Science.gov

Sample records for disease self-help groups

  1. Coping with sickle cell disease: a profile and perspective of a pioneer self-help group.

    PubMed

    Duncan, D E; Scott, R B

    1988-02-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a chronic, debilitating disease that is passed genetically from generation to generation. It is a disease marked by periods of well-being and crisis, and it has a profound effect on all bodily organs, shortening the lifespan of its victims. The disease also has far-reaching effects on family functioning and relationships. Support for affected families and individuals is therefore a vital component of any management regimen.In the 1960s, the idea for the Association for Sickle Cell Anemia Research (ASCAR) was implemented. The group was spearheaded by Dr. Roland B. Scott and Dr. Angella Ferguson, both of whom were members of the Department of Pediatrics at Freedmen's Hospital (now Howard University Hospital).This group was perhaps the first of its kind, and adopted as its goals education and family support as well as fund-raising to aid in the support of research. This article provides an overview of the development of this group, its organization and activities, as well as an appraisal of its accomplishments. It also offers specific suggestions for formulating similar groups. PMID:3241309

  2. Developing and Offering Student Self-Help Support Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Bleuer, Jeanne C., Ed.

    This document consists of one module extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 3 consists of seven articles on developing and offering student self-help support groups. Article titles and authors are as follows: (1) "Youth Engaged in Self-Help: A Guide for Starting Youth Self-Help Groups" (Mary K. Parkinson, Nancy Sax); (2) "Introducing and…

  3. Care for chronic illness in Australian general practice – focus groups of chronic disease self-help groups over 10 years: implications for chronic care systems reforms

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carmel M; Peterson, Chris; Robinson, Rowena; Sturmberg, Joachim P

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. Aim The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare incentives for longer consultations and structured health assessments in general practice. Methods Self-help groups around the conditions of diabetes, epilepsy, asthma and cancer identified key informants to participate in 4 disease specific focus groups. Audio taped transcripts of the focus groups were coded using grounded theory methodology. Key themes and lesser themes identified using a process of saturation until the study questions on needs and experiences of care were addressed. Thematic comparisons were made across the 2002/3 and 1992/3 focus groups. Findings At times of chronic illness, there was need to find and then ensure access to 'the right GP'. The 'right GP or specialist' committed to an in-depth relationship of trust, personal rapport and understanding together with clinical and therapeutic competence. The 'right GP', the main specialist, the community nurse and the pharmacist were key providers, whose success depended on interprofessional communication. The need to trust and rely on care providers was balanced by the need for self-efficacy 'to be in control of disease and treatment' and 'to be your own case manager'. Changes in Medicare appeared to have little penetration into everyday perceptions of chronic illness burden or time and quality of GP care. Inequity of health system support for different disease groupings emerged. Diabetes, asthma and certain cancers, like breast cancer, had greater support, despite common experiences of disease burden, and a need for research and support programs. Conclusion Core themes around chronic illness

  4. Role of Self-help Group in Substance Addiction Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Prangya Paramita Priyadarshini

    2012-11-01

    Background: The Narcotics Anonymous (NA)/Alcoholic Anonymous(AA) is based on the philosophy of self-help, where the former addicts and recovering addicts share experiences, provide emotional support and do active monitoring through mentoring. In mentoring, a former addict with longer duration of drug-free life acts as a guide to the newly recovering addict. Objective: The objective was to study the effect of involvement in self help group upon addictís level of depression, functional social support, and anxiety. Method: The size of the sample was 60. 30 addicts were taken from rehabilitation centre and 30 were taken from self-help groups. ANOVA was used to analyze the result. Result: In all the criteria it was found that there exists a significant impact of Self-help group. Conclusion: Self-help group provide clients with a social network of individuals with similar problems and experiences, since most of these individuals may be isolated from society due to the social stigma attached to their addictions. The transition from being help recipients to being helpers enables recovering addicts to build their self-confidence and feelings of being wanted and desired in society, which facilitates their self-confidence and positive self-esteem.

  5. Self-Help Groups--Implications for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Morton A.; McCall, Mary E.

    A recent review of published and unpublished data suggests that the elderly are underrepresented in most self-help groups. Some national groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous do serve the aged but many others such as widow groups do not. A recent national survey of over 3,000 households conducted by Mellinger and Balter examined the use of…

  6. Persuasion in a Self-Help Group: Processes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurik, Nancy C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined techniques of persuasion used in self-help organization for persons with mental problems. Concludes that successful affiliation with the group is a conversion process and that, although acceptance of the organizational ideology may facilitate an individual member's recovery, it simultaneously reinforces an understanding of mental problems…

  7. Responding to local needs. Self-help groups.

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, J

    1993-01-01

    Pink Triangle, the only community-based group in Malaysia which works with men who have sex with men, took initial steps in August 1992 to establish a self-help project for people who are HIV-seropositive. Supporting people who are HIV-positive and fighting for their rights is new in Malaysia. The group has thus far been publicized through its public education events, hospitals, and other nongovernmental organizations. For the first time, information is being published specifically by and for people living with HIV/AIDS. The project also has a phone line to allow people to speak anonymously with someone who shares their experience. Many callers are men who have sex with men in the social context of intense prejudice and discrimination. Afraid to openly acknowledge their sexuality with strangers, the callers have yet to accede to meeting each other face-to-face in a group setting. The author notes in closing that Pink Triangle must be realistic about what can be achieved in Malaysia and allow the group to develop according to people's needs and not on the basis of a model imported from outside of the country. PMID:12288933

  8. Self-Help Group Leaders as Community Helpers: An Impact Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissen, Greg; Warren, Mary; Nansel, Tonja; Goodman, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    A study examined costs and benefits perceived by 26 self-help group leaders who helped rural Kansas communities in extending the use, awareness, and effectiveness of self-help groups. Findings that satisfaction in helping was the major benefit and time constraints the major cost were used to tailor leadership roles. Self-help group activity…

  9. An Information and Referral Model for Improving Self-Help Group Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollert, Richard

    This paper describes the Self-Help Information Service (SIS), and summarizes data evaluating the program. Associated with a generally focused information and referral service (I&R), SIS was designed to facilitate research on self-help groups. Its specific goals were to develop and maintain a telephone referral service disseminating self-help group…

  10. Social Workers' Use of Self-Help Groups as a Resource for Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toseland, Ronald W.; Hacker, Lynda

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 247 social workers to investigate their use of community self-help groups as a resource for clients. Results indicated social workers were aware of self-help groups and their benefits, but agencies do not have policies that encourage their use. (JAC)

  11. Illness and Prevention: Self-Help Groups for Families Faced with Scoliosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine what kinds of people are motivated to join a medical self-help group and whether and in what areas of psychological and social functioning such self-help groups have positive benefits for adolescents and their families. Extensive survey questionnaires were sent throughout the United States to all former…

  12. Adolescent Substance-Use Frequency following Self-Help Group Attendance and Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…

  13. Substance Abuse Treatment Agencies and Self-Help Groups: Collaborators or Competitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Keith; And Others

    While self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous are becoming more integrated into the professional substance abuse treatment network, many professionals are still hesitant to encourage clients to attend self-help groups after treatment. This study examined what factors predict the degree of cooperation between professional agencies and…

  14. 2001-2002 NATIONAL SURVEY OF MENTAL HEALTH MUTUAL SUPPORT GROUPS AND SELF HELP ORGANIZATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the Mutual Support/Self-Help Survey are to provide a national estimate of the number of mutual support groups, self-help organizations, and businesses and services run by and for consumers and/or their family members and to describe their structure, types of activiti...

  15. [Swiss Bechterew's Disease Association: a patient self-help organization].

    PubMed

    Baumberger, H

    1991-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the third most common form of rheumatism and as such of considerable economic and social significance due to its early outbreak, its course of flare-ups and its remissions, chronic persistence and risk of early invalidity. As there is no basic therapy, the main emphasis of modern treatment lies on the practice of regular and intensive AS-specific physical exercise, complemented by suitable sports. In these circumstances, the active cooperation of the patients themselves is of utmost importance; therefore, it was obvious that the information of AS patients on their disease and their interest to improve their physical and psychological situation would be further encouraged by the foundation of a self-assistance organization for AS patients, thereby lightening the blow fate had dealt them. The Swiss Ankylosing Spondylitis Association (Schweizerische Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, SVMB, Société de la spondylarthrite ankylosante, SSSA, Società svizzera morbo di Bechterew, SSMB), founded in 1978, has its headquarters in Zurich (Röntgenstrasse 22, CH-8005 Zurich, Tel. 01 272 78 66) and strives for the following: --the organization of local and regional therapy groups for AS gymnastics and sports --information for patients and their families on all aspects concerning AS --preparation of 'contact' meetings between AS patients to exchange experiences and thoughts --information for doctors on the latest developments in the field of AS and about the activities of the AS Society --promotion of research in the field of AS and its related diseases --information to the general population about the physical aspects of AS and the problems confronting AS patients --cooperation with other AS societies within the framework of the Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation, ASIF. PMID:2063048

  16. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

  17. Factors Predicting Attendance at Self-Help Groups after Substance Abuse Treatment: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Keith; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Followed 201 treated substance abusers for 6 months and found that Blacks and women were more likely to attend self-help groups and that measures of social stability did not predict attendance. Found that persons who attended groups had more severe problems in several domains. (Author/NB)

  18. Padres Maltratadores: Grupos de Autoayuda (Abusive Parents: Self-Help Groups).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intebi, Irene V.; Groisman, Adriana E.

    1991-01-01

    Causes of child abuse by parents are discussed. A therapy program in Buenos Aires (Argentina) for abusive parents is described. The program utilizes self-help groups as part of the therapeutic plan and has found them to be promising. Referral, types of interactions with the groups, and short-, medium-, and long-term objectives are discussed. (BRM)

  19. Beyond the therapeutic: A Habermasian view of self-help groups' place in the public sphere

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sarah; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Self-help groups in the United Kingdom continue to grow in number and address virtually every conceivable health condition, but they remain the subject of very little theoretical analysis. The literature to date has predominantly focused on their therapeutic effects on individual members. And yet they are widely presumed to fulfil a broader civic role and to encourage democratic citizenship. The article uses Habermas' model of the public sphere as an analytical tool with which to reconsider the literature on self-help groups in order to increase our knowledge of their civic functions. In doing this it also aims to illustrate the continuing relevance of Habermas' work to our understanding of issues in health and social care. We consider, within the context of current health policies and practices, the extent to which self-help groups with a range of different forms and functions operate according to the principles of communicative rationality that Habermas deemed key to democratic legitimacy. We conclude that self-help groups' civic role is more complex than is usually presumed and that various factors including groups' leadership, organisational structure and links with public agencies can affect their efficacy within the public sphere. PMID:23326207

  20. Beyond the therapeutic: A Habermasian view of self-help groups' place in the public sphere.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sarah; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

    2013-02-01

    Self-help groups in the United Kingdom continue to grow in number and address virtually every conceivable health condition, but they remain the subject of very little theoretical analysis. The literature to date has predominantly focused on their therapeutic effects on individual members. And yet they are widely presumed to fulfil a broader civic role and to encourage democratic citizenship. The article uses Habermas' model of the public sphere as an analytical tool with which to reconsider the literature on self-help groups in order to increase our knowledge of their civic functions. In doing this it also aims to illustrate the continuing relevance of Habermas' work to our understanding of issues in health and social care. We consider, within the context of current health policies and practices, the extent to which self-help groups with a range of different forms and functions operate according to the principles of communicative rationality that Habermas deemed key to democratic legitimacy. We conclude that self-help groups' civic role is more complex than is usually presumed and that various factors including groups' leadership, organisational structure and links with public agencies can affect their efficacy within the public sphere. PMID:23326207

  1. The Benefits of Parenting Self-Help Groups for Rural Latino Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wituk, Scott; Commer, Amy; Lindstrom, Julie; Meisen, Greg

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 118 rural, mostly female, Latino participants in Parents Helping Parents (PHP)--a Kansas network of parenting self-help groups--found high satisfaction with PHP. PHP provided support and information concerning child rearing and child development, improved family communication, and increased the use of alternative means of discipline.…

  2. An Ethnographic-Discursive Approach to Parental Self-Help Groups: The Case of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Mutual aid groups have become a common form of help in the mental health field. Although self-help groups are associated with a range of health and social benefits, they remain poorly understood in terms of the dynamics of their interactions. Adopting an ethnographic-discursive approach, we conducted a 6-month observation of the meetings of a self-help group of parents with children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to analyze the discursive dynamics of the interactions that characterized the group. Using a set of discursive strategies and practices, the parents promoted a homogeneity of viewpoints and experiences within the group and constructed a shared and consensual narrative to endorse a specific understanding of ADHD. The production of both homogeneity within the group and a shared narrative served to absolve parents of guilt, helped parents to signify their experience within a blaming social context, and preserved their identities as "good parents." PMID:25987584

  3. The Structure of Social Exchange in Self-Help Support Groups: Development of a Measure

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louis D.; Tang, Xiaohui; Hollman, Ruth L.

