations that NL gene deletion mutants of two additional pathogenic ASFV isolates, Malawi Lil-20/1 and Pr4, remained highly virulent in swine (100% mortality) suggested that these isolates encoded an additional virulence determinant(s) that was absent from E70. To map this putative virulence determinant, in vivo marker rescue experiments were performed by inoculating swine with infection-transfection lysates containing E70 NL deletion mutant virus (E70ΔNL) and cosmid DNA clones from the Malawi NL gene deletion mutant (MalΔNL). A cosmid clone representing the left-hand 38-kb region (map units 0.05 to 0.26) of the MalΔNL genome was capable of restoring full virulence to E70ΔNL. Southern blot analysis of recovered virulent viruses confirmed that they were recombinant E70ΔNL genomes containing a 23- to 28-kb DNA fragment of the Malawi genome. These recombinants exhibited an unaltered MalΔNL disease and virulence phenotype when inoculated into swine. Additional in vivo marker rescue experiments identified a 20-kb fragment, encoding members of multigene families (MGF) 360 and 530, as being capable of fully restoring virulence to E70ΔNL. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of the left variable region of the E70ΔNL and Malawi Lil-20/1 genomes identified an 8-kb deletion in the E70ΔNL isolate which resulted in the deletion and/or truncation of three MGF 360 genes and four MGF 530 genes. A recombinant MalΔNL deletion mutant lacking three members of each MGF gene family was constructed and evaluated for virulence in swine. The mutant virus replicated normally in macrophage cell culture but was avirulent in swine. Together, these results indicate that a region within the left variable region of the ASFV genome containing the MGF 360 and 530 genes represents a previously unrecognized virulence determinant for domestic swine

  10. Serologic surveillance of swine H1 and H3 and avian H5 and H9 influenza A virus infections in swine population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Song, Dae-Sub; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Oh, Jin-Sik; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2007-05-16

    Influenza A is a respiratory disease common in the swine industry. Three subtypes, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, are currently co-circulating in swine populations in Korea. An outbreak of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus occurred in domestic bird farms in Korea during the winter season of 2003. Pigs can serve as hosts for avian influenza viruses, enabling passage of the virus to other mammals and recombination of mammalian and avian influenza viruses, which are more readily transmissible to humans. This study reports the current seroprevalence of swine H1 and H3 influenza in swine populations in Korea by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. We also investigated whether avian H5 and H9 influenza transmission occurred in pigs from Korea using both the HI and neutralization (NT) tests. 51.2% (380/742) of serum samples tested were positive against the swine H1 virus and 43.7% (324/742) were positive against the swine H3 virus by HI assay. The incidence of seropositivity against both the swine H1 virus and the swine H3 virus was 25.3% (188/742). On the other hand, none of the samples tested showed seropositivity against either the avian H5 virus or the avian H9 virus by the HI and NT tests. Therefore, we report the high current seroprevalence and co-infectivity of swine H1 and H3 influenza viruses in swine populations and the lack of seroepidemiological evidence of avian H5 and H9 influenza transmission to Korean pigs. PMID:17223213

  11. Herd factors affecting the selection and success of intervention strategies in the program for eradication of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus from Illinois swine farms.

    PubMed

    Siegel, A M; Weigel, R M

    1999-06-11

    The program for eradication of pseudorabies virus (PrV) from swine herds in Illinois was evaluated with respect to compliance with Livestock Conservation Institute (LCI) guidelines for selection of intervention strategies and for the effectiveness of these interventions under different herd conditions. The sample consisted of 395 swine operations quarantined between 1988 and 1994. These herds were followed until the end of 1996. The association of herd characteristics (number of sows, sow PrV seroprevalence, type of housing, number of PrV-seropositive farms within 1.5 mi) at the time of quarantine with the producer's selection of an initial intervention strategy (vaccination, offspring segregation, test-and-removal, depopulation-and-repopulation) was analyzed using logistic multiple regression. The interaction of herd characteristics with intervention strategies to affect the duration of quarantine was analyzed using multivariable Cox regression. Factors favoring selection of vaccination were increased herd size, higher sow PrV seroprevalence, and more PrV-seropositive farms within 1.5 mi. Offspring segregation was preferred when sow PrV seroprevalence was higher, and test-and-removal was preferred when seroprevalence was lower. Depopulation-and-repopulation was more likely in outdoor operations. Except for depopulation-and-repopulation, selection of an intervention strategy was in accordance with LCI guidelines. Vaccination and offspring segregation were associated with longer times under quarantine, and test-and-removal and depopulation-and-repopulation with shorter times. Test-and-removal was more effective in reducing the duration of quarantine when sow PrV seroprevalence was low. Vaccination increased the duration of quarantine less when sow PrV seroprevalence was high. Vaccination increased the duration of quarantine more when there were one or more PrV-seropositive farms within 1.5 mi than when there were no PrV-seropositive farms within 1.5 mi. It is

  12. Experimental infection of slaughter pigs with classical swine fever virus: transmission of the virus, course of the disease and antibody response.

    PubMed

    Laevens, H; Koenen, F; Deluyker, H; de Kruif, A

    1999-08-28

    The spread of classical swine fever virus was investigated in an isolation unit containing four pens, each containing six slaughter pigs. One pig in the middle pen of three adjacent pens was inoculated intramuscularly and intranasally with the virus. The fourth pen was located in a separate compartment. The pens were visited in a strict order to study, first, the effect of indirect contact via contaminated clothing and footwear on the spread of the virus to adjacent pens and, secondly, the airborne transmission of the virus between compartments. The pigs were examined and blood samples were taken every other day for 62 days for virological and serological analyses. The virus was highly contagious for the five pigs that were in direct contact with the inoculated pig, but spread to the other pens only after all the pigs in the originally infected pen had become viraemic. The spread of the virus was promoted by contaminated clothing and footwear, but airborne transmission contributed considerably to the spread of the virus within the pighouse. The first clinical signs observed after the virus was introduced into a pen were decreased feed intake, increased mean rectal temperature and apathy. Neither the clinical course of the infection, nor the pattern of seroconversion observed over time, was affected by the differences in the intensity of contact with the virus between the pigs in the different pens. PMID:10504066

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE RATES IN CAMPYLOBACTER ISOLATES DERIVED FROM SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a microaerophilic gram-negative rod, is a major foodborne pathogen and commonly present in swine intestinal tract without causing any clinical disease. In this project, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles of fecal Campylobacter isolates (n= 194) obtained from a swin...

  14. Coinfection with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which these pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whose relatives, B...

  15. Coinfection of Pigs with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which these pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whose relatives, B...

  16. Swine as a model for influenza A virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect a variety of hosts, including humans, swine, and various avian species. The annual influenza disease burden in the human population remains significant even with current vaccine usage and much about the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza viruses in human rema...

  17. Status of Trichinella spiralis in domestic swine and wild boar in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Gajadhar, A A; Bisaillon, J R; Appleyard, G D

    1997-01-01

    Evidence of the status of trichinellosis in Canada's national swine herd is provided from data acquired through national surveillance programs and from a prevalence study of Trichinella in wild boar and domestic swine. More than 500,000 swine tested at abattoirs in ongoing animal health surveys since 1980 and 2 national swine serological surveys (1985 and 1990) showed no evidence of Trichinella infection, except for 3 occurrences in a small infected zone in Nova Scotia. The prevalence study of domestic swine and wild boar was conducted for the prevalence of Trichinella after an epidemiological investigation of a 1993 outbreak of human trichinellosis in Ontario showed that the disease was linked to the consumption of wild boar meat originating from 2 farms in the province. Sera and tissues were collected from 391 wild boar and 216 domestic swine originating from 228 farms in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The survey examined approximately 37% of the wild boar slaughtered in Canada in 1994. A pepsin-HCl digestion test of the tissues and an ELISA performed on the sera did not yield any positive results. These findings and the lack of human cases of Trichinella from the consumption of Canadian pork for nearly 2 decades suggest that the parasite has been rare in domestic swine and wild boar raised in Canada. Trichinella spiralis has only been found sporadically in swine in a small region within Nova Scotia. PMID:9342448

  18. Spilled Gallstones Mimicking Peritoneal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Loan, William; Carey, Declan P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Spillage of bile and gallstones due to accidental perforation of the gallbladder wall is often encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although spilled stones were once considered harmless, there is increasing evidence that they can result in septic or other potential complications. Case Report: We report a case of spilled gallstones mimicking peritoneal metastases on radiological investigations; diagnosis was confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy. Conclusion: Every effort should be made to retrieve spilled gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. When all the stones cannot be retrieved, it should be documented in the patient's medical records to avoid delay in the diagnosis of late complications. Diagnostic laparoscopy is useful when the radiological investigations are inconclusive. PMID:19366546

  19. [Severe PERM syndrom mimicking tetanus].

