Science.gov

Sample records for disease rating scale

  1. Depression Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Critique and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Anette; Barone, Paolo; Brown, Richard G.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; McDonald, William M.; Starkstein, Sergio; Weintraub, Daniel; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbid condition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major contributor to poor quality of life and disability. However, depression can be difficult to assess in patients with PD due to overlapping symptoms and difficulties in the assessment of depression in cognitively impaired patients. As several rating scales have been used to assess depression in PD (dPD), the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties and make clinical recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of depression scales in PD and determine which scales should be selected for this review. The scales reviewed were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Montgomery-As-berg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Seven clinical researchers with clinical and research experience in the assessment of dPD were assigned to review the scales using a structured format. The most appropriate scale is dependent on the clinical or research goal. However, observer-rated scales are preferred if the study or clinical situation permits. For screening purposes, the HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS, and GDS are valid in dPD. The CES-D and CSDD are alternative instruments that need validation in dPD. For measurement of severity of depressive symptoms, the Ham-D, MADRS, BDI, and SDS scales are recommended. Further studies are needed to validate the CSDD, which could be particularly useful for the assessment of severity of dPD in patients with comorbid dementia. To account for overlapping motor and nonmotor symptoms of depression, adjusted instrument cutoff scores may

  2. Scales for rating motor impairment in Parkinson's disease: studies of reliability and convergent validity.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L; Kennard, C; Crawford, T J; Day, S; Everitt, B S; Goodrich, S; Jones, F; Park, D M

    1991-01-01

    Study 1 examined the reliability of the ratings assigned to the performance of five sign-and-symptom items drawn from tests of motor impairment in Parkinson's disease. Patients with Parkinson's disease of varying severity performed gait, rising from chair, and hand function items. Video recordings of these performances were rated by a large sample of experienced and inexperienced neurologists and by psychology undergraduates, using a four point scale. Inter-rater reliability was moderately high, being higher for gait than hand function items. Clinical experience proved to have no systematic effect on ratings or their reliability. The idiosyncrasy of particular performances was a major source of unreliable ratings. Study 2 examined the intercorrelation of several standard rating scales, comprised of sign-and-symptom items as well as activities of daily living. The correlation between scales was high, ranging from 0.70 to 0.83, despite considerable differences in item composition. Inter-item correlations showed that the internal cohesion of the tests was high, especially for the self-care scale. Regression analysis showed that the relationship between the scales could be efficiently captured by a small selection of test items, allowing the construction of a much briefer test. PMID:2010754

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL DEMENTIA RATING SCALE CUTOFF SCORES FOR PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Wyman-Chick, Kathryn A.; Scott, BJ

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale in measuring cognitive impairment among individuals with Parkinson's disease. The scale was created for use in patients with Alzheimer's disease and, to date, there have been no published studies examining if this tool is appropriate for patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods The data were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database and included 490 subjects diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, further categorized as having Parkinson's disease dementia (n= 151), mild cognitive impairment (n= 186), or normal cognition (n = 153) by a treating physician. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were calculated for the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Global Score as well as the Sum of Boxes Score using existing cutoff scores. Finally, new cutoff scores were calculated using sensitivity and specificity values derived using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the published Global Score cutoff scores for patients with dementia were .34 and .10, respectively. The newly calculated cutoff scores for patients with dementia yielded a sensitivity of .79 and a specificity of .96. The area under the curve was 0.92 (95% CI = 0.90-0.95). Conclusion The CDR is a useful tool in identifying dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease when the cutoff scores are adjusted. PMID:26660076

  4. Development of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease activity rating scale: reliability, validity and factorial structure.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Michiko; Takai, Kenichi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Kagawa, Koujiro

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Activity Rating Scale (CARS) to measure life-related activity in patients with COPD, and to confirm its reliability and constructive validity in a factorial structure model. The subjects consisted of 114 patients with COPD. An 88-item life-related activity list, generated previously from a literature review, was administered. The secondary structural model consisted of four factors with 12 items. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis by structural equation modeling showed the fit criteria to be statistically significant. The internal consistency of the 12 items was highly reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.924). The CARS score was correlated with pulmonary function tests, breathlessness, and the health-related quality of life (QOL) scales in Pearson correlation coefficient. The results suggest that the COPD Activity Rating Scale is a valid scale for the assessment of life-related activity in patients with COPD. PMID:12603718

  5. Cross-cultural evaluation of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale across disease stages.

    PubMed

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Micheli, Federico; Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2010-07-30

    This study assessed the psychometric attributes of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale (mPPRS). In an attempt to improve scale's scaling assumptions and content validity, all types of hallucinations were rated and all items were scored based on intensity. The scale was cross-culturally adapted to four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay). Acceptability, internal consistency, factor structure, convergent and known-groups validity, and precision (standard error of measurement, SEM) were explored. A total of 388 patients with PD were included in the study (age, 64.5 +/- 10.7 years; 59.8% males; PD duration, 8.2 +/- 4.9 years). The mPPRS was highly usable in terms of missing values generated and scores distribution (total computable scores, 99.7%, ceiling effect, <15%). Scaling assumptions were acceptable as noted by the range of item-total correlations (0.14-0.55, only one coefficient below 0.2). Internal consistency was adequate for research use (Cronbach alpha, 0.7). Factor analysis identified two factors that accounted for 58.5% of the variance. Low correlation coefficients were found with cognitive function (SCOPA-Cog) and disease severity (CISI-PD) (r(S) scale's content validity and internal consistency. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:20310036

  6. Association between Dementia Rating Scale performance and neurocognitive domains in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Knox, Michael R; Lacritz, Laura H; Chandler, Melanie J; Munro Cullum, C

    2003-05-01

    The Dementia Rating Scale (DRS; Mattis, 1976, 1988) is commonly used in the assessment of dementia, although little is known about the relationship of performance on this test to specific cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additionally, cognitive profiles have not been investigated across different levels of dementia as determined by the DRS. A sample of 133 individuals diagnosed with possible or probable AD was administered the DRS as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Composite scores for the cognitive domains of attention, executive functioning, visuospatial skills, language abilities, immediate recall, and delayed memory were derived by averaging demographically corrected T scores of key measures. Individual domain scores were also averaged to develop a global index score. Pearson correlations between composite and total DRS scores were highly significant (p<.001) for all domains and the global index score, with the exception of delayed memory, which showed a floor effect. When the sample was divided into mild and moderate-to-severe groups to examine the effects of disease severity on the relationship between the DRS and standard neurocognitive domain scores, the resulting mean neuropsychological profile scores were significantly different while maintaining a parallel pattern of impairment across domains. Results demonstrate the relationship between the DRS and standard cognitive domain functions, which appears to underscore the validity and robustness of the DRS in characterizing patterns of cognitive impairment across the AD spectrum. PMID:13680428

  7. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale: validation study of the mentation, behavior, and mood section.

    PubMed

    Starkstein, Sergio E; Merello, Marcelo

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the mentation, behavior, and mood items included in Part I of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and to assess its usefulness to screen for dementia, psychosis, depression, and apathy. A consecutive series of 168 patients with PD were assessed by neurologists with the UPDRS, and by psychiatrists using a comprehensive neuropsychiatric evaluation blind to each other's ratings. ROC analysis demonstrated that a score of 2 or greater on the intellectual impairment item of the UPDRS had 60% sensitivity and 92% specificity to detect dementia, as diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria. When a score of 23 or lower on the MMSE was included as an additional classification variable, the sensitivity increased to 85%. A score of 2 or greater on the thought disorder item had 43% sensitivity and 92% specificity to detect psychotic symptoms (delusions or hallucinations). A score of 2 or greater on the depression item had 77% sensitivity and 82% specificity to detect major depression as diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria. Finally, a score of 2 or greater on the motivation/initiative item had 73% sensitivity and 65% specificity to detect apathy, as diagnosed with a standardized criteria. When the sample was divided into mild (i.e. Hohen-Yahr stages I and II) versus moderate-severe PD (i.e. Hohen-Yahr stages III-V), findings remained unchanged, except that the UPDRS show unacceptably low accuracy to detect psychosis in mild PD. The mentation, behavior, and mood section of the UPDRS is an adequate screen for depression and apathy, and has adequate sensitivity to detect dementia when combined with the Mini-Mental State Exam, but has low sensitivity to detect psychosis. PMID:17721877

  8. Value and appropriate use of rating scales and apparative measurements in quantification of disability in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Baas, H; Stecker, K; Fischer, P A

    1993-01-01

    Despite widespread use in pharmacotherapeutical trials, in the majority of rating scales used in Parkinson's disease (PD) validity, reliability and appropriate use have never been confirmed by statistical data. For this reason 350 unselected PD-pats. were investigated by an extensive standardized test-battery including registration of basis data, Columbia University Rating Scale (CURS), scale for assessment of functional disability (ADL), SCAG-scale, Hoehn & Jahr-scale (HY), mod. Webster step second-test (WSST), Purdue-pegboard, questionnaire for subjective complaints (SC), WDG, LPS1/2, 3/4, 6, 7, 10, clinical assessment of dementia, v. Zerssen-scale and orthostatic hypotension (60 degrees tilt up). For CURS, SCAG and ADL instrumental reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha. For CURS, SCAG, ADL and the total data of complete test battery (CTB) principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for data reduction. CURS, SCAG and ADL showed high internal consistency (alpha approximately > or = 0.9). For CURS 5 factors accounting for 66% total variance could be extracted by PCA. They represent gait, rigidity, tremor, right/left dexterity (eigenvalues > 1). For SCAG 3 factors (61% of total variance) representing dementia, depression and change of personality were extracted. For ADL 3 factors (67% of total variance) could be extracted, representing overall functional disability, handwriting and disability by pain. PCA of the CTB identified 8 interpretable factors (66% of total variance) characterizing at least partially the clinical profile of PD: 1. motor disability (assessment by rating-scales) 2. dementia, 3. motor-disability (assessment by apparative measurements), 4. depression, 5. orthostatic hypotension, 6. WDG, 7. tremor and 8. pain. Our data confirm the suitability of the investigated scales and give a rational base for their appropriate use in a sense of data reduction and economical evaluation. PMID:8439392

  9. A Hybrid Intelligent Diagnosis Approach for Quick Screening of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Multiple Neuropsychological Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yinhong; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological testing is an effective means for the screening of Alzheimer's disease. Multiple neuropsychological rating scales should be used together to get subjects' comprehensive cognitive state due to the limitation of a single scale, but it is difficult to operate in primary clinical settings because of the inadequacy of time and qualified clinicians. Aiming at identifying AD's stages more accurately and conveniently in screening, we proposed a computer-aided diagnosis approach based on critical items extracted from multiple neuropsychological scales. The proposed hybrid intelligent approach combines the strengths of rough sets, genetic algorithm, and Bayesian network. There are two stages: one is attributes reduction technique based on rough sets and genetic algorithm, which can find out the most discriminative items for AD diagnosis in scales; the other is uncertain reasoning technique based on Bayesian network, which can forecast the probability of suffering from AD. The experimental data set consists of 500 cases collected by a top hospital in China and each case is determined by the expert panel. The results showed that the proposed approach could not only reduce items drastically with the same classification precision, but also perform better on identifying different stages of AD comparing with other existing scales. PMID:25815043

  10. A hybrid intelligent diagnosis approach for quick screening of Alzheimer's disease based on multiple neuropsychological rating scales.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ziming; Zhao, Yinhong; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological testing is an effective means for the screening of Alzheimer's disease. Multiple neuropsychological rating scales should be used together to get subjects' comprehensive cognitive state due to the limitation of a single scale, but it is difficult to operate in primary clinical settings because of the inadequacy of time and qualified clinicians. Aiming at identifying AD's stages more accurately and conveniently in screening, we proposed a computer-aided diagnosis approach based on critical items extracted from multiple neuropsychological scales. The proposed hybrid intelligent approach combines the strengths of rough sets, genetic algorithm, and Bayesian network. There are two stages: one is attributes reduction technique based on rough sets and genetic algorithm, which can find out the most discriminative items for AD diagnosis in scales; the other is uncertain reasoning technique based on Bayesian network, which can forecast the probability of suffering from AD. The experimental data set consists of 500 cases collected by a top hospital in China and each case is determined by the expert panel. The results showed that the proposed approach could not only reduce items drastically with the same classification precision, but also perform better on identifying different stages of AD comparing with other existing scales. PMID:25815043

  11. Screening for DSM-IV-TR Cognitive Disorder NOS in Parkinson’s disease using the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pontone, Gregory M.; Palanci, Justin; Williams, James R.; Bassett, Susan Spear

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study explores the utility of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS) as a screening tool for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis Cognitive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Parkinson’s disease(PD). Methods 125 individuals with PD were diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria for Cognitive Disorder NOS and dementia. Receiver operating characteristics tested the discriminant validity of the MDRS, with the clinician’s diagnosis serving as the gold standard. Results The MDRS ROC curve to discriminate subjects with Cognitive Disorder NOS from non-demented subjects had an AUC of 0.59 (std. err.= 0.08, 95% CI: 0.43–0.74). Conclusions The MDRS is not effective for identifying PD patients with Cognitive Disorder NOS without dementia. PMID:22628158

  12. The utility of the Dementia Severity Rating Scale in differentiating mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease from controls.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Joel C; Dick, Malcolm B; Wood, Amanda E; Tapp, Andre M; Ziegler, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the utility of the Dementia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS) total score to identify individuals at the earliest stage of impairment (ie, mild cognitive impairment/MCI). In addition, the authors sought to investigate how well the measure correlates with an expanded battery of cognitive tests and other measures of functional abilities. Of the 320 participants included in this study, 85 were normal controls, 96 had single-domain or multiple-domain amnestic MCI, and 139 had possible or probable Alzheimer disease (AD). Each participant underwent a thorough cognitive, neurological, and physical examination. Results from this study indicated that the DSRS total scores differed significantly between the 3 groups (P<0.001) and accurately identified 81% of the control group, 60% of the MCI group, and 78% of the AD group in a post hoc discriminant analysis. When combined with a brief cognitive measure (ie, Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Word List 5 min recall test), the DSRS accurately identified 98% of the control group, 76% of the MCI group, and 82% of the AD group. Implications for clinical practice and proposed areas of future research are discussed. PMID:25187220

  13. Exploring the Effects of Genetic Variants on Clinical Profiles of Parkinson's Disease Assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn-Yahr Stage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chen; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Chaodong; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Chan, Piu; Wang, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been linked to familial or sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), among which those identified in PARK16, BST1, SNCA, LRRK2, GBA and MAPT genes have been demonstrated to be the most common risk factors worldwide. Moreover, complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions have been highlighted in PD pathogenesis. Compared to studies focusing on the predisposing effects of genes, there is a relative lack of research investigating how these genes and their interactions influence the clinical profiles of PD. In a cohort consisting of 2,011 Chinese Han PD patients, we selected 9 representative variants from the 6 above-mentioned common PD genes to analyze their main and epistatic effects on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) stage of PD. With multiple linear regression models adjusting for medication status, disease duration, gender and age at onset, none of the variants displayed significant main effects on UPDRS or the H-Y scores. However, for gene-gene interaction analyses, 7 out of 37 pairs of variants showed significant or marginally significant associations with these scores. Among these, the GBA rs421016 (L444P)×LRRK2 rs33949390 (R1628P) interaction was consistently significant in relation to UPDRS III and UPDRS total (I+II+III), even after controlling for the family-wise error rate using False Discovery Rate (FDR-corrected p values are 0.0481 and 0.0070, respectively). Although the effects of the remaining pairs of variants did not survive the FDR correction, they showed marginally significant associations with either UPDRS or the H-Y stage (raw p<0.05). Our results highlight the importance of epistatic effects of multiple genes on the determination of PD clinical profiles and may have implications for molecular classification and personalized intervention of the disease. PMID:27299523

  14. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Results Thirty six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be “recommended”: the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two “recommended” scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for “suggested” and seven scales met criteria for “listed”. All the scales are individually reviewed in the online appendix. Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. PMID:23893443

  15. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Labra, Fabio A; Marquet, Pablo A; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-06-26

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a "universal" form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents -0.352 and -1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913

  16. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  17. An Item Response Analysis of the Motor and Behavioral Subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale in Huntington Disease Gene Expansion Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Anthony L.; Anderson, Karen; Borowsky, Beth; Duff, Kevin; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K.; Orth, Michael; Paulsen, Jane S.; Sills, Terrence; van Kammen, Daniel P.; Evans, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is widely used in the assessment of Huntington disease (HD), the ability of individual items to discriminate individual differences in motor or behavioral manifestations has not been extensively studied in HD gene expansion carriers without a motor-defined clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal-HD or prHD). To elucidate the relationship between scores on individual motor and behavioral UHDRS items and total score for each subscale, a non-parametric item response analysis was performed on retrospective data from two multicentre, longitudinal studies. Motor and Behavioral assessments were supplied for 737 prHD individuals with data from 2114 visits (PREDICT-HD) and 686 HD individuals with data from 1482 visits (REGISTRY). Option characteristic curves were generated for UHDRS subscale items in relation to their subscale score. In prHD, overall severity of motor signs was low and participants had scores of 2 or above on very few items. In HD, motor items that assessed ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, finger tapping, tandem walking, and to a lesser extent saccade velocity, dysarthia, tongue protrusion, pronation/supination, Luria, bradykinesia, choreas, gait and balance on the retropulsion test were found to discriminate individual differences across a broad range of motor severity. In prHD, depressed mood, anxiety, and irritable behavior demonstrated good discriminative properties. In HD, depressed mood demonstrated a good relationship with the overall behavioral score. These data suggest that at least some UHDRS items appear to have utility across a broad range of severity, although many items demonstrate problematic features. PMID:21370269