    2014-01-01

    Self-help support groups are indigenous community resources designed to help people manage a variety of personal challenges, from alcohol abuse to xeroderma pigmentosum. The social exchanges that occur during group meetings are central to understanding how people benefit from participation. This paper examines the different types of social exchange behaviors that occur during meetings, using two studies to develop empirically distinct scales that reliably measure theoretically important types of exchange. Resource theory informed the initial measurement development efforts. Exploratory factor analyses from the first study led to revisions in the factor structure of the social exchange scales. The revised measure captured the exchange of emotional support, experiential information, humor, unwanted behaviors, and exchanges outside meetings. Confirmatory factor analyses from a follow-up study with a different sample of self-help support groups provided good model fit, suggesting the revised structure accurately represented the data. Further, the scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs. Future research can use the scales to identify aspects of social exchange that are most important in improving health outcomes among self-help support group participants. Groups can use the scales in practice to celebrate strengths and address weaknesses in their social exchange dynamics. PMID:24398622

  4. The structure of social exchange in self-help support groups: development of a measure.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Tang, Xiaohui; Hollman, Ruth L

    2014-03-01

    Self-help support groups are indigenous community resources designed to help people manage a variety of personal challenges, from alcohol abuse to xeroderma pigmentosum. The social exchanges that occur during group meetings are central to understanding how people benefit from participation. This paper examines the different types of social exchange behaviors that occur during meetings, using two studies to develop empirically distinct scales that reliably measure theoretically important types of exchange. Resource theory informed the initial measurement development efforts. Exploratory factor analyses from the first study led to revisions in the factor structure of the social exchange scales. The revised measure captured the exchange of emotional support, experiential information, humor, unwanted behaviors, and exchanges outside meetings. Confirmatory factor analyses from a follow-up study with a different sample of self-help support groups provided good model fit, suggesting the revised structure accurately represented the data. Further, the scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs. Future research can use the scales to identify aspects of social exchange that are most important in improving health outcomes among self-help support group participants. Groups can use the scales in practice to celebrate strengths and address weaknesses in their social exchange dynamics. PMID:24398622

  5. A worksite smoking intervention: a 2 year assessment of groups, incentives and self-help.

    PubMed

    Jason, L A; Salina, D; McMahon, S D; Hedeker, D; Stockton, M

    1997-03-01

    Sixty-three companies in the Chicago area were recruited to participate in a worksite smoking cessation program. Participants in each worksite received a television program and newspaper supplement (part of a community-wide media campaign), and one of three conditions: (1) self-help manuals alone (M), (2) self-help manuals and incentives for 6 months (IM) or (3) maintenance manuals, incentives and cognitive-behavioral support groups for 6 months (GIM). Results at the 2 year assessment are examined using a random-effects regression model. In addition, various definitions of quit-rate commonly used in smoking cessation research are explored and the advantages of using a public health approach in the worksite are examined. PMID:10166900

  6. The contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being.

    PubMed

    Seebohm, Patience; Chaudhary, Sarah; Boyce, Melanie; Elkan, Ruth; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

    2013-07-01

    This article explores the contribution of self-help/mutual aid groups to mental well-being. Self-help/mutual aid groups are self-organising groups where people come together to address a shared a health or social issue through mutual support. They are associated with a range of health and social benefits, but remain poorly understood. This article draws on data from stage one of ESTEEM, a project which runs from 2010 to 2013. Stage one ran from 2010 to 2011 and involved participatory, qualitative research carried out in two UK sites. Twenty-one groups were purposively selected to include a range of focal issues, longevity, structures and ethnic backgrounds. Researchers carried out 21 interviews with group coordinators and twenty group discussions with members to explore the groups' purpose, nature and development. Preliminary analysis of the data suggested that mental well-being was a common theme across the groups. Subsequently the data were re-analysed to explore the groups' contribution to mental well-being using a checklist of protective factors for mental well-being as a coding framework. The findings showed that groups made a strong contribution to members' mental well-being by enhancing a sense of control, increasing resilience and facilitating participation. Group members were uplifted by exchanging emotional and practical support; they gained self-esteem, knowledge and confidence, thereby increasing their control over their situation. For some groups, socio-economic factors limited their scope and threatened their future. The article provides an evidence-base which illustrates how self-help/mutual aid groups can enhance mental well-being. If supported within a strategy for social justice, these groups enable people with varied concerns to develop a tailored response to their specific needs. The authors suggest that policy-makers engage with local people, investing in support proportionate to the needs of different populations, enabling them to develop

  7. The relative success of a self-help and a group-based memory training program for older adults.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Erin C; West, Robin L

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluates self-help and group-based memory training programs to test for their differential impact on memory beliefs and performance. Self-help participants used a manual that presented strategies for name, story, and list recall and practice exercises. Matched content from that same manual was presented by the trainer in 2-hr weekly group sessions for the group-based trainees. Relative to a wait-list control group, most memory measures showed significant gains for both self-help and group-based training, with no significant training condition differences, and these gains were maintained at follow-up. Belief measures showed that locus of control was significantly higher for the self-help and group-based training than the control group; memory self-efficacy significantly declined for controls, increased for group-trained participants, and remained constant in the self-help group. Self-efficacy change in a self-help group may require more opportunities for interacting with peers and/or an instructor emphasizing one's potential for memory change. PMID:19739914

  8. Professional Support of Self-Help Groups: A Support Group Project for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Benedicte

    2003-01-01

    Study follows a collaborative support group project between a team of health professionals and a Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients' group. While advantageous for professionals to decide upon the aim of a joint intervention in dialogue with participants, simply asking participants what their aims are does not guarantee actual agreement. Case study…

  9. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  10. Strategies for Survival in Kenya: Women, Education, and Self-Help Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua-Murithi, Tata

    1997-01-01

    Drawing on data from 12 women's groups in Kenya, a recent study identified these women's general and demographic characteristics and discovered how rural Kenyan women acquire and exchange information, education, and learning skills; how education affects the groups' organizational management and leadership; how women work in groups and benefit…

  11. Burnout in the Helping Professions: Mutual Aid Groups as Self-Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicuzza, Frank J.; De Voe, Marianne W.

    1982-01-01

    Offers some insight and understanding of the stress-producing components of counseling practice. Discusses some of the physical symptoms of burnout and examines why the syndrome is prevalent in the human services. Proposes the development of mutual aid groups as one solution to prevent or minimize burnout. (Author/RC)

  12. Effect of combining a health program with a microfinance-based self-help group on health behaviors and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S.; Kermode, M.; Annear, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Women's participation in microfinance-based self-help groups (SHGs) and the resultant social capital may provide a basis to address the gap in health attainment for poor women and their children. We investigated the effect of combining a health program designed to improve health behaviours and outcomes with a microfinance-based SHG program. Design A mixed method study was conducted among 34 villages selected from three blocks or district subdivisions of India; one in Gujarat, two in Karnataka. Methods A set of 17 villages representing new health program areas were pair-matched with 17 comparison villages. Two rounds of surveys were conducted with a total of 472 respondents, followed by 17 key informant interviews and 17 focus group discussions. Results Compared to a matched comparison group, women in SHGs that received the health program had higher odds of delivering their babies in an institution (OR: 5.08, 95% CI 1.21–21.35), feeding colostrum to their newborn (OR: 2.83, 95% CI 1.02–5.57), and having a toilet at home (OR: 1.53, 95% CI 0.76–3.09). However, while the change was in the expected direction, there was no statistically significant reduction in diarrhoea among children in the intervention community (OR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.42–1.76), and the hypothesis that the health program would result in decreased out-pocket expenditures on treatment was not supported. Conclusion Our study found evidence that health programs implemented with microfinance-based SHGs is associated with improved health behaviours. With broad population coverage of SHGs and the social capital produced by their activities, microfinance-based SHGs may provide an avenue for addressing the health needs of poor women. PMID:26304181

  13. Internet-Based Self-Help with Therapist Feedback and in Vivo Group Exposure for Social Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Holmstrom, Annelie; Sparthan, Elisabeth; Furmark, Tomas; Nilsson-Ihrfelt, Elisabeth; Buhrman, Monica; Ekselius, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-four individuals with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) were assigned to a multimodal cognitive-behavioral treatment package or to a waiting list control group. Treatment consisted of a 9-week, Internet-delivered, self-help program that was combined with 2 group exposure sessions in real life and minimal therapist contact via e-mail.…

  14. Self Help and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Alan

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that the single most important common denominator of the various types of self-help groups examined may be that the role of the person who has already lived through the experience is critical for helping others. (Author/AM)

  15. Self-Help Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    1973-01-01

    The author believes that there is a distinct need for professionals to become competent in providing materials for self-help lay efforts. Colleges and universities must provide for the facilitation of personal growth through self administered procedures by either a clinical approach (in counseling centers) or a didactic one (in classes as, for…

  16. Improving Self-Help E-Therapy for Depression and Anxiety Among Sexual Minorities: An Analysis of Focus Groups With Lesbians and Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Anthony; Pitts, Marian; Mitchell, Anne; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background E-therapies for depression and anxiety rarely account for lesbian and gay users. This is despite lesbians and gay men being at heightened risk of mood disorders and likely to benefit from having access to tailored self-help resources. Objective We sought to determine how e-therapies for depression and anxiety could be improved to address the therapeutic needs of lesbians and gay men. Methods We conducted eight focus groups with lesbians and gay men aged 18 years and older. Focus groups were presented with key modules from the popular e-therapy “MoodGYM”. They were asked to evaluate the inclusiveness and relevance of these modules for lesbians and gay men and to think about ways that e-therapies in general could be modified. The focus groups were analyzed qualitatively using a thematic analysis approach to identify major themes. Results The focus groups indicated that some but not all aspects of MoodGYM were suitable, and suggested ways of improving e-therapies for lesbian and gay users. Suggestions included avoiding language or examples that assumed or implied users were heterosexual, improving inclusiveness by representing non-heterosexual relationships, providing referrals to specialized support services and addressing stigma-related stress, such as “coming out” and experiences of discrimination and harassment. Focus group participants suggested that dedicated e-therapies for lesbians and gay men should be developed or general e-therapies be made more inclusive by using adaptive logic to deliver content appropriate for a user’s sexual identity. Conclusions Findings from this study offer in-depth guidance for developing e-therapies that more effectively address mental health problems among lesbians and gay men. PMID:25761775

  17. Self-Help Program Components and Linkage to Aftercare Following Inpatient Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Frydrych, Lynne M.; Greene, Benjamin J.; Blondell, Richard D.; Purdy, Christopher H.

    2009-01-01

    Many patients fail to initiate aftercare for addictive disease rehabilitation following detoxification. This study of 136 inpatients compared characteristics of those who initiated aftercare (behavior therapy or self-help programs) during the week following discharge with those who did not. Among this group of patients, 77% (91/119) linked to aftercare. Self-help treatment related components were associated with increased aftercare treatment attendance rates and included: having a copy of the “12 Steps” (81% vs. 46%, P = .002), having read self-help literature (73% vs. 42%, P = .007) and having telephone numbers of self-help program members (50% vs. 18%, P = .008). Those who initiated aftercare treatment were also more likely to have remained abstinent from drugs and alcohol (81% vs. 39%, P <.001). Having self-help treatment-related components were associated with increased rates of aftercare attendance following hospital inpatient detoxification. PMID:19197592

  18. 7 CFR 1924.262 - Handling complaints involving dwellings constructed by the self-help method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the self-help method. 1924.262 Section 1924.262 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... constructed by the self-help method. When a borrower whose dwelling was constructed by the self-help method... the guidance of the self-help group. Defects which are determined to be the responsibility of...

  19. 7 CFR 1924.262 - Handling complaints involving dwellings constructed by the self-help method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by the self-help method. 1924.262 Section 1924.262 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... constructed by the self-help method. When a borrower whose dwelling was constructed by the self-help method... the guidance of the self-help group. Defects which are determined to be the responsibility of...

  20. 7 CFR 1924.262 - Handling complaints involving dwellings constructed by the self-help method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the self-help method. 1924.262 Section 1924.262 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... constructed by the self-help method. When a borrower whose dwelling was constructed by the self-help method... the guidance of the self-help group. Defects which are determined to be the responsibility of...

  1. 7 CFR 1924.262 - Handling complaints involving dwellings constructed by the self-help method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by the self-help method. 1924.262 Section 1924.262 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... constructed by the self-help method. When a borrower whose dwelling was constructed by the self-help method... the guidance of the self-help group. Defects which are determined to be the responsibility of...

  2. An Empowerment Approach for Elders Living With Diabetes: A Pilot Study of a Community-Based Self-Help Group--the Diabetes Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoster, Vaughn A.; George, Lori

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disabling, deadly disease, affecting one in five of adults over 65. Unfortunately, for the few elders that receive diabetes self-care training it is often taught using traditional didactic methods that are insensitive to their unique needs and immersed in the traditional medical paradigm. Integrating diabetes self-care into…

  3. Integrating self-help books into psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Linda F; Smith, Thomas P

    2003-02-01

    This article describes a systematic and integral method of incorporating self-help books into psychotherapy as a collaborative function. We address the distinctions between self-help and bibliotherapy, consider bibliotherapy as adjunctive or integrative to psychotherapy, and outline the multiple uses of bibliotherapy for clinical purposes. How to apply self-help books in psychotherapy and ways to select books are illustrated by a case example. Indications and contraindications for bibliotherapy in therapy are outlined. PMID:12552626

  4. DOUBLE TROUBLE IN RECOVERY: SELF-HELP FOR PEOPLE WITH DUAL DIAGNOSES

    PubMed Central

    VOGEL, HOWARD S.; KNIGHT, EDWARD; LAUDET, ALEXANDRE B.; MAGURA, STEPHEN

    2007-01-01

    Self-help is gaining increased acceptance among treatment professionals as the advent of managed care warrants the use of cost-effective modalities. Traditional “one disease-one recovery” self-help groups cannot serve adequately the needs of the dually diagnosed. This article discusses Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR), a 12-step self-help group designed to meet the special needs of those diagnosed with both a psychiatric disability and a chemical addiction, DTR differs from traditional self-help groups by offering people a safe forum to discuss their psychiatric disabilities, medication, and substance abuse. Preliminary data collected at four DTR sites in NYC indicate that DTR members have a long history of psychiatric disabilities and of substance abuse, and extensive experience with treatment programs in both areas. They are actively working on their recovery, as evidenced by their fairly intensive attendance at DTR. Recent substance use is limited, suggesting that participation in DTR (in conjunction with format treatment when needed) is having a positive effect. Most members require medication to control their psychiatric disabilities, and that alone may make attendance at “conventional” 12-step groups uncomfortable. Ratings of statements comparing DTR to other 12-step meetings suggest that DTR is a setting where members can feel comfortable and safe discussing their dual recovery needs. PMID:17710222