    PubMed

    Wallet, F; Didelot, A; Delannoy, B; Leray, V; Guerin, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old man without significant medical history admitted to the ICU for a progressive paralysis mimicking life-threatening tetanus. Evolution with classical tetanus treatment was negative, with the need for ventilator support and worsening condition being life threatening. Uncommon evolution revealed a rare glycin antibody-associated hyperekplexia (progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity syndrome). Patient dramatically improved with immunosuppressive therapy including plasmatic exchanges, cyclophasmid and high dose corticoid infusions. Intensivists should be aware of this very rare syndrome whose treatment is the opposite of tetanus while presentation is very close. Optimal and treatment could lead to prolonged survival. PMID:25168299

  20. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in swine: the public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Marion; Fratamico, Pina M.; Manning, Shannon D.; Funk, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food-borne pathogens that are an important public health concern. STEC infection is associated with severe clinical diseases in human beings, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which can lead to kidney failure and death. Cattle are the most important STEC reservoir. However, a number of STEC outbreaks and HUS cases have been attributed to pork products. In swine, STEC strains are known to be associated with edema disease. Nevertheless, the relationship between STEC of swine origin and human illness has yet to be determined. This review critically summarizes epidemiologic and biological studies of swine STEC. Several epidemiologic studies conducted in multiple regions of the world have demonstrated that domestic swine can carry and shed STEC. Moreover, animal studies have demonstrated that swine are susceptible to STEC O157:H7 infection and can shed the bacterium for 2 months. A limited number of molecular epidemiologic studies, however, have provided conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between swine STEC and human illness. The role that swine play in STEC transmission to people and the contribution to human disease frequency requires further evaluation. PMID:24397985

  1. Identification of heterologous Torque Teno Viruses in humans and swine

    PubMed Central

    Ssemadaali, Marvin A.; Effertz, Karl; Singh, Pankaj; Kolyvushko, Oleksandr; Ramamoorthy, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Torque Teno Viruses (TTVs) are ubiquitous viruses which are highly prevalent in several mammalian species. Human TTV’s are epidemiologically associated with several human disease conditions such as respiratory illnesses, auto-immune disorders and hepatitis. Recently it was found that swine TTV’s (TTSuVs) can act as primary pathogens. The common occurrence of TTVs as environmental contaminants and the increasing interest in the use of swine organs for xenotransplantation lend importance to the question of whether TTV’s can cross-infect across species. In this study, we examined human and swine sera by swine or human TTV-specific PCRs, to determine whether swine TTVs (TTSuV) DNA can be detected in humans and vice versa. Surprisingly, both human and TTSuV DNA were present in a majority of the samples tested. Transfection of human PBMC’s with TTSuV1 genomic DNA resulted in productive viral infection which was sustained for the three serial passages tested. Lymphoproliferative responses in infected human PBMCs were diminished when compared to the controls. Furthermore, mild to moderate antibody responses against the TTSuV1 ORF2 protein was detected in 16 of the 40 human sera by ELISA. Therefore, these study findings provide initial and fundamental evidence for possible cross-species transmission of TTVs. PMID:27222164

  2. Mimicking Tissue Boundaries by Sharp Multiparameter Matrix Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sapudom, Jiranuwat; Rubner, Stefan; Martin, Steve; Pompe, Tilo

    2016-08-01

    Engineering interfaces of distinct extracellular compartments mimicking native tissues are key for in-depth in vitro studies on developmental and disease processes in biology and medicine. Sharp interfaces of extracellular matrices are constructed based on fibrillar collagen I networks with a multiparameter control of topology, mechanics, and composition, and their distinct impact on triggering the directionality of cancer cell migration is demonstrated. PMID:27125887

  3. Isolation of reassortant H2N3 avian/swine influenza virus from pigs in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April 2006 and September 2006, outbreaks of respiratory disease occurred in growing pigs housed in 2 separate multi-site commercial swine farms, Farm A and Farm B. The swine farms were located 4 miles apart and did not share pigs, feed, personnel, or transportation sources. At both farms, pigs ha...

  4. Virulence gene profiles of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from fecal samples of finishing swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important pathogens responsible for food-borne outbreaks and serious illness including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Certain STEC serogroups may cause edema disease in swine; and similar to cattle, swine have been shown to be a ...

  5. Deletion of the thymidine kinase gene induces complete attenuation of the Georgia isolate of African swine fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs. There are no vaccines to control Africa swine fever (ASF). Experimental vaccines have been developed using genetically modified live attenuated ASFVs obtained by specifically de...

  6. Determination of the cytokine expression profile after infection of (PK-15) Porcine cells with classical swine fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is caused by the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. A highly contagious disease of domestic pigs and wild boars worldwide it causes serious losses to the pig industry. The virulence of CSF viruses is strai...

  7. Comparison of human-like H1 (delta-cluster) influenza A viruses in the swine host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A viruses cause acute respiratory disease in swine. Viruses with H1 hemagglutinin genes from the human seasonal lineage (delat cluster) have been isolated from North American swine since 2003. The objective of this work was to study the pathogenesis and transmission of delta cluster H1 inf...

  8. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  9. Resveratrol Improves Myocardial Perfusion in a Swine Model of Hypercholesterolemia and Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Robich, Michael P.; Osipov, Robert M.; Nezafat, Reza; Feng, Jun; Clements, Richard T.; Bianchi, Cesario; Boodhwani, Munir; Coady, Michael A.; Laham, Roger J.; Sellke, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Resveratrol may provide protection against coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that supplemental resveratrol will improve cardiac perfusion in the ischemic territory of swine with hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results Yorkshire swine were fed either a normal diet (control, n=7), a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCC, n=7), or a hypercholesterolemic diet with supplemental resveratrol (100 mg/kg/day orally, HCRV, n=7). Four weeks later, an ameroid constrictor was placed on the left circumflex artery. Animals underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and coronary angiography 7 weeks later, prior to sacrifice and tissue harvest. Total cholesterol was lowered about 30% in HCRV animals (p<0.001). Regional wall motion analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in inferolateral function from baseline to 7 weeks in HCC swine (p=0.04). There was no significant change in regional function in HCRV swine from baseline to 7 weeks (p=0.32). Tissue blood flow during stress was 2.8 fold greater in HCRV swine when compared to HCC swine (p=0.04). Endothelial dependent microvascular relaxation response to Substance P was diminished in HCC swine which was rescued by resveratrol treatment (p=0.004). Capillary density (PECAM-1 staining) demonstrated fewer capillaries in both HCC and HCRV swine v. control swine (p=0.02). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated significantly greater expression in HCRV v. HCC swine of the following markers of angiogenesis: VEGF (p=0.002), peNOS(ser1177)(p=0.04), NFkB (p=0.004), and pAkt(thr308)(p=0.001). Conclusion Supplemental resveratrol attenuates regional wall motion abnormalities, improves myocardial perfusion in the collateral dependent region, preserves endothelial dependent coronary vessel function, and upregulates markers of angiogenesis associated with the VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:20837905

  10. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to

  11. Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Bernardini, Luigi; Francinetti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis. PMID:25114809

  12. Rational Design of Pathogen-Mimicking Amphiphilic Materials as Nanoadjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulery, Bret D.; Petersen, Latrisha K.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Kong, Chang Sun; Broderick, Scott R.; Kumar, Devender; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda; Rajan, Krishna; Wannemuehler, Michael J.; Bellaire, Bryan H.; Metzger, Dennis W.; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2011-12-01

    An opportunity exists today for cross-cutting research utilizing advances in materials science, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and computational analysis to effectively design the next generation of adjuvants and vaccines. This study integrates these advances into a bottom-up approach for the molecular design of nanoadjuvants capable of mimicking the immune response induced by a natural infection but without the toxic side effects. Biodegradable amphiphilic polyanhydrides possess the unique ability to mimic pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns with respect to persisting within and activating immune cells, respectively. The molecular properties responsible for the pathogen-mimicking abilities of these materials have been identified. The value of using polyanhydride nanovaccines was demonstrated by the induction of long-lived protection against a lethal challenge of Yersinia pestis following a single administration ten months earlier. This approach has the tantalizing potential to catalyze the development of next generation vaccines against diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  13. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY..., the Republic of South Africa, and Uruguay. (b) The importation of any ruminant or swine or any...

  14. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... reliable. (b) The importation of any ruminant or swine or any fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of...

  15. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  16. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source ... FRIDAY, July 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2009 swine flu pandemic originated in pigs in a small ...

  17. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease II; viral pathways in swine, small ruminants, and wildlife, myotropism, chronic syndromes, and molecular virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigation of the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has focused on study of the disease in cattle with less emphasis on pigs, small ruminants, and wildlife. “Atypical” FMD-associated syndromes such as myocarditis, reproductive losses, and chronic heat-intolerance have also received lit...