  18. A Combined Measure of Cognition and Function for Clinical Trials: The Integrated Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale (iADRS)

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, A.M.; Siemers, E.R.; Yu, P.; Andersen, S.W.; Holdridge, K.C.; Sims, J.R.; Sundell, K.; Stern, Y.; Rentz, D.M.; Dubois, B.; Jones, R.W.; Cummings, J.; Aisen, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally recognized that more sensitive instruments for the earliest stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are needed. The integrated Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale (iADRS) combines scores from 2 widely accepted measures, the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study – instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-iADL). Disease progression and treatment differences as measured by the iADRS were analyzed using data from solanezumab EXPEDITION, EXPEDITION2, and EXPEDITION-EXT Studies; semagacestat IDENTITY Study; and donepezil ADCS – mild cognitive impairment (ADCS-MCI) Study. Psychometric properties of the iADRS were established through principal component analysis (PCA) and estimation of contributions of subscores and individual item scores to the iADRS total score. The iADRS performed better than most composites and scales in detecting disease progression and comparably or better than individual scales in detecting treatment differences. PCA demonstrated the iADRS can be divided into two principal components primarily representing cognitive items and instrumental ADLs. Dynamic ranges of the subscales were similar across all studies, reflecting approximately equal contributions from both subscales to the iADRS total score. In item analyses, every item contributed to the total score, with varying strength of contributions by item and across data sets. The iADRS demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and was effective in capturing disease progression from MCI through moderate AD and treatment effects across the early disease spectrum. These findings suggest the iADRS can be used in studies of mixed populations, ensuring sensitivity to treatment effects as subjects progress during studies of putative disease-modifying agents. PMID:27019841

  19. Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, λ, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter

  20. Depression Rating Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poznanski, Elva O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) was devised and tested on 30 inpatient children (6 to 12 years old) in a medical hospital. A high correlation was found between global ratings by two psychiatrists of severity of depression and scores on the CDRS. Journal availability: American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. Box 1034, Evanston, IL 60204.…

  1. Primate disease and breeding rates.

    PubMed

    Chamove, A; Cameron, G; Nash, V

    1979-10-01

    33 species were compared for 12 disease categories over 3 years of laboratory housing. There were low correlations between popularity, birth, death, and illness rates. Highest rates were: birth, Macaca nemestrina; illness, Pongo pygmaeus; death, Cercopithecus aethiops. Lowest rates were: birth, Lemur catta; illness, Sanguinus mystax; death, Galago crassicaudatus. Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fasicularus had low disease and high birth rates. PMID:119108

  2. The Adaptive Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William J.

    A scale to identify important behaviors in preschool children was developed, and ratings were related to more traditional indices of development and academic readiness. Teacher interviews were used to identify 62 specific behaviors related to maximally adapted and maximally maladapted kindergarten children. These were incorporated into a…

  3. The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Malgady, R G; Barcher, P R

    1982-01-01

    The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales (VARS) were developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of maladaptive social behavior related to vocational success, but not directly measuring job performance of mentally retarded workers. Psychometric information derived from the VARS is useful for developing individualized educational plans (IEPs) for compliance with Public Law 94-142; for program, worker or curriculum evaluations; and for predicting placement of workers in vocational training. Research indicates that VARS scores are internally consistent, moderately correlated with other vocational measures, unbiased with respect to sex and age differences, and independent of IQ. Inter-rater reliability is acceptable, and VARS profiles are accurate predictors of level of sheltered workshop placement of mentally retarded workers, independent of IQ, sex and age. Unlike other instruments, the VARS offers a profile of social behavior in a vocational context. PMID:7168570

  4. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  5. Exploring the Effects of Genetic Variants on Clinical Profiles of Parkinson’s Disease Assessed by the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn–Yahr Stage

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chen; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Chaodong; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Chan, Piu; Wang, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Many genetic variants have been linked to familial or sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), among which those identified in PARK16, BST1, SNCA, LRRK2, GBA and MAPT genes have been demonstrated to be the most common risk factors worldwide. Moreover, complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions have been highlighted in PD pathogenesis. Compared to studies focusing on the predisposing effects of genes, there is a relative lack of research investigating how these genes and their interactions influence the clinical profiles of PD. In a cohort consisting of 2,011 Chinese Han PD patients, we selected 9 representative variants from the 6 above-mentioned common PD genes to analyze their main and epistatic effects on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) stage of PD. With multiple linear regression models adjusting for medication status, disease duration, gender and age at onset, none of the variants displayed significant main effects on UPDRS or the H-Y scores. However, for gene-gene interaction analyses, 7 out of 37 pairs of variants showed significant or marginally significant associations with these scores. Among these, the GBA rs421016 (L444P)×LRRK2 rs33949390 (R1628P) interaction was consistently significant in relation to UPDRS III and UPDRS total (I+II+III), even after controlling for the family-wise error rate using False Discovery Rate (FDR-corrected p values are 0.0481 and 0.0070, respectively). Although the effects of the remaining pairs of variants did not survive the FDR correction, they showed marginally significant associations with either UPDRS or the H-Y stage (raw p<0.05). Our results highlight the importance of epistatic effects of multiple genes on the determination of PD clinical profiles and may have implications for molecular classification and personalized intervention of the disease. PMID:27299523

  6. Official Japanese Version of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale: validation against the original English version

    PubMed Central

    Kashihara, Kenichi; Kondo, Tomoyoshi; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Kikuchi, Seiji; Kuno, Sadako; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Mochizuki, Hideki; Mori, Hideo; Murata, Miho; Nomoto, Masahiro; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Takeda, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Yamanmoto, Mitsutoshi; Yokochi, Fusako; Yoshii, Fumihito; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Luo, Sheng; Wang, Lu; LaPelle, Nancy R.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Rating Scale (UPDRS) (MDS-UPDRS) has been developed and is now available in English. Part of the overall program includes the establishment of official non-English translations of the MDS-UPDRS. We present the process for completing the official Japanese translation of the MDS-UPDRS with clinimetric testing results. Methods In this trial, the MDS-UPDRS was translated into Japanese, underwent cognitive pre-testing, and the translation was modified after taking the results into account. The final translation was approved as Official Working Draft of the MDS-UPDRS Japanese version and tested in 365 native-Japanese-speaking patients with PD. Confirmatory analyses were used to determine whether the factor structure for the English-language MDS-UPDRS could be confirmed in data collected using the Official Working Draft of the Japanese translation. As a secondary analysis, we used exploratory factor analyses to examine the underlying factor structure without the constraint of a pre-specified factor organization. Results Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that Comparative Fit Index for all Parts of the MDS-UPDRS exceeded the minimal standard of 0.90 relative to the English version and therefore Japanese translation met the pre-specified criterion to be designated called an OFFICIAL MDS TRANSLATION. Secondary analyses revealed some differences between the English-language MDS-UPDRS and the Japanese translation, however, these differences were considered to be within an acceptable range. Conclusions The Japanese version of the MDS-UPDRS met the criterion as an Official MDS Translation and is now available for use (www.movementdisorders.org). PMID:25328906

  7. Subjective rating scales as a workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidimensional bipolar-adjective rating scale is employed as a subjective measure of operator workload in the performance of a one-axis tracking task. The rating scale addressed several dimensions of workload, including cognitive, physical, and perceptual task loading as well as fatigue and stress effects. Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task (with six levels of difficulty) and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Performance measures were tracking error RMS (root-mean square) and the standard deviation of control stick output. Significant relationships were observed between these performance measures and skill required, task complexity, attention level, task difficulty, task demands, and stress level.

  8. Psychometric validation of the German translation of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire in patients with reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, Károly R; Malfertheiner, Peter; Madisch, Ahmed; Labenz, Joachim; Bayerdörffer, Ekkehard; Miehlke, Stephan; Carlsson, Jonas; Wiklund, Ingela K

    2003-01-01

    Background Symptoms of heartburn has an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). When a questionnaire is translated into a new language, a linguistic validation is necessary but not sufficient unless the psychometric characteristics have been verified. The aim is to document the psychometric characteristics of the German translation of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire. Methods 142 patients with symptoms of heartburn (Age: M = 47.5, ± 14.6; Males = 44.4%) completed the German translation of GSRS, the QOLRAD, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Results The internal consistency reliability of GSRS ranged from 0.53–0.91 and of QOLRAD from 0.90–0.94, respectively. The test-retest reliability of GSRS ranged from 0.49–0.73 and of QOLRAD from 0.70–0.84. The relevant domains of the GSRS and QOLRAD domain scores significantly correlated. GSRS domains of Abdominal Pain and Constipation correlated (negatively) with most of the domains of the SF-36. The relevant QOLRAD domains significantly correlated with all SF-36 domains. Conclusions The psychometric characteristics of the German translation of GSRS and QOLRAD were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. The reliability of the GSRS Abdominal Pain domain was moderate. PMID:14613560

  9. Reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that typically presents with childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, followed by optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological and psychiatric dysfunction. There is no cure for the disease, but recent advances in research have improved understanding of the disease course. Measuring disease severity and progression with reliable and validated tools is a prerequisite for clinical trials of any new intervention for neurodegenerative conditions. To this end, we developed the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS) to measure the severity and individual variability of WFS symptoms. The aim of this study is to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS). Methods A rating scale of disease severity in WFS was developed by modifying a standardized assessment for another neurodegenerative condition (Batten disease). WFS experts scored the representativeness of WURS items for the disease. The WURS was administered to 13 individuals with WFS (6-25 years of age). Motor, balance, mood and quality of life were also evaluated with standard instruments. Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, concurrent, predictive and content validity of the WURS were calculated. Results The WURS had high inter-rater reliability (ICCs>.93), moderate to high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.78-0.91) and demonstrated good concurrent and predictive validity. There were significant correlations between the WURS Physical Assessment and motor and balance tests (rs>.67, p<.03), between the WURS Behavioral Scale and reports of mood and behavior (rs>.76, p<.04) and between WURS Total scores and quality of life (rs=-.86, p=.001). The WURS demonstrated acceptable content validity (Scale-Content Validity Index=0.83). Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate that the WURS has acceptable reliability and validity and

  10. Reliability Generalization for Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidbord, Jonathan; Croudace, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is a popular behavior-observation instrument that was developed more than 34 years ago and has since been adopted in a wide variety of contexts for assessing the presence and severity of autism symptomatology in both children and adolescents. This investigation of the reliability of CARS scores involves…

  11. Development of the Mentor Behaviour Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyn, Eddy H.

    2004-01-01

    The present study described the development of the Mentor Behaviour Rating Scale. In the Dutch secondary educational system, the mentor is a teacher responsible for individual students' academic and socio-emotional progress throughout the academic year. In order to assess the mentor behaviours conducive to pupils' acceptance levels of their…

  12. Expectations of Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rick; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) are no better or worse than other methods when assessed on a quantitative basis but have greater potential when assessed on use and qualitative criteria. Suggestions are offered for extending BARS research to process questions and domains other than performance appraisal. (Author)

  13. Modeling Randomness in Judging Rating Scales with a Random-Effects Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the random-effects rating scale model (RE-RSM) which takes into account randomness in the thresholds over persons by treating them as random-effects and adding a random variable for each threshold in the rating scale model (RSM) (Andrich, 1978). The RE-RSM turns out to be a special case of the multidimensional random…

  14. Reliability and Validity of the "Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale" and the "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Fall, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating scale (Eaves, 2003) and the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (Gilliam, 1995) were investigated in this study. One hundred thirty-four individuals with autism, other pervasive developmental disorders, or conditions frequently confused with autism participated in the study. The…

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

  16. Severity rating scales for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lange, W R

    1993-06-01

    Severity of ciguatera fish poisoning is often quite variable. Two symptom check list rating scales were developed for quantifying illness severity and for selectively monitoring response to therapy in patients with chronic toxicity. Content validity was ascertained, and internal consistency reliability was demonstrated by means of the Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient (alpha = 0.9475). It was concluded that these instruments were valid and reliable, and that they conveniently and accurately recorded illness severity and treatment efficacy. They should prove useful in clinical settings and epidemiologic investigations. PMID:8342175

  17. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  18. An investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for the combined purposes of determining the relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and for determining the mathematical relationships whereby subjective data are transformed from one scale to other scales. There were 16 category scales analyzed representing various parametric combinations of polarity, that is, unipolar and bipolar, scale type, and number of scalar points. Results indicated that unipolar continuous-type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points provide the greatest reliability and discriminability. Transformations of subjective data between category scales were found to be feasible with unipolar scales of a larger number of scalar points providing the greatest accuracy of transformation. The results contain coefficients for transformation of subjective data between the category scales investigated. A result of particular interest was that the comfort half of a bipolar scale was seldom used by subjects to describe their subjective reaction to vibration.

  19. Lethality of Suicide Attempt Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents an 11-point scale for measuring the degree of lethality of suicide attempts. The scale has nine example "anchors" and uses the relative lethality of an extensive table of drugs. The scale can be used reliably by nonmedical personnel with no prior training. (Author/BL)

  20. A pilot rating scale for vortex hazard evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot rating scale is developed for subjective assessment of hazard resulting from wake vortex encounter upsets. The development of the rating scale is based on a survey of 48 pilots regarding the semantic properties of various phrases and a choice of formats for the rating scale. The rating scale can be used to define a hazard/nonhazard boundary as well as to determine a measure of the hazard.

  1. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  2. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  3. Rating Scale Analysis with Latent Class Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Jurgen

    1988-01-01

    A general approach for analyzing rating data with latent class models is described, paralleling rating models in the framework of latent trait theory. A general rating model and a two-parameter model with location and dispersion parameters are derived and illustrated. (Author/SLD)

  4. Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2: application in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Arnaldi, Dario; Cordano, Christian; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Ferrara, Michela; Picco, Agnese; Tamburini, Tiziano; Brugnolo, Andrea; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Nobili, Flavio

    2016-02-01

    Sleep disturbances and nocturnal disabilities are common in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The PD sleep scale, second version (PDSS-2), has been proposed as a helpful tool for measuring sleep disorders in PD. We aimed to validate the Italian version of the PDSS-2. One hundred and twenty-three consecutive PD outpatients (76 males) were evaluated by means of PDSS-2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (self-administered scales), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating (motor section) and Hoehn and Yahr Scales, and Mini Mental State Examination. PDSS-2 internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach's α: 0.77) with significant item to total score correlation and high intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability (0.943). Total PDSS-2 score was correlated with the scores on all other clinical scales. The factor analysis identified five factors, related to five areas of nocturnal disturbances, similarly as the original PDSS-2. The five factors mainly reflected: (1) nocturnal movement-related problems, (2) quality of sleep, (3) dreaming distress, (4) fragmentation of sleep and (5) insomnia symptoms. The PDSS-2 scale has confirmed its usefulness in evaluating sleep problems in Italian PD patients. PMID:26520846

  5. The brief scale for anxiety: a subdivision of the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, P; Owen, R T; Cicchetti, D V

    1984-01-01

    A rating scale suitable for recording anxious symptoms is described. It is a subdivision of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and comprises 10 items, all of which are rated on a 7 point scale. It is suitable for the rating of pathological anxiety alone or for anxiety occurring in the setting of other psychological or medical disorder. PMID:6481391

  6. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  7. Reliability and Validity of Scores on the IFSP Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; McWilliam, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented regarding the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of scores for an investigator-developed individualized family service plan (IFSP) rating scale. One hundred and twenty IFSPs were rated using a 12-item instrument, the IFSP Rating Scale (McWilliam & Jung, 2001). Using principal components factor analysis…

  8. Measuring Cognitive Load with Subjective Rating Scales during Problem Solving: Differences between Immediate and Delayed Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeck, Annett; Opfermann, Maria; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Leutner, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Subjective cognitive load (CL) rating scales are widely used in educational research. However, there are still some open questions regarding the point of time at which such scales should be applied. Whereas some studies apply rating scales directly after each step or task and use an average of these ratings, others assess CL only once after the…

  9. Decision tree rating scales for workload estimation: Theme and variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale which is a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks was examined. The study determined if variations of the scale might provide greater sensitivity and the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were examined in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. It is indicated that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent senstivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The MCH scale results are consistent with earlier experiments. The rating scale experiments are reported and the questionnaire results which were directed to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  10. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  11. The Random-Effect Generalized Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect rating scale model in which the threshold parameters are treated as…

  12. Sensitivity of School-Performance Ratings to Scaling Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng; Koretz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers usually leave decisions about scaling the scores used for accountability to their appointed technical advisory committees and the testing contractors. However, scaling decisions can have an appreciable impact on school ratings. Using middle-school data from New York State, we examined the consistency of school ratings based on two…

  13. Development and Validation of the Conduct Disorder Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Several rating scales for measuring externalizing problems in children are inconsistent with widely used diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder (CD). The Conduct Disorder Rating Scale (CDRS) was developed to provide valid measures of CD in children age 5 to 12 years. In Study 1, the CDRS was evaluated in a community sample of 1,554 children.…

  14. Factor Analytic Composition of the Geriatric Rating Scale (GRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Ambulatory geriatric patients (N=370) were rated on the Geriatric Rating Scale and results factor analyzed. The scale was found to be composed of three factors: Withdrawal/Apathy, Antisocial Disruptive Behavior, and Deficits in Activities of Daily Living. The results help explain some of the findings regarding sex differences in previous research.…

  15. Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

  16. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  17. Critical Scale Invariance in a Healthy Human Heart Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Aoyagi, Naoko; Sakata, Seiichiro; Hayano, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-10-01

    We demonstrate the robust scale-invariance in the probability density function (PDF) of detrended healthy human heart rate increments, which is preserved not only in a quiescent condition, but also in a dynamic state where the mean level of the heart rate is dramatically changing. This scale-independent and fractal structure is markedly different from the scale-dependent PDF evolution observed in a turbulentlike, cascade heart rate model. These results strongly support the view that a healthy human heart rate is controlled to converge continually to a critical state.