  5. Self-Help Books: Some Ethical Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becvar, Raphael J.

    1978-01-01

    Self-help books may be a useful resource to counselors in their work with counselees. They may contribute, however, to the development of psychological problems or prevent people from seeking help when needed. The utopia promised by self-help books may be a pathology in its own right. (Author)

  6. Behavioral Bibliotherapy: An Evaluation of a Self-Help Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Fred

    The effectiveness of a self help book on assertiveness training was assessed by comparing two bibliotherapy conditions with group therapy and a waiting list control condition. One group of bibliotherapy subjects read a popular paperback with no therapist contact, while the other group additionally participated in informal discussion sessions.…

  7. The self-help component of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D

    1980-10-01

    The target of "health for all by 2000," to be achieved through primary health care, is discussed. The author states that the goal entails reorganization of health care and community participation at the local level. Self-help groups are proposed as an effective and efficient vehicle for participation by the people in their own health care, and the strong points of such groups, including emotional and psychological support, and orientation toward action and progress, are described. Another major feature is that participants become their own health care personnel, achieving some expertise in the management of their particular illness or disability. Clubs for hypertensives, wherein participants learn to monitor and control their blood pressure, are used as an example of the self-help group. The author suggests that self-help could be a basic component of primary health care, and contribute to "health for all." PMID:7444489

  8. Cults and zealous self-help movements: a psychiatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Galanter, M

    1990-05-01

    Modern cults and zealous self-help movements exercise an intense group influence and can have a major impact on their members' psychiatric status. On the basis of research findings, the author describes the charismatic group, a generic model for such cohesive, intensely ideological movements. He examines the psychological forces they tap and the way they can both relieve and exacerbate psychopathology. The model is then used to explain the operation of zealous self-help programs that address psychiatric syndromes; these are directed at problems of the medically ill, substance abusers, and relatives of psychiatric patients. PMID:2158240

  9. [Development, situation and perspective of self-help support in Germany].

    PubMed

    Geene, R; Huber, E; Hundertmark-Mayser, J; Möller-Bock, B; Thiel, W

    2009-01-01

    Self-help groups and self-help associations are an important part of the social security system. In Germany, self-help contact points, senior citizen centers, volunteer agencies, citizen centers and multi-generation houses combine citizen participation with innovative professional services. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee of continuous financial support for these important, locally administered institutions. There are about 280 self-help contact points and more than 400 federal self-help associations that support and promote self-help in Germany. Healthy communities, healthy workplaces and healthy people need a decentralized system of self-help programs operated at local and regional levels, in districts and towns. Thereby, professional support systems that operate self-help programs and promote citizen participation in the self-help programs must be managed in a similar regional format. New forms of cooperation from the regional and local governments, private companies, and citizen engagement already exist. Additionally, regional projects of integrated maintenance systems with the regional health maintenance institutions have been established. Currently, the central challenges of the self-help programs are quality development, inclusion of people with social disadvantages and of people with migrational background. The essential prerequisites for this work are continuous financial support and a politically supported infrastructure, which is in fact an important health investment. PMID:19189150

  10. Cyber-Porn Dependence: Voices of Distress in an Italian Internet Self-Help Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaglion, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives of cyber-porn users and defines major patterns of distress as self-reported by contributors to a self-help group in the Internet. It applies narrative analysis methodology to 2000 messages sent by 302 members of an Italian self-help Internet community for cyber-porn dependents ("noallapornodipendenza"). This paper…

  11. Self-Help and Health in Europe. New Approaches in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Stephen, Ed.; Kickbusch, Ilona, Ed.

    This book brings together 24 contributions (from 13 European countries) about the role of self-help in the overall pattern of health care, dealing with both the practical and the theoretical: (1) "A Reorientation of Health Care?" (Ilona Kickbusch and Stephen Hatch); (2) "Self-help Groups in Primary Health Care" (David Robinson); (3) "Self-care:…

  12. Self-help: What future role in health care for low and middle-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, KR; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Razum, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    In the debate on 'Third options' for health care delivery in low- and middle-income countries it is proposed that self-help should play a larger role. Self-help is expected to contribute towards improving population health outcomes and reducing government health care expenditure. We review scope and limitations of self-help groups in Europe and South Asia and assess their potential role in health care within the context of health sector reform. Self-help groups are voluntary unions of peers, formed for mutual assistance in accomplishing a health-related purpose. In Europe, self-help groups developed out of dissatisfaction with a de-personalised health care system. They successfully complement existing social and health services but cannot be instrumentalized to improve health outcomes while reducing health expenditure. In South Asia, with its hierarchical society, instrumental approaches towards self-help prevail in Non-governmental Organizations and government. The utility of this approach is limited as self-help groups are unlikely to be sustainable and effective when steered from outside. Self-help groups are typical for individualistic societies with developed health care systems – they are less suitable for hierarchical societies with unmet demand for regulated health care. We conclude that self-help groups can help to achieve some degree of synergy between health care providers and users but cannot be prescribed to partially replace government health services in low-income countries, thereby reducing health care expenditure and ensuring equity in health care. PMID:15084250

  13. Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Hand, Anne; Sindi, Shireen; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers' stress. PMID:26839713

  14. Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Hand, Anne; Sindi, Shireen; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers' stress. PMID:26839713

  15. Microcomputer Applications in Self-Help Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas H.

    1984-01-01

    The trend towards self-help healthcare is a social current which appears to run counter to the increasing technological complexity and sophistication of modern medical care. Yet it is the development of consumer-oriented high-tech medical devices which is facilitating this trend and which will permit the development of an electronics-based self-care system within the next ten years. Data on the present status of computer-assisted self-care was obtained from several sources, including a survey of homecomputer owners. Several useful software applications programs are currently in the marketplace; however, a data-integrating advice and referral program remains to be written. This development is seen as the last major technological impediment to the introduction of a complete microcomputer-based self-care system.

  16. Reading self-help literature in Russia: governmentality, psychology and subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Salmenniemi, Suvi; Vorona, Mariya

    2014-03-01

    Self-help has become a booming business over the past decades and an increasingly visible part of popular media culture worldwide. The paper analyzes the arrival and effects of this cultural technology in post-Soviet Russia after more than seventy years of socialism. It examines how Russians are engaging with popular psychology self-help as a technology of the self and how they are making it meaningful in their lives. Drawing on a set of one-to-one and focus group interviews conducted with self-help readers, it examines how these individuals negotiate the new ethics and the normative models of personhood put forward by the self-help genre. It argues that popular psychology has offered a new language for making sense of the self and the social world, and highlights how the readers critically engage with the normalizing power of popular psychology by drawing on a number of local historically sedimented discourses. PMID:24433165

  17. [Implication of the self-help mechanism in the geriatric club (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Martincević-Ljumanović, R

    1981-07-01

    In the paper clinical investigations are given of the implication of the self-help mechanism with the 125 members of the Geriatric club of the Clinical hospital "Dr. Mladen Stojanović" in Zagreb during the year 1979. The results show that in this phase of the development of contemporary society and medicine and prevention geriatrics self-help is the only way of care and responsibility for the health of a great number of the population. Self-help is built-in everyday life and activity of the members of the club. Elder persons take part in the permanent care of their own health through the group mechanism of self-help by helping and caring for themselves on te basis of obtained health informations, knowledge and experience with society and public health services. In time they discover factors of risk which in many cases provoke a number of chronic illness and thereby put health in danger. The perspectives of self-help are in the scientific work of various social structures and in finding out specific methods of individual and group self-help for attacking mass chronic sicknesses of contemporary civilisation. PMID:6116457

  18. Self-Help Books Used by Religious Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. Brad; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    Members of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies were surveyed to assess self-help book utilization. Self-help books were used with clients by 92% of respondents (N=243) some of the time. Differences in selection criteria and practices between master's and doctoral-level respondents are noted. Frequently used books are listed.…

  19. Self-Help and Community Education. Courier No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This journal consists of eight articles dealing with self-help and community education. Included in the volume are the following articles: "An Uphill Struggle--Self-Help in Bangladesh," by S. Harrison and Judy Saul; "How Not to Help a Local Community: A Case from South India," by Nora Sammut and Maria Theresa; "The High Cost of Manipulating…

  20. Self-Help Tips for Vulvar Skin Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Online Patient Tutorial Health Care Provider List Support Services Self-Help Tips Patient Stories Participate in Research Other Resources For Health ... Online Patient Tutorial Health Care Provider List Support Services Self-Help Tips Patient Stories Participate in Research Other Resources Home Self- ...

  1. Self-Help Housing: The Magic of Ownership for Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard F.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the activities of the Southwest Florida Self-Help Housing, Inc., serving three counties in the Florida migrant and seasonal farming area, first funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity out of its Migrant Division funds in 1967. (JM)

  2. Agreement among readers on what is relevant in self-help psychology books.

    PubMed

    Forest, James J; Del Ben, Kevin; Toews, Stuart B

    2003-12-01

    It was hypothesized that text marking in self-help psychology books would indicate that readers agree on which pages and lines contain relevant information. Previously owned copies of two self-help book titles (n=48, n=38), all with marked text, were collected from second-hand book stores and scored for line and page marking. Chi-squares for goodness-of-fit yielded significant differences between observed and chance agreement in marking behavior. Intraclass and KR-20 correlations were significantly different from zero, suggesting that readers agreed on what information was relevant and irrelevant. Actual users of self-help books may have similar standards because of cultural values, social group relations, or common problem experiences. PMID:14723464

  3. Health Status of Homeless and Marginally Housed Users of Mental Health Self-Help Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Steven P.; Gomory, Tomi; Silverman, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the health status of 310 homeless and marginally housed people to determine the usefulness of mental health self-help agencies (SHAs) in addressing their physical health needs. Findings indicated that frequencies of health problems among respondents were similar to those of other homeless or marginally housed groups and that the study…

  4. Comparison of Self-Help Books for Coping with Loss: Expectations and Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogles, Benjamin M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of 4 self-help books given randomly to 64 participants who had recently experienced divorce or breakup. Books were either behaviorally oriented, based on stage theories, or focused on general life crises. All groups significantly improved in depressive, general psychiatric, and loss-specific symptoms from pretest to posttest…

  5. Voices of coping in an Italian self-help virtual community of cyberporn dependents.

    PubMed

    Cavaglion, Gabriel

    2008-10-01

    Textual analysis of 2000 messages from 302 participants in an Italian self-help Internet community for cyberporn dependents (noallapornodipendenza) shows that through anonymous sharing, participants form a support community providing emotional involvement and care. Similarities with encounter group strategies for other types of addictions are discussed. PMID:18785822

  6. Evaluation of a self-help dietary intervention in a primary care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, S A; Farmer, E M; Feingold, L; Graves, K L; Sumner, S K; Baker, R M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Dietary intervention to reduce fat consumption and increase fiber consumption has been recommended by the National Cancer Institute, but there is little evidence concerning the effectiveness of self-help materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate such self-help materials, introduced by a nurse in a primary care setting. METHODS. A randomized controlled trial involving 242 subjects was conducted in two primary care clinics in Chapel Hill, NC, in 1987. Changes in fat and fiber consumption in the intervention and control groups during the 3-month interval between interviews were compared using analysis of covariance. RESULTS. The estimated reduction in fat was 3.8g larger for the intervention group than for the control group, but the confidence interval included zero. For those individuals who had some responsibility for meal preparation there was a larger difference (-6.9g) in favor of the intervention group, although the difference using calorie-adjusted values was -3.8g with a 95% confidence interval (-7.1, -0.4). The differences for fiber change were smaller. CONCLUSIONS. We found significant small but consistent differential changes associated with a minimal self-help intervention, but we cannot rule out the possibility of some response bias. Nonetheless, this study demonstrates that the use of self-help materials for dietary change is feasible, and may be effective. PMID:1311152

  7. Content analysis of neurodegenerative and mental diseases social groups.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Bargiela-Flórez, Beatriz; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to characterize the different types of Facebook and Twitter groups for different mental diseases, their purposes, and their functions. We focused the search on depressive disorders, dementia, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and examined the Facebook (www.facebook.com) and Twitter (www.twitter.com) groups. We used four assessment criteria: (1) purpose, (2) type of creator, (3) telehealth content, and (4) free-text responses in surveys and interviews. We observed a total of 357 Parkinson groups, 325 dementia groups, 853 Alzheimer groups, and 1127 depression groups on Facebook and Twitter. Moreover, we analyze the responses provided by different users. The survey and interview responses showed that many people were interested in using social networks to support and help in the fight against these diseases. The results indicate that social networks are acceptable by users in terms of simplicity and utility. People use them for finding support, information, self-help, advocacy and awareness, and for collecting funds. PMID:24698768

  8. Self-Help for Depression via E-mail: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Effects on Depression and Self-Help Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Amy J.; Jorm, Anthony F.; Mackinnon, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-help or self-management strategies are commonly used to deal with depression, but not all are thought to be helpful. A previous study found that sub-threshold depression symptoms were improved by an e-mail intervention that encouraged the use of evidence-based self-help strategies. Aim To investigate whether these e-mails were effective for adults with a range of depression symptomatology including major depression. Method The study was a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Adult participants with any level of depressive symptoms were recruited over the internet from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Participants were randomised to receive a series of e-mails either promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies or containing depression information as a control. E-mails were sent automatically twice a week for six weeks. Depression symptoms were assessed with the self-rated Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9). Results 1736 participants with a wide range of symptom severity were recruited and assigned to active (n = 862) and control (n = 874) groups. However, there was a significant attrition rate, with 66.9% lost to follow-up at post-intervention. Both groups showed large improvements in depression symptoms overall, with no significant difference in improvement at the end of the study (mean difference in improvement 0.35 points, 95% CI: −0.57 to 1.28, d = 0.11, 95% CI: −0.06 to 0.27), although there was a small effect at the study mid-point. Results were similar for the sub-group of participants with major depression. The active group showed small to moderate improvements in self-help behaviour (d = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.56). Conclusions These results suggest that the e-mails were able to increase participants’ use of evidence-based self-help, but that this did not improve depression more than an attention control. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  9. Use of self-help manuals to treat problem drinkers.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld, D L