  18. 75 FR 65431 - Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... has been confirmed in Japan. This action restricts the importation of ruminants and swine and the fresh meat and other animal products of ruminants and swine from that country and is necessary to..., including cattle, deer, goats, sheep, swine, and other animals. The disease is highly communicable and...

  19. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  20. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  1. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  2. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    MedlinePlus

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... of the H1N1 virus were found in pigs (swine). Over time, the virus changed (mutated) and infected ... 25654610 . Treanor JJ. Influenza (including avian influenza and swine influenza). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  3. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  4. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  5. Coronary, aortic and cerebral atherosclerosis in swine of 3 age-groups: implications*

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, H. L.; Luginbühl, H.; Pivnik, L.

    1970-01-01

    Coronary, aortic and intercranial atherosclerosis has been compared in swine maintained under the following conditions: (1) adequate food and housing but animals held in test social situations for 1 year; postmortem examination at ages of 13 to 15 months; (2) food and management designed for high productivity; postmortem examination at ages of 6 to 9 years; (3) an outdoor system of husbandry and a cooked garbage diet; postmortem examination at ages of 8 to 14 years. Extramural coronary, aortic and intracranial atherosclerosis was most advanced in swine that were fed garbage. Cerebral infarction (cerebromalacia) also was most advanced in these swine but developed in swine of the younger groups in which it was associated with atherosclerosis of small intracranial extracerebral arteries rather than with stenosis of the larger intracranial extracerebral arteries as in the oldest swine. The lesions of atherosclerosis in swine of these 3 age-groups form a continuous series and are morphologically identical with corresponding stages of atherosclerosis of man. It is concluded that swine can replace non-human primates as subjects for studies of atherosclerotic vascular disease, and that experimental designs must allow for age and behaviour patterns of the species. ImagesFIG. 4-7FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5310139

  6. Genetic variability and distribution of Classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Beer, Martin; Goller, Katja V; Staubach, Christoph; Blome, Sandra

    2015-06-01

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease that affects domestic and wild pigs worldwide. The causative agent of the disease is Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. On the genome level, CSFV can be divided into three genotypes with three to four sub-genotypes. Those genotypes can be assigned to distinct geographical regions. Knowledge about CSFV diversity and distribution is important for the understanding of disease dynamics and evolution, and can thus help to design optimized control strategies. For this reason, the geographical pattern of CSFV diversity and distribution are outlined in the presented review. Moreover, current knowledge with regard to genetic virulence markers or determinants and the role of the quasispecies composition is discussed. PMID:26050570

  7. Cell mediated innate responses of cattle and swine are diverse during foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection: a unique landscape of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Toka, Felix N; Golde, William T

    2013-05-01

    Pathogens in general and pathogenic viruses in particular have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to escape the immune response of mammalian species. Viruses that cause acute disease tend to bear characteristics that make them very contagious, as survival does not derive from chronicity of infection, but spread of disease throughout the herd. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most contagious viruses known. Upon infection of susceptible species, cloven-hoofed animals, the virus proliferates rapidly and causes a vesicular disease within 2-4 days. Disease symptoms resolve by 10 days to 2 weeks and in most cases, virus can no longer be detected. Periods of fever and viremia are usually brief, 1-3 days. In vivo control of virus infection and clearance of the virus during and following acute infection is of particular interest. The interaction of this virus with cells mediating the early, innate immune response has been analyzed in a number of recent studies. In most reports, the virus has a distinct inhibitory effect on the response of cells early in infection. Here we review these new data and discuss the dynamics of the interaction of virus with different cell types mediating the immune response to infection. PMID:23727070

  8. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adrienne L; Carlson, Daniel F; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  9. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Adrienne L.; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  10. Virulence and draft genome sequence overview of multiple strains of the swine pathogen Haemophilus parasuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is the cause of Glässer’s disease in swine, which is characterized by systemic infection resulting in polyserositis, meningitis, and arthritis. Characterization of this animal disease is complicated by the enormous differences in the severity of disease caused by H. parasuis str...

  11. Humanlike Robots - Synthetically Mimicking Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Nature inspired many inventions and the field of technology that is based on the mimicking or inspiration of nature is widely known as Biomimetics and it is increasingly leading to many new capabilities. There are numerous examples of biomimetic successes including the copying of fins for swimming, and the inspiration of the insects and birds flight. More and more commercial implementations of biomimetics are appearing and behaving lifelike and applications are emerging that are important to our daily life. Making humanlike robots is the ultimate challenge to biomimetics and, for many years, it was considered science fiction, but such robots are becoming an engineering reality. Advances in producing such robot are allowing them to perform impressive functions and tasks. The development of such robots involves addressing many challenges and is raising concerns that are related to fear of their application implications and potential ethical issues. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and challenges will be reviewed.

  12. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    PubMed

    Hau, Samantha J; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R; Frana, Timothy S; Nicholson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a reduced

  13. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Samantha J.; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R.; Frana, Timothy S.; Nicholson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage’s absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a

  14. Divergent immune responses and disease outcomes in piglets immunized with inactivated and attenuated H3N2 swine influenza vaccines in the presence of maternally-derived antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur in pigs immunized with whole-inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine and subsequently infected with an antigenically divergent virus of the same HA subtype. Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines administered intranasally h...

  15. Divergent immune responses and disease outcomes in piglets immunized with inactivated and attenuated H3N2 swine influenza vaccines in the presence of maternally-derived antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur in pigs given whole-inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine upon infection with an antigenically divergent virus. VAERD was first characterized with H1 viruses, and later described in pigs vaccinated with H3N2 WIV and challenged wit...

  16. Cell mediated innate responses of cattle and swine are diverse during foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection: A unique landscape of innate immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogens in general and pathogenic viruses in particular have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to escape the immune response of mammalian species. Viruses that cause acute disease and are rapidly cleared tend to bear characteristics that make them very contagious, as survival does not derive from chr...

  17. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  18. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  19. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  20. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  1. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  2. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  3. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  4. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  5. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  6. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  7. Comparative virulence of wild-type H1N1pdm09 influenza A isolates in swine.

    PubMed

    Henningson, Jamie N; Rajao, Daniela S; Kitikoon, Pravina; Lorusso, Alessio; Culhane, Marie R; Lewis, Nicola S; Anderson, Tavis K; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-23

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) influenza A virus (IAV) reached pandemic status and was soon after detected in pigs worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared lung pathology, viral replication and shedding and the antigenic relationships of four wild-type H1N1pdm09 viruses in pigs: one human (CA/09) and three isolated in swine after the pandemic (IL/09, IL/10, and MN/10). The swine strains were selected based upon unique amino acid substitutions in the HA protein. All selected viruses resulted in mild disease and viral shedding through nasal and oral fluids, however, viral replication and the degree of pathology varied between the isolates. A/Swine/IL/5265/2010 (IL/10), with substitutions I120M, S146G, S186P, V252M, had lower viral titers in the lungs and nasal secretions and fewer lung lesions. The other two swine viruses caused respiratory pathology and replicated to titers similar to the human CA/09, although MN/10 (with mutations D45Y, K304E, A425S) had lower nasal shedding. Swine-adapted H1N1pdm09 have zoonotic potential, and have reassorted with other co-circulating swine viruses, influencing the evolution of IAV in swine globally. Further, our results suggest that amino acid changes in the HA gene have the potential to alter the virulence of H1N1pdm09 in swine. Importantly, the limited clinical signs in pigs could result in continued circulation of these viruses with other endemic swine IAVs providing opportunities for reassortment. PMID:25601799

  8. Environmental and health studies of farm workers in Swedish swine confinement buildings.

    PubMed Central

    Donham, K; Haglind, P; Peterson, Y; Rylander, R; Belin, L

    1989-01-01

    The relation between the health of workers and the environment in swine confinement buildings was investigated in a study of 57 workers on 30 swine farms in southern Sweden and 55 matched controls. Swine workers reported significantly higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms, more frequent colds and absence due to chest illness, and a history of pneumonia. The increased frequency of symptoms of respiratory disease was related to the number of years and percent of the day spent working with swine. Symptoms were also associated with respirable dust, total dust, endotoxin in total dust, and number of microbes in the air of the work environment. In a multiple regression analysis of the relation between 16 different environmental parameters to work period shifts of five pulmonary function parameters, endotoxin was found to be significantly related to the FEV1 in a dose dependent way. PMID:2920141