  18. [Diagnosis and symptom rating scale of restless legs syndrome].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs and usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movement and is exacerbated or occurs mainly in the evening or night. People suffering from RLS are estimated to represent 2-3% of the general Japanese population, which is relatively lower than the estimated prevalence in western countries. Supportive diagnostic critevia include family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep, and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. RLS phenotypes include an early onset form that is usually idiopathic with frequent familial history and a late onset form that is usually secondary to other somatic conditions that are causative factors in RLS occurrence. In all patients presenting with complaints of insomnia or discomfort in the lower limbs, diagnosis of RLS should be considered. RLS should be differentiated from akathisia, which is an urge to move the whole body in the absence of uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test (SIT) can detect PLM in patients that are asleep or awake. RLS may cause severe sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms, and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Secondary RLS may occur due to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drug use including antipsychotics and antidepressants. Small fiber neuropathy can trigger RLS or mimic its symptoms. RLS is associated with many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy; althoughit does not predispose to these diseases. A symptom rating scale for RLS authorized by the International RLS Study Group (IRLS) would facilitate accurate diagnosis of this condition. PMID:19514513

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Rating Scales with a Brief Review of the "Connors Teacher Rating Scale" (1998)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Matthew, McLaughlin, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) (ADHD). The use of rating scales to diagnose ADHD was evaluated. Rating scales have been used since the 1970s and are highly influential in the detection of ADHD…

  20. The Secret to the "Best" Ratings from Any Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Most faculty developers have a wide variety of rating scales that fly across their desk tops as their incremental program activities unfold during the academic year. The primary issue for this column is: What is the quality of those ratings used for decisions about people and programs? When students, faculty, and administrators rate a program or…

  1. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  2. A parametric investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and the mathematical relationships that allow for transformations of subjective data from one scale to another scale were determined. A total of 16 category scales were studied and these represented various parametric combinations of polarity, scale type, and number of scalar points. Sixteen subject groups were used and each subject group evaluated its comfort/discomfort to vertical sinusoidal vibration using one of the rating scales. The passenger ride quality apparatus which can expose six subjects simultaneously to predetermined vibrations was utilized. The vibration stimuli were composed of repeats of selected sinusoidal frequencies applied at each of nine peak floor acceleration levels. A higher degree of reliability and discriminability was generally obtained from unipolar continuous type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points as opposed to the other scales investigated.

  3. International validation of a behavioral scale in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Isabelle; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Pereira, Bruno; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Ardouin, Claire; Chéreau, Isabelle; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Klinger, Helene; Peyrol, Fleur; Schupbach, Michael; Dujardin, Kathy; Tison, François; Houeto, Jean Luc; Krack, Paul; Durif, Franck

    2015-04-15

    The "Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease" is a new instrument specifically designed for assessing mood and behavior with a view to quantifying changes related to Parkinson's disease, to dopaminergic medication, and to non-motor fluctuations. This study was aimed at analyzing the psychometric attributes of this scale in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia. In addition to this scale, the following measures were applied: the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, the Bech and Rafaelsen Mania Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the MacElroy Criteria, the Patrick Carnes criteria, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Patients (n=260) were recruited at 13 centers across four countries (France, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for domains ranged from 0.69 to 0.78. Regarding test-retest reliability, the kappa coefficient for items was higher than 0.4. For inter-rater reliability, the kappa values were 0.29 to 0.81. Furthermore, most of the items from the Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease correlated with the corresponding items of the other scales, depressed mood with the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (ρ=0.82); anxiety with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-anxiety (ρ=0.56); apathy with the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (ρ=0.60). The Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's disease is an acceptable, reproducible, valid, and precise assessment for evaluating changes in behavior in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia. PMID:25809278

  4. K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, John M.; Benton, Stephen L.; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Marsh, Patricia A.; Benton, Sheryl A.; Tseng, Wen-Chih; Shin, Kang-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales, a new screening instrument for college counseling centers, gathers information about clients' presenting symptoms, functioning levels, and readiness to change. Three studies revealed 7 scales: Mood Difficulties, Learning Problems, Food Concerns, Interpersonal Conflicts, Career Uncertainties,…

  5. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  6. Development and Validation of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Caliskan, Serap; Dilek, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation process for an instrument to measure university students' anxiety in physics courses. The development of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) included the following steps: Generation of scale items, content validation, construct validation, and reliability calculation. The results of construct…

  7. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  8. Self-Control in Children: Development of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Wilcox, Lance E.

    1979-01-01

    Referred children were rated as significantly less self-controlled on the self control rating scale (SCRS) than were matched nonreferred children. Significant differences were found on the SCRS, Matching Familiar Figures test latencies and behavioral observations. The SCRS appeared to be a reliable and valid index of self-control. (Author)

  9. 1/f scaling in heart rate requires antagonistic autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hayano, Junichiro; Sakata, Seiichiro; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    We present systematic evidence for the origins of 1/f -type temporal scaling in human heart rate. The heart rate is regulated by the activity of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic (PNS) and the sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems. We examine alterations in the scaling property when the balance between PNS and SNS activity is modified, and find that the relative PNS suppression by congestive heart failure results in a substantial increase in the Hurst exponent H towards random-walk scaling 1/f2 and a similar breakdown is observed with relative SNS suppression by primary autonomic failure. These results suggest that 1/f scaling in heart rate requires the intricate balance between the antagonistic activity of PNS and SNS.

  10. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  11. Urate predicts rate of clinical decline in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Ascherio, Alberto; LeWitt, Peter A.; Xu, Kui; Eberly, Shirley; Watts, Arthur; Matson, Wayne R.; Marras, Connie; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Bogdanov, Mikhail B.; Schwid, Steven R.; Tennis, Marsha; Tanner, Caroline M.; Beal, M. Flint; Lang, Anthony E.; Oakes, David; Fahn, Stanley; Shoulson, Ira; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Context The risk of Parkinson disease (PD) and its rate of progression may decline with increasing blood urate, a major antioxidant. Objective To determine whether serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of urate predict clinical progression in patients with PD. Design, Setting, and Participants 800 subjects with early PD enrolled in the DATATOP trial. Pre-treatment urate was measured in serum for 774 subjects and in CSF for 713. Main Outcome Measures Treatment-, age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical disability requiring levodopa therapy, the pre-specified primary endpoint. Results The HR of progressing to endpoint decreased with increasing serum urate (HR for 1 standard deviation increase = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.93). In analyses stratified by α-tocopherol treatment (2,000 IU/day), a decrease in the HR for the primary endpoint was seen only among subjects not treated with α-tocopherol (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89, versus those treated HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.08). Results were similar for the rate of change in the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). CSF urate was also inversely related to both the primary endpoint (HR for highest versus lowest quintile = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.96) and to the rate of change in UPDRS. As with serum urate, these associations were present only among subjects not treated with α-tocopherol. Conclusion Higher serum and CSF urate at baseline were associated with slower rates of clinical decline. The findings strengthen the link between urate and PD and the rationale for considering CNS urate elevation as a potential strategy to slow PD progression. PMID:19822770

  12. A comparison of different category scales for estimating disease severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales are widely used for assessing disease severity, including for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale, but reports show tha...

  13. Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (ρlsμ=0.97±0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65±0.13 ; EH, 0.54±0.05 ; YH, 0.57±0.05 ; p<0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in ρlsμ (day, 0.65±0.13 ; night, 0.66±0.12 ; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54±0.05 ; night, 0.61±0.05 ; p=0.002 ). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification.

  14. Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (rho (mu/ls) = 0.97 +/- 0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65 +/- 0.13; EH, 0.54 +/- 0.05; YH, 0.57 +/- 0.05; p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in rho (mu/ls) (day, 0.65 +/- 0.13; night, 0.66 +/- 0.12; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54 +/- 0.05; night, 0.61 +/- 0.05; p=0.002). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification. PMID:16711836

  15. Critical scaling with strain rate in overdamped sheared disordered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Joel; Salerno, Kenneth; Robbins, Mark

    In the limit of quasistatic shear, disordered solids demonstrate non-equilibrium critical behavior including power-law distributions of avalanches. Using molecular dynamics simulations of 2D and 3D overdamped binary LJ glasses, we explore the critical behavior in the limit of finite strain rate. We use finite-size scaling to find the critical exponents characterizing shear stress, kinetic energy, and measures of temporal and spatial correlations. The shear stress of the system rises as a power β of the strain rate. Larger system size extends this power law to lower rates. This behavior is governed by a power law drop of the dynamic correlation length with increasing shear stress defined by the exponent ν. This finite-size effect also impacts the scaling of the RMS kinetic energy with strain rate as avalanches begin nucleating simultaneously leading to continuous deformation of the solid. As system size increases, avalanches begin overlapping at lower rates. The correlation function of non-affine displacement exhibits novel anisotropic power law scaling with the magnitude of the wave vector. Its strain rate dependence is used to determine the scaling of the dynamic correlation length. Support provided by: DMR-1006805; NSF IGERT-0801471; OCI-0963185; CMMI-0923018.

  16. Development and Validation of a Clinical Scale for Rating the Severity of Blepharospasm

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, Giovanni; Hallett, Mark; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Gigante, Angelo F.; Ferrazzano, Gina; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Existing scales for rating the severity of blepharospasm (BSP) are limited by a number of potential drawbacks. We therefore developed and validated a novel scale for rating the severity of BSP. The development of the scale started with careful examination of the clinical spectrum of the condition by a panel of experts who selected phenomenological aspects thought to be relevant to disease severity. Thereafter, selected items were first checked for reliability, then reliable items were combined to generate the scale, and clinimetric properties of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the confidence with which the scale could be used by people without high levels of movement disorders skill was assessed. The new scale, based on objective criteria, yielded moderate to almost perfect reliability, acceptable internal consistency, satisfactory scaling assumptions, lack of floor and ceiling effects, partial correlations with a prior severity scale and with a quality of life scale, and good sensitivity to change. Despite a few limitations, the foregoing features make the novel scale more suitable than existing scales to assess the severity of BSP in natural history and pathophysiologic studies as well as in clinical trials. PMID:25847472

  17. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011

    PubMed Central

    Llácer, Alicia; Palmera-Suárez, Rocio; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; González-Yuste, Paloma; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease–related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was −1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

  18. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A G; Ghanbarian, B; Skinner, T E; Ewing, R P

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture. PMID:26232976

  19. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.; Skinner, T. E.; Ewing, R. P.

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture.

  20. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  1. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  2. A Comparison of the Counselor Rating Form and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1982-01-01

    Compared two measures of perceived counselor expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness: the Counselor Rating Form (CRF) and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (CERS). Results showed expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness as measured by both instruments are not independent and are components of a single dimension of perceived…

  3. Concordance Rates between Parent and Teacher Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Observational Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Jacqueline; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; Wolfson, Virginia; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early identification of children with language issues is critical for effective intervention, and yet many children are not identified until school age. The use of parent-completed rating scales, especially in urban, minority populations, might improve early identification if parent ratings are found to be…

  4. Rate-dependent scaling laws for spall failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Justin; Ramesh, Kt

    Here we derive simple bounds on the growth rate of voids considering the combined retarding effects of micro-inertia and dislocation kinetics. We make use of these bounds to derive simple scaling laws capable of predicting the strong rate-dependence of spall strength. We show that the rate-sensitivity exponent for spall strength is bounded to below 6/7 when micro-inertia is the dominant retarding effect on void growth. However, under conditions in which the void growth is predominately governed by dislocation kinetics the rate-sensitivity exponent may rise to a maximum value of 1. With these scaling laws in hand, we go on to further explore the role of microstructure on spall strength. Though simple, the derived scaling laws compare well with experimental measurements and prove useful in shedding light on some of the more perplexing observations associated with spall failure. In particular, the scaling laws are helpful in understanding the somewhat anomalous dependence of spall strength on pre-existing microstructure, e.g. grain size and purity content.

  5. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  6. Making Long-Lasting Changes with the Environment Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Thelma

    2010-01-01

    An assessment with the Environment Rating Scales (ERS) is designed to give early childhood administrators and teaching staff much more than a set of quality scores. Appropriately used, an ERS assessment can provide a blueprint for planning and carrying out both immediate and long-range program improvements. Unfortunately, programs often complete…

  7. Child Mania Rating Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Devineni, Bhargavi; Carbray, Julie A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop a reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania, based on DSM-IV symptoms. Method: A 21-item Child Mania Rating Scale-Parent version (CMRS-P) was completed by parents of 150 children (42.3% female) ages 10.3 plus or minus 2.9 years (healthy controls = 50; bipolar disorder = 50;…

  8. Broadband Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners for Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Gross, Amber D.; McReynolds, Brandy M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in…

  9. Factor Structure Evaluation of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magyar, Caroline I.; Pandolfi, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Principal components analysis (PCA) and principal axis factor analysis (PAF) evaluated archival data from children presenting to a university clinic with suspected autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; N = 164). PCA did not replicate components identified by…

  10. Preliminary Validation of the Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…

  11. Mixed Rasch Modeling of the Self-Rating Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Min, Sae-Young

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mixed Rasch modeling was used on the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), a widely used measure of depression, among a non-Western sample of 618 Korean college students. The results revealed three latent classes and confirmed the unidimensionality of the SDS. In addition, there was a significant effect for gender in terms of class…

  12. Chronic Disease Medication Administration Rates in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Lawrence; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Burbach, Cindy; Molgaard, Craig A.; Ngong, Lolem

    2004-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest school nurses and staff treat increasing numbers of public school students with chronic diseases. However, professionals know little about actual disease burden in schools. This study measured prevalence of chronic disease medication administration rates in a large, urban midwestern school district. Data from daily…

  13. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale.

    PubMed

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for heart rate detection on a subject that stands on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear, and does not require any sensors attached to the body. We have applied our method to three different weighing scales, and estimated whether their sensitivity and frequency response suited heart rate detection. Scale sensitivities were from 490 nV/V/N to 1670 nV/V/N, all had an underdamped transient response and their dynamic gain error was below 19% at 10 Hz, which are acceptable values for heart rate estimation. We also designed a pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits, whose gain was about 70x10(3) and able to sense force variations about 240 mN. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the main peaks of the pulse signal detected was higher than 48 dB, which is large enough to estimate the heart rate by simple signal processing methods. To validate the method, the ECG and the force signal were simultaneously recorded on 12 volunteers. The maximal error obtained from heart rates determined from these two signals was +/-0.6 beats/minute. PMID:18003457

  14. A Confirmatory Study of Rating Scale Category Effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also…

  15. Characterizing the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Hafenrichter, Everett Shingo; Pahl, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser diode ignition experiments were conducted in an effort to characterize the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria. Over forty experiments were conducted with various laser power densities and laser spot sizes. In addition, relatively simple analytical and numerical calculations were performed to assist with interpretation of the experimental data and characterization of the explosive ignition criteria.

  16. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  17. Variation of foraging rate and wing loading, but not resting metabolic rate scaling, of insect pollinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, John S.; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Morphological, physiological and behavioural variation with body size (i.e. scaling) may affect costs of living in a particular environment for insects and, ultimately, pollination or foraging success. However, few studies have directly assessed the scaling of these traits at the species level. Using two similar-sized pollinator species (the hawkmoth Macroglossum trochilus and the fly Moegistorhynchus longirostrus), we compare intraspecific scaling relationships of resting metabolic rate (RMR), foraging rate (FR) and wing loading (WL) to address this paucity of data. Scaling of RMR was similar for both taxa although the intercepts for the relationships differed. However, these two species showed variation in WL scaling relationships and fundamentally different FR scaling. For M. longirostrus, FR scaling was positive but non-significantly related to body mass while for M. trochilus FR scaling was negative. This suggests that variation in FR and WL, but not RMR scaling, among these flies and hawkmoths may impose significant energetic costs which could affect animal-plant interactions in the wild.

  18. Scale invariant texture descriptors for classifying celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Hegenbart, Sebastian; Uhl, Andreas; Vécsei, Andreas; Wimmer, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Scale invariant texture recognition methods are applied for the computer assisted diagnosis of celiac disease. In particular, emphasis is given to techniques enhancing the scale invariance of multi-scale and multi-orientation wavelet transforms and methods based on fractal analysis. After fine-tuning to specific properties of our celiac disease imagery database, which consists of endoscopic images of the duodenum, some scale invariant (and often even viewpoint invariant) methods provide classification results improving the current state of the art. However, not each of the investigated scale invariant methods is applicable successfully to our dataset. Therefore, the scale invariance of the employed approaches is explicitly assessed and it is found that many of the analyzed methods are not as scale invariant as they theoretically should be. Results imply that scale invariance is not a key-feature required for successful classification of our celiac disease dataset. PMID:23481171

  19. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  20. What interval characteristics make a good disease assessment category scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales have been used for assessing plant disease severity in field experiments, epidemiological studies, and for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsf...

  1. A new rating scale for negative symptoms: the Motor-Affective-Social Scale.

    PubMed

    Trémeau, Fabien; Goggin, Michelle; Antonius, Daniel; Czobor, Pàl; Hill, Vera; Citrome, Leslie

    2008-09-30

    The commonly used rating scales for negative symptoms in schizophrenia have shown good reliability, but disagreement persists regarding both the content definition and the validity of several items. Instead, authors have recommended rating the specific behaviors that are defined as negative symptoms. To surmount these shortcomings, we developed a new rating scale for negative symptoms: the Motor-Affective-Social Scale (MASS). During a 5-minute structured interview, hand coverbal gestures, spontaneous smiles, voluntary smiling, and questions asked by the interviewer were counted and rated on 101 inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Information on social behavior was obtained from nursing staff. The scale consisted of a total of eight items. The MASS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.81), inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.81). Convergent validity analyses showed high correlations between MASS scores and scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS), and the negative symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The MASS showed excellent psychometric properties, practicality, and subject tolerability. Future research that includes the use of the MASS with other patient populations and that investigates the scale's sensitivity during clinical trials should be performed. PMID:18722021

  2. Recent developments in cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of nuclide production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.