    2000-04-01

    In spite of research findings indicating that alcohol abusers may benefit from self-help manuals, health care providers have been slow to recognize their potential usefulness. As self-care strategies grow more popular and funding for traditional forms of alcohol treatment diminish, health care providers need to look more seriously at these materials. They also need to be aware of new innovations such as self-help materials that can be purchased on diskette. It may not be long before computerized materials sit next to printed manuals on bookstore shelves, and nurses need to know which materials to recommend. PMID:10789110

  10. Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Self-Help Program on Emotional Problems for People with Acquired Hearing Loss: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a cognitive-behavioral self-help program was effective in improving depressed mood and anxiety in people with acquired deafness. Participants were 45 persons with acquired deafness, randomly allocated to the Cognitive-Behavioral Self-help (CBS) group or the Waiting List Control (WLC) group. Depression…

  11. Relative Grading Methods: A Self-Help Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL.

    This supplementary text to a lecture course "Methods of Grading" is a self-help text. Some relative grading methods covered are: Centile Rank; Rank Order; Mean, Median and Mode; Range; Deviation; Standard Deviation; Standard Score; and T-Score. Section I of the book written as a "scrambled text," and Section II is a workbook. (DB)

  12. Self-Help Book Prescription Practices of Canadian University Counsellors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Ronald E.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 80 Canadian university counselors to determine whether they prescribed self-help books and to compare titles of most prescribed books to those selected by Canadian psychologists. Found that 74.4 percent of 78 counselors answering question responded affirmatively to recommending books with 56 titles being prescribed. Lists 10 books most…

  13. Speaking Out for Yourself: A Self-Help Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Self-Help Guide Page 1 Foreword It contains information, ideas, and strategies that people from all over the country have ... the area to help you decide if the information you have found is accurate. Plan your strategy. Now that you know what you want and ...

  14. Rational-Emotive Therapy and Self-Help Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    Unsupervised do-it-yourself therapy constitutes an exceptionally important issue that calls for more empirical and scientific investigation of the validity of publications in this field. Rational-emotive therapy (RET), one of the most popular forms of self-help treatment, has led to several generalizations. (1) Cognitive and cognitive-behavior…

  15. The Story of Self-Help Enterprises [SHE]. A History of Self-Help Housing in the San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Richard

    SHE is a rural California home building corporation founded on the principles of self-help. Lacking sufficient capital to purchase or finance a home by conventional means, a low-income family may elect to "self-construct with SHE". A participant family agrees to invest its labor, up to 1,500 hours, in the supervised construction of its own home…

  16. Guided self-help CBT treatment for bulimic disorders: effectiveness and clinically significant change.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Ana Rita; Conceição, Eva; Machado, Paulo P P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral guided self-help treatment program for bulimia nervosa and similar disorders. Participants were assessed at the beginning and end of treatment, and at 6 months follow-up, using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Outcome-Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Forty-two participants from an eating disorders treatment service participated in this study. This study followed a one-group repeated measures naturalistic design with no control group. Results showed a significant reduction in EDE scores, OQ-45 and BDI. Clinically significant change occurred for the majority of participants. Cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment may be of value as an initial treatment for bulimia nervosa and similar disorders such as binge eating disorder. PMID:23701428

  17. Revisioning the Self: A Phenomenological Investigation into Self-Help Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruneau, Laura; Bubenzer, Donald L.; McGlothlin, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    The helpfulness of self-help reading was explored through interviews with 6 female self-help readers. Themes derived through phenomenological data analysis suggested that there is a distinct structure to the self-help reading experience, including self-help reading as a medium for revisioning of self. Implications for counseling practice and…

  18. Self-help interventions for symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress in patients with physical illnesses: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Matcham, F; Rayner, L; Hutton, J; Monk, A; Steel, C; Hotopf, M

    2014-03-01

    Psychological distress, depression and anxiety are common in most physical diseases, and self-help interventions, if effective, might be an important approach to improve outcomes as they are inexpensive to provide to large numbers of patients. The primary aim of this review was to assess randomised controlled trials examining the impact of self-help interventions on symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress in patients with physical illness. Systematic searches of electronic databases resulted in twenty-five eligible studies for meta-analysis (n=4211). The results of the primary meta-analyses revealed a significant improvement in depression symptoms, in favour of the intervention group (SMD=-0.13, 95% CI: -0.25, -0.02, p=0.02, I(2)=50%). There were no significant differences in symptoms of anxiety (SMD=-0.10, 95% CI: -0.24, 0.05, p=0.20, I(2)=63%) or psychological distress (SMD=-0.14, 95% CI: -0.40, 0.12, p=0.30, I(2)=72%) between intervention and control conditions. Several subgroup and sensitivity analyses improved effect sizes, suggesting that optimal mental health outcomes may be obtained in patients without neurological conditions, and with interventions based on a therapeutic model (such as cognitive behavioural therapy), and with stress management components. This review demonstrates that with appropriate design and implementation, self-help interventions may potentially improve symptoms of depression in patients with physical conditions. PMID:24508685

  19. Managing menopause: a qualitative analysis of self-help literature for women at midlife.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Griffin, Christine

    2003-04-01

    This article reports on a qualitative social constructionist analysis that aims to examine the ways in which menopause and women's bodies are represented in self-help texts. In particular, we aim to compare texts with a more traditional 'medical' approach and others taking a more 'woman-centred' perspective. Four diverse self-help books on menopause and HRT available in England were analysed to examine the ways in which women, menopause and midlife were portrayed, and to investigate the construction of notions of knowledge, expertise and responsibility. The selected texts were published between 1992 and 1996 and covered a range of perspectives, including medical, alternative and feminist. Results showed that menopause was constructed as a 'deficiency disease' in all four texts, although in three of the texts this 'disease' discourse was counterposed by the simultaneous use of a 'menopause as natural' discourse. Menopause was also constructed as inherently complex and confusing, as were women's bodies. A discourse of 'change' was drawn upon in which menopause was portrayed as only one of the stressful events women must cope with at midlife. Finally, most of the texts drew on a discourse of 'management' rather than one of 'treatment' or 'cure' when discussing how menopause, and women's relationship to menopause should be handled. The medical profession was constructed as the primary source of expertise on menopause and women's bodies, although responsibility for the 'management' of menopause as a chronic condition lay solely with individual women. Although there were a number of differences in representations of menopause in medically oriented self-help texts and those adopting a more woman-centred perspective, our analysis also revealed several areas of similarity and overlap with regard to the construction of menopause and its 'management'. The implications of these findings for the construction of menopause in self-help texts for women are discussed. PMID:12639580

  20. A meta-analytic study of self-help interventions for anxiety problems.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Michiyo; Clum, George A

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of self-help (SH) interventions for individuals with anxiety problems. Thirty-three studies, targeting a variety of anxiety disorders and problems, met criteria for inclusion with 1,582 clinical and subclinical participants. Self-help formats included books, audio/videotapes, and computer/Internet-based programs. The average effect sizes (Cohen's ds) comparing SH interventions to control groups for target symptoms were .62 at posttreatment and .51 at follow-up. When compared to therapist-directed interventions (TDIs), the average effect sizes (Cohen's ds) for target problems were -.42 at posttreatment and -.36 at follow-up. Format of SH materials, type of target disorder, presence of minimal therapist contact, and other study parameters were examined for their effect on treatment outcome. The results were discussed from the perspective of a stepped-care approach for anxiety problems. PMID:16942965

  1. GET.ON Mood Enhancer: efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help compared to psychoeducation for depression: an investigator-blinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) imposes a considerable disease burden on individuals and societies. A large number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help interventions in reducing symptoms of depression. However, study quality varies considerably. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new Internet-based guided self-help intervention (GET.ON Mood Enhancer) compared to online-based psychoeducation in an investigator-blinded RCT. Methods/design A RCT will be conducted to compare the efficacy of GET.ON Mood Enhancer with an active control condition receiving online psychoeducation on depression (OPD). Both treatment groups will have full access to treatment as usual. Adults with MDD (n = 128) will be recruited and randomised to one of the two conditions. Primary outcome will be observer-rated depressive symptoms (HRSD-24) by independent assessors blind to treatment conditions. Secondary outcomes include changes in self-reported depressive symptom severity, anxiety and quality of life. Additionally, potential negative effects of the treatments will systematically be evaluated on several dimensions (for example, symptom deteriorations, attitudes toward seeking psychological help, relationships and stigmatisation). Assessments will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after randomisation. Discussion This study evaluates a new Internet-based guided self-help intervention for depression using an active control condition (psychoeducation-control) and an independent, blinded outcome evaluation. This study will further enhance the evidence for Internet-based guided self-help interventions for MDD. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00005025 PMID:24476555

  2. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2008-01-01

    Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential for helpful longer-term effects

  3. Implementing 'self-help friendliness' in German hospitals: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Trojan, Alf; Nickel, Stefan; Kofahl, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    In Germany, the term 'self-help friendliness' (SHF) describes a strategy to institutionalize co-operation of healthcare institutions with mutual aid or self-help groups of chronically ill patients. After a short explanation of the SHF concept and its development, we will present findings from a longitudinal study on the implementation of SHF in three German hospitals. Specifically, we wanted to know (i) to what degree SHF had been put into practice after the initial development phase in the pilot hospitals, (ii) whether it was possible to maintain the level of implementation of SHF in the course of at least 1 year and (iii) which opinions exist about the inclusion of SHF criteria in quality management systems. With only minor restrictions, the findings provide support for the usefulness, practicability, sustainability and transferability of SHF. Limitations of our empirical study are the small number of hospitals, the above average motivation of their staff, the small response rate in the staff-survey and the inability to get enough data from members of self-help groups. The research instrument for measuring SHF was adequate and fulfils the most important scientific quality criteria in a German context. We conclude that the implementation of SHF leads to more patient-centredness in healthcare institutions and thus improves satisfaction, self-management, coping and health literacy of patients. SHF is considered as an adequate approach for reorienting healthcare institutions in the sense of the Ottawa Charta, and particularly suitable for health promoting hospitals. PMID:25500993

  4. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  5. Privacy-Preserving Self-Helped Medical Diagnosis Scheme Based on Secure Two-Party Computation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Wenmin

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing growth of wireless sensor networks in pervasive medical care, people pay more and more attention to privacy in medical monitoring, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. On one hand, we expect the public health institutions to provide us with better service. On the other hand, we would not like to leak our personal health information to them. In order to balance this contradiction, in this paper we design a privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks so that patients can privately diagnose themselves by inputting a health card into a self-helped medical diagnosis ATM to obtain a diagnostic report just like drawing money from a bank ATM without revealing patients' health information and doctors' diagnostic skill. It makes secure self-helped disease diagnosis feasible and greatly benefits patients as well as relieving the heavy pressure of public health institutions. PMID:25126107

  6. Privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wen, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Wenmin

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing growth of wireless sensor networks in pervasive medical care, people pay more and more attention to privacy in medical monitoring, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. On one hand, we expect the public health institutions to provide us with better service. On the other hand, we would not like to leak our personal health information to them. In order to balance this contradiction, in this paper we design a privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks so that patients can privately diagnose themselves by inputting a health card into a self-helped medical diagnosis ATM to obtain a diagnostic report just like drawing money from a bank ATM without revealing patients' health information and doctors' diagnostic skill. It makes secure self-helped disease diagnosis feasible and greatly benefits patients as well as relieving the heavy pressure of public health institutions. PMID:25126107

  7. Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Core surveillance (ABCs) Group A Strep Calculator CDC Streptococcus Laboratory Sepsis About Group A Strep Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Group A Streptococcus (group A strep) are bacteria that can live ...

  8. [Self-help on the internet. Chances and risks of communication in electronic networks].

    PubMed

    Podoll, K; Mörth, D; Sass, H; Rudolf, H

    2002-01-01

    The worldwide web is used for self-help purposes by an increasing number of patients with a variety of mental disorders. The benefits and dangers of applying the internet in psychiatry are discussed based on a case report concerning a female with post traumatic stress and multiple personality disorders who visited a chat-room in the internet with two of her 48 supernumerary identities. During one stage of her history, she displayed an excessive use of the internet which must be considered a symptom of mental disorder rather than a distinct disease entity, viz. "internet addiction". PMID:11975070

  9. [Lupus in Germany: analysis within the German lupus self-help organization (LULA)].