  9. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2016-09-25

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd - either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd, a randomly selected herd or in multiple herds simultaneously. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on input parameters. Given the inputs and assumptions of the model, epidemics of ASF in Denmark are predicted to be small, affecting about 14 herds in the worst-case scenario. The duration of an epidemic is predicted to vary from 1 to 76days. Substantial economic damages are predicted, with median direct costs and export losses of €12 and €349 million, respectively, when epidemics were initiated in multiple herds. Each infectious herd resulted in 0 to 2 new infected herds varying from 0 to 5 new infected herds, depending on the index herd type. PMID:27599924

  10. Bispecific antibody mimicking factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2016-05-01

    There are some issues in the current factor (F)VIII replacement therapy for severe hemophilia A. One is mental and physical burden for the multiple intravenous infusions, and the other is difficulty in the hemostatic treatment for the patients with FVIII inhibitor. The development of novel drug with fully hemostatic effect, simply procedure, and long-acting reaction has been expected. Recently, FVIIIa-mimicking humanized recombinant bispecific antibody (ACE910) against FIXa and FX was developed. In the non-human clinical study, primate model of acquired hemophilia A demonstrated that the ACE910 was effective on both on-going and spontaneous bleedings. A phase I clinical study was conducted in healthy adults by single subcutaneous infusion of ACE910, followed by the patients' part study, Japanese patients with severe hemophilia A without or with inhibitor were treated with once-weekly subcutaneous injection of ACE910 at three dose levels for 12 successive weeks. There was no significant adverse event related to ACE910 in the clinical and laboratorial findings, and t1/2 of ACE910 was ∼30 days. The median annual bleeding rates were reduced very markedly dose-dependently, independently of inhibitor. Furthermore, among the patients with dose escalation, bleeding rate was decreased as ACE910 dose was increased. In conclusion, ACE910 would have a number of promising features: its high subcutaneous bioavailability and long half-life make the patients possible to be injected subcutaneously with a once-a-week or less frequency. In addition, ACE910 would provide the bleeding prophylactic efficacy, independently of inhibitor. PMID:27207420

  11. 76 FR 15211 - Changes in Disease Status of the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina With Regard to Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Federal Register on November 16, 2010 (75 FR 69851-69857, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0034), with an effective... Catarina With Regard to Certain Ruminant and Swine Diseases; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Animal and Plant...-mouth disease (FMD), rinderpest, swine vesicular disease (SVD), classical swine fever (CSF), and...

  12. Lepra reaction with lucio phenomenon mimicking cutaneous vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Parida, Jyoti Ranjan; Chowdhury, Abhra Chandra; Pani, Krushna Chandra; Kumari, Niraj; Krishnani, Narendra; Agarwal, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is a disease typically found in the tropics. Patients with leprosy can have varying presentation with constitutional symptoms, joint pains, skin nodules, and rarely a vasculitis-like picture with skin ulcers and neuropathy. We present a young lady who presented with the rare manifestation of skin infarcts mimicking cutaneous vasculitis, diagnosed on histopathology to have Lucio phenomenon on a background of lepromatous leprosy. With increasing migration and widespread use of biologic response modifiers, clinicians all over the world need to be aware of various presentations of leprosy as well as needing to keep an open mind while considering the differential diagnoses of vasculitis. PMID:25580317

  13. Lepra Reaction with Lucio Phenomenon Mimicking Cutaneous Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Parida, Jyoti Ranjan; Chowdhury, Abhra Chandra; Pani, Krushna Chandra; Kumari, Niraj; Krishnani, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is a disease typically found in the tropics. Patients with leprosy can have varying presentation with constitutional symptoms, joint pains, skin nodules, and rarely a vasculitis-like picture with skin ulcers and neuropathy. We present a young lady who presented with the rare manifestation of skin infarcts mimicking cutaneous vasculitis, diagnosed on histopathology to have Lucio phenomenon on a background of lepromatous leprosy. With increasing migration and widespread use of biologic response modifiers, clinicians all over the world need to be aware of various presentations of leprosy as well as needing to keep an open mind while considering the differential diagnoses of vasculitis. PMID:25580317

  14. Isolated Gallbladder Intramucosal Metastatic Melanoma With Features Mimicking Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lo, Amy A; Peevey, Joseph; Lo, Edward C; Guitart, Joan; Rao, M Sambasivia; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanoma has a variety of morphologic patterns and can metastasize and mimic any type of neoplastic process creating significant diagnostic difficulty. When metastasis to the gastrointestinal system is identified, it is most commonly associated with widely metastatic disease. We report a rare case of isolated gallbladder intramucosal metastatic melanoma with features mimicking lymphoepithelial carcinoma in an adult patient who presented with cholecystitis. Additionally, we report the imaging and morphologic features and discuss the importance of these findings along with a clear clinical history and immunohistochemical profile to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26041740

  15. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  16. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  17. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  18. Energy conservation in swine buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

  19. STATE OF THE ART: SWINE WASTE PRODUCTION AND PRETREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of waste generation and pretreatment processes was compiled, expanded, and interpreted for the swine production industry. Typical swine units based upon waste management techniques were detailed as concrete slab facilities, slotted floorpit units, and swine drylot or pas...

  20. Swine model of Haemophilus ducreyi infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, M M; San Mateo, L R; Orndorff, P E; Almond, G; Kawula, T H

    1995-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is a strict human pathogen that causes sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease. We infected domestic swine with H. ducreyi 35000, resulting in the development of cutaneous ulcers histologically resembling human chancroid lesions. Intraepidermal lesions progressed from pustules to ulcers containing polymorphonuclear leukocytes and were accompanied by a dermal inflammatory infiltrate containing T cells and macrophages. H. ducreyi was recovered from lesions up to 17 days after inoculation, and pigs did not develop immunity to reinfection with the challenge strain. Features of the model include inoculation through abrasions in the epidermis, ambient housing temperatures for infected pigs, the ability to deliver multiple different inocula to a single host, and the availability of monoclonal antibodies against porcine immune cells permitting immunohistochemical characterization of the host immune response to H. ducreyi infection. PMID:7622236

  1. The Ep152R ORF of African Swine Fever Virus strain Georgia encodes for an essential gene that interacts with host protein BAG6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The viral genome encodes for more than 150 genes, and only a select few have been studied in some detail. Here we rep...

  2. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Porcine circovirus-2 in swine feces in a Porcine circovirus disease-affected commercial herd and a nonaffected commercial herd

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Kathleen A.; Harding, John C.S.; Parker, Sarah; Krakowka, Steven; Allan, Gordon; Ellis, John A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined if pigs in a Porcine circovirus disease (PCVD)-affected herd (n = 100) had shed more Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in their feces than pigs in a PCVD-nonaffected herd (n = 101), and if differences in shedding among production stages within and between the herds existed. The PCV-2 shedding was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The highest median PCV-2 shedding was found in the nursery of the PCVD-affected herd and in the grower of the PCVD-nonaffected herd. The PCV-2 shedding was significantly higher in earlier stages (newly weaned, nursery, and pregrower) in the PCVD-affected herd (Wilcoxon rank sum; P < 0.001) compared with the PCVD-nonaffected herd. Porcine circovirus-2 DNA was not detected in a significant proportion of lactating sows (parity ≥ 3) in the PCVD-nonaffected herd (Fisher’s exact test; P = 0.001). The results of this study suggest there may be an association between the presence of PCV-2 in the feces of lactating sows and increased PCV-2 shedding in younger pigs. PMID:19252710

  3. Chinese border disease virus strain JSLS12-01 infects piglets and down-regulates the antibody responses of classical swine fever virus C strain vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Liu, Xia; Hao, Fei; Yang, Leilei; Deng, Jiawu; Zhang, Wenwen; Wei, Jianzhong; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2015-07-31

    During 2012 and 2013, several border disease virus (BDV) strains were identified from Chinese goat and sheep herds. At the same time, pigs from the same areas were found to be seropositive to BDV by ELISA, without showing clinical signs (unpublished data). To examine the susceptibility of pigs to the Chinese BDV strains, BDV isolate JSLS12-01, isolated from naturally infected sheep, was used to infect pigs. Antibody responses, viremia, clinical signs and pathological changes of the infected animals were examined. It confirmed that the current BDV strain could infect the domestic pigs, the animals showed viremia during 4 to 14 days post infection (dpi) and sero-conversion from 14dpi; no clinical and pathological changes were observed. In addition, CSFV maternal antibody did not influence BDV infection. Subsequently, pigs were infected with the BDV isolate and vaccinated with Hog cholera lapinized virus (HCLV) 21 days later to determine the effect of BDV infection on antibody induction of CSFV vaccination. The specific CSFV antibody and neutralizing antibody titers of the BDV infected group remained negative after the primary vaccination. Even after the boost vaccination, they were still significantly lower than those of the uninfected groups (p<0.05). These results indicated that BDV infection could down-regulate the antibody responses of CSFV C-strain vaccination. It should be paid attention that BDV prevalence in pig herds and in live vaccines might hamper the vaccination of CSF. PMID:26117151