  3. In Search of Reaction Rate Scaling Law for Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Lou, Zhipeng; Li, Wenhai

    2015-11-01

    As a way of employing the flamelet approach, which was developed essentially for incompressible flows, to model supersonic combustion, the role ascribed to pressure has not been very convincing. That is, the reaction rate is often scaled on the square of the pressure in the finite Mach number flow field relative to the usually atmospheric static pressure field used in the generation of the flamelet library. This scaling assumption is quite simple and will therefore be very attractive if it has a sound theoretical basis and it works for a large selection of high-speed combustion flows. We try to find some justifications for different scaling laws, with the hope of coming up with a more universally-acceptable flamelet procedure for supersonic combustion.

  4. Characterizing heart rate variability by scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Tung, Wen-wen

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies on heart rate variability (HRV) using chaos theory, fractal scaling analysis, and many other methods, while fruitful in many aspects, have produced much confusion in the literature. Especially the issue of whether normal HRV is chaotic or stochastic remains highly controversial. Here, we employ a new multiscale complexity measure, the scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE), to characterize HRV. SDLE has been shown to readily characterize major models of complex time series including deterministic chaos, noisy chaos, stochastic oscillations, random 1/f processes, random Levy processes, and complex time series with multiple scaling behaviors. Here we use SDLE to characterize the relative importance of nonlinear, chaotic, and stochastic dynamics in HRV of healthy, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation subjects. We show that while HRV data of all these three types are mostly stochastic, the stochasticity is different among the three groups.

  5. A large-scale validation study of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS).

    PubMed

    Fialko, Laura; Garety, Philippa A; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul E; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Adherence to medication is an important predictor of illness course and outcome in psychosis. The Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) is a ten-item self-report measure of medication adherence in psychosis [Thompson, K., Kulkarni, J., Sergejew, A.A., 2000. Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses. Schizophrenia Research. 42. 241-247]. Although initial results suggested that the scale has good reliability and validity, the development sample was small. The current study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the MARS in a sample over four times larger. The scale was administered to 277 individuals with psychosis, along with measures of insight and psychopathology. Medication adherence was independently rated by each individual's keyworker. Results showed the internal consistency of the MARS to be lower than in the original sample, though adequate. MARS total score correlated weakly with keyworker-rated adherence, hence concurrent validity of the scale appeared only moderate to weak. The three factor structure of the MARS was replicated. Examination of the factor scores suggested that the factor 1 total score, which corresponds to the Medication Adherence Questionnaire [Morisky,D.E., Green,L.W. and Levine,D.M., 1986. Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence. Medical Care. 24, 67-74] may be a preferable measure of medication adherence behaviour to the total scale score. PMID:18083007

  6. Review of outcome measurement instruments in Alzheimer's disease drug trials: psychometric properties of behavior and mood scales.

    PubMed

    Perrault, A; Oremus, M; Demers, L; Vida, S; Wolfson, C

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the reliability and validity of eight scales for behavior and mood problems that were identified in a comparative analysis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug trials. The scales are the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-noncognitive, the Relative's Assessment of Global Symptomatology, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia, the Dementia Behavior Disturbance scale, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and two scales for depressive symptoms, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale. This article also examines methodological limitations in the way the published literature has assessed the psychometric properties of these scales. The aim is to help clinicians and potential trial investigators select appropriate measurement instruments with which to assess behavior and mood problems in AD and to assist AD researchers in the evaluation of the psychometric properties of such scales. PMID:11128058

  7. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471-475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10-15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  8. Evolution in time and scales of the stability of heart interbeat rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2010-12-01

    We approach heart interbeat rate by observing the evolution of its stability on scales and time, using tools for the analysis of frequency standards. In particular, we employ the dynamic Allan variance, which is used to characterize the time-varying stability of an atomic clock, to analyze heart interbeat time series for normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Our stability analysis shows that healthy dynamics is characterized by at least two stability regions along different scales. In contrast, diseased patients exhibit at least three different stability regions; over short scales the fluctuations resembled white-noise behavior whereas for large scales a drift is observed. The inflection points delimiting the first two stability regions for both groups are located around the same scales. Moreover, we find that CHF patients show lower variation of the stability in time than healthy subjects.

  9. Regional Myocardial Perfusion Rates in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Paul J.; Dell, Ralph B.; Dwyer, Edward M.

    1972-01-01

    Regional myocardial perfusion rates were estimated from the myocardial washout of 133Xenon in 24 patients with heart disease whose coronary arteriograms were abnormal and 17 similar subjects whose coronary arteriograms were judged to be normal. Disappearance rates of 133Xe from multiple areas of the heart were monitored externally with a multiple-crystal scintillation camera after the isotope had been injected into a coronary artery and local myocardial perfusion rates were calculated by the Kety formula. The mean myocardial perfusion rates in the left ventricle exceeded those in the right ventricle or atrial regions in subjects without demonstrable coronary artery disease. In this group there was a significant lack of homogeneity of local perfusion rates in left ventricular myocardium; the mean coefficient of variation of left ventricular local perfusion rates was 15.8%. In the patients with radiographically demonstrable coronary artery disease, a variety of myocardial perfusion patterns were observed. Local capillary blood flow rates were depressed throughout the myocardium of patients with diffuse coronary disease but were subnormal only in discrete myocardial regions of others with localized occlusive disease. Local myocardial perfusion rates were similar to those found in the group with normal coronary arteriograms in patients with slight degrees of coronary disease and in those areas of myocardium distal to marked coronary constrictions or occlusions which were well supplied by collateral vessels. In subjects with right coronary disease, the mean right ventricular perfusion rates were significantly subnormal; in seven subjects of this group perfusion of the inferior left ventricle by a dominant right coronary artery was absent or depressed. The average mean left ventricular perfusion rate of 12 subjects with significant disease of two or more branches of the left coronary artery was significantly lower than that of the group with normal left coronary

  10. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  11. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-01

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  12. Scaling laws for the upper ocean temperature dissipation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogucki, Darek J.; Huguenard, K.; Haus, B. K.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Reniers, A.; Laxague, N. J. M.

    2015-02-01

    Our understanding of temperature dissipation rate χ within the upper ocean boundary layer, which is critical for climate forecasts, is very limited. Near-surface turbulence also affects dispersion of contaminants and biogeochemical tracers. Using high-resolution optical turbulence measurements, scaling laws for χ are investigated under forcing states where either the daytime heat flux or the wind stress forcing is dominant. We find that χ remains constant over 1.5 times the significant wave height, while over a layer below, χ decays based on the local surface forcing. When the heat flux is dominant, traditional scaling based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory remains valid; χ ∝ z-1. When the wind stress dominates, we observe the emergence of a new scaling, χ ∝ z-1/2, which is explained by invoking the effect of small-scale coherent structures on vertical heat transport. These results have implications for improved modeling of the ocean's heat and CO2 intake.

  13. Factor Analysis of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale with Teacher Ratings of Students with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Eaves, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale (PDDRS; Eaves, 2003) is a rating scale that is used in the screening process for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The PDDRS contains three scales: Arousal, Affect, and Cognition. In this study, the construct validity of the PDDRS was examined with teacher ratings from a sample of 168…

  14. Exploring the evolutionary rate differences between human disease and non-disease genes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandip; Panda, Arup; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Comparisons of evolutionary features between human disease and non-disease genes have a wide implication to understand the genetic basis of human disease genes. However, it has not yet been resolved whether disease genes evolve at slower or faster rate than the non-disease genes. To resolve this controversy, here we integrated human disease genes from several databases and compared their protein evolutionary rates with non-disease genes in both housekeeping and tissue-specific group. We noticed that in tissue specific group, disease genes evolve significantly at a slower rate than non-disease genes. However, we found no significant difference in evolutionary rates between disease and non-disease genes in housekeeping group. Tissue specific disease genes have a higher protein complex number, elevated gene expression level and are also associated with conserve biological processes. Finally, our regression analysis suggested that protein complex number followed by protein multifunctionality independently modulates the evolutionary rate of human disease genes. PMID:26562439

  15. Large-Scale Discovery of Disease-Disease and Disease-Gene Associations

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Djordje; Stojanovic, Jelena; Djuric, Nemanja; Radosavljevic, Vladan; Grbovic, Mihajlo; Kulathinal, Rob J.; Obradovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven phenotype analyses on Electronic Health Record (EHR) data have recently drawn benefits across many areas of clinical practice, uncovering new links in the medical sciences that can potentially affect the well-being of millions of patients. In this paper, EHR data is used to discover novel relationships between diseases by studying their comorbidities (co-occurrences in patients). A novel embedding model is designed to extract knowledge from disease comorbidities by learning from a large-scale EHR database comprising more than 35 million inpatient cases spanning nearly a decade, revealing significant improvements on disease phenotyping over current computational approaches. In addition, the use of the proposed methodology is extended to discover novel disease-gene associations by including valuable domain knowledge from genome-wide association studies. To evaluate our approach, its effectiveness is compared against a held-out set where, again, it revealed very compelling results. For selected diseases, we further identify candidate gene lists for which disease-gene associations were not studied previously. Thus, our approach provides biomedical researchers with new tools to filter genes of interest, thus, reducing costly lab studies. PMID:27578529

  16. Large-Scale Discovery of Disease-Disease and Disease-Gene Associations.

    PubMed

    Gligorijevic, Djordje; Stojanovic, Jelena; Djuric, Nemanja; Radosavljevic, Vladan; Grbovic, Mihajlo; Kulathinal, Rob J; Obradovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven phenotype analyses on Electronic Health Record (EHR) data have recently drawn benefits across many areas of clinical practice, uncovering new links in the medical sciences that can potentially affect the well-being of millions of patients. In this paper, EHR data is used to discover novel relationships between diseases by studying their comorbidities (co-occurrences in patients). A novel embedding model is designed to extract knowledge from disease comorbidities by learning from a large-scale EHR database comprising more than 35 million inpatient cases spanning nearly a decade, revealing significant improvements on disease phenotyping over current computational approaches. In addition, the use of the proposed methodology is extended to discover novel disease-gene associations by including valuable domain knowledge from genome-wide association studies. To evaluate our approach, its effectiveness is compared against a held-out set where, again, it revealed very compelling results. For selected diseases, we further identify candidate gene lists for which disease-gene associations were not studied previously. Thus, our approach provides biomedical researchers with new tools to filter genes of interest, thus, reducing costly lab studies. PMID:27578529

  17. Escape Rates in a Stochastic Environment with Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgoston, Eric; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a stochastic environment with two time scales and outline a general theory that compares two methods to reduce the dimension of the original system. The first method involves the computation of the underlying deterministic center manifold followed by a naive replacement of the stochastic term. The second method allows one to more accurately describe the stochastic effects and involves the derivation of a normal form coordinate transform that is used to find the stochastic center manifold. The results of both methods are used along with the path integral formalism of large fluctuation theory to predict the escape rate from one basin of attraction to another. The general theory is applied to the example of a surface flow described by a generic, singularly perturbed, damped, nonlinear oscillator with additive, Gaussian noise. We show how both nonlinear reduction methods compare in escape rate scaling. Additionally, the center manifolds are shown to predict high prehistory probability regions of escape. The theoretical results are confirmed using numerical computation of the mean escape time and escape prehistory, and we briefly discuss the extension of the theory to stochastic control.

  18. High mutational rates of large-scale duplication and deletion in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Keith, Nathan; Tucker, Abraham E; Jackson, Craig E; Sung, Way; Lucas Lledó, José Ignacio; Schrider, Daniel R; Schaack, Sarah; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Ackerman, Matthew; Younge, Andrew J; Shaw, Joseph R; Lynch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the genome-wide rate and spectrum of mutations is necessary to understand the origin of disease and the genetic variation driving all evolutionary processes. Here, we provide a genome-wide analysis of the rate and spectrum of mutations obtained in two Daphnia pulex genotypes via separate mutation-accumulation (MA) experiments. Unlike most MA studies that utilize haploid, homozygous, or self-fertilizing lines, D. pulex can be propagated ameiotically while maintaining a naturally heterozygous, diploid genome, allowing the capture of the full spectrum of genomic changes that arise in a heterozygous state. While base-substitution mutation rates are similar to those in other multicellular eukaryotes (about 4 × 10(-9) per site per generation), we find that the rates of large-scale (>100 kb) de novo copy-number variants (CNVs) are significantly elevated relative to those seen in previous MA studies. The heterozygosity maintained in this experiment allowed for estimates of gene-conversion processes. While most of the conversion tract lengths we report are similar to those generated by meiotic processes, we also find larger tract lengths that are indicative of mitotic processes. Comparison of MA lines to natural isolates reveals that a majority of large-scale CNVs in natural populations are removed by purifying selection. The mutations observed here share similarities with disease-causing, complex, large-scale CNVs, thereby demonstrating that MA studies in D. pulex serve as a system for studying the processes leading to such alterations. PMID:26518480

  19. Heart rate reduction in coronary artery disease and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Roberto; Fox, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Elevated heart rate is known to induce myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and heart rate reduction is a recognized strategy to prevent ischaemic episodes. In addition, clinical evidence shows that slowing the heart rate reduces the symptoms of angina by improving microcirculation and coronary flow. Elevated heart rate is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and in those with chronic heart failure (HF). Accordingly, reducing heart rate improves prognosis in patients with HF, as demonstrated in SHIFT. By contrast, data from SIGNIFY indicate that heart rate is not a modifiable risk factor in patients with CAD who do not also have HF. Heart rate is also an important determinant of cardiac arrhythmias; low heart rate can be associated with atrial fibrillation, and high heart rate after exercise can be associated with sudden cardiac death. In this Review, we critically assess these clinical findings, and propose hypotheses for the variable effect of heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease. PMID:27226153

  20. Integration of scale-down experimentation and general rate modelling to predict manufacturing scale chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Gerontas, Spyridon; Asplund, Magnus; Hjorth, Rolf; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2010-10-29

    Chromatography is an essential downstream processing step in the production of biopharmaceuticals. Here we present an approach to chromatography scale-up using scale-down experimentation integrated with general rate modelling. This type of modelling takes account all contributions to the mass transfer kinetics providing process understanding. The model is calibrated using a 2.5 cm height, 1 ml column and used to predict chromatograms for 20 cm height columns from 40 ml to 160 L volume. Simulations were found to be in good agreement with experimental results. The envisaged approach could potentially reduce the number of experiments, shorten development time and reduce costs. PMID:20880533

  1. Universal scaling of production rates across mammalian lineages

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Davidson, Ana D.; Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Over many millions of years of independent evolution, placental, marsupial and monotreme mammals have diverged conspicuously in physiology, life history and reproductive ecology. The differences in life histories are particularly striking. Compared with placentals, marsupials exhibit shorter pregnancy, smaller size of offspring at birth and longer period of lactation in the pouch. Monotremes also exhibit short pregnancy, but incubate embryos in eggs, followed by a long period of post-hatching lactation. Using a large sample of mammalian species, we show that, remarkably, despite their very different life histories, the scaling of production rates is statistically indistinguishable across mammalian lineages. Apparently all mammals are subject to the same fundamental metabolic constraints on productivity, because they share similar body designs, vascular systems and costs of producing new tissue. PMID:20798111

  2. Scaling of standard metabolic rate in estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Gienger, C M; Brien, Matthew L; Tracy, Christopher R; Charlie Manolis, S; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2013-05-01

    Standard metabolic rate (SMR, ml O2 min(-1)) of captive Crocodylus porosus at 30 °C scales with body mass (kg) according to the equation, SMR = 1.01 M(0.829), in animals ranging in body mass of 3.3 orders of magnitude (0.19-389 kg). The exponent is significantly higher than 0.75, so does not conform to quarter-power scaling theory, but rather is likely an emergent property with no single explanation. SMR at 1 kg body mass is similar to the literature for C. porosus and for alligators. The high exponent is not related to feeding, growth, or obesity of captive animals. The log-transformed data appear slightly curved, mainly because SMR is somewhat low in many of the largest animals (291-389 kg). A 3-parameter model is scarcely different from the linear one, but reveals a declining exponent between 0.862 and 0.798. A non-linear model on arithmetic axes overestimates SMR in 70% of the smallest animals and does not satisfactorily represent the data. PMID:23233168

  3. The responsiveness of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Faries, D; Herrera, J; Rayamajhi, J; DeBrota, D; Demitrack, M; Potter, W Z

    2000-01-01

    In clinical studies of antidepressants, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score has been the gold standard instrument for establishing and comparing the efficacy of new treatments. However, the HAMD is a multidimensional measure, which may reduce its ability to detect differences between treatments, in particular, changes in core symptoms of depression. Two meta-analyses were conducted to compare the responsiveness of the HAMD total score with several published unidimensional subscale scores based upon core symptoms of depression. The first compared the above instrument's ability to detect differences between fluoxetine and placebo across eight studies involving over 1600 patients. The second analysis involved four studies and over 1200 patients randomized to tricyclic antidepressants and placebo. In both meta-analyses, the unidimensional core subscales outperformed the HAMD total score at detecting treatment differences. The implications of this on sample sizes and power for clinical studies will be discussed. In fact, studies based on the observed effect sizes from the core subscales would require approximately one-third less patients than studies based on the HAMD total score. Effect sizes from each individual HAMD item will also be presented to help explain the differences in responsiveness between the scales. PMID:10696827

  4. On the context-dependent scaling of consumer feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Barrios-O'Neill, Daniel; Kelly, Ruth; Dick, Jaimie T A; Ricciardi, Anthony; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Emmerson, Mark C

    2016-06-01

    The stability of consumer-resource systems can depend on the form of feeding interactions (i.e. functional responses). Size-based models predict interactions - and thus stability - based on consumer-resource size ratios. However, little is known about how interaction contexts (e.g. simple or complex habitats) might alter scaling relationships. Addressing this, we experimentally measured interactions between a large size range of aquatic predators (4-6400 mg over 1347 feeding trials) and an invasive prey that transitions among habitats: from the water column (3D interactions) to simple and complex benthic substrates (2D interactions). Simple and complex substrates mediated successive reductions in capture rates - particularly around the unimodal optimum - and promoted prey population stability in model simulations. Many real consumer-resource systems transition between 2D and 3D interactions, and along complexity gradients. Thus, Context-Dependent Scaling (CDS) of feeding interactions could represent an unrecognised aspect of food webs, and quantifying the extent of CDS might enhance predictive ecology. PMID:27094829

  5. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  6. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-08-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  7. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    PubMed Central

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch’s postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  8. Freely expanding detonation products: Scaling of rate processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, N. R.