    PubMed

    Fischer-Betz, R; Wessel, E; Richter, J; Winkler-Rohlfing, B; Willers, R; Schneider, M

    2005-03-01

    During the last few decades, the prognosis for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LE) has changed from high early mortality to a more chronic longterm course. Although the prevalence of LE has been estimated at 20-50/100,000, data concerning the situation of LE patients in Germany are sparse. Since 2001, a documentation within the German Lupus Self-Help Organisation scheduled for a period of 10 years (LULA) has been recording at the patient level the actual status and the long-term course of a large group of LE patients. A questionnaire adapted from the German rheumatological database is updated once a year and sent to all members.In 2001, 1033 members participated in the documentation. Of these, 92.2% were women (mean age 45.8 years) with a mean disease duration of 9.9 years. 37.6% were employed, and 24.5% were on early retirement. 50.2% rated their overall health status as "not so good" or "poor". Most were receiving treatment with [hydroxy-]chloroquine (35.2%) or azathioprine (21.9%), while 67.9% were receiving corticosteroids. The most frequent comorbidities reported were hypertension (33%), scarring skin disease (24.4%), osteoarthritis (25.2%), osteoporosis (24%), psychiatric disorders/depression (22.9%) and chronic renal disease (22%). Thromboembolic events were reported in 18.5%, myocardial infarction in 2.3% and stroke in 4.8% of cases. Concerning their main contact person for health care, 63.6% specified the rheumatologist. In comparison with other cohort studies and in particular with the German rheumatological database, the data provided exclusively by patients are feasible. Concerning the severity of their disease, their treatment and their global assessment of health status, LULA participants are comparable with other LE patients and can be seen as representative of LE patients in Germany. Further assessment especially of long-term data are needed to obtain additional insights into the burden of the disease and the need for special medical

  10. Up from Dependency: A New National Public Assistance Strategy. Supplement 3: A Self-Help Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Martin; And Others

    Self-help among low-income people is vitally important. In no area is self-help more important than in overcoming poverty's burdens and energizing the escape from poverty. This document comprises an inventory of self-help and mutual-help programs that feature active involvement of members of the low-income population. The programs in this…

  11. Public Pedagogy, Private Lives: Self-Help Books and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Self-help literature has become an important domain of adult learning in North America. Self-help books offer readers advice on how to take charge of their lives and achieve goals such as prosperity, love, happiness, wellness, and self-actualization. Despite the popularity of self-help books, there has been little research about them from scholars…

  12. Randomised controlled trial of a guided self-help treatment on the Internet for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Carrard, I; Crépin, C; Rouget, P; Lam, T; Golay, A; Van der Linden, M

    2011-08-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is a common and under-treated condition with major health implications. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) self-help manuals have proved to be efficient in BED treatment. Increasing evidence also support the use of new technology to improve treatment access and dissemination. This is the first randomised controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet guided self-help treatment programme, based on CBT, for adults with threshold and subthreshold BED. Seventy-four women were randomised into two groups. The first group received the six-month online programme with a six-month follow-up. The second group was placed in a six-month waiting list before participating in the six-month intervention. Guidance consisted of a regular e-mail contact with a coach during the whole intervention. Binge eating behaviour, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and interoceptive awareness significantly improved after the Internet self-help treatment intervention. The number of objective binge episodes, overall eating disorder symptoms score and perceived hunger also decreased. Improvements were maintained at six-month follow-up. Dropouts exhibited more shape concern and a higher drive for thinness. Overall, a transfer of CBT-based self-help techniques to the Internet was well accepted by patients, and showed positive results for eating disorders psychopathology. PMID:21641580

  13. Self-help quit smoking interventions: effects of self-help materials, social support instructions, and telephone counseling.

    PubMed

    Orleans, C T; Schoenbach, V J; Wagner, E H; Quade, D; Salmon, M A; Pearson, D C; Fiedler, J; Porter, C Q; Kaplan, B H

    1991-06-01

    Smokers requesting self-help materials for smoking cessation (N = 2,021) were randomized to receive (a) an experimental self-quitting guide emphasizing nicotine fading and other nonaversive behavioral strategies, (b) the same self-quitting guide with a support guide for the quitter's family and friends, (c) self-quitting and support guides along with four brief counselor calls, or (d) a control guide providing motivational and quit tips and referral to locally available guides and programs. Subjects were predominantly moderate to heavy smokers with a history of multiple previous quit attempts and treatments. Control subjects achieved quit rates similar to those of smokers using the experimental quitting guide, with fewer behavioral prequitting strategies and more outside treatments. Social support guides had no effect on perceived support for quitting or on 8- and 16-month quit rates. Telephone counseling increased adherence to the quitting protocol and quit rates. PMID:2071729

  14. Internet and paper self-help materials for problem drinking: is there an additive effect?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; Humphreys, Keith; Koski-Jännes, Anja; Cordingley, Joanne

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an Internet-based intervention for problem drinkers, comparing changes in drinking between respondents who only received the intervention to those who also received a self-help book. After receiving a personalized feedback summary on the Internet, 83 respondents provided complete baseline information and volunteered to participate in a 3-month follow-up survey. Half of the respondents were randomized to receive an additional self-help book. The follow-up was returned by 48 respondents (69% female). Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to compare drinking levels at baseline and 3-month follow-up among respondents who only received the Internet-based intervention. There was minimal support for an impact of the Internet intervention alone. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to compare respondents in the two intervention conditions on their drinking at follow-up, controlling for baseline consumption. Respondents who received the additional self-help book reported drinking less and experiencing fewer consequences at follow-up as compared to respondents who received only the Internet-based intervention. While the results are promising, they cannot be taken as evidence of the efficacy of Internet-based personalized feedback as a stand-alone intervention because of the absence of a control group that did not receive the intervention. Further research on this topic should be a priority because of the potential for Internet-based interventions to reach problem drinkers underserved by traditional treatment. PMID:15893433

  15. Acceptance and Efficacy of a Guided Internet Self-Help Treatment Program for Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Isabelle, Carrard; Christelle, Crépin; Patrick, Rouget; Tony, Lam; der Linden Martial, Van; Alain, Golay

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A significant percentage of obese patients suffer from binge eating disorder (BED), with negative consequences on psychological health, quality of life, weight loss treatment and maintenance. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), delivered in traditional or self-help format, is effective in reducing BED symptoms. To improve dissemination, a self-help treatment program composed of eleven CBT based modules was implemented on the Internet and evaluated in a population of adult obese patients with BED. Method: Forty-two obese BED patients wait-listed for a multi-disciplinary obesity treatment took part in the study. Twenty-two patients completing the six-month online guided self-help treatment program were compared to a control group of twenty patients without intervention. Both groups were evaluated before and after six months of Internet self-help treatment or waiting list. A follow-up evaluation was carried out six months later. Results: Participants in the online self-help treatment program showed higher binge eating abstinence rates, lower EDE-Q shape and weight concerns, and improved TFEQ disinhibition of eating and hunger scores compared to the control group. They also scored better on psychological health and quality of life measures after intervention, and gains were maintained at follow-up. No effect was found regarding BMI. The number of modules completed was correlated with a better quality of life improvement at post evaluation. Participants rated the program as useful and easy to use. Conclusion: The Internet seems to be a valuable tool for disseminating CBT for BED obese patients. Acceptance of new technology was good in this population. Further research is needed with a larger sample to corroborate these results. PMID:21552482

  16. Analyzing Self-Help Forums with Ontology-Based Text Mining: An Exploration in Kidney Space.

    PubMed

    Burckhardt, Philipp; Padman, Rema

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as a popular source for health-related information. More than eighty percent of American Internet users have searched for health topics online. Millions of patients use self-help online forums to exchange information and support. In parallel, the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases has become a financial burden for the healthcare system demanding new, cost-effective interventions. To provide such interventions, it is necessary to understand patients' preferences of treatment options and to gain insights into their experiences as patients. We introduce a text-processing algorithm based on semantic ontologies to allow for finer-grained analyses of online forums compared to standard methods. We have applied our method in an analysis of two major Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) forums. Our results suggest that the analysis of forums may provide valuable insights on daily issues patients face, their choice of different treatment options and interactions between patients, their relatives and clinicians. PMID:26958281

  17. Analyzing Self-Help Forums with Ontology-Based Text Mining: An Exploration in Kidney Space

    PubMed Central

    Burckhardt, Philipp; Padman, Rema

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as a popular source for health-related information. More than eighty percent of American Internet users have searched for health topics online. Millions of patients use self-help online forums to exchange information and support. In parallel, the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases has become a financial burden for the healthcare system demanding new, cost-effective interventions. To provide such interventions, it is necessary to understand patients’ preferences of treatment options and to gain insights into their experiences as patients. We introduce a text-processing algorithm based on semantic ontologies to allow for finer-grained analyses of online forums compared to standard methods. We have applied our method in an analysis of two major Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) forums. Our results suggest that the analysis of forums may provide valuable insights on daily issues patients face, their choice of different treatment options and interactions between patients, their relatives and clinicians. PMID:26958281

  18. Guided self-help for binge eating/purging anorexia nervosa before inpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    Fichter, Manfred; Cebulla, Marian; Quadflieg, Nobert; Naab, Silke

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a cognitive-behavioral self-help manual for anorexia nervosa. Patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (N=102), binge eating/purging type (AN-B/P), were consecutively assigned to one of two conditions: 6-week manualized guided self-help or a wait-list control. All patients thereafter received inpatient treatment in a hospital for behavioral medicine. The primary outcome variable was the number of days in inpatient treatment. Secondary outcome variables were measures of psychopathology. Results showed that duration of inpatient treatment was significantly shorter (by 5.2 days) among participants receiving guided self-help. Body image, slimness ideal, general psychopathology, and some bulimic symptoms improved significantly during self-help. The authors conclude that, to increase effects of therapist-guided self-help in AN-B/P, additional variants of a self-help manual should be tried in different therapeutic settings. PMID:18816009

  19. Self-help treatment for insomnia: bibliotherapy with and without professional guidance.

    PubMed

    Mimeault, V; Morin, C M

    1999-08-01

    Fifty-four adults with primary insomnia were randomly assigned to a self-help treatment (cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy [BT]), BT with weekly phone consultations, or a waiting-list control (WL) group. Treated participants were mailed 6 treatment booklets at the rate of 1 booklet per week; 1/2 of them also received minimal professional guidance through a 15-min weekly phone consultation. The WL group members continued to monitor their sleep during this period. Participants in both treatment conditions improved significantly on the main outcome variables (total wake time and sleep efficiency) at posttreatment, whereas WL participants remained unchanged. The addition of weekly phone calls slightly enhanced improvements at posttreatment. However, both treatment conditions were comparable at follow-up. These results suggest that BT, with or without minimal professional guidance, is an effective approach for treating primary insomnia. PMID:10450621

  20. Efficacy of a self-help manual in increasing resilience in carers of adults with depression in Thailand.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terence V; Songprakun, Wallapa; Stephenson, John

    2016-02-01

    Caring for a person with a mental illness can have adverse effects on caregivers; however, little is known about how best to help such caregivers. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a cognitive behaviour therapy-guided self-help manual in increasing resilience in caregivers of individuals with depression, in comparison to caregivers who receive routine support only. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted, following CONSORT guidelines, with 54 caregivers allocated to parallel intervention (self-help manual) (n = 27) or control (standard support) (n = 27) groups. Resilience was assessed at baseline, post-test (week 8), and follow up (week 12). Intention-to-treat analyses were undertaken. Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a significant difference in resilience scores between the three time points, showing a large effect. Pairwise comparisons between intervention and control groups indicated resilience to be significantly different between baseline and post-test, and between baseline and follow up, but not between post-test and follow up. Overall, the intervention group showed a slightly greater increase in resilience over time than the control group; however, the time-group interaction was not significant. Guided self-help is helpful in improving caregivers' resilience and could be used as an adjunct to the limited support provided to carers by mental health nurses and other clinicians. PMID:26666688

  1. Evaluation of a Motivation and Psycho-Educational Guided Self-Help Intervention for People with Eating Disorders (MOPED).

    PubMed

    Brewin, Nicola; Wales, Jackie; Cashmore, Rebecca; Plateau, Carolyn R; Dean, Brett; Cousins, Tara; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-05-01

    High dropout rates and poor levels of engagement are well documented for patients with eating disorders. Utilising motivational techniques and providing psycho-education have been suggested as ways to reduce treatment disengagement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a newly developed motivational and psycho-educational (MOPED) guided self-help intervention for people with eating disorders on engagement and retention in therapy. Patients who received MOPED pre-treatment (n = 79) were compared with a diagnosis-matched group of patients receiving treatment as usual (TAU; n = 79). The study found that patients receiving MOPED had a higher engagement rate than those within the TAU group. Specifically, patients in the anorexic spectrum were found to present with both higher rates of engagement and completion of therapy when issued with MOPED in comparison with TAU. Self-help packages using motivational style could be a valuable and cost-effective intervention for patients with eating disorders. PMID:26778092

  2. Community Health Workers Versus Nurses as Counselors or Case Managers in a Self-Help Diabetes Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kim B.; Kim, Miyong T.; Lee, Hochang B.; Nguyen, Tam; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To confirm the effectiveness of community health workers’ involvement as counselors or case managers in a self-help diabetes management program in 2009 to 2014. Methods Our open-label, randomized controlled trial determined the effectiveness of a self-help intervention among Korean Americans aged 35 to 80 years in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. We measured and analyzed physiological and psychobehavioral health outcomes of the community health worker–counseled (n = 54) and registered nurse (RN)–counseled (n = 51) intervention groups in comparison with the control group (n = 104). Results The community health workers’ performance was comparable to that of the RNs for both psychobehavioral outcomes (e.g., self-efficacy, quality of life) and physiological outcomes. The community health worker–counseled group showed hemoglobin A1C reductions from baseline (−1.2%, −1.5%, −1.3%, and −1.6%, at months 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively), all of which were greater than reductions in the RN-counseled (−0.7%, −0.9%, −0.9%, and −1.0%) or the control (−0.5%, −0.5%, −0.6%, and −0.7%) groups. Conclusions Community health workers performed as well as or better than nurses as counselors or case managers in a self-help diabetes management program in a Korean American community. PMID:26985607

  3. Self-help medical advice was popular in the 1930s, too.

    PubMed

    Clarfield, M

    1997-11-01

    Self-help books proliferate today, but the concept of helping oneself in health matters is certainly not a modern phenomenon, Dr. Mark Clarfield notes. He recently studied a self-help booklet from 1936, What to do until the doctor comes, in which he found not only some sound advice but also some harmless suggestions, useless treatments and dangerous remedies. PMID:9361652

  4. 76 FR 80377 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Self-Help Homeownership...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Self-Help... proposal by name and/or OMB approval Number (2506-0157) and should be sent to: HUD Desk Officer, Office of... to OMB may be obtained from Ms. Pollard. Title of Proposal: Self-Help Homeownership...