  4. The swine CD81 enhances E2-based DNA vaccination against classical swine fever.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenliang; Mao, Li; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Xia; Yang, Leilei; Zhang, Wenwen; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2015-07-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease that affects the pig industry worldwide. The glycoprotein E2 of CSFV can induce neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity, and is widely used for novel vaccine development. The objective of this study was to explore whether a tetraspanin molecule CD81 could improve the immune responses of an E2-based DNA vaccine. Plasmids pVAX-CD81, pVAX-E2 and pVAX-CD81-E2 were constructed and the expression of target proteins was confirmed in BHK-21 cells by indirect immunofluorescence assay. BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups and immunized with different plasmids (pVAX-E2, pVAX-CD81-E2, pVAX-E2+pVAX-CD81, pVAX-CD81 and PBS) three times with two weeks interval. The results showed that the introduction of CD81 promoted higher humoral and cellular immune responses than E2 expression alone (P<0.05). In addition, immunization with pVAX-CD81-E2 induced stronger immune responses than pVAX-E2+pVAX-CD81. Furthermore, four groups of pigs were immunized with pVAX-E2, pVAX-CD81-E2, pVAX-CD81 and PBS, respectively. Humoral and cellular immune responses detection showed similar results with those in mice. Compared to pVAX-E2, pVAX-CD81-E2 induced higher titers of neutralizing antibodies after viral challenge and conferred stronger protection. These results confirmed the capacity of swine CD81 enhancing the humoral and cellular responses with an adjuvant effect on CSFV DNA vaccine. This is the first report demonstrating the adjuvant effect of CD81 to enhance the DNA vaccination for swine pathogen. PMID:26051512

  5. Development of single dilution immunoassay to detect E2 protein specific classical swine fever virus antibody.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Barman, Nagendra N; Khatoon, Elina; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in swine. The disease is endemic in different parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect pigs from CSFV infection. The virus surface protein E2 is the major immunogenic protein eliciting protective immunity against CSFV infection in swine. The whole virus antigen cannot differentiate CSFV from other pestiviruses as it cross reacts with border disease and bovine viral diarrhoea viruses. Commercial available ELISA is based on the whole CSFV particle and can lead to false positive results. Moreover, the available commercial ELISA is not cost effective. In the present study, a recombinant E2 protein based single serum dilution ELISA was developed which showed enhanced sensitivity, specificity and accuracy as compared to commercial CSFV detection ELISA. The recombinant E2 protein based ELISA could be an alternate to existing diagnostics against CSFV infection in pigs. PMID:27032503

  6. Evidence for porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) in Brazilian swine herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...

  7. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and 0579-0333) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.9, see the List of CFR... where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  8. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-0333) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.9, see the List of CFR Sections... where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  9. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and 0579-0333) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.9, see the List of CFR... where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  10. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-0333) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.9, see the List of CFR Sections... where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  11. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Feral Swine Pseudorabies Virus Isolates in Domestic Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies is one of the oldest described swine diseases recognized as reproductive failure, and respiratory and central nervous system disease. It is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV). The development of vaccines and serologic tests that allow the differentiation of vaccinated pigs from naturall...

  12. The emergence and evolution of swine viral diseases: to what extent have husbandry systems and global trade contributed to their distribution and diversity?

    PubMed

    Drew, T W

    2011-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, pig production has been characterised by a rapid increase in the volume of pig meat produced, greater intensification of the pig-rearing process and much greater international movement of products. There have also been many novel viral diseases that challenge the industry. Are these two developments linked and, if so, how? To understand how changes in the industry may influence the evolution of viruses, it is important to understand something of evolutionary theory. For RNA viruses, the concept of 'quasispecies' has moved solidly from theory to fact. Such viruses do not exist as a single entity, but as a 'cloud' of viruses, whose degree of diversity is influenced by a number of factors. Chief among these are the size and rate of the replicating population, along with the availability and diversity of susceptible hosts. A feature of RNA viruses is a high level of mutation, due to lack of capability to correct errors on the part of the host cell. Both in vivo and in vitro, RNA viruses have been shown to accumulate and fix these mutations, leading to bottleneck events and fitness loss, the phenomenon known as'Muller's ratchet'. Likewise, the opposite effect, fitness gain, can be achieved in an environment providing for high levels of replication and the generation of large populations of virus. This has been shown to be possible in vitro by high-volume passage. It is possible that the regular introduction of diverse viruses within large-scale pig production provides an in vivo equivalent that could drive quasispecies populations to increased fitness, and may explain why emergent viruses, either new to science or with new synergies and presentation, seem to be appearing more commonly. PMID:21809756

  13. Detection by Reverse Transcription-PCR and Genetic Characterization of Field Isolates of Swine Hepatitis E Virus from Pigs in Different Geographic Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F. F.; Haqshenas, G.; Guenette, D. K.; Halbur, P. G.; Schommer, S. K.; Pierson, F. W.; Toth, T.E.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern in many developing countries. HEV is also endemic in some industrialized counties, including the United States. With our recent discovery of swine HEV in pigs that is genetically closely related to human HEV, hepatitis E is now considered a zoonotic disease. Human strains of HEV are genetically heterogenic. So far in the United States, only one strain of swine HEV has been identified and characterized from a pig. To determine the extent of genetic variations and the nature of swine HEV infections in U.S. pigs, we developed a universal reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay that is capable of detecting genetically divergent strains of HEV. By using this universal RT-PCR assay, we tested fecal and serum samples of pigs of 2 to 4 months of age from 37 different U.S. swine farms for the presence of swine HEV RNA. Thirty-four of the 96 pigs (35%) and 20 of the 37 swine herds (54%) tested were positive for swine HEV RNA. The sequences of a 348-bp region within the ORF2 gene of 27 swine HEV isolates from different geographic regions were determined. Sequence analyses revealed that the 27 U.S. swine HEV isolates shared 88 to 100% nucleotide sequence identities with each other and 89 to 98% identities with the prototype U.S. strain of swine HEV. These U.S. swine HEV isolates are only distantly related to the Taiwanese strains of swine HEV, with about 74 to 78% nucleotide sequence identities; to most known human strains of HEV worldwide, with <79% sequence identities; and to avian HEV, with 54 to 56% sequence identities. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the U.S. swine HEV isolates identified in this study clustered in the same genotype with the prototype U.S. swine HEV and the two U.S. strains of human HEV. The data from this study indicated that swine HEV is widespread and enzoonotic in U.S. swine herds and that, as is with human HEV, swine HEV isolates from different geographic regions of the world are

  14. Tissue mimicking materials for dental ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul S; Culjat, Martin O; Grundfest, Warren S; Brown, Elliott R; White, Shane N

    2008-04-01

    While acoustic tissue mimicking materials have been explored for a variety of soft and hard biological tissues, no dental hard tissue mimicking materials have been characterized. Tooth phantoms are necessary to better understand acoustic phenomenology within the tooth environment and to accelerate the advancement of dental ultrasound imaging systems. In this study, soda lime glass and dental composite were explored as surrogates for human enamel and dentin, respectively, in terms of compressional velocity, attenuation, and acoustic impedance. The results suggest that a tooth phantom consisting of glass and composite can effectively mimic the acoustic behavior of a natural human tooth. PMID:18396919

  15. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  16. Rapidly progressive sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma of the pleura mimicking pulmonary empyema.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kohei; Kim, Young Hak; Nakatani, Koichi; Mio, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Refractory empyema occasionally reflects hidden malignant disease. We presented a rare case of rapidly progressive malignant mesothelioma of the pleura (MPM) mimicking empyema. Physicians should be aware of MPM when patients with empyema are refractory to the standard treatment, and PET-CT may be helpful in establishing a precise diagnosis in such cases. PMID:26509028

  17. Dermatitis artefacta in a 12-year-old girl mimicking cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Angus, Janet; Affleck, Andrew G; Croft, Jane C Ravens; Leach, Iain H; Slater, David N; Millard, Leslie G

    2007-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta or factitious disease may be unrecognized in children. We present a 12-year-old girl who had an unusual facial lesion on the chin, which was self-inflicted but histologically mimicked cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Our report emphasizes both the potential diagnostic pitfalls and the importance of clinicopathologic correlation. PMID:17542895

  18. Primary thyroid paraganglioma mimicking medullary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YU, XING; WANG, YONG; WANG, PING; JI, CAI-HONG; MIAO, CHUN-DI; ZHENG, SHU