    1988-03-01

    Using the Los Alamos reactive hydrodynamics code KIVA, calculations have been made to simulate the free expansion of cylinders of detonation products into a high vacuum. The emphasis of this paper is on the scaling of rate processes with cylinder size and initial conditions as a function of position in the expanding mass. The processes considered include diffusion, unimolecular decomposition, biomolecular radical reactions, and vibrational relaxation. The calculations also give time-dependent velocity fields; schlieren images; and profiles of density, pressure, and temperature. Many features of the calculations can be compared with experimental observations, including time-delayed schlieren and shadowgraph snapshots, time-dependent absorption spectra, and time-of-arrival profiles of molecular species. Some unexpected insights, such as the effect of the equation of state on the shape of the expanding plume and the effect of position on the rate of quenching, are discussed. These calculations are being used to interpret the available experimental data and to design future experiments.

  9. A validated rating scale for global mental workload measurement applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwile, W. W.; Casali, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    The Cooper-Harper (1969) scale has been extensively used for evaluation of aircraft handling qualities and associated mental workload. The scale is a 10-point scale with a decision tree. A modified version of the scale, called the MCH scale, has been devised for the purpose of assessing workload in systems other than those where the human operator performs motor tasks; namely, where perceptual, mediational, and communications activity is preent. The MCH scale has been validated in three different experiments. The scale is recommended for applications in which overall mental workload is to be assessed.

  10. Uncinate Process Length in Birds Scales with Resting Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter; Nudds, Robert; Codd, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL) is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum. PMID:19479074

  11. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  12. Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Thailand, 1958–2009

    PubMed Central

    McCarron, Margaret; Lertiendumrong, Jongkol; Olsen, Sonja J.; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta

    2012-01-01

    To better define infectious diseases of concern in Thailand, trends in the mortality rate during 1958–2009 were analyzed by using data from public health statistics reports. From 1958 to the mid-1990s, the rate of infectious disease–associated deaths declined 5-fold (from 163.4 deaths/100,000 population in 1958 to 29.5/100,000 in 1997). This average annual reduction of 3.2 deaths/100,000 population was largely attributed to declines in deaths related to malaria, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal infections. However, during 1998–2003, the mortality rate increased (peak of 70.0 deaths/100,000 population in 2003), coinciding with increases in mortality rate from AIDS, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. During 2004–2009, the rate declined to 41.0 deaths/100,000 population, coinciding with a decrease in AIDS-related deaths. The emergence of AIDS and the increase in tuberculosis- and pneumonia-related deaths in the late twentieth century emphasize the need to direct resources and efforts to the control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23092558

  13. Pompe Disease: Cyanosed Hypotonic Infant with Normal Respiratory Rate.

    PubMed

    Koirala, S; Poudel, A; Basnet, R; Subedi, K

    2015-01-01

    Infantile hypotonia or floppy infant is a diagnostic challenge when it presents with other presenting complaints such as fever, cough or diarrhea. Many times the hypotonia goes unnoticed when other symptom covers the hypotonia and child continues to receive the treatment for other symptoms. We report a rare case from Nepal of infantile Pompe disease who presented with the history of fever and cough in the recent earthquake disaster camp at remote part of Sindhupalchowk, Nepal. He was being treated as a case of pneumonia. Pompe disease can be diagnosed clinically by taking detailed history and correlating the clinical findings during the presentation with other symptoms. In our case the normal respiratory rate, reduced Spo2 and presence of crackles dominated the hypotonia and was mistreated as pneumonia. High index of suspicion is necessary in diagnosing Pompe disease. PMID:26643838

  14. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  15. Rating Scale Impact on EFL Essay Marking: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Educators often have to choose among different types of rating scales to assess second-language (L2) writing performance. There is little research, however, on how different rating scales affect rater performance. This study employed a mixed-method approach to investigate the effects of two different rating scales on EFL essay scores, rating…

  16. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distribution of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  17. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. Ch; Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C.-K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distributions of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  18. Fine scale association mapping of disease loci using simplex families.

    PubMed

    Morris, A P; Whittaker, J C

    2000-05-01

    We present a new method for the fine scale mapping of disease loci based on samples of simplex families, each containing an affected child. The method is based on a generalisation of a single locus allele transmission model to multiple marker loci. The model is developed under the assumption of a single ancestral mutation and allows for the calculation of posterior probabilities that each allele at a particular marker was present on the founder chromosome. We illustrate the method using simulated family data for cystic fibrosis and Huntingtons disease, for which the locations of mutations in the disease genes are now known. For both diseases, our new method provides good estimates of the location of the mutations. PMID:11246474

  19. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  20. Understanding scale dependency of climatic processes with diarrheal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The issue of scales in linking climatic processes with diarrheal diseases is perhaps one of the most challenging aspect to develop any predictive algorithm for outbreaks and to understand impacts of changing climate. Majority of diarrheal diseases have shown to be strongly associated with climate modulated environmental processes where pathogens survive. Using cholera as an example of characteristic diarrheal diseases, this study will provide methodological insights on dominant scale variability in climatic processes that are linked with trigger and transmission of disease. Cholera based epidemiological models use human to human interaction as a main transmission mechanism, however, environmental conditions for creating seasonality in outbreaks is not explicitly modeled. For example, existing models cannot create seasonality, unless some of the model parameters are a-priori chosen to vary seasonally. A systems based feedback approach will be presented to understand role of climatic processes on trigger and transmission disease. In order to investigate effect of changing climate on cholera, a downscaling approach using support vector machine will be used. Our preliminary results using three climate models, ECHAM5, GFDL, and HADCM show that varying modalities in future cholera outbreaks.

  1. Finger tapping movements of Parkinson's disease patients automatically rated using nonlinear delay differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lainscsek, C.; Rowat, P.; Schettino, L.; Lee, D.; Song, D.; Letellier, C.; Poizner, H.

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative condition whose severity is assessed by clinical observations of motor behaviors. These are performed by a neurological specialist through subjective ratings of a variety of movements including 10-s bouts of repetitive finger-tapping movements. We present here an algorithmic rating of these movements which may be beneficial for uniformly assessing the progression of the disease. Finger-tapping movements were digitally recorded from Parkinson's patients and controls, obtaining one time series for every 10 s bout. A nonlinear delay differential equation, whose structure was selected using a genetic algorithm, was fitted to each time series and its coefficients were used as a six-dimensional numerical descriptor. The algorithm was applied to time-series from two different groups of Parkinson's patients and controls. The algorithmic scores compared favorably with the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores, at least when the latter adequately matched with ratings from the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Moreover, when the two sets of mean scores for all patients are compared, there is a strong (r = 0.785) and significant (p <0.0015) correlation between them.

  2. Reliability and Validity of Teacher Rating Procedures in the Assessment of Hyperactivity as a Function of Rating Scale Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Lambert, Nadine M.

    The effects of varying the formats of behavior rating scale items on teacher ratings of student hyperactivity were investigated. Two hundred forty-two teachers were asked to rate a variety of children; some had been identified as hyperactive by physicians, parents, or teachers; some were not considered hyperactive; and others were randomly…

  3. The Brief Alcoholism Rating Scale: A New Test for Diagnosing

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, K. R.; Smith, Selwyn M.; Bulmer, D. A.; Raman, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new scale, comprising 100 criteria based on medical history, physical examination and routine laboratory data, independent of a drinking history, can help physicians in the detection, diagnosis and early treatment of alcoholism. The scale also permits objective classification of alcoholism into mild, moderate and severe categories and overcomes the patient's denial—a major obstacle to early diagnosis. Results suggest that the instrument is accurate: 94% of patients were classified correctly by the scale. Further validation studies in clinical practice are necessary. PMID:21286108

  4. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  5. Review of Alzheimer's disease scales: is there a need for a new multi-domain scale for therapy evaluation in medical practice?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The present review of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rating scales aims to outline the need for a new rating scale to be used in routine clinical practice for long-term medical care of AD patients. An ideal scale would be: 1) practical, easy and quick to administer for an experienced clinician; 2) validated for AD; 3) multi-domain: covering the AD-relevant areas of cognition, activities of daily living, behavior, communication/social interaction, and quality of life; 4) applicable to all AD severity stages; 5) able to monitor disease progression; and 6) sensitive to measure therapy effects. Methods The National Library of Medicines' MEDLINE database was searched for the years 1981 to September 2008, using a set of keywords aiming to select instruments which cover at least some of the requirements for an ideal practical AD scale for therapy evaluation. Measures for AD staging and screening tests were not considered for review. Results Of 1,902 articles resulting from the literature search, 68 relevant AD scales were identified. Most of them were scales that predominantly measure the severity of major dysfunctions in particular AD domains. Only five scales met some of the requirements for a practical multi-domain AD scale, but did not possess all required characteristics. Conclusions Despite the multitude of AD scales for various purposes, there remains a need for a new multi-domain and easy to administer AD scale for assessment of disease progression and response to therapy in daily medical practice. PMID:20796301

  6. An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

  7. Zung, Beck, and Hamilton Rating Scales as Measures of Treatment Outcome: A Meta-Analytic Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Treatment studies using the Zung Self-Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as dependent measures were reviewed to determine whether these scales provide comparable data for assessing treatment effects. Results indicated that the Zung and the Beck showed less change in depression following…

  8. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  9. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  10. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  11. Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

  12. Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research.

    PubMed

    Linard, Catherine; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

  13. Discriminant Validity of the Windward Rating Scale: Screening for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Roger S.; Tomikawa, Sandra

    1986-01-01

    The Windward Rating Scale (WRS), a locally-developed teacher rating scale of student behavior, was evaluated for potential use as a screening measure. Pre-certification ratings of 720 learning disabled students and non-special education students in grades K-6 were analyzed. Psychometric properties and diagnostic efficiency of the WRS were…

  14. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Jones, Christie J.

    2004-01-01

    The validity of hyperactivity rating scales in children with mental retardation was evaluated. Forty-eight children with mental retardation were rated by parents, teachers and teaching assistants on rating scales measuring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as part of a related investigation. In addition, direct observations were…

  15. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  16. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  17. Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

  18. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  19. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  20. Interrater reliability of the modified Jadad quality scale for systematic reviews of Alzheimer's disease drug trials.

    PubMed

    Oremus, M; Wolfson, C; Perrault, A; Demers, L; Momoli, F; Moride, Y

    2001-01-01

    Drug therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been evaluated in clinical trials over the past 2 decades. Systematic reviews of AD drug trials can shed more light on the efficacy of pharmaceutical interventions. The modified Jadad scale can be used to assess the quality of trial reports that are candidates for inclusion in these systematic reviews. The interrater reliability of the modified Jadad scale was examined during such a review. Three blinded reviewers rated the quality of 42 AD drug trial reports: the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.90. The modified Jadad scale appears to be a useful tool for AD research because of the very good interrater reliability. Also, it is composed of items that are well suited to the specific disease characteristics of AD. Further research should focus on the validity of this instrument. PMID:11244218

  1. A comparison of the performance of rating scales used in the diagnosis of postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W M; Harris, B; Lazarus, J; Richards, C

    1998-09-01

    The results of a study looking into the association between thyroid status and depression in the postpartum period were reanalysed to explore the psychometric properties of the rating scales employed. The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was found to be superior to that of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in identifying RDC-defined depression, and on a par with the observer-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, which it also matched for sensitivity to change in mood state over time. The anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale performed well, reflecting the fact that anxiety represents a prominent symptom in postnatal depression. PMID:9761410

  2. Examining rating scales using Rasch and Mokken models for rater-mediated assessments.

    PubMed

    Wind, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods for evaluating the psychometric quality of rater-mediated assessments have been proposed, including rater effects based on latent trait models (e.g., Engelhard, 2013; Wolfe, 2009). Although information about rater effects contributes to the interpretation and use of rater-assigned scores, it is also important to consider ratings in terms of the structure of the rating scale on which scores are assigned. Further, concern with the validity of rater-assigned scores necessitates investigation of these quality control indices within student subgroups, such as gender, language, and race/ethnicity groups. Using a set of guidelines for evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales adapted from Linacre (1999, 2004), this study demonstrates methods that can be used to examine rating scale functioning within and across student subgroups with indicators from Rasch measurement theory (Rasch, 1960) and Mokken scale analysis (Mokken, 1971). Specifically, this study illustrates indices of rating scale effectiveness based on Rasch models and models adapted from Mokken scaling, and considers whether the two approaches to evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales lead to comparable conclusions within the context of a large-scale rater-mediated writing assessment. Major findings suggest that indices of rating scale effectiveness based on a parametric and nonparametric approach provide related, but slightly different, information about the structure of rating scales. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. PMID:24950531

  3. A new MRI rating scale for progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy: validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Yan; Vérin, Marc; Payan, Christine A; Duchesne, Simon; Kraft, Eduard; Hauser, Till K; Jarosz, Josef; Deasy, Neil; Defevbre, Luc; Delmaire, Christine; Dormont, Didier; Ludolph, Albert C; Bensimon, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate a standardised MRI acquisition protocol and a new image rating scale for disease severity in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple systems atrophy (MSA) in a large multicentre study. Methods The MRI protocol consisted of two-dimensional sagittal and axial T1, axial PD, and axial and coronal T2 weighted acquisitions. The 32 item ordinal scale evaluated abnormalities within the basal ganglia and posterior fossa, blind to diagnosis. Among 760 patients in the study population (PSP=362, MSA=398), 627 had per protocol images (PSP=297, MSA=330). Intra-rater (n=60) and inter-rater (n=555) reliability were assessed through Cohen's statistic, and scale structure through principal component analysis (PCA) (n=441). Internal consistency and reliability were checked. Discriminant and predictive validity of extracted factors and total scores were tested for disease severity as per clinical diagnosis. Results Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were acceptable for 25 (78%) of the items scored (≥0.41). PCA revealed four meaningful clusters of covarying parameters (factor (F) F1: brainstem and cerebellum; F2: midbrain; F3: putamen; F4: other basal ganglia) with good to excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.75–0.93) and moderate to excellent reliability (intraclass coefficient: F1: 0.92; F2: 0.79; F3: 0.71; F4: 0.49). The total score significantly discriminated for disease severity or diagnosis; factorial scores differentially discriminated for disease severity according to diagnosis (PSP: F1–F2; MSA: F2–F3). The total score was significantly related to survival in PSP (p<0.0007) or MSA (p<0.0005), indicating good predictive validity. Conclusions The scale is suitable for use in the context of multicentre studies and can reliably and consistently measure MRI abnormalities in PSP and MSA. Clinical Trial Registration Number The study protocol was filed in the open clinical trial registry (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) with

  4. Analysis and Visualization of 3D Motion Data for UPDRS Rating of Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Piro, Neltje E; Piro, Lennart K; Kassubek, Jan; Blechschmidt-Trapp, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    Remote monitoring of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients with inertia sensors is a relevant method for a better assessment of symptoms. We present a new approach for symptom quantification based on motion data: the automatic Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) classification in combination with an animated 3D avatar giving the neurologist the impression of having the patient live in front of him. In this study we compared the UPDRS ratings of the pronation-supination task derived from: (a) an examination based on video recordings as a clinical reference; (b) an automatically classified UPDRS; and (c) a UPDRS rating from the assessment of the animated 3D avatar. Data were recorded using Magnetic, Angular Rate, Gravity (MARG) sensors with 15 subjects performing a pronation-supination movement of the hand. After preprocessing, the data were classified with a J48 classifier and animated as a 3D avatar. Video recording of the movements, as well as the 3D avatar, were examined by movement disorder specialists and rated by UPDRS. The mean agreement between the ratings based on video and (b) the automatically classified UPDRS is 0.48 and with (c) the 3D avatar it is 0.47. The 3D avatar is similarly suitable for assessing the UPDRS as video recordings for the examined task and will be further developed by the research team. PMID:27338400

  5. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  6. Does Scale Length Matter? A Comparison of Nine- versus Five-Point Rating Scales for the Mini-CEX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Educators must often decide how many points to use in a rating scale. No studies have compared interrater reliability for different-length scales, and few have evaluated accuracy. This study sought to evaluate the interrater reliability and accuracy of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) scores, comparing the traditional mini-CEX…

  7. Magnitude estimation and categorical rating scaling in social sciences: a theoretical and psychometric controversy.

    PubMed

    Beltyukova, Svetlana A; Stone, Gregory E; Fox, Christine M

    2008-01-01

    This paper revisits a half-century long theoretical controversy associated with the use of magnitude estimation scaling (MES) and category rating scaling (CRS) procedures in measurement. The MES procedure in this study involved instructing participants to write a number that matched their impression of difficulty of a test item. Participants were not restricted in the range of numbers they could choose for their scale. They also had the choice of disclosing their individual scale. After the MES task was completed, participants were given a blank copy of the test to rate the perceived difficulty of each item using a researcher-imposed categorical rating scale from 1 (very easy) to 6 (very difficult). The MES and CRS data were both analyzed using Rasch Rating scale model. Additionally, the MES data were examined with Rasch Partial Credit model. Results indicate that knowing each person's scale is associated with smaller errors of measurement. PMID:18480511

  8. Screening for learning disabilities with teacher rating scales.

    PubMed

    Salvesen, K A; Undheim, J O

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of teacher assessments in screening for learning disabilities. In a longitudinal study, 603 children were rated by their teachers in the second grade (age 8 to 9 years), and the ratings were correlated with examinations of reading, spelling, and intelligence in the third grade. The third-grade tests for reading, spelling, and intelligence classified children into groups with low achievement and dyslexia, and these two groups were compared with normally achieving children. The accuracy of teacher assessments, measured with correlation analysis, ROC curves, and kappa indices, showed that teachers were quite accurate in their judgment of low achievement, but somewhat less efficient in their judgment of specific reading difficulties. PMID:8133189

  9. Review of outcome measurement instruments in Alzheimer's disease drug trials: psychometric properties of global scales.