  5. Solution-Focused Self-Help for Improving University Students' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakrosnis, Rytis; Cepukiene, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    Along with positive developments in psychology, the self-help movement is becoming widespread, based on the belief that people are capable of growing and achieving positive change with only minimal help. This article addresses the potential of a solution-focused self-help tool to improve university students' well-being by comparing its outcome to…

  6. With or without a Therapist: Self-Help Reading for Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To address a critical gap in health education scholarship by exploring the contexts in which self-help reading takes place, the motivations of self-help readers and the processes through which such readers engage with books on mental health. Design: Structured, in-depth interviews conducted with participants recruited through online…

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart I of... - Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Predevelopment Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1944.410(d) of 7 CFR part 1944, subpart I, as necessary, to develop a complete program for a self-help... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Predevelopment... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING...

  8. One-year follow-up of guided self-help for parents of preschool children with externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Ise, Elena; Kierfeld, Frauke; Döpfner, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Self-help programs are an effective intervention for parents of children with externalizing behavior. A number of studies have shown that self-administered parent training has positive short-term effects on a child's behavior, but there is little research done on long-term outcomes. This paper reports results from a 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled prevention trial of self-administered parent training with minimal therapist contact. In the initial prevention trial, we randomly assigned 48 preschool children with elevated levels of externalizing behavior to either a treatment group (TG) or a waitlist control group (WLC). The intervention consisted of written material and brief weekly telephone consultations. Thirty-six families (25 TG families, 11 WLC families) completed the self-help program. Twenty-five of these participated in a follow-up assessment 1 year after the intervention. There were no significant changes from post-test to follow-up on measures of child behavior (e.g., Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptom rating scales) and parental mental health, indicating that gains achieved post-intervention were maintained for at least 1 year. Moreover, the percentage of children with substantial behavior problems was reduced from pre-intervention to follow-up. These findings provide evidence that telephone-assisted self-help programs can be effective in the prevention of disruptive behavior problems. PMID:25331981

  9. Subliminal Self-Help Tapes and Academic Achievement: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Tanya G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated marketing claims of effectiveness in improving academic achievement through use of commercially prepared subliminal audiotapes in college students assigned to active treatment group (n=25), inactive treatment group (n=26), or control group (n=22). No treatment differences were found on final examination scores from class and current…

  10. Acceptability and Cultural Appropriateness of Self-Help Booklets for Relapse Prevention in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Menzie, Nicole S; Simmons, Vani N; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Diaz, Diana B; Piñeiro, Barbara; Jimenez, Julio; Castro, Eida; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a range of cancers and is related to five of seven leading causes of death in Puerto Rico. Minimal self-help interventions have shown promising results in reaching participants and preventing relapse from smoking. Specifically, a collection of eight self-help booklets has demonstrated efficacy (Brandon et al., 2000; 2004). Those booklets have been transcreated into Spanish, with efforts to make them culturally appropriate across a range of Hispanic cultures. We conducted a pilot study in Ponce, Puerto Rico, to evaluate the Spanish version of our smoking relapse-prevention booklets. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 current and former smokers. Interviews were conducted to elicit feedback regarding the booklet's content, cultural appropriateness, dissemination, and perceived availability of smoking cessation resources in Puerto Rico. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using content analysis, with a priori codes based on the interview guide. Emergent themes were examined. Overall, participants liked the booklets' content, perceived them to be culturally appropriate, easy to read and understand. Regarding dissemination, it was recommended that the booklets be disseminated by physicians and advertised through television. Most importantly, participants reported the best way to distribute and complement the booklets would be through support groups. Participants also reported having limited knowledge about resources provided in the community to aid smoking cessation. Overall, this pilot study was able to show the cultural acceptability of the booklets and highlights the need for the dissemination of these materials among current and former smokers in Puerto Rico. PMID:25219544

  11. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women With Binge Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women’s (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation process and highlighted the importance of balancing the fidelity and cultural relevance of evidence-based treatment when disseminating it across diverse racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23645969

  12. A Self-Help Alternative in Student Legal Services Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Adrian

    National surveys reveal that citizens of all age groups, from school age to adult, are ignorant about the law and its practical use in daily life. The advocate counseling model is an integrative approach combining the elements of legal research and therapeutic counseling in order to teach and guide individuals or groups with institutional problems…

  13. Validation of the Full and Short-Form Self-Help Involvement Scale Against the Rasch Measurement Model

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Karen M.; Conrad, Kendon J.; Passetti, Lora L.; Funk, Rodney R.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders (SUDs) are one of the nation’s most costly problems in terms of dollars, disability, and death. Self-help programs are among the varied recovery support options available to address SUD, and evaluation of these programs depends on good measurement. There exists an unmet need for a psychometrically sound, brief, efficient measure of self-help involvement for individuals with SUD that is valid across different substances and age-groups. Methods Using data from 2,101 persons presenting for SUD treatment, the full 21-item Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Self-Help Involvement Scale (SHIS) and a newly developed 11-item short-form version were validated against the Rasch measurement model and each other. Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed by primary substance and age. Results Both versions met Rasch psychometric criteria. The full scale had minor misfit with no DIF for alcohol, marijuana, or opioids but a few instances of DIF for amphetamine and cocaine users as well as for age, in that youth tended to endorse several easier items more frequently than did adults. The 11-item short form had neither misfit nor DIF by substance and only minor DIF by age was highly correlated with the full version and was relatively more efficient. Criterion-related validity was supported for both. Conclusions Both the long and short versions of SHIS are psychometrically sound measures of a more comprehensive conceptualization of self-help involvement for SUDs that can be used as part of an in-depth assessment or as a short measure that lessens respondent burden. PMID:26275980

  14. AIDS: Implications for Homosexual Self-Help and Support Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro-Alfonso, Jose

    The Colectivo de Concientizacion Gay, a homosexual and lesbian organization in Puerto Rico, developed a brief analysis of what has happened since symptoms associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first reported by the Centers for Disease Control in 1981; the analysis also included implications for the gay community. Since…

  15. Behavioral Consultation to Community Self-Help Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.

    A high priority area for behavioral community psychologists involves working to strengthen informal support systems within communities. A collaborative effort between a community group and academic based psychologists focusses on a community problem--dog litter in an urban area. An original demonstration project was used to influence the political…

  16. Online Cognitive-Restructuring Self-Help: www.SelfHelpSocialAnxiety.com a New Application for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an online self-help treatment program for Social Anxiety Disorder, focused on cognitive restructuring. It can be difficult getting socially anxious individuals to commit to treatment since therapy is typically a face to face social interaction (the feared stimulus). Recent research suggests…

  17. Disability self-help organizations in the developing world: a case study from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M J

    1993-09-01

    Disability self-help organizations have emerged as an important element of response to the advancement of people with disabilities throughout the developing world in recent years. There are now self-help organizations in all regions of the developing world, their memberships are growing, and the scope of their activities is enlarging. This paper draws on field research in Malaysia to present an organization developed by and for people with physical disabilities as a case study of self-help action in the Southeast Asian region. This paper reviews the origins and growth of the organization, describes its current programme of activities, and offers comment about the nature and future of disability self-help in the region and its continued advancement in the developing world generally. A combination of internal factors that relate to organization and programming, and external political and social conditions is indicated as important. PMID:8244611

  18. Comparison of face-to-face versus email guided self-help for binge eating: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Guided self-help is a recommended first-step treatment for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and atypical variants of these disorders. Further research is needed to compare guided self-help that is delivered face-to-face versus via email. Methods/Design This clinical trial uses a randomised, controlled design to investigate the effectiveness of providing guided self-help either face-to-face or via e-mail, also using a delayed treatment control condition. At least 17 individuals are required per group, giving a minimum N of 51. Discussion Symptom outcomes will be assessed and estimates of cost-effectiveness made. Results are proposed to be disseminated locally and internationally (through submission to conferences and peer-reviewed journals), and will hopefully inform local service provision. The trial has been approved by an ethics review board and was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01832792 on 9 April 2013. PMID:24886555

  19. Development and testing of a Science and Engineering Fair Self-Help Development Program: Results of the pilot program in three middle schools

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, D.F.

    1992-10-01

    This report details the Science Fair Self-Help Development Program, which was initiated in a pilot project at three middle schools in Albuquerque, NM, during school year 1991-1992. The purpose of the program was to provide guidance to schools in developing their own parental and community resources into a sustainable support group whose major function would be to assist the school`s science teachers and administration in all aspects of the science fair. The report documents the development of the Self-Help Program and the results of the pilot testing.

  20. Development and testing of a Science and Engineering Fair Self-Help Development Program: Results of the pilot program in three middle schools

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, D.F.

    1992-10-01

    This report details the Science Fair Self-Help Development Program, which was initiated in a pilot project at three middle schools in Albuquerque, NM, during school year 1991-1992. The purpose of the program was to provide guidance to schools in developing their own parental and community resources into a sustainable support group whose major function would be to assist the school's science teachers and administration in all aspects of the science fair. The report documents the development of the Self-Help Program and the results of the pilot testing.

  1. Self-help interventions for adjustment disorder problems: a randomized waiting-list controlled study in a sample of burglary victims.

    PubMed

    Bachem, Rahel; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Adjustment disorders (AjD) are among the most frequent mental disorders yet often remain untreated. The high prevalence, comparatively mild symptom impairment, and transient nature make AjD a promising target for low-threshold self-help interventions. Bibliotherapy represents a potential treatment for AjD problems. This study investigates the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral self-help manual specifically directed at alleviating AjD symptoms in a homogenous sample of burglary victims. Participants with clinical or subclinical AjD symptoms following experience of burglary were randomized to an intervention group (n = 30) or waiting-list control group (n = 24). The new explicit stress response syndrome model for diagnosing AjD was applied. Participants received no therapist support and assessments took place at baseline, after the one-month intervention, and at three-month follow-up. Based on completer analyses, group by time interactions indicated that the intervention group showed more improvement in AjD symptoms of preoccupation and in post-traumatic stress symptoms. Post-intervention between-group effect sizes ranged from Cohen's d = .17 to .67 and the proportion of participants showing reliable change was consistently higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Engagement with the self-help manual was high: 87% of participants had worked through at least half the manual. This is the first published RCT of a bibliotherapeutic self-help intervention for AjD problems. The findings provide evidence that a low-threshold self-help intervention without therapist contact is a feasible and effective treatment for symptoms of AjD. PMID:27299909

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart I of... - Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance (TA) Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance... Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart I of Part 1944—Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance (TA) Grants Evaluation for Quarter...

  3. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart I of... - Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance (TA) Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance... Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart I of Part 1944—Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance (TA) Grants Evaluation for Quarter...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart I of... - Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance (TA) Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance... Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart I of Part 1944—Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance (TA) Grants Evaluation for Quarter...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.550 - What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does âself-help... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.550 What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.550 - What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does âself-help... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.550 What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.550 - What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does âself-help... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.550 What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.550 - What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does âself-help... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.550 What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?...

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.550 - What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does âself-help... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.550 What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of Guided Self-help Treatment for Recurrent Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Frances L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Dickerson, John F.; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adoption of effective treatments for recurrent binge-eating disorders depends on the balance of costs and benefits. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial, we conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a cognitive behavioral therapy guided self-help intervention (CBT-GSH) to treat recurrent binge eating compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Method Participants were 123 adult members of an HMO (mean age = 37.2, 91.9% female, 96.7% non-Hispanic White) who met criteria for eating disorders involving binge eating as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, Fairburn & Cooper, 1993). Participants were randomized either to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus CBT-GSH. The clinical outcomes were binge-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); total societal cost was estimated using costs to patients and the health plan, and related costs. Results Compared to the group receiving TAU only, those who received TAU + CBT-GSH experienced 25.2 more binge-free days and had lower total societal costs of $427 over 12 months following the intervention (incremental CEA ratio -$20.23 per binge-free day or −$26,847 per QALY). Lower costs in the TAU + CBT-GSH group were due to reduced use of TAU services in that group, resulting in lower net costs for the TAU + CBT group despite the additional cost of CBT-GSH. Conclusions Findings support CBT-GSH dissemination for recurrent binge-eating treatment. PMID:20515208

  11. Interest in different forms of self-help in a general population sample of drinkers.

    PubMed

    Koski-Jänne, A; Cunningham, J

    2001-01-01

    The study investigates: (1) the level of interest in self-help services for drinkers, and (2) the predictors of interest in these services. A representative sample of 1,557 Ontario respondents participated in a telephone survey. Current drinkers (n=1,247) were asked about their interest in getting: (a) a telephone call from a therapist to help them evaluate their drinking, (b) a self-help book, and (c) a computerized summary comparing their drinking to that of other Canadians. Bivariate comparisons of demographic and drinking-related variables were made between those interested and not interested in each of the offered services. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the best predictors of interest. The results revealed that 16% were interested in a telephone call, 26% in a self-help book, and 39% in computerized normative feedback. Negative consequences of drinking and indicators of lower societal resources increased interest in self-help services. Computerized feedback and self-help books serve as cheap and nonintrusive ways to provide incentive for change to early-stage problem drinkers due to the interest they raise in the intended target population. PMID:11196295

  12. Taking care of business: self-help and sleep medicine in american corporate culture.

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that corporate management in the United States has expanded its scope beyond office walls and encompasses many aspects of workers' daily lives. One new element of corporate training is the micromanagement of sleep; self-help books, newspaper reports, magazine articles, and consulting firms currently advise workers and supervisors on optimizing productivity by cultivating certain sleep habits. Although consultants and self-help books make specific recommendations about sleep, most medical research is inconclusive about sleep's benefits for human performance. Using the ideas of Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze as a philosophical backdrop, this article examines the complex and often contradictory links between self-help, medicine, and corporate governance. PMID:15292702

  13. [Self-help program: a new tool to facilitate the access to treatment for problem gamblers].