    2015-01-01

    Primary thyroid paraganglioma (TP) is an uncommon tumor, and in rare cases, this disease tends to mimic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The present study reports a rare case of primary TP mimicking thyroid carcinoma, accompanied by hyperthyroidism. A 30-year-old female presented with an anterior cervical mass. Pre-operative radiological studies and operative frozen section analysis indicated an atypical MTC. Primary TP was finally diagnosed by pathology and immunohistochemical staining. Laboratory examinations (thyroid hormones tests) and Tc99m emission computed tomography revealed hyperthyroidism. Gene analysis of TP-associated gene mutations was negative. Surgical resection was performed as a curative approach and there is currently no metastasis after 36 months of follow-up. Surgeons must be aware of this disease in order to ensure a correct diagnosis and to prevent them from performing unnecessary procedures. The current study presents a case of primary TP mimicking MTC, discusses the radiographic results and histological characteristics, and provides a review of the associated literature. PMID:26622613

  19. Representations of swine flu: perspectives from a Malaysian pig farm.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Hassan, Sharifah Binti Syed; Dhanoa, Amreeta

    2011-07-01

    Novel influenza viruses are seen, internationally, as posing considerable health challenges, but public responses to such viruses are often rooted in cultural representations of disease and risk. However, little research has been conducted in locations associated with the origin of a pandemic. We examined representations and risk perceptions associated with swine flu amongst 120 Malaysian pig farmers. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents felt at particular risk of infection, two-thirds were somewhat or very concerned about being infected. Those respondents who were the most anxious believed particular societal "out-groups" (homosexuals, the homeless and prostitutes) to be at higher infection risk. Although few (4%) reported direct discrimination, 46% claimed friends had avoided them since the swine flu outbreak. Findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary, social representations and terror management theories of response to pandemic threat. PMID:21936262

  20. Induced Parturition in Swine Herds

    PubMed Central

    King, G. J.; Robertson, H. A.; Elliot, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of various levels of prostaglandin F2α were administered to 116 pregnant swine in three commercial herds and the University research unit on Day 111, 112 or 113 of gestation. Sixty-three percent of the treated animals farrowed during the working day immediately following treatment. The parturition time, birth weight, litter size, number of piglets weaned, growth of the piglets to weaning and subsequent rebreeding of the dams were comparable with the expected performance in the herds. The results indicated that prostaglandin F2α in doses ranging from 5 to 12.5 mg per animal were effective for induction of parturition in a substantial proportion of the treated animals. Successful induction of parturition could reduce the farrowing interval for batches, allow more supervision of farrowing, facilitate transfer of piglets from large to small litters and generally increase efficiency in the farrowing unit. This technique could have practical application in intensive swine production units. PMID:466637

  1. One-Health Simulation Modelling: A Case Study of Influenza Spread between Human and Swine Populations using NAADSM.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2016-02-01

    The circulation of zoonotic influenza A viruses including pH1N1 2009 and H5N1 continue to present a constant threat to animal and human populations. Recently, an H3N2 variant spread from pigs to humans and between humans in limited numbers. Accordingly, this research investigated a range of scenarios of the transmission dynamics of pH1N1 2009 virus at the swine-human interface while accounting for different percentages of swine workers initially immune. Furthermore, the feasibility of using NAADSM (North American Animal Disease Spread Model) applied as a one-health simulation model was assessed. The study population included 488 swine herds and 29, 707 households of people within a county in Ontario, Canada. Households were categorized as follows: (i) rural households with swine workers, (ii) rural households without swine workers, and (iii) urban households without swine workers. Forty-eight scenarios were investigated, based on the combination of six scenarios around the transmissibility of the virus at the interface and four vaccination coverage levels of swine workers (0-60%), all under two settings of either swine or human origin of the virus. Outcomes were assessed in terms of stochastic 'die-out' fraction, size and time to peak epidemic day, overall size and duration of the outbreaks. The modelled outcomes indicated that minimizing influenza transmissibility at the interface and targeted vaccination of swine workers had significant beneficial effects. Our results indicate that NAADSM can be used as a framework to model the spread and control of contagious zoonotic diseases among animal and human populations, under certain simplifying assumptions. Further evaluation of the model is required. In addition to these specific findings, this study serves as a benchmark that can provide useful input to a future one-health influenza modelling studies. Some pertinent information gaps were also identified. Enhanced surveillance and the collection of high

  2. Mutations in the Carboxyl Terminal Region of E2 Glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus are Responsible for Viral Attenuation in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously reported that combining specific genetic information from the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) vaccine strain CS with that of virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) resulted in disease attenuation for pigs. To identify the specific amino acids mediate attenuation, a series of chime...

  3. Tinea capitis mimicking dissecting cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Rachel D; Bellet, Jane S

    2013-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common disease of childhood that typically follows one of several clinical patterns. Our patient and several previously reported cases demonstrate the existence of a dissecting cellulitis-like presentation of tinea capitis. This variant should be recognized to prevent misdiagnosis of dissecting cellulitis and allow proper treatment to prevent scarring alopecia. PMID:24134312

  4. Rare Mimickers of Exostosis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Perubhotla, Lakshmi Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Exophytic growths from bones are a common entity. Osteochondroma is the most common benign exophytic lesion and we tend to diagnose every benign looking exophytic lesion as osteochondroma. Here we reported two entities of cases, one was Nora’s lesion and another one was supracondylar process of humerus, both of which were mimickers of osteochondroma and their salient and differentiating features from osteochondromas.

  5. Control of swine pseudorabies in China: Opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Luo, Yuzi; Wang, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Jin; Li, Na; Song, Kun; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2016-02-01

    Pseudorabies (PR), also known as Aujeszky's disease (AD), is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) or called suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1). It is an economically significant viral disease of pigs and other animals. Although the disease has been eradicated in commercial swine populations of some countries using gE-deleted vaccines and differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy, PR continues to be one of the most important diseases of pigs in many countries, particularly in regions with dense pig populations, including China. This article reviews the current situation of PR in China, including epidemiology, diagnostic assays, control strategies and challenges of the disease. PR has been endemic in most provinces of China largely due to the lack of appropriate compulsory vaccination campaigns of pigs, sufficient awareness and biosecurity measures, although gE-deleted vaccines based on the Bartha-K61 strain and regional DIVA-based eradication programs have been widely used in the past decades. Notably, since 2011, an emerging variant PRV with enhanced pathogenicity has become prevalent in vaccinated swine herds in many regions of China and the disease situation is worsening. Control and eventual eradication of PR remain a big challenge in China, and strengthened control measures based on updated DIVA strategy are urgently needed toward national eradication of PR. PMID:26790944

  6. Controlling Swine Odor with Natural Windbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of malodor from swine facilities are an increasing environmental concern for swine producers and nearby local communities. Use of natural windbreaks for odor abatement is recent and the science in support of using windbreaks for this purpose is limited. To provide sound science to the stu...

  7. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  8. Summary of Control Issues for Swine Influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple subtypes of endemic swine influenza virus (SIV) co-circulate in the U.S. and Canada (H3N2, H1N1, and H1N2 with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses). As a result of reassortment events and antigenic drift, four H1 SIV...

  9. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in the Federal Register on October 26, 2009 (74 FR 54928), inviting... and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 206 RIN 0580-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain... (1999 Act) by establishing the Swine Contract Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the...

  10. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  11. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  12. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  13. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  14. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  15. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  16. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  17. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  18. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  19. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  20. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  1. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  2. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  3. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  4. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  5. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  6. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  8. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  9. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  11. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  12. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  13. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  14. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  15. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  16. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  17. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  18. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  19. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  20. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  2. Introduction to Swine Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to swine production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the swine industry; (2) breeds of swine; (3) principles of swine selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (6) industry…

  3. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  4. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  5. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  6. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  7. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  8. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  9. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  10. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  11. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  12. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  13. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  14. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  15. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  16. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  17. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  18. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  19. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  20. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  1. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  2. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  3. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  4. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  5. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  6. Identification of H2N3 influenza A viruses from swine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjun; Vincent, Amy L.; Gramer, Marie R.; Brockwell, Christy B.; Lager, Kelly M.; Janke, Bruce H.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Patnayak, Devi P.; Webby, Richard J.; Richt, Jürgen A.

    2007-01-01

    Although viruses of each of the 16 influenza A HA subtypes are potential human pathogens, only viruses of the H1, H2, and H3 subtype are known to have been successfully established in humans. H2 influenza viruses have been absent from human circulation since 1968, and as such they pose a substantial human pandemic risk. In this report, we isolate and characterize genetically similar avian/swine virus reassortant H2N3 influenza A viruses isolated from diseased swine from two farms in the United States. These viruses contained leucine at position 226 of the H2 protein, which has been associated with increased binding affinity to the mammalian α2,6Gal-linked sialic acid virus receptor. Correspondingly, the H2N3 viruses were able to cause disease in experimentally infected swine and mice without prior adaptation. In addition, the swine H2N3 virus was infectious and highly transmissible in swine and ferrets. Taken together, these findings suggest that the H2N3 virus has undergone some adaptation to the mammalian host and that their spread should be very closely monitored. PMID:18093945

  7. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with...