    PubMed

    Oremus, M; Perrault, A; Demers, L; Wolfson, C

    2000-01-01

    The use of global outcome measures with strong psychometric properties in Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug trials is encouraged. This article focuses on Clinician Global Impression of Change scales, the Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Global Deterioration Scale to provide (1) a review of psychometric properties, (2) a critique of how these properties are assessed in the literature, and (3) a basis for evaluating, from the standpoint of psychometric properties, the appropriateness of using a given global scale in a drug trial. Reported reliability and validity estimates for the aforementioned scales range from fair to very good, but small sample sizes and/or inappropriate measures of correlation weaken the quality of the evidence. There is also a dearth of published information on responsiveness to change. Researchers planning AD drug trials should consider these issues, along with the interval between test administrations for test-retest reliability, to help select appropriate global outcome measurement instruments. PMID:11128059

  10. Nonadherence to Medication in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Rate and Reasons

    PubMed Central

    Ghadir, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Mohammad; Vahedi, Homayoon; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Malekzadeh, Reza; Hormati, Ahmad; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Chaharmahali, Meghedi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study is the first study to evaluate the nonadherence rate and reasons of same patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Iran. METHODS During 9 months, 500 patients with IBD were enrolled in the study. Patients were interviewed about their nonadherence behaviors. Factor analysis was used to analyze the collected answers. RESULTS The overall rate of nonadherence was 33.3% (27.6% intentional nonadherence and 5.7% unintentional nonadherence). 33.6% of the patients had at least one relapse after discontinuing treatment. The most frequent reason for intentional nonadherence was discontinuing the treatment after recovering from symptoms (42.7%). The most frequent reason for unintentional nonadherence was forgetfulness (5.2%). 19.8% of the patients did not visit their gastroenterologist on time and they purchased drugs from the drugstore. These patients reported that their clinics were too far and difficult to access. There was no significant relationship between nonadherence and demographic variables. CONCLUSION Multiple reasons are suggested as factors of medication nonadherence and they seem to be different among different populations. Determining these possible reasons, could lead to finding suitable strategies to overcome or reduce them. PMID:27252818

  11. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shupe, Matthew

    2013-05-22

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  12. Development and validation of the Affective Self Rating Scale for manic, depressive, and mixed affective states.

    PubMed

    Adler, Mats; Liberg, Benny; Andersson, Stig; Isacsson, Göran; Hetta, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    Most rating scales for affective disorders measure either depressive or hypomanic/manic symptoms and there are few scales for hypomania/mania in a self-rating format. We wanted to develop and validate a self-rating scale for comprehensive assessment of depressive, manic/hypomanic and mixed affective states. We developed an 18-item self-rating scale starting with the DSM-IV criteria for depression and mania, with subscales for depression and mania. The scale was evaluated on 61 patients with a diagnosis of affective disorder, predominantly bipolar disorder type I, using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hypomania Interview Guide-Clinical version (HIGH-C) and Clinical Global Impression scale, modified for bipolar patients (CGI-BP) as reference scales. Internal consistency of the scale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for the depression subscale and 0.91 for the mania subscale. Spearman's correlation coefficients (two-tailed) between the depression subscale and MADRS was 0.74 (P<0.01) and between mania subscale and HIGH-C 0.80 (P<0.01). A rotated factor analysis of the scale supported the separation of symptoms in the mania and depression subscale. We established that the self-rating scales sensitivity to identify mixed states, with combined cut-offs on the MADRS and HIGH-C as reference, was 0.90 with a specificity of 0.71. The study shows that the Affective Self Rating Scale is highly correlated with ratings of established interview scales for depression and mania and that it may aid the detection of mixed affective states. PMID:18569776

  13. Health-related quality of life in Huntington's disease patients: a comparison of proxy assessment and patient self-rating using the disease-specific Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire (HDQoL).

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, Mevhibe B; Gaffan, E A; Ho, Aileen K

    2012-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease for which there is no known cure. Proxy evaluation is relevant for HD as its manifestation might limit the ability of persons to report their health-related quality of life (HrQoL). This study explored patient-proxy ratings of HrQoL of persons at different stages of HD, and examined factors that may affect proxy ratings. A total of 105 patient-proxy pairs completed the Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire (HDQoL) and other established HrQoL measures (EQ-5D and SF-12v2). Proxy-patient agreement was assessed in terms of absolute level (mean ratings) and intraclass correlation. Proxies' ratings were at a similar level to patients' self-ratings on an overall Summary Score and on most of the six Specific Scales of the HDQoL. On the Specific Hopes and Worries Scale, proxies on average rated HrQoL as better than patients' self-ratings, while on both the Specific Cognitive Scale and Specific Physical and Functional Scale proxies tended to rate HrQoL more poorly than patients themselves. The patient's disease stage and mental wellbeing (SF-12 Mental Component scale) were the two factors that primarily affected proxy assessment. Proxy scores were strongly correlated with patients' self-ratings of HrQoL, on the Summary Scale and all Specific Scales. The patient-proxy correlation was lower for patients at moderate stages of HD compared to patients at early and advanced stages. The proxy report version of the HDQoL is a useful complementary tool to self-assessment, and a promising alternative when individual patients with advanced HD are unable to self-report. PMID:22392579

  14. Video-rate fuzzy Golay processor for wafer scale integration

    SciTech Connect

    Steinvorth, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The fuzzy Golay transformation is a novel approach for gray-level image processing. Fuzzy-set theory is used to modify the binary image processing techniques developed by M. J. Golay to permit direct gray-level image processing without thresholding. The comparison between gray-level pixels is accomplished with the Pixel Closeness Value (PCV) while comparison between gray-level neighborhoods uses the Neighborhood Closeness Value (NCV). Feature extraction is done by comparing the gray-level image neighborhood to a subset of the fourteen Golay neighborhoods using the NCV function. The Fuzzy Golay Processor (FGP) is an architecture designed to implement the fuzzy Golay transformation. The design of the FGP has been optimized to permit a successful implementation in Wafer Scale Integration (WSI). A system containing four FGPs is capable of performing thirty fuzzy Golay transformations per second on a 256 by 256 eight-bit pixel image. Such a system could fit on a four-inch wafer with enough redundant dies to allow a 30% die yield. The required dies are four Input-Output Modules (IOM) and 56 Neighborhood Evaluation Modules (NEM).

  15. Discriminant Validity of a Teacher-Developed Rating Scale for Specific Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Roger S.; Tomikawa, Sandra

    Local teachers and other school personnel in Hawaii expressed a need for operational guidelines to use in deciding whether or not to refer students for diagnostic evaluations for specific learning disabilities (SLD). This project was designed to evaluate whether the Windward Rating Scale (WRS), a locally-developed teacher rating scale of student…

  16. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  17. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  18. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  19. Reliability and Structural Validity of The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Erin E.; Diperna, James C.; Missall, Kristen; Volpe, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are few strengths-based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at-risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic…

  20. How Is a Teacher Rating Scale Used in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of children with Attention Deficit Disorder should include use of teacher rating scales. Rater biases, positive and negative halo effects, practice effects, and other problems are outweighed by the ease of use, low cost, and reasonable reliability and validity of teacher rating scales. (Author/DB)

  1. Same Constructs, Different Results: Examining the Consistency of Two Behavior-Rating Scales with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Bour, Jennifer L.; Sidebottom, Kristina J.; Murphy, Sara B.; Hakman, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band or multidimensional behavior-rating scales are common tools for evaluating children. Two popular behavior-rating scales, the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), have undergone downward extensions so that the…

  2. Expert Practitioner's Views about the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-ieng; Chen, Yuewen; Li, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the views of 176 expert practitioners on the relevance and feasibility of applying the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS), which is developed based on the Chinese version of Harms, Clifford, and Cryer's (2005) world renowned Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-revised (ECERS-R). The CECERS…

  3. Internet Administration of the Paper-and-Pencil Gifted Rating Scale: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnell, Jordy B.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric equivalence of administering a computer-based version of the Gifted Rating Scale (GRS) compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil GRS-School Form (GRS-S). The GRS-S is a teacher-completed rating scale used in gifted assessment. The GRS-Electronic Form provides an alternative method of administering…

  4. Quantum quenches in free field theory: universal scaling at any rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sumit R.; Galante, Damián A.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum quenches display universal scaling in several regimes. For quenches which start from a gapped phase and cross a critical point, with a rate slow compared to the initial gap, many systems obey Kibble-Zurek scaling. More recently, a different scaling behaviour has been shown to occur when the quench rate is fast compared to all other physical scales, but still slow compared to the UV cutoff. We investigate the passage from fast to slow quenches in scalar and fermionic free field theories with time dependent masses for which the dynamics can be solved exactly for all quench rates. We find that renormalized one point functions smoothly cross over between the regimes.

  5. Rating scales for states for anxiety, depression, mania and schizophrenia. A multiaxial approach.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, M; Bech, P; Rafaelsen, O J

    1986-01-01

    Rating scales are considered to be an efficient instrument in the assessment of treatment effect, and during the last 25 years a number of rating scales has been constructed for measuring states of anxiety, depression, mania and schizophrenia. The paper describes some of the most frequently used scales. Time has come to coordinate the existing rating scales and to agree upon common operational definitions in the judgement of psychopathological symptoms. Basic practical guidelines to be used in both clinical practice and research are given. PMID:2881427

  6. The scaling of maximum and basal metabolic rates of mammals and birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here, we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as M, maximum heart rate as M, and muscular capillary density as M, in agreement with data.

  7. The Dissipation Rate Transport Equation and Subgrid-Scale Models in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Ye, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The dissipation rate transport equation remains the most uncertain part of turbulence modeling. The difficulties arc increased when external agencies like rotation prevent straightforward dimensional analysis from determining the correct form of the modelled equation. In this work, the dissipation rate transport equation and subgrid scale models for rotating turbulence are derived from an analytical statistical theory of rotating turbulence. In the strong rotation limit, the theory predicts a turbulent steady state in which the inertial range energy spectrum scales as k(sup -2) and the turbulent time scale is the inverse rotation rate. This scaling has been derived previously by heuristic arguments.

  8. Area Scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory as Predictors of School Performance and Rating Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Alan W.; Abrahams, Norman M.

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the area (homogeneous) scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory (NVII) as predictors of Class "A" school achievement and as measures of rating differentiation by comparing specific occupational scales with more general interest measures--the NVII area scales. The NVII was…

  9. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  10. Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for Preschool Children: A Revised, Brief, Age-Specific Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTRS-R) is one of the most commonly used measures of child behavior problems. However, the scale length and the appropriateness of some of the items on the scale may reduce the usefulness of the CTRS-R for use with preschoolers. In this study, a Graded Response Model analysis based on Item Response Theory…

  11. Variability in ESL Essay Rating Processes: The Role of the Rating Scale and Rater Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Various factors contribute to variability in English as a second language (ESL) essay scores and rating processes. Most previous research, however, has focused on score variability in relation to task, rater, and essay characteristics. A few studies have examined variability in essay rating processes. The current study used think-aloud protocols…

  12. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O'Brien, John T; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Fox, Nick C; Ridgway, Gerard R; Schott, Jonathan M

    2016-04-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  13. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O’Brien, John T.; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Fox, Nick C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  14. Pore-Scale Process Coupling and Effective Surface Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Subsurface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript provides a review of pore-scale researches in literature including experimental and numerical approaches, and scale-dependent behavior of geochemical and biogeochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media. A mathematical equation that can be used to predict the scale-dependent behavior of geochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media has been derived. The derived effective rate expression explicitly links the effective reaction rate constant to the intrinsic rate constant, and to the pore-scale variations in reactant concentrations in porous media. Molecular simulations to calculate the intrinsic rate constants were provided. A few examples of pore-scale simulations were used to demonstrate the application of the equation to calculate effective rate constants in heterogeneous materials. The results indicate that the deviation of effective rate constant from the intrinsic rate in heterogeneous porous media is caused by the pore-scale distributions of reactants and their correlation, which are affected by the pore-scale coupling of reactions and transport.

  15. [Reliability and factorial structure of a rating scale for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Oda, E; Ohashi, Y; Tashiro, K; Mizuno, Y; Kowa, H; Yanagisawa, N

    1996-11-01

    The Modified Norris Scale is a rating scale for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which consists of two parts, the Limb Norris Scale and the Norris Bulbar Scale. The Limb Scale has 21 items to evaluate extremity function and the Bulbar Scale has 13 items to evaluate bulbar function. Each item is rated in 4 ordinal categories. Considering the habitual difference, we translated the English scale into Japanese one with minor modification, and added more detailed explanations for all categories of each item. Then we examined reliability and factorial structure of the translated scale. The subjects were 23 patients with motor disturbance and each subject was rated twice by 2-4 neurologists. As a measure of reliability, the Kappa coefficient proposed by Cohen (1960) and Kraemer (1980) was calculated for each item and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was evaluated for total scores of each of two scales. To analyze the factorial structure, the factor analysis was carried out. The minimum and the maximum Kappa values were .70 and .97 for intra-rater reliability of the Limb Scale's items, .60 and .83 for inter-rater reliability of the Limb Scale's items, .41 and 1.00 for intra-rater reliability of the Bulbar Scale's items and .26 and .81 for inter-rater reliability of the Bulbar Scale's items, respectively. Concerning the factorial structure, the contribution of the first factor was 83.6% for the Limb Scale and that for the Bulbar Scale was 66.7%. This indicates unidimensionality of both Scales. The ICCs for the total scores were .97 (95%C.I. .95-.99) for the Limb Scale and .86 (.73-.93) for the Bulbar Scale, respectively. On the basis of these results, the Scale has unidimensionality and high reliability enough for practical use. PMID:8951891

  16. Two-parameter characterization of chromosome-scale recombination rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

    2009-12-01

    The genome-wide recombination rate (RR) of a species is often described by one parameter, the ratio between total genetic map length (G) and physical map length (P), measured in centimorgans per megabase (cM/Mb). The value of this parameter varies greatly between species, but the cause for these differences is not entirely clear. A constraining factor of overall RR in a species, which may cause increased RR for smaller chromosomes, is the requirement of at least one chiasma per chromosome (or chromosome arm) per meiosis. In the present study, we quantify the relative excess of recombination events on smaller chromosomes by a linear regression model, which relates the genetic length of chromosomes to their physical length. We find for several species that the two-parameter regression, G = G(0) + k x P , provides a better characterization of the relationship between genetic and physical map length than the one-parameter regression that runs through the origin. A nonzero intercept (G(0)) indicates a relative excess of recombination on smaller chromosomes in a genome. Given G(0), the parameter k predicts the increase of genetic map length over the increase of physical map length. The observed values of G(0) have a similar magnitude for diverse species, whereas k varies by two orders of magnitude. The implications of this strategy for the genetic maps of human, mouse, rat, chicken, honeybee, worm, and yeast are discussed. PMID:19752285

  17. Contribution of Climate and Air Pollution to Variation in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Rates in England

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999–2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment - temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (p<0.05), suggesting that CHD mortality rates were higher in areas with lower average temperature and hours of sunshine. After adjustment for the unhealthy lifestyle of populations and deprivation, the climate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England. PMID:22427884

  18. Ascorbic acid and rates of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Gene L; Dodge, Hiroko; Frei, Balz; Calabrese, Carlo; Oken, Barry S; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Quinn, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    The brain maintains high levels of ascorbic acid (AA) despite a concentration gradient favoring diffusion from brain to peripheral tissues. Dietary antioxidants, including AA, appear to modify the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that neurodegeneration in AD is modified by brain levels of AA. Thirty-two patients with mild to moderate AD participated in a biomarker study involving standardized clinical assessments over one year. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were collected at baseline for AA and albumin content. Cognitive measures were collected at baseline and one year. CSF and plasma AA failed to predict cognitive decline independently, however, CSF: plasma AA ratio did. After adding CSF Albumin Index (an established marker of blood-brain barrier integrity) to the regression models the effect of CSF: plasma AA ratio as a predictor of cognitive decline was weakened. CSF: plasma AA ratio predicts rate of decline in AD. This relationship may indicate that the CSF: plasma AA ratio is an index of AA availability to the brain or may be an artifact of a relationship between blood-brain barrier impairment and neurodegeneration. PMID:19158425

  19. Cross-Informant Agreement for Ratings for Social Skill and Problem Behavior Ratings: An Investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Cook, Clayton R.; Vance, Michael J.; Kettler, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills…

  20. Heart Rate and Initial Presentation of Cardiovascular Diseases (Caliber)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-17