    PubMed

    Saeremans, M; Noël, X; Verbanck, P

    2015-01-01

    Shame, fear of stigmatization, denial, accessibility to and the cost of treatment program may explain why only a small proportion of problem gamblers sought clinical treatment. In the hope to overcome these barriers, the Gambling Clinic and Other Behavioral Addictions of C.H.U. Brugmann (Brussels) has developed its own self-help program for excessive gamblers. Our goals were to foster readiness to change gambling behaviors and when appropriate to facilitate the transition from self-help program to classical face-to-face clinical intervention. In a sample of 172 problem gamblers who participated, 40% had never sought help (e.g., clinical treatment) and/or never attempted quit gambling. Interestingly, for some, internet-based self-help treatment preceded their determination for seeking a traditional face-to-face therapeutic setting. Those results led us to discuss this program as a valid clinical tool within a broader health care setting in excessive gamblers. PMID:26164965

  14. Guided self-help on the internet for turkish migrants with depression: the design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Turkish population living in the Netherlands has a high prevalence of psychological complaints and has a high threshold for seeking professional help for these problems. Seeking help through the Internet can overcome these barriers. This project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a guided self-help problem-solving intervention for depressed Turkish migrants that is culturally adapted and web-based. Methods This study is a randomized controlled trial with two arms: an experimental condition group and a wait list control group. The experimental condition obtains direct access to the guided web-based self-help intervention, which is based on Problem Solving Treatment (PST) and takes 6 weeks to complete. Turkish adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms will be recruited from the general population and the participants can choose between a Turkish and a Dutch version. The primary outcome measure is the reduction of depressive symptoms, the secondary outcome measures are somatic symptoms, anxiety, acculturation, quality of life and satisfaction. Participants are assessed at baseline, post-test (6 weeks), and 4 months after baseline. Analysis will be conducted on the intention-to-treat sample. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a guided problem-solving intervention for Turkish adults living in the Netherlands that is culturally adapted and web-based. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register: NTR2303 PMID:21047442

  15. Concordance among readers of self-help books about important ideas.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Betty L; Forest, James J

    2004-04-01

    Amount of agreement among readers about the relevant information in a self-help psychology book was measured to assess whether readers' choices are unique or overlapping. 15 men and 14 women attended two 1-hr. sessions in which they read and marked relevant information in the first 60 pages of a self-help psychology book. Comparison of the amount and pattern of marking across pages and lines on five specific pages showed that there was a statistically significant amount of agreement on which pages contained relevant ideas and which lines contained important concepts. There were no differences between men and women. PMID:15154198

  16. Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Self-Help Intervention: Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drossaert, Constance HC; Pieterse, Marcel E; Walburg, Jan A; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2015-01-01

    Background Positive psychology interventions have been found to enhance well-being and decrease clinical symptomatology. However, it is still unknown how flourishing can also be increased. Although multicomponent interventions seem to be necessary for this purpose, different formats can be used. A cost-effective approach could be a positive psychology-based self-help book with tailored email support to reach large target groups and to prevent dropout. Objective This study will evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive multicomponent self-help intervention with or without email support on well-being and flourishing, and will seek to determine the working mechanisms underlying the intervention. Methods In this 3-armed, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 396 participants with low or moderate levels of well-being and without clinical symptomatology will be randomly assigned to (1) a self-help book condition with weekly email support, (2) a self-help book condition without email support but with a weekly information email, or (3) a waiting list control condition. Online measurements will be assessed at baseline, at post-test (3 months after baseline), and at 6 and 12 months after baseline. Results The primary outcomes are well-being and flourishing (ie, high levels of well-being). Secondary outcomes are the well-being components included in the intervention: positive emotion, use of strengths, optimism, self-compassion, resilience, and positive relations. Other measures include depressive and anxiety symptoms, personality traits, direct medical and non-medical costs, life-events, and client satisfaction. Conclusions This study will add knowledge to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology intervention. We will also explore who can benefit most from this intervention. If the intervention is found to be effective, our results will be especially relevant for public mental health services, governments, and primary care. Trial

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite proven efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a Health Maintenance Organization setting over a 12-week period by masters level interventionists, is more effective than treatment as usual (TAU). Method In all, 123 individuals (mean age = 37.2, 91.9% female, 96.7% non-Hispanic White) were randomized, including 10.6% with bulimia nervosa (BN), 48% with Binge Eating Disorder (BED), and 41.4% with recurrent binge eating in the absence of BN or BED. Baseline, post-treatment, and 6- and 12 month follow-up data were used in intent-to-treat analyses. At 12-month follow-up, CBT-GSH resulted in greater abstinence from binge eating (64.2%) than TAU (44.6%, Number Needed to Treat = 5), as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, Fairburn & Cooper, 1993). Secondary outcomes reflected greater improvements in the CBT-GSH group in dietary restraint (d = .30), eating-, shape-, and weight concern (d’s = .54, 1.01, .49) (measured by the EDE-Questionnaire, respectively, Fairburn & Beglin, 2008), depression (d = .56) (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck, Steer, & Garbin, 1988), and social adjustment (d = .58) (Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Mundt, Marks, Shear, & Greist, 2002), but not weight change. Conclusions CBT-GSH is a viable first-line treatment option for the majority of patients with recurrent binge eating who do not meet diagnostic criteria for BN or anorexia nervosa. PMID:20515207

  18. Guided Self-Help Treatment for Recurrent Binge Eating: Replication and Extension

    PubMed Central

    DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; Perrin, Nancy; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; Dickerson, John; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to replicate and extend results of a previous blended efficacy and effectiveness trial of a low-intensity, manual-based guided self-help form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT-GSH) for the treatment of binge eating disorders in a large health maintenance organization (HMO) and to compare them with usual care. Methods To extend earlier findings, the investigators modified earlier recruitment and assessment approaches and conducted a randomized clinical trial to better reflect procedures that may be reasonably carried out in real-world practices. The intervention was delivered by master’s-level interventionists to 160 female members of a health maintenance organization who met diagnostic criteria for recurrent binge eating. Data collected at baseline, immediately posttreatment, and at six- and 12-month follow-ups were used in intent-to-treat analyses. Results At the 12-month follow-up, CBT-GSH resulted in greater remission from binge eating (35%, N=26) than usual care (14%, N=10) (number needed to treat=5). The CBT-GSH group also demonstrated greater improvements in dietary restraint (d=.71) and eating, shape, and weight concerns (d=1.10, 1.24, and .98, respectively) but not weight change. Conclusions Replication of the pattern of previous findings suggests that CBT-GSH is a robust treatment for patients with recurrent binge eating. The magnitude of changes was significantly smaller than in the original study, however, suggesting that patients recruited and assessed with less intensive procedures may respond differently from their counterparts enrolled in trials requiring more comprehensive procedures. PMID:21459987

  19. Randomized Effectiveness Trial of an Internet, Pure Self-Help, Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Greg; Kelleher, Chris; Hornbrook, Matt; DeBar, Lynn; Dickerson, John; Gullion, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an Internet-delivered, cognitive behavioral skills training program versus a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control condition targeting depression symptoms in youth ages 18 to 24. Potential participants were mailed a recruitment brochure; if interested they accessed the study website to complete an online consent and baseline assessment. Intervention participants could access the website at their own pace and at any time. Reminder postcards were mailed periodically to encourage return use of the intervention. The pure self-help intervention was delivered without contact with a live therapist. The primary depression outcome measure was the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), administered at 0, 5, 10, 16, and 32 weeks after enrollment. A small but significant between-group effect was found from week 0 to week 32 for the entire sample (n=160; d=.20, 95% CI=0.00-0.50), with a moderate effect among females (n=128; d=.42, 95% CI=0.09-0.77). Greater depression reduction was associated with two measures of lower website usage, total minutes and total number of page hits. While intervention effects were modest, they were observed against a background of substantial TAU depression pharmacotherapy and psychosocial services. Highly disseminable, low-cost, and self-help interventions such as this have the potential to deliver a significant public health benefit. PMID:19440896

  20. Randomized effectiveness trial of an Internet, pure self-help, cognitive behavioral intervention for depressive symptoms in young adults.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Greg; Kelleher, Chris; Hornbrook, Matt; Debar, Lynn; Dickerson, John; Gullion, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated an Internet-delivered, cognitive behavioral skills training program versus a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control condition targeting depression symptoms in young adults aged 18 to 24 years. Potential participants were mailed a recruitment brochure; if interested, they accessed the study website to complete an online consent and baseline assessment. Intervention participants could access the website at their own pace and at any time. Reminder postcards were mailed periodically to encourage return use of the intervention. The pure self-help intervention was delivered without contact with a live therapist. The primary depression outcome measure was the Patient Health Questionnaire, administered at 0, 5, 10, 16, and 32 weeks after enrollment. A small but significant between-group effect was found from Week 0 to Week 32 for the entire sample (N = 160, d = .20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.50), with a moderate effect among women (n = 128, d .42, 95%C1 = 0.09-0.77). Greater depression reduction was associated with two measures of lower website usage, total minutes, and total number of page hits. Although intervention effects were modest, they were observed against a background of substantial TAU depression pharmacotherapy and psychosocial services. Highly disseminable, low-cost, and self-help interventions such as this have the potential to deliver a significant public health benefit. PMID:19440896

  1. Comparison of Six- and Eight-Session Cognitive Guided Self-Help for Bulimia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furber, Gareth; Steele, Anna; Wade, Tracey D.

    2004-01-01

    A previous case-series evaluation of a six-session guided self-help (GSH) approach with 15 people with bulimia nervosa (BN) showed significant reductions across all measures, including binge eating, self-induced vomiting, weight concern, shape concern and dietary restraint. However, the reduction of binge eating and self-induced vomiting was…

  2. Specific Psychosocial and Behavioral Outcomes from the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Self-Help Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Carrie Jo; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data from 104 participants in the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Self-Help Course showed that patients had significant increases in enabling skills and use of relaxation/exercise and decreases in depression. Amount of time spent in class was correlated with significant changes over time. (SK)

  3. The Acceptability of an Internet-Based Self-Help Treatment for Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, C.; Gallego, M. J.; Garcia-Palacios, A.; Banos, R. M.; Quero, S.; Alcaniz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several randomised controlled studies have shown the efficacy of Internet-based self-help treatments. These studies have centred their attention on axis I (efficacy) of the Guidelines for Empirically Validated Treatments, although there are a few studies that also take into account axis II (effectiveness). The aim of the present work was to test…

  4. Examination of Predictors and Moderators for Self-Help Treatments of Binge-Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    Predictors and moderators of outcomes were examined in 75 overweight patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments. Age variables, psychiatric and personality disorder comorbidity, and clinical characteristics were tested as predictors and moderators of treatment outcomes.…

  5. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  6. 77 FR 71609 - Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) Grant Monitoring

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) Grant Monitoring AGENCY: Office of...'' to drawdown SHOP Grant funds through LOCCS/VRS. ] DATES: Comments Due Date: January 2,...

  7. "Transform Your Child's Behaviour Now": Parent Education as Self-Help Culture and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widding, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    Parents in the Western world today are often said to feel unsure and inadequate and as a consequence there are a plethora of self-help products on the market as well as parent education programmes. This article explores the kinds of research questions that are raised by this state of affairs. The discussion is mainly based on existing studies of…

  8. Self-Help Tapes as an Adjunct to Hotline Counseling Services: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiauzzi, Emil; Carroll, Brion P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes usage of a campus counseling self-help tape program and discusses the potential for such services. Results indicated that, during the first two months of operation, sexuality represented the major concern. Males' and females' requests evidenced similar topic preferences. Tapes appear to provide an effective outreach program. (Author/JAC)

  9. Self-Help Books and Amount of Therapist Contact in Smoking Cessation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Russell E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated two self-help behavior therapy books for stopping smoking against a minimal treatment program. Results indicated under self-administered conditions, the minimal treatment program was as effective as the behavior therapy books. On the self-report measures, therapist contact was associated with improved treatment outcome for the behavior…

  10. The current status and future direction of self-help treatments for problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian P S; Loo, Jasmine

    2008-12-01

    The self-help treatment (SHT) studies for other psychological problems significantly outweigh those for problem gambling. Currently, very little is published about the application and efficacy of various forms of SHTs for problem gambling. Thus, this paper reviews the self-help literature (using the PsycINFO database--all years up to April 2008) to stimulate further research in this area for problem gambling. The findings show that SHTs in problem gambling are still in their infancy. Although the problem gambling literature has mainly reported on two forms of SHTs with problem gamblers (i.e. use of self-help manuals and audiotapes), the review discuss utilizing a wide range of SHTs with problem gamblers. These include written materials (e.g. self-help books and treatment manuals), audiotapes, videotapes, computer-based SHTs implemented on palmtop computers, desktop computers, via telephone (Interactive Voice Response systems--IVR) or via the Internet and virtual reality applications. These SHTs would suit those problem gamblers who are not accessing professional treatment due to shame, guilt, fear of stigma, privacy concerns or financial difficulties, as well as those living in rural areas or with less severe gambling problems. The review also suggest future protocols for conducting further research in this area with problem gamblers, highlighting a need for a cohesive theory to guide research. PMID:18760868

  11. Written and computer-based self-help treatments for depression.

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Whitfield, G

    2001-01-01

    Patients and health purchasers are demanding the provision of effective and accessible mental health treatments. Psychotherapeutic approaches are popular with patients, but access to specialist psychotherapy services is often limited. Other ways of offering treatment within the time and resources available to most practitioners need to be considered. One possible solution is the use of structured self-help materials that address common mental disorders such as depression. Self-help treatments are available in a variety of formats such as books, CD-ROMS, audio and videotapes. Evidence exists for their effectiveness; however, a relatively neglected area has been a discussion of the educational aspects of such materials. Self-help materials aim to improve patient knowledge and skills in self-management. They require very clear educational goals and a content and structure that is appropriate for those who use them. Such work will enhance the credibility, take-up, and effectiveness of self-help materials within clinical settings. PMID:11719913

  12. A feminist analysis of self-help bestsellers for improving relationships: a decade review.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, T S; Holm, K E; Starrels, M E

    2001-04-01

    Self-help literature is pervasive and influential in the United States. A critical analysis of self-help books would help therapists to determine their utility for the therapeutic process and assist them in making reading recommendations to clients. In this study, a content analysis was conducted of the top 11 relationship self-help books on the New York Times Bestseller List over a period of 10 years (1988-1998) to determine the degree to which these books support a feminist approach to therapy. This study yielded three major findings. First, the number of feminist books, the number of nonfeminist books, and those falling in the middle across four components of feminist family therapy are about equal. However, the second major finding was that the top-selling books are more likely to be nonfeminist than feminist. The third finding is that most best-selling self-help books appear to have become less compatible with a feminist approach to relationships over time. This analysis encourages therapists to think critically about these best-selling books; it will also allow therapists to consider this methodology as a model for critically analyzing other books that they recommend to clients or use in their own professional development. PMID:11314550

  13. A Feminist Analysis of Self-Help Bestsellers for Improving Relationships: A Decade Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Holm, Kristen E.; Starrels, Marjorie E.