  8. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with...

  9. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with...

  10. An epidemiological overview of swine trichinellosis in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Wang, Z Q

    2011-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a major food-borne zoonosis with health, social, and economic impacts. Epidemiological data on swine trichinellosis in China from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from seven Provinces/autonomous regions/Municipalities (P/A/M) and analyzed and sero-epidemiological data were acquired from five P/A. The seroprevalence ranged from 0.01% to 29.95% as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or an immunochromatographic strip method. The prevalence of Trichinella infection in swine slaughtered at abattoirs varied from 0% to 5.75% in five P/A. Between 2005 and 2009, endemic areas of swine trichinellosis were located mainly in the Western (Guangxi and Qinghai), central (Henan and Hubei), and North-eastern parts (Heilongjiang) of China. Swine trichinellosis in China is transmitted mostly through garbage. Pigs infected with Trichinella are predominately from small backyard farms where animals are raised under poor hygienic conditions, and from rural and mountainous areas where they range freely at pasture. The prevalence of Trichinella in pork sold at the market was reported in four P/A, and varied from 0.06% to 5.6% as determined by trichinoscopy or the digestion method. From 2005 to 2009, 15 outbreaks of human trichinellosis, with 1387 cases and 4 deaths, were recorded in three P/A of South-western China. Twelve (85.71%) of these 15 outbreaks were caused by the eating of raw or undercooked pork, which remains the predominant source of trichinellosis in humans. Pig-rearing practices must be improved, and mandatory inspection of pork further strengthened in rural and mountainous areas in Western China for the control of the disease. PMID:21296013

  11. Endometriosis mimicking colonic stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Vaibhav; Slattery, Eoin; Garud, Sagar; Sethi, Saurabh; Wang, Helen; Poylin, Vitaliy Y.; Berzin, Tyler M.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extra-uterine sites; it is a common disease affecting women of reproductive age. Endometrial tissue can implant itself to various organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, and can cause significant gastrointestinal symptoms. These ectopic endometrial tissue implants are usually located in the pelvis but can be present almost anywhere in the body. Endometriosis seems to be the most frequent cause of chronic pelvic pain in women of reproductive age and may cause prolonged suffering and disability that negatively affect health-related quality of life. We report a case in a generally healthy young female patient who presented for evaluation of diarrhea. PMID:25725039

  12. Diffuse peritoneal deciduosis mimicking metastatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baroni Cruz, Dennis; Dhamer, Thricy; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich; Dupont, Roberta Finkler

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with an uneventful antenatal period underwent a caesarean section for breech presentation. At laparotomy, there were multiple yellowish elastic nodules distributed along the parietal peritoneal surface, totalling over 30 lesions and worrying the surgical team. The conclusive diagnosis of peritoneal deciduosis was supported by pathological analysis (histology and immunohistochemistry). The present case reports an uncommon presentation of diffuse peritoneal deciduosis mimicking metastatic lesions. PMID:24526201

  13. Intracranial capillary hemangioma mimicking a dissociative disorder

    PubMed Central

    John, Santosh G.; Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Lacasse, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas, hamartomatous proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, are rare in the central nervous system (CNS). Intracranial capillary hemangiomas presenting with reversible behavioral abnormalities and focal neurological deficits have rarely been reported. We report a case of CNS capillary hemangioma presenting with transient focal neurological deficits and behavioral abnormalities mimicking Ganser's syndrome. Patient underwent total excision of the vascular malformation, resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24765434

  14. Foreign Body Mimicking a Dental Implant Radiographically.

    PubMed

    Demirkol, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Foreign bodies are often encountered in the maxillofacial region and can present in several ways. They frequently occur as a result of accidents, explosions, and gunshot injuries or because of iatrogenic factors in therapeutic interventions in daily dental practice. This report describes an unusual case of a broken elevator blade mimicking a dental implant embedded in alveolar bone radiographically, within the maxillary palatal mucosa during a traumatic maxillary right first molar extraction. PMID:26594991

  15. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) H1N1 virus in humans

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, JS Malik; Poon, Leo LM; Guan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A recently emerged novel influenza A H1N1 virus continues to spread globally. The virus contains a novel constellation of gene segments, the nearest known precursors being viruses found in swine and it likely arose through reassortment of two or more viruses of swine origin. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtype swine influenza viruses have occasionally infected humans before but such zoonotic transmission-events did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission in the manner this swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) has done. Its transmission among humans appears to be higher than that observed with seasonal influenza. Children and young adults appear to those most affected and also those who appear to maintain transmission. Clinical disease generally appears mild but complications leading to hospitalization can occur, especially in those with underlying lung or cardiac disease, diabetes or those on immunosuppresive therapies. There are concerns that the virus may reassort with existing human influenza virus giving rise to more transmissible or more pathogenic viruses. The virus appears to retain the potential to transmit back to swine and thus continued reassortment with swine viruses is a cause for concern. PMID:19540800

  16. Detection of two porcine circovirus type 2 genotypic groups in United States swine herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In late 2005, sporadic cases of an acute onset disease of high mortality were observed in 10- to 16-week-old growing pigs among several swine herds of the United States. Tissues from the affected pigs in Kansas, Iowa, and North Carolina were examined and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was detected...

  17. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resitance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as ...

  18. Absence of bovine tuberculosis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the Southern Texas border region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging wildlife, like feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are infectious to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is lacking regarding the exposure and infection rates for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; bTB), and many othe...

  19. Carbadox has both temporary and lasting effects on the swine gut microbiota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are used in livestock and poultry production to treat and prevent disease as well as to promote animal growth. Carbadox is an in-feed antibiotic that is widely used in swine production to prevent dysentery and to improve feed efficiency. The goal of this study was to characterize the eff...

  20. Draft genome sequences for ten isolates of the swine respiratory pathogen Haemophilus Parasuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a swine pathogen that causes pneumonia and Glässer’s disease, a systemic syndrome of polyserositis, arthritis, and meningitis. We report here the draft genomes of ten geographically diverse isolates collectively representing the full virulence spectrum of H. parasuis. These...

  1. Swine immunity and genetic resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vaccines are only partially effective against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) virus infection because they elicit a weak immune response that is not fully protective. PRRS is the most economically significant disease facing the swine industry today, costing U.S. pork pro...

  2. Metastatic gastrinoma in the breast mimicking primary solid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Burt, Michael; Madan, Rashna; Fan, Fang

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of metastatic gastrinoma to the breast morphologically mimicking solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. A 59-year-old woman presented with a hypoechoic right breast mass that histologically revealed solid nests of small monotonous tumor cells, fibrovascular cores, and round to oval nuclei with fine chromatin and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated chromogranin and synaptophysin positivity. Tumor prognostic markers showed weak positivity for estrogen receptor and negativity for progesterone receptor. Although an initial diagnosis of solid papillary carcinoma was rendered, subsequent identification of the patient's clinical history of pancreatic gastrinoma and an additional immunohistochemical stain for gastrin supported a diagnosis of metastatic gastrinoma. We report this rare case to increase awareness of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors in the breast. Multiple breast lesions and lack of expression of estrogen/progesterone hormone receptors should prompt careful review of the patient's clinical history to rule out metastatic neuroendocrine disease. PMID:27342908

  3. Spilled gallstones mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum-Soo; Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease. Although spilled gallstones are considered harmless, unretrieved gallstones can result in intra-abdominal abscess. We report a case of abscess formation due to spilled gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma on radiologic imaging. A 59-year-old male with a surgical history of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy complicated by gallstones spillage presented with a 1 mo history of constant right-sided abdominal pain and tenderness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a retroperitoneal sarcoma at the sub-hepatic space. On open exploration a 5 cm × 5 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The mass contained purulent material and gallstones. Final pathology revealed abscess formation and foreign body granuloma. Vigilance concerning the possibility of lost gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is important. If possible, every spilled gallstone during surgery should be retrieved to prevent this rare complication. PMID:27158213

  4. Spilled gallstones mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum-Soo; Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease. Although spilled gallstones are considered harmless, unretrieved gallstones can result in intra-abdominal abscess. We report a case of abscess formation due to spilled gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma on radiologic imaging. A 59-year-old male with a surgical history of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy complicated by gallstones spillage presented with a 1 mo history of constant right-sided abdominal pain and tenderness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a retroperitoneal sarcoma at the sub-hepatic space. On open exploration a 5 cm × 5 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The mass contained purulent material and gallstones. Final pathology revealed abscess formation and foreign body granuloma. Vigilance concerning the possibility of lost gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is important. If possible, every spilled gallstone during surgery should be retrieved to prevent this rare complication. PMID:27158213