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease NOS; Unheralded Coronary Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest, Sudden Cardiac Death

  1. The canine cognitive dysfunction rating scale (CCDR): a data-driven and ecologically relevant assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Salvin, Hannah E; McGreevy, Paul D; Sachdev, Perminder S; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-related neurobehavioural syndrome which, although common, is severely under-diagnosed in community-based dogs. Using data from a large cross-sectional survey of older dogs (n=957), this study aimed to develop a clinical scale for assessing CCD. Data-driven analytical techniques were used to distil 27 significant behavioural items (previously identified as relevant to CCD) into an assessment tool with maximal cognito-behavioural breadth whilst maintaining clinical utility. The resulting CCD rating scale (CCDR) comprised 13 behavioural items, of which three were sensitive to the severity of the disease stage. When tested on an independent survey sample, the CCDR had an overall 98.9% diagnostic accuracy with a 77.8% positive predictive value and a 99.3% negative predictive value. Test-re-test reliability of the CCDR over 2months was also high (r=0.73, P<0.0001). In conjunction with veterinary assessment, the CCDR could be a valuable tool in research and clinical settings for both the assessment and longitudinal tracking of cognitive change. PMID:20542455

  2. Validation of the Official Slovak Version of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS).

    PubMed

    Skorvanek, Matej; Minar, Michal; Grofik, Milan; Kracunova, Katarina; Han, Vladimir; Cibulcik, Frantisek; Necpal, Jan; Gurcik, Ladislav; Valkovic, Peter

    2015-01-01

    After successful clinimetric testing of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS), a program for translation and validation of non-English versions of the UDysRS was initiated. The aim of this study was to validate and confirm the factor structure of the Slovak translation of the UDysRS. We examined 251 patients with Parkinson's disease and dyskinesia using the Slovak version of the UDysRS. The average age of our sample was 65.2 ± 9.2 years and average disease duration was 10.9 ± 5.0 years. Slovak data were compared using confirmatory factor analysis with the Spanish data. To be designated as the official Slovak UDysRS translation, the comparative fit index (CFI) had to be ≥0.90 relative to the Spanish language version. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to explore the underlying factor structure without the constraint of a prespecified factor structure. For all four parts of the Slovak UDysRS, the CFI, in comparison with the Spanish language factor structure, was ≥0.98. Isolated differences in the factor structure of the Slovak UDysRS were identified by exploratory factor analysis compared with the Spanish version. The Slovak version of the UDysRS was designated as an official non-English translation and can be downloaded from the website of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:26229708

  3. Linguistic Adaptation of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Oquendo-Jiménez, Ilia; Mena, Rafaela; Antoun, Mikhail D.; Wojna, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. In Hispanic populations there are few validated tests for the accurate identification and diagnosis of AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is an internationally recognized questionnaire used to stage dementia. This study's objective was to develop a linguistic adaptation of the CDR for the Puerto Rican population. Methods The linguistic adaptation consisted of the evaluation of each CDR question (item) and the questionnaire's instructions, for similarities in meaning (semantic equivalence), relevance of content (content equivalence), and appropriateness of the questionnaire's format and measuring technique (technical equivalence). A focus group methodology was used to assess cultural relevance, clarity, and suitability of the measuring technique in the Argentinean version of the CDR for use in a Puerto Rican population. Results A total of 27 semantic equivalence changes were recommended in four categories: higher than 6th grade level of reading, meaning, common use, and word preference. Four content equivalence changes were identified, all focused on improving the applicability of the test questions to the general population's concept of street addresses and common dietary choices. There were no recommendations for changes in the assessment of technical equivalence. Conclusions We developed a linguistically adapted CDR instrument for the Puerto Rican population, preserving the semantic, content, and technical equivalences of the original version. Further studies are needed to validate the CDR instrument with the staging of Alzheimer's disease in the Puerto Rican population. PMID:20496524

  4. Electrostimulation to reduce synaptic scaling driven progression of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Mark S.; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Lytton, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Cell death and synapse dysfunction are two likely causes of cognitive decline in AD. As cells die and synapses lose their drive, remaining cells suffer an initial decrease in activity. Neuronal homeostatic synaptic scaling then provides a feedback mechanism to restore activity. This homeostatic mechanism is believed to sense levels of activity-dependent cytosolic calcium within the cell and to adjust neuronal firing activity by increasing the density of AMPA synapses at remaining synapses to achieve balance. The scaling mechanism increases the firing rates of remaining cells in the network to compensate for decreases in network activity. However, this effect can itself become a pathology, as it produces increased imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits, leading to greater susceptibility to further cell loss via calcium-mediated excitotoxicity. Here, we present a mechanistic explanation of how directed brain stimulation might be expected to slow AD progression based on computational simulations in a 470-neuron biomimetic model of a neocortical column. The simulations demonstrate that the addition of low-intensity electrostimulation (neuroprosthesis) to a network undergoing AD-like cell death can raise global activity and break this homeostatic-excitotoxic cascade. The increase in activity within the remaining cells in the column results in lower scaling-driven AMPAR upregulation, reduced imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and lower susceptibility to ongoing damage. PMID:24765074

  5. Electrostimulation to reduce synaptic scaling driven progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Mark S; Neymotin, Samuel A; Lytton, William W

    2014-01-01

    Cell death and synapse dysfunction are two likely causes of cognitive decline in AD. As cells die and synapses lose their drive, remaining cells suffer an initial decrease in activity. Neuronal homeostatic synaptic scaling then provides a feedback mechanism to restore activity. This homeostatic mechanism is believed to sense levels of activity-dependent cytosolic calcium within the cell and to adjust neuronal firing activity by increasing the density of AMPA synapses at remaining synapses to achieve balance. The scaling mechanism increases the firing rates of remaining cells in the network to compensate for decreases in network activity. However, this effect can itself become a pathology, as it produces increased imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits, leading to greater susceptibility to further cell loss via calcium-mediated excitotoxicity. Here, we present a mechanistic explanation of how directed brain stimulation might be expected to slow AD progression based on computational simulations in a 470-neuron biomimetic model of a neocortical column. The simulations demonstrate that the addition of low-intensity electrostimulation (neuroprosthesis) to a network undergoing AD-like cell death can raise global activity and break this homeostatic-excitotoxic cascade. The increase in activity within the remaining cells in the column results in lower scaling-driven AMPAR upregulation, reduced imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and lower susceptibility to ongoing damage. PMID:24765074

  6. Scaling Up Chronic Disease Prevention Interventions in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, Thomas A.; Pagidipati, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases are increasingly becoming a health burden in lower-and middle-income countries, putting pressure on public health efforts to scale up interventions. This article reviews current efforts in interventions on a population and individual level. Population-level interventions include ongoing efforts to reduce smoking rates, reduce intake of salt and trans–fatty acids, and increase physical activity in increasingly sedentary populations. Individual-level interventions include control and treatment of risk factors for chronic diseases and secondary prevention. This review also discusses the barriers in interventions, particularly those specific to low- and middle-income countries. Continued discussion of proven cost-effective interventions for chronic diseases in the developing world will be useful for improving public health policy. PMID:23297660

  7. Screening accuracy of Level 2 autism spectrum disorder rating scales. A review of selected instruments.

    PubMed

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this review was to examine the state of Level 2, caregiver-completed rating scales for the screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in individuals above the age of three years. We focused on screening accuracy and paid particular attention to comparison groups. Inclusion criteria required that scales be developed post ICD-10, be ASD-specific, and have published evidence of diagnostic validity in peer-reviewed journals. The five scales reviewed were: the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale/Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS/GARS-2), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS). Twenty total studies were located, most examining the SCQ. Research on the other scales was limited. Comparisons between scales were few and available evidence of diagnostic validity is scarce for certain subpopulations (e.g., lower functioning individuals, PDDNOS). Overall, the SCQ performed well, the SRS and ASSQ showed promise, and the GARS/GARS-2 and ASDS demonstrated poor sensitivity. This review indicates that Level 2 ASD caregiver-completed rating scales are in need of much more scientific scrutiny. PMID:20591956

  8. A comparison between rate of nonmotor symptom development in essential tremor and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Yildizhan; Sengul, Hakan S; Sural, Müge Kocak; Bakim, Bahadir; Forta, Hulki

    2015-09-01

    In the last decade our perspective on essential tremor (ET) as a pure motor system disorder has begun to change. By virtue of recent studies of nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) that are used to characterize Parkinson's disease (PD), these symptoms have also been added to the definition of ET. There is increasing evidence to suggest that ET might not be as benign and monosymptomatic as we previously thought. The aim of this study was to evaluate nonmotor symptoms in ET, and to compare them with PD. We studied 37 ET and 23 PD patients. Tremor rate was evaluated using the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (FTM-TRS) in ET patients. The patients with PD were scored for motor symptoms using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS)-III and the Hoehn-Yahr scale. Cognitive functions were assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. NMSs were evaluated with the nonmotor symptoms questionnaire (NMSQuest). In the ET group, the most common NMSs were forgetting things, feeling sad, nocturia, urgency, and difficulty concentrating. The mean NMSQuest score was 8.43 ± 4.14 in the ET group and 14.06 ± 5.44 in the PD group (p value <0.001). However, except for 12 items in NMSQuest, in comparing items one by one there was no statistical difference between them. The mean MoCA total score was 17.81 ± 4.56 in the ET group and 17.08 ± 4.08 in the PD group (p value 0.675). There were no significant differences in MoCA subgroup scores. Evaluation of nonmotor symptoms in ET may help us to understand this emerging definition of ET. This study contributes evidence toward this new concept. PMID:25527389

  9. Scale dependence of disease impacts on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bell, David M; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

    2015-07-01

    Depending on how disease impacts tree exposure to risk, both the prevalence of disease and disease effects on survival may contribute to patterns of mortality risk across a species' range. Disease may accelerate tree species' declines in response to global change factors, such as drought, biotic interactions, such as competition, or functional traits, such as allometry. To assess the role of disease in mediating mortality risk in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), we developed hierarchical Bayesian models for both disease prevalence in live aspen stems and the resulting survival rates of healthy and diseased aspen near the species' southern range limit using 5088 individual trees on 281 United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots in the southwestern United States. We found that disease prevalence depended primarily on tree size, tree allometry, and spatial variation in precipitation, while mortality depended on tree size, allometry, competition, spatial variation in summer temperature, and both temporal and spatial variation in summer precipitation. Disease prevalence was highest in large trees with low slenderness found on dry sites. For healthy trees, mortality decreased with diameter, slenderness, and temporal variation in summer precipitation, but increased with competition and spatial variation in summer temperature. Mortality of diseased trees decreased with diameter and aspen relative basal area and increased with mean summer temperature and precipitation. Disease infection increased aspen mortality, especially in trees of intermediate size and trees on plots at climatic extremes (i.e., cool, wet and warm, dry climates). By examining variation in disease prevalence, mortality of healthy trees, and mortality of diseased trees, we showed that the role of disease in aspen tree mortality depended on the scale of inference. For variation among individuals in diameter, disease tended to expose intermediate-size trees experiencing moderate

  10. Recombination Rate Heterogeneity within Arabidopsis Disease Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Reinhard, Carsten; Serra, Heïdi; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Underwood, Charles J; Zhao, Xiaohui; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Yelina, Nataliya E; Griffin, Catherine; Jackson, Matthew; Mézard, Christine; McVean, Gil; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Henderson, Ian R

    2016-07-01

    Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and 5. We experimentally mapped 1,439 crossovers within these clusters and observed NBS-LRR gene associated hotspots, which were also detected as historical hotspots via analysis of linkage disequilibrium. However, we also observed NBS-LRR gene coldspots, which in some cases correlate with structural heterozygosity. To study recombination at the fine-scale we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze ~1,000 crossovers within the RESISTANCE TO ALBUGO CANDIDA1 (RAC1) R gene hotspot. This revealed elevated intragenic crossovers, overlapping nucleosome-occupied exons that encode the TIR, NBS and LRR domains. The highest RAC1 recombination frequency was promoter-proximal and overlapped CTT-repeat DNA sequence motifs, which have previously been associated with plant crossover hotspots. Additionally, we show a significant influence of natural genetic variation on NBS-LRR cluster recombination rates, using crosses between Arabidopsis ecotypes. In conclusion, we show that a subset of NBS-LRR genes are strong hotspots, whereas others are coldspots. This reveals a complex recombination landscape in Arabidopsis NBS-LRR genes, which we propose results from varying coevolutionary pressures exerted by host-pathogen relationships, and is influenced by structural heterozygosity. PMID:27415776

  11. Recombination Rate Heterogeneity within Arabidopsis Disease Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Heïdi; Ziolkowski, Piotr A.; Yelina, Nataliya E.; Jackson, Matthew; Mézard, Christine; McVean, Gil; Henderson, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and 5. We experimentally mapped 1,439 crossovers within these clusters and observed NBS-LRR gene associated hotspots, which were also detected as historical hotspots via analysis of linkage disequilibrium. However, we also observed NBS-LRR gene coldspots, which in some cases correlate with structural heterozygosity. To study recombination at the fine-scale we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze ~1,000 crossovers within the RESISTANCE TO ALBUGO CANDIDA1 (RAC1) R gene hotspot. This revealed elevated intragenic crossovers, overlapping nucleosome-occupied exons that encode the TIR, NBS and LRR domains. The highest RAC1 recombination frequency was promoter-proximal and overlapped CTT-repeat DNA sequence motifs, which have previously been associated with plant crossover hotspots. Additionally, we show a significant influence of natural genetic variation on NBS-LRR cluster recombination rates, using crosses between Arabidopsis ecotypes. In conclusion, we show that a subset of NBS-LRR genes are strong hotspots, whereas others are coldspots. This reveals a complex recombination landscape in Arabidopsis NBS-LRR genes, which we propose results from varying coevolutionary pressures exerted by host-pathogen relationships, and is influenced by structural heterozygosity. PMID:27415776

  12. Rating Scale Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…

  13. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-07-15

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  14. Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Kurth, Andreas; Lesnik, René; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Background Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats. PMID:22216354

  15. Increased rates of pregnancy complications in women with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Moleski, Stephanie M.; Lindenmeyer, Christina C.; Veloski, J. Jon; Miller, Robin S.; Miller, Cynthia L.; Kastenberg, David; DiMarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease is an immune-mediated small bowel disorder that develops in genetically susceptible individuals upon exposure to dietary gluten. Celiac disease could have extra-intestinal manifestations that affect women’s reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate fertility and outcomes of pregnancy among women with celiac disease. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed information collected from patients at a tertiary care celiac center and from members of 2 national celiac disease awareness organizations. Women without celiac disease were used as controls. Women completed an anonymous online survey, answering 43 questions about menstrual history, fertility, and outcomes of pregnancy (329 with small bowel biopsy-confirmed celiac disease and 641 controls). Results Of the 970 women included in the study, 733 (75.6%) reported that they had been pregnant at some point; there was no significant difference between women with celiac disease (n=245/329, 74.5%) and controls (488/641, 76.1%; P=0.57). However, fewer women with celiac disease than controls (79.6% vs. 84.8%) gave birth following 1 or more pregnancies (P=0.03). Women with celiac disease had higher percentages of spontaneous abortion than controls (50.6% vs. 40.6%; P=0.01), and of premature delivery (23.6% vs. 15.9% among controls; P=0.02). The mean age at menarche was higher in the celiac disease group (12.7 years) than controls (12.4 years; P=0.01). Conclusions In a retrospective cohort analysis examining reproductive features of women with celiac disease, we associated celiac disease with significant increases in spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and later age of menarche. PMID:25831067

  16. Assessing culturally different students for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using behavior rating scales.

    PubMed

    Reid, R; DuPaul, G J; Power, T J; Anastopoulos, A D; Rogers-Adkinson, D; Noll, M B; Riccio, C

    1998-06-01

    Behavior rating scales are commonly used in the assessment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is little information available concerning the extent to which scales are valid with culturally different students. This study explored the use of the ADHD-IV Rating Scale School Version with male Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA) students from ages 5 to 18 years. Teachers rated AA students higher on all symptoms across all age groups. LISREL analysis indicated that scale does not perform identically across groups. This was supported by the results of multidimensional scaling with suggested that there is a different relation between items across groups. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:9650625

  17. Predicting changes in reported notifiable disease rates for New Zealand using a SIR modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Graham; Slaney, David; Tait, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    changes in reported disease incidence as a function of temperature and rainfall. These models account for age-dependency (children versus adults), which is especially important because children can report substantially higher rates of zoonoses. The model is linear because the zoonotic pathogen 'reservoir' is overwhelmingly among animals, and so the usual interaction in which human-pathogen interactions affect the degree of environmental contamination does not apply in the short term (on the order of one year). Accordingly, the interaction can be approximated by a constant contact rate over a given year, even though the contact rates may vary between decades because of climate change and variability. This linearity property enables the derivation of analytical solutions to the model's governing equations, thereby providing for a more elegant examination of the model's properties and for making projections under climate change. The models have been calibrated to reported rates of these diseases. Simple exponential functions have been used to vary the pathogen contact rates for the reference years 2015, 2040 and 2090 under three climate change scenarios of low, medium and high emissions of greenhouse gases (B1, A1B, and A2). These formulations have been guided by the results of statistical models calibrated to historical disease reporting rates. The models have been used to calculate the ratio of reported illness rates to present rates projected for future years across New Zealand at the ~5 km scale. Detailed results will be presented for the reference year 2040.

  18. A Rasch Rating Scale Modeling of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Sample of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Do-Hong; Wang, Chuang; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale in a sample of international students studying in the U.S. universities using Rasch analysis. The results indicated that the original five-category rating structure may not function effectively for the international student sample. The…

  19. Assessing pain intensity following spinal cord injury: should rating scales measure 'overall' or 'maximal' values?

    PubMed

    Frank, Andrew O; Spyridonis, Fotios; Ghinea, Gheorghita

    2015-03-01

    Rating scales (RSs) are important for the assessment of pain intensity (PI) following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a Graphic Rating Scale, this pilot study measured an 'overall' level of PI repeated about every 2 h over 1 day and compared it with maximal PI scores reported previously. Patients were categorized into severity groups according to the overall Graphic Rating Scale score at initial assessment (T0). Eight men and six women (mean age 53.1; range 28-75) participated. Comparison of the overall PI scores and their changes over time with the maximal PI scores reported previously showed loss of patients in the severe group and less pronounced PI changes over time. Rating scales used in spinal cord injury services should measure maximal pain experienced 'right now' to eliminate potential averaging out of pain over time, which might allow physicians to assist patients in understanding their pain and begin their adjustment. PMID:25419691

  20. A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Nerelie C; Gray, Kylie M; Taffe, John R; Cornish, Kim M

    2016-10-01

    Whilst neuropsychological research has enhanced our understanding of inattentive and hyperactive behaviours among children with intellectual disability (ID), the absence of rating scales developed for this group continues to be a gap in knowledge. This study examined these behaviours in 176 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), or idiopathic ID using a newly developed teacher rating scale, the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. Findings suggested that children with ASD had a significantly greater breadth of hyperactive/impulsive behaviours than those with DS or idiopathic ID. These findings support existing research suggesting differing profiles of attention and activity across groups. Understanding disorder-specific profiles has implications for developing strategies to support students with ID in the classroom. PMID:27348856

  1. HIGH RATE NUTRIENT REMOVAL FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS. BENCH SCALE AND DEMONSTRATION SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high rate physical/chemical treatment system has been evaluated for the removal of suspended solids and the macronutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, from combined sewer overflow. The system utilized a single unit process concept consisting of in-line chemical addition, coagulat...

  2. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students (N = 499). The Chinese GRS-S was found to have…

  3. Psychometric Analysis of the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale among University Population of Poor Sleepers in India

    PubMed Central

    Veqar, Zubia; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed Ejaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale is a 65 item self administered open source questionnaire. The scale is widely used in clinical practice but its psychometric properties are not well established. Therefore keeping in mind this lacuna the current study was designed for university population of poor sleepers in India. Aims: The purpose of this study was to establish the Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index test- retest reliability, validity and internal consistency of Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale. Materials and Methods: Twenty five subjects were randomly chosen from the screened population of poor sleepers. Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Insomnia severity index were administered on test day. Retest was administered after one week. Results: Eight males and seventeen females with mean age 24 + 7.04 were recruited. The test retest reliability for Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale total score showed excellent reliability (ICC2,1-0.93). The results also show that the total score is moderately correlated with Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index (r-0.31) and moderately correlated with Insomnia severity index (r-0.49). Internal consistency for the test was excellent (Cronbach's alpha- 0.930) Conclusion: The study findings suggest that Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good validity for university population of poor sleepers in India. It is an important first line of assessment scale for screening of sleep problems. PMID:24843848

  4. Assessing and Testing Interrater Agreement on a Single Target Using Multi-Item Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Michael K.

    2001-01-01

    Developed an index for assessing interrater agreement with respect to a single target using a multi-item rating scale. The variance of rater mean scale scores is used as the numerator of the agreement index. Studied four variants of a disattenuated agreement index that vary in the random response term used as the denominator. (SLD)

  5. Family Child Care Environment Rating Scale Revised Edition (FCCERS-R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Thelma; Cryer, Debby; Clifford, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Featuring a new spiral binding, the FCCERS-R is a thorough revision of the widely used program quality assessment instrument, "The Family Day Care Rating Scale." Designed for use in family child care programs, it is suitable for programs serving children from infancy through school-age. Following extensive input from users of the original scale,…

  6. Evaluating the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS): Assessing Differences between the First and Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Laura M.; Whitebook, Marcy; Wishard, Alison; Howes, Carollee

    2003-01-01

    Before 1998, most large-scale studies of center-based child care programs measured quality using the 1980 version of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). To know whether data from studies conducted after 1998 using the revised ECERS-R can be fairly compared to data from studies using the 1980 ECERS, simultaneous assessments using…

  7. A Measure for the Reliability of a Rating Scale Based on Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laenen, Annouschka; Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A new measure for reliability of a rating scale is introduced, based on the classical definition of reliability, as the ratio of the true score variance and the total variance. Clinical trial data can be employed to estimate the reliability of the scale in use, whenever repeated measurements are taken. The reliability is estimated from the…

  8. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised among Nepali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of…

  9. Screening Accuracy of Level 2 Autism Spectrum Disorder Rating Scales: A Review of Selected Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to examine the state of Level 2, caregiver-completed rating scales for the screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in individuals above the age of three years. We focused on screening accuracy and paid particular attention to comparison groups. Inclusion criteria required that scales be developed post ICD-10, be…

  10. Reliability of delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98) using variance-based multivariate modelling.

    PubMed

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Slor, Chantal J; Leonard, Maeve; Witlox, Joost; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Macdonald, Alastair J D; Trzepacz, Paula; Meagher, David

    2013-07-01

    Delirium's characteristic fluctuation in symptom severity complicates the assessment of test-retest reliability of scales using classical analyses, but application of modelling to longitudinal data offers a new approach. We evaluated test-retest reliability of the delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98), two widely used instruments with high validity and inter-rater reliability. Two existing longitudinal datasets for each scale included DSM-IV criteria for delirium diagnosis and repeated measurements using the DRS or DRS-R98. To estimate the reliability coefficients RT and RΛ for each scale we used a macros provided by Dr. Laenen at http://www.ibiostat.be/software/measurement.asp. For each dataset a linear mixed-effects model was fitted to estimate the variance-covariance parameters. A total of 531 cases with between 4 and 9 measurement points across studies including both delirious and non-delirious patients. Comorbid dementia in the datasets varied from 27% to 55%. Overall RT for the DRS were 0.71 and 0.50 and for DRS-R98 0.75 and 0.84. RΛ values for DRS were 0.99 and 0.98 and for DRS-R98 were 0.92 and 0.96. Individual RT measures for DRS-R98 and DRS across visits within studies showed more range than overall values. Our models found high overall reliability for both scales. Multiple factors impact a scale's reliability values including sample size, repeated measurements, patient population, etc in addition to rater variability. PMID:23522935

  11. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  12. Multi-scale fluctuations of bedload transport rates over steep slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Mettra, F.; Heyman, J.; Ancey, C.; Fu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The bedload transport rate is of large fluctuation across several time scales. Understanding bedload transport fluctuation would be helpful for modeling the transport process. In this talk, we first report a multi-scale phenomenon of fluctuation of bedload transport rate by an experimental study. Analysis of the experimental results shows that the fluctuations of bedload transport rates decay with the sampling time scales. A clear three-stage scale-dependent decaying process can be found. Then, an expression for the dependence of the fluctuation of bedload transport rates on the sampling time scales is derived from a stochastic theory (Ancey et al., 2008). The expression is consistent with experimental observations demonstrating that the bedload transport rates behave as a homogeneous Piosson process at the small time scales, which is consistent with Einstein's theory. However, at the media and large time scales, the internal memory of the stochastic sediment dynamics would induce more fluctuations. It is closely related to the collective entrainment mechanism of bedload transport which was newly introduced by Ancey's theory. Together with the very recent finding by Heyman et al. (2012), our theoretical expressions can calibrate all the necessary parameters in Ancey's theory by the experimental observation of bedload transport rates.; The fluctuation of bedload transport rates at different sampling time scales. Experimental conditionst; τs, Shields stress; Re, Reynolds number; Red, particle Reynolds number; Fr, Froud number;θ, slope angle (%); u, mean fluid velocity (m/s); h, mean water depth (cm); Qi, mean input solid discharge (particles/s); Qo, mean output solid discharge (particles/s).

  13. Mitochondrial protein turnover: methods to measure turnover rates on a large scale

    PubMed Central

    Chan, X’avia CY; Black, Caitlin M; Lin, Amanda J; Ping, Peipei; Lau, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteins carry out diverse cellular functions including ATP synthesis, ion homeostasis, cell death signaling, and fatty acid metabolism and biogenesis. Compromised mitochondrial quality control is implicated in various human disorders including cardiac diseases. Recently it has emerged that mitochondrial protein turnover can serve as an informative cellular parameter to characterize mitochondrial quality and uncover disease mechanisms. The turnover rate of a mitochondrial protein reflects its homeostasis and dynamics under the quality control systems acting on mitochondria at a particular cell state. This review article summarizes some recent advances and outstanding challenges for measuring the turnover rates of mitochondrial proteins in health and disease. PMID:25451168

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  15. Evaluation of the Bess TRS-CA Using the Rasch Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating System for Children and Adolescents (BESS TRS-CA; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) screener using Rasch Rating Scale model (RSM) methodology to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items. Data from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children…

  16. Preliminary Psychometric Evidence of the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Fred W.; DiStefano, Christine A.; Liu, Jin; Cain, Leia K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric evidence related to the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool" form's (BESS TRS-P) ability to identify emerging problems in preschool children. Reliability and validity associated with screener scores were compared by analyzing teacher ratings of…

  17. Measurement Invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form across Five Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Kamata, Akihito; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Rosado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) across the United States, Puerto Rico, China, South Korea, and Turkey, using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 1,817 students were rated by 287 teachers using either translated versions of GRS-S or the original English GRS-S. Results…

  18. Should Global Items on Student Rating Scales Be Used for Summative Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the simplest indicators of teaching or course effectiveness is student ratings on one or more global items from the entire rating scale. That approach seems intuitively sound and easy to use. Global items have even been recommended by a few researchers to get a quick-read, at-a-glance summary for summative decisions about faculty. The…

  19. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S)". Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the "GRS-S" Spanish Form. Results…

  20. Assessment and treatment of dysthymia. The development of the Cornell dysthymia rating scale.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J

    1997-01-01

    The understanding and classification of persistently depressed mood has undergone many changes since the term 'dysthymia' was first used nearly 150 years ago. Originally it was applied to both melancholia and mania; later it was applied to depressive personality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III in 1980 and in subsequent updates classified dysthymia as a mood disorder, characterized by a frequently insidious onset and a course that is chronic and unremitting. The assessment of clinical response in the pharmacologic treatment of dysthymia has been more difficult than that for major depression. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, among others, is oriented towards episodic rather than chronic states of depression. A new rating scale, the Cornell Dysthymia Rating Scale, has been developed to better assess milder symptomatology in chronically depressed patients. Early studies suggest its utility, but further validation of the scale is needed in patients with dysthymia and without major depression. PMID:19698530

  1. [A motor function measurement scale for neuromuscular diseases - description and validation study].

    PubMed

    Bérard, C; Payan, C; Fermanian, J; Girardot, F

    2006-04-01

    A new scale for motor function measurement has been developed for neuromuscular diseases. After the study of a preliminary and a first version, the validation study included 303 patients, aged 6 to 62 years. Seventy-two patients had Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 32 Becker muscular dystrophy, 30 limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, 39 facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy, 29 myotonic dystrophy, 21 congenital myopathy, 10 congenital muscular dystrophy, 35 spinal muscular atrophy and 35 hereditary neuropathy. The sensitivity for change was evaluated with 152 patients one year after. The scale comprised 32 items, in three dimensions: standing position and transfers, axial and proximal motor function, distal motor function. High correlations (>0.80) were found between the total score and other scores: Vignos and Brooke grades, Functional Independence Measure, the global severity of disability evaluated with visual analog scales by physicians and physiotherapists. This scale is reliable, does not require any special equipment and is well accepted by patients. It takes an average of 36 min (range 8-75) to complete the scale. Preliminary results of the second evaluation showed good sensitivity to change since last visit, considering rating by patient, investigator or physiotherapist. Also, significant differences in scores are obtained with the greatest deterioration observed in Duchenne patients. PMID:16585909

  2. A New Method for Flow Rate Measurement in Millimeter-Scale Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%. PMID:23353139

  3. Determinants of Discordance in Patients’ and Physicians’ Rating of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, NASIM A.; SPENCER, HORACE J.; ABDA, ESAM; AGGARWAL, AMITA; ALTEN, RIEKE; ANCUTA, CODRINA; ANDERSONE, DAINA; BERGMAN, MARTIN; CRAIG-MULLER, JURGEN; DETERT, JACQUELINE; GEORGESCU, LIA; GOSSEC, LAURE; HAMOUD, HISHAM; JACOBS, JOHANNES W. G.; LAURINDO, IEDA MARIA MAGALHAES; MAJDAN, MARIA; NARANJO, ANTONIO; PANDYA, SAPAN; POHL, CHRISTOF; SCHETT, GEORG; SELIM, ZAHRAA I.; TOLOZA, SERGIO; YAMANAKA, HISAHI; SOKKA, TUULIKKI

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the determinants of patients’ (PTGL) and physicians’ (MDGL) global assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity and factors associated with discordance among them. Methods A total of 7,028 patients in the Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA study had PTGL and MDGL assessed at the same clinic visit on a 0–10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Three patient groups were defined: concordant rating group (PTGL and MDGL within ±2 cm), higher patient rating group (PTGL exceeding MDGL by >2 cm), and lower patient rating group (PTGL less than MDGL by >2 cm). Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify determinants of PTGL and MDGL and their discordance. Results The mean ± SD VAS scores for PTGL and MDGL were 4.01 ± 2.70 and 2.91 ± 2.37, respectively. Pain was overwhelmingly the single most important determinant of PTGL, followed by fatigue. In contrast, MDGL was most influenced by swollen joint count (SJC), followed by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and tender joint count (TJC). A total of 4,454 (63.4%), 2,106 (30%), and 468 (6.6%) patients were in the concordant, higher, and lower patient rating groups, respectively. Odds of higher patient rating increased with higher pain, fatigue, psychological distress, age, and morning stiffness, and decreased with higher SJC, TJC, and ESR. Lower patient rating odds increased with higher SJC, TJC, and ESR, and decreased with lower fatigue levels. Conclusion Nearly 36% of patients had discordance in RA activity assessment from their physicians. Sensitivity to the “disease experience” of patients, particularly pain and fatigue, is warranted for effective care of RA. PMID:22052672

  4. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however

  5. Self-rated and informant-rated everyday function in comparison to objective markers of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Alicia D; Lau, Karen M; Saito, Naomi; Harvey, Danielle; Risacher, Shannon L; Aisen, Paul S; Petersen, Ronald C; Saykin, Andrew J; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski

    2015-09-01

    It is recognized that individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) already demonstrate difficulty in aspects of daily functioning, which predicts disease progression. This study examined the relationship between self- versus informant-report of functional ability, and how those reports relate to objective disease measures across the disease spectrum (i.e. cognitively normal, MCI, Alzheimer's disease). A total of 1080 subjects with self- and/or informant-rated Everyday Cognition questionnaires were included. Objective measures included cognitive functioning, structural brain atrophy, cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities, and a marker of amyloid deposition using positron emission tomography with [18F]AV45 (florbetapir). Overall, informant-report was consistently more associated with objective markers of disease than self-report although self-reported functional status may still have some utility in early disease. PMID:25449531

  6. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  7. Tremor irregularity, torque steadiness and rate of force development in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rose, Martin H; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente R

    2013-04-01

    We investigated lower-extremity isometric tremor Approximate Entropy (irregularity), torque steadiness and rate of force development (RFD) and their associations to muscle activation strategy during isometric knee extensions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and 15 neurologically healthy matched controls performed isometric maximal contractions (extension/flexion) as well as steady submaximal and powerful isometric knee extensions. The patients with PD showed decreased isometric tremor irregularity. Torque steadiness was reduced in PD and the patients had increased muscle coactivation. A markedly lower RFD was found in PD and the decreased RFD correlated with reduced agonist muscle activation. Furthermore, patient RFD correlated with the Movement-Disorder-Society-Unified-Parkinson's-Disease-Rating-Scale 3 (motor part) scores. We concluded that both knee isometric tremor Approximate Entropy and torque steadiness clearly differentiate between patients with PD and healthy controls. Furthermore, severely compromised RFD was found in patients with PD and was associated with decreased agonist muscle activation. PMID:23155115

  8. Uranium Bioreduction Rates Across Scales During a Biostimulation Field Experiments at Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehikhoo, F.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Wu, H.; Williams, K. H.; Newcomer, D.; Long, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial evolution of biogeochemical processes at different spatial scales is important (and challenging) for complex, heterogeneous subsurface systems. In this work, we aim to understand the dynamic propagation of uranium bioreduction rates across scales during a field biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected as an electron donor to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and reduce mobile U(VI) to immobile U(IV). Bicarbonate was co-injected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI) to investigate the impact of bicarbonate on the bioreduction of mobile U(VI). We use reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic conductivity and aqueous geochemistry data and to quantify bioreduction rates from the local grid block scale (approximately 0.25 meters) to the field scale (10s of meters). The modeling results showed good agreement with the geochemical measurements in the 17 monitoring wells. The good match indicates that the model has captured the dynamics of the system given our conceptual model of an inverse relationship between bioavailable oxidized Fe and permeability, providing constraints for the estimation of aqueous species, mineral precipitates, and biomass. Our results shows that although the local rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude with the biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, the maximum rates remained at the a few 'hot spots' right at the down gradient of the injection wells where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maximum. These local rates dominated the ';field-scale' rates (10's of m2). At particular locations, the 'hot moments' with maximum bioreduction rates positively corresponded to their distance from the wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced the local bioreduction rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 41.9%, its effect at the field-scale was limited to a maximum of 15.7%, with majority of the domain unaffected. The field-scale rates calculated

  9. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  10. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.