  5. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it. PMID:25701438

  6. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Mimicking an Oroantral Fistula: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Bárbara Vanessa de Brito; Grempel, Rafael Grotta; Gomes, Daliana Queiroga de Castro; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most frequent malignant salivary gland tumors, which commonly affects the minor salivary glands of the mouth and is rare in the nose and paranasal sinuses. In the maxillary sinus, ACC can mimic inflammatory diseases and has a poor prognosis. Objective To report a case of a 50-year-old man with ACC of the maxillary sinus whose clinical findings in the alveolar ridge mimicked an oroantral fistula. Case Report An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathologic analysis revealed ACC. Lung metastases and residual tumor in the maxillary sinus were detected by imaging methods. In view of the poor general health of the patient, no new surgical intervention was performed and he was only treated by radiotherapy and follow-up. Conclusion Although rare in the maxillary sinus, ACC should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions affecting this site. PMID:25992095

  7. Concentrated swine feeding operations and public health: a review of occupational and community health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, D; Todd, L; Wing, S

    2000-01-01

    Recent industry changes in swine-management practices have resulted in a growing controversy surrounding the environmental and public health effects of modern swine production. The numerous wastes produced by intensive swine production not only pose a significant challenge to effective environmental management but also are associated with decreased air quality in confinement houses, potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance patterns, and several infectious agents that can be pathogenic to humans. Published studies have documented a variety of contaminants, microbial agents, and health effects in those occupationally exposed to swine, and these have provided the groundwork for an increasing body of research to evaluate possible community health effects. Nonetheless, several factors limit our ability to define and quantify the potential role of intensive swine-rearing facilities in occupational and community health. Our incomplete understanding and ability to detect specific exposures; the complicated nature of disease etiology; pathogenesis; and surveillance; and the inherent difficulties associated with study design all contribute to the inadequate level of knowledge that currently prevails. However; an evaluation of the published literature; and a recognition of the elements that may be compromising these studies; provides the foundation from which future studies may develop. PMID:10964788

  8. Lysozyme as an alternative to growth promoting antibiotics in swine production.

    PubMed

    Oliver, W T; Wells, J E

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme is a naturally occurring enzyme found in bodily secretions such as tears, saliva, and milk. It functions as an antimicrobial agent by cleaving the peptidoglycan component of bacterial cell walls, which leads to cell death. Antibiotics are also antimicrobials and have been fed at subtherapeutic levels to swine as growth promoters. These compounds benefit swine producers by minimizing production losses by increasing feed efficiency and decreasing susceptibility to bacterial infection and disease. This manuscript reviews the knowledge of the effects of lysozyme, as compared to traditional subtherapeutic antibiotics in swine feed, on pig performance and health. It is clear from decades of studies that antibiotic use in feeds increases pig performance, particularly in the nursery. Similarly, lysozyme, as a feed additive, increases growth and feed efficiency. While the mechanism by which antibiotics and lysozyme improve performance is not clearly understood, both of these feed additives improve gastrointestinal health, improve the metabolic profile, and alter the gastrointestinal bacteria ecology of swine. Therefore, lysozyme is a suitable alternative to growth-promoting subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine feed. PMID:26273432

  9. Integrin β3 Is Required in Infection and Proliferation of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Wang, Gang; Liang, Wulong; Kang, Kai; Guo, Kangkang; Zhang, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly infectious fatal pig disease, resulting in huge economic loss to the swine industry. Integrins are membrane-bound signal mediators, expressed on a variety of cell surfaces and are known as receptors or co-receptors for many viruses. However, the role of integrin β3 in CSFV infection is unknown. Here, through quantitive PCR, immunofluorescence (IFC) and immunocytohistochemistry (ICC), we revealed that ST (swine testicles epithelial) cells have a prominent advantage in CSFV proliferation as compared to EC (swine umbilical vein endothelial cell), IEC (swine intestinal epithelial cell) and PK (porcine kidney epithelial) cells. Meanwhile, ST cells had remarkably more integrin β3 expression as compared to EC, IEC and PK cells, which was positively correlated with CSFV infection and proliferation. Integrin β3 was up-regulated post CSFV infection in all the four cell lines, while the CSFV proliferation rate was decreased in integrin β3 function-blocked cells. ShRNA1755 dramatically decreased integrin β3, with a deficiency of 96% at the mRNA level and 80% at the protein level. CSFV proliferation was dramatically reduced in integrin β3 constantly-defected cells (ICDC), with the deficiencies of 92.6%, 99% and 81.7% at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post CSFV infection, respectively. These results demonstrate that integrin β3 is required in CSFV infection and proliferation, which provide a new insight into the mechanism of CSFV infection. PMID:25340775

  10. Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Baroch, John A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals were also seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis. Feral swine can also be involved in transmission of zoonotic agents. Almost 50% of animals possessed antibodies against Salmonella. In addition, 94.4% of animals were carriers of Streptococcus suis in their tonsils. In conclusion, feral swine may be considered as a potential reservoir for different endemic diseases in domestic pigs, as well as for important zoonotic agents. PMID:25673913

  11. Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens.

    PubMed

    Baroch, John A; Gagnon, Carl A; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals were also seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis. Feral swine can also be involved in transmission of zoonotic agents. Almost 50% of animals possessed antibodies against Salmonella. In addition, 94.4% of animals were carriers of Streptococcus suis in their tonsils. In conclusion, feral swine may be considered as a potential reservoir for different endemic diseases in domestic pigs, as well as for important zoonotic agents. PMID:25673913

  12. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  13. A Novel Pathogenic Mammalian Orthoreovirus from Diarrheic Pigs and Swine Blood Meal in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thimmasandra Narayanappa, Athmaram; Sooryanarain, Harini; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Cao, Dianjun; Ammayappan Venkatachalam, Backiyalakshmi; Kambiranda, Devaiah; LeRoith, Tanya; Heffron, Connie Lynn; Lindstrom, Nicole; Hall, Karen; Jobst, Peter; Sexton, Cary; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since May 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea have devastated the U.S. swine industry, causing immense economic losses. Two different swine enteric coronaviruses (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Delta coronavirus) have been isolated from the affected swine population. The disease has been reported from at least 32 states of the United States and other countries, including Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, and Ukraine, with repeated outbreaks in previously infected herds. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from diarrheic feces of piglets from these outbreaks in three states and ring-dried swine blood meal from multiple sources. MRV3 could not be isolated from healthy or pigs that had recovered from epidemic diarrhea from four states. Several MRV3 isolates were obtained from chloroform-extracted pig feces or blood meal in cell cultures or developing chicken embryos. Biological characterization of two representative isolates revealed trypsin resistance and thermostability at 90°C. NextGen sequencing of ultrapurified viruses indicated a strong homology of the S1 segment to mammalian and bat MRV3. Neonatal piglets experimentally infected with these viruses or a chloroform extract of swine blood meal developed severe diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis with 100% mortality within 3 days postinfection. Therefore, the novel porcine MRV3 may contribute to enteric disease along with other swine enteric viruses. The role of MRV3 in the current outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in the United States remains to be determined, but the pathogenic nature of the virus warrants further investigations on its epidemiology and prevalence. PMID:25991685

  14. Shotgun Pyrosequencing Metagenomic Analyses of Dusts from Swine Confinement and Grain Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Boissy, Robert J.; Romberger, Debra J.; Roughead, William A.; Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Poole, Jill A.; LeVan, Tricia D.

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance). The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70%) at the phylum level, Clostridia (44%) at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%). In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the bioinformatic analyses

  15. Incidence of salmonellae in fecal samples of production swine and swine at slaughter plants in the United States in 1978.

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, G A; Fagerberg, D J; Quarles, C L; George, B A; Wagner, D E; Rollins, L D

    1980-01-01

    Nine swine slaughter plants and 19 swine production units were randomly selected for sampling from the six highest swine-producing states representing a total of 64% of the United States swine production. Three composites of 10 fresh swine fecal samples were obtained from each slaughter plant, representing three different farm sources of swine. Two composite fecal samples were collected from two different production pens from each production unit. Samples were analyzed for salmonellae. Isolated salmonellae were biochemically and serologically identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility and resistance transfer ability. Salmonellae were recovered from swine at seven of the nine slaughter plants and 16 of the 27 composites of slaughter swine. Of the 19 production units, 3 had swine shedding salmonellae. Resistances found included streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine. Of the 52 total isolates tested, 71% had some level of antibiotic resistance. Only 3 of 37 resistant isolated could transfer resistance under the conditions used. PMID:7425616

  16. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  17. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  18. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  19. 76 FR 44503 - Availability of a Risk Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65431-65432, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0077), we... well as fresh pork, live ruminants, and live swine, would remain prohibited due to Japan's status for bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical swine fever, and swine vesicular disease. We are making...

  20. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...