    2001-01-01

    Content analysis was conducted of the top eleven relationship self help books on the New York Times Bestseller List over ten years to determine the degree to which they support a feminist approach to therapy. Results indicated the number of feminist and nonfeminist approach books is about equal and that bestsellers have become less feminist…

  14. An Evaluation of the Stepfamily Self-Help Literature for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Reviews and critiques 11 stepfamily self-help books for children and adolescents. Codes books on dimensions of appropriate audience, author background, issues, advice, and strengths. Rates general interest and quality of writing of books and assigns categories of recommendation. Discusses use of the books as an adjunct to therapy. (Author/NB)

  15. The Uses of Juvenile Fiction and Self-Help Books with Stepfamilies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates use of bibliotherapy as an adjunct to counseling with stepchildren and remarried adults. Information to guide the selection and use of fiction and self-help books for children and adolescents is provided. Also mentioned are other audiences and uses for the adolescent fiction. (Author)

  16. An Evaluation of the Remarriage and Stepfamily Self-Help Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Nickleberry, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critique in-print, post-1990 copyrighted stepfamily self-help books in order to provide guidance to helping professionals who work with these complex families. Of the 63 books reviewed, trained coders were able to strongly recommend 13 books for being well organized, for relying on clinical or empirical sources of…

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart I of... - Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Predevelopment Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1944.410(d) of 7 CFR part 1944, subpart I, as necessary, to develop a complete program for a self-help... Agreement D Exhibit D to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. D Exhibit D to Subpart I of Part...

  18. Public Pedagogy from the Learner's Perspective: Women Reading Self-Help Relationship Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Brandi M.; McLean, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of public pedagogy has increasingly influenced the study of continuing education, drawing attention to ways in which adults access resources from popular culture and learn without the involvement of educational institutions. Reading relationship self-help books has become a prominent component of popular culture. There…

  19. Predictors of dropout from internet-based self-help cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Ho, Lai-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Dropout from self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) potentially diminishes therapeutic effect and poses clinical concern. We analyzed the characteristics of subjects who did not complete a 6-week internet-based CBT-I program. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to identify potential variables and cutoff for predicting dropout among 207 participants with self-report insomnia 3 or more nights per week for at least 3 months randomly assigned to self-help CBT-I with telephone support (n = 103) and self-help CBT-I (n = 104). Seventy-two participants (34.4%) did not complete all 6 sessions, while 42 of the 72 (56.9%) dropped out prior to the fourth session. Significant predictors of non-completion are total sleep time (TST) ≥ 6.82 h, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score ≥ 9 and Insomnia Severity Index score < 13 at baseline in this ranking order. Only TST ≥ 5.92 h predicts early dropout. Longer TST and less severe insomnia predict dropout in this study of self-help CBT-I, in contrast to shorter TST as a predictor in 2 studies of face-to-face CBT-I, while greater severity of depression predicts dropout in both this study and a study of face-to-face CBT-I. Strategies for minimizing dropout from internet-based CBT-I are discussed. PMID:26226091

  20. Dealing with the Effects of Trauma: A Self-Help Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Self-Help Guide Page 1 Foreword It contains information, ideas, and strategies that people from all over the country have found to be helpful in relieving and preventing troubling feelings and symptoms. The information in this booklet can be used safely along ...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart I of... - Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Predevelopment Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1944.410(d) of 7 CFR part 1944, subpart I, as necessary, to develop a complete program for a self-help... Agreement D Exhibit D to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. D Exhibit D to Subpart I of Part...

  2. An evaluation of the efficacy of supervised cognitive behavioral self-help bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P J; Coker, S; Fleming, C

    1996-03-01

    Eighty two patients with bulimia nervosa were managed by providing them with supervision in the use of a highly structured cognitive behavioral self-help manual. Their progress was assessed in an open clinical trial. The 67 patients who completed the course of self-help experienced considerable benefit; the frequency of bulimic episodes and self-induced vomiting decreasing by 80% and 79%, respectively. Compared to those who benefited, those who had a poor outcome or dropped out of treatment were more than twice as likely to have had anorexia nervosa in the past and were somewhat more likely to have a personality disorder. Three-quarters of those who persisted with the programme of supervised self-help were followed up a year after commencing treatment. Clinical gains were well maintained: almost two thirds were abstinent with respect to both bulimic episodes and self-induced vomiting. It would seem appropriate that, as part of a stepped care approach to the management of bulimia nervosa, supervised cognitive behavioral self-help should routinely be the first line treatment. PMID:8861124

  3. Online Counseling: Prioritizing Psychoeducation, Self-Help, and Mutual Help for Counseling Psychology Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Tai

    2005-01-01

    This reaction article extends the research and practice recommendations for online counseling from the Major Contribution to the November 2005 issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" by prioritizing research and practice in online psychoeducation, self-help, and mutual help. Research suggests that tens of millions of Americans use the Internet for…

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Guided Self-Help Treatment for Recurrent Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Frances L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Dickerson, John F.; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adoption of effective treatments for recurrent binge-eating disorders depends on the balance of costs and benefits. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial, we conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help intervention (CBT-GSH) to treat recurrent binge eating…

  5. Guided self-help of bulimia nervosa in a specialist setting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, R

    1997-09-01

    Seventeen patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa were treated in a specialist setting according to the "guided self-help" approach as outlined in the self-help handbook "Overcoming Binge Eating" by Fairburn. This self-help manual is essentially a condensed version of the cognitive-behavioural therapy for bulimia nervosa developed by the same author. Every patient took part in 8 bimonthly sessions each lasting 20 minutes. All subjects were evaluated both before and after the treatment through a semi-structured interview. Overall, 10 patients (58.8%) did well; 6 of these 10 patients (35.3%) stopped binge-eating and vomiting altogether. Although the conclusions arising from this pilot study have yet to be confirmed by a controlled study, the preliminary findings seem to suggest that "guided self-help" in a specialist setting could, indeed, be not only sufficient in some cases but may also be the most accessible approach in treating many patients affected by bulimia nervosa. PMID:14655843

  6. Parents' Training: Effects of the Self-Help Skills Programme with Down's Syndrome Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Maria Teresa; Menendez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews studies evaluating the effectiveness of two types of early intervention programmes for babies with Down's syndrome (DS). Evaluation of self-help early intervention programmes was done with two types of training with the parents: in the first the parents learned the training programme from observing the clinician, and in the…

  7. Self-Help Books for Parents of Adolescents, 1980-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Vartanian, Lesa R.; DeFrates-Densch, Nancy; Van Loon, Preston C.; Locke, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the contents of self-help books for parents of adolescents that were published from 1980 to 1993. Examines the scope of topics presented and the authors' views about parenting practices to determine the extent to which these parenting books reinforce or debunk cultural stereotypes about adolescents. (Contains 36 references.) (GCP)

  8. Music for Elementary Teachers; Self-Help Guide (MUS 370). Adams State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Cloyce

    This self-help guide for the music teacher is one of a series of eight Teacher Education Modules developed by Adams State College Teacher Corps Program. The guide itself consists of 11 modules, the first five of which focus on the mathematical and scientific aspects of music--pitch, tempo, furation, time, and key. These five modules are…

  9. Hypnotic Taper with or without Self-Help Treatment of Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleville, Genevieve; Guay, Catherine; Guay, Bernard; Morin, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a minimal intervention focusing on hypnotic discontinuation and cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for insomnia. Fifty-three adult chronic users of hypnotics were randomly assigned to an 8-week hypnotic taper program, used alone or combined with a self-help CBT. Weekly hypnotic use decreased in both…

  10. Telepsychology and Self-Help: The Treatment of Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Cristina; Guillen, Veronica; Banos, Rosa M.; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Gallego, Maria J.; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a self-help, Internet-based telepsychology program for the treatment of public speaking fears. The system is comprised of 3 parts: The "assessment protocol" gives the patient information about his or her problem (i.e., amount of interference it creates in his or her life, severity, degree of fear and avoidance). The system also…

  11. From Hospital to Community: A Self-Help Program to Promote the Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Bernard; And Others

    Vocational placement, social needs, and the lack of proper transportation for disabled persons are major problems to be solved if physically handicapped people are to function in community life. Mobilization for Maturity was a 3-year research and demonstration project which utilized a self-help approach to help disabled people to re-enter…

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart I of... - Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Predevelopment Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1944.410(d) of 7 CFR part 1944, subpart I, as necessary, to develop a complete program for a self-help... Agreement D Exhibit D to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. D Exhibit D to Subpart I of Part...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart I of... - Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Predevelopment Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1944.410(d) of 7 CFR part 1944, subpart I, as necessary, to develop a complete program for a self-help... Agreement D Exhibit D to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. D Exhibit D to Subpart I of Part...

  14. Getting out of Depression: Teens' Self-Help Interventions to Relieve Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Barker, Ellen C.

    2006-01-01

    Most depressed adolescents do not access medical care for symptoms, yet many improve without professional intervention. While several self-help interventions have empirical support, teens' non-directed efforts to reduce symptoms are not documented. We reviewed 14 depressed adolescents' reports of attempts to reduce depressive symptoms. Results…

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health…

  16. Using dBase III for Self-Help Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Jean B.; Yeung, Jimmy T.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of a system that resulted from a project undertaken by a small specialized library to provide self-help for patrons seeking reference assistance. The areas of information available on the system are described, including standard reference titles, library holdings and services, reserve readings, and placement…

  17. Investigation of self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W I; Downing, J P; Enderlin, C W; Sanquist, T F; Pope, W S

    1992-06-01

    The US Coast Guard commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct this study of 45 self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment for oceangoing tankers and inland tank barges to assess the potential effectiveness of the proposed countermeasure categories. This study considers the hypothetical outflow of oil in the case of side damage and bottom damage to single-hull designs. The results will be considered by the Coast Guard in drafting regulations pertaining to the requirement for tanker vessels to carry oil pollution response equipment (i.e., in response to the oil Pollution Act of 1990). PNL's approach to this investigation included: assessing time-dependent oil outflow in the cases of collision and grounding of both tankers and barges; identifying environmental constraints on self-help countermeasure operation; identifying human factor issues, such as crew performance, safety, and training requirements for the self-help countermeasures considered; and assessing each self-help countermeasure with respect to its potential for minimizing oil loss to the environment. Results from the time-dependent oil outflow, environmental limitations, and human factors requirements were input into a simulation model.

  18. Ohoyo Training Manual. Leadership: Self Help American Indian-Alaska Native Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verble, Sedelta D.; Walton, M. Frances

    The training manual provides self-help in six areas of leadership development for American Indian and Alaska Native women. Following an introduction describing how to use the manual are six chapters focusing on the theories and development of leadership skills, the vulnerability of Indian women to poverty, nontraditional careers for Indian women,…

  19. Can mindfulness and acceptance be learnt by self-help?: a systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulness and acceptance-based self-help interventions.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara; Forder, Lewis; Jones, Fergal

    2014-03-01

    There is growing evidence that mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have positive consequences for psychological and physical health. The most well-established of these interventions typically involve relatively large resource commitments, in terms of both the provider and participant. A number of recent studies have begun to explore whether the benefits of such interventions can be generalised to less intensive methods. Methods include pure and guided self-help utilising resources such as books and workbooks, computer programmes and applications and audio-visual materials. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that have evaluated the effectiveness and acceptability of low-intensity interventions including mindfulness and acceptance-based components. Fifteen RCTs (7 ACT-based, 4 mindfulness-based and 4 multi-component interventions including elements of mindfulness and/or acceptance) were identified and reviewed. Interventions that included mindfulness and/or acceptance-based components produced significant benefits in comparison to control conditions on measures of mindfulness/acceptance, depression and anxiety with small to medium effect sizes. Engagement with the self-help interventions varied but on average two-thirds of participants completed post-intervention measures. Emerging research into low-intensity mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions is hopeful. Recommendations for research and practice are presented. PMID:24487343

  20. Self-help for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Ethnically and Racially Diverse Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to examine the effectiveness of a self-help treatment as a first line primary care intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) in obese patients. This study compared the effectiveness of a usual care plus self-help version of cognitive behavioral therapy (shCBT) to usual care (UC) only in ethnically/racially diverse obese patients with BED in primary care settings in an urban center. Method 48 obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to either shCBT (N=24) or UC (N=24) for four months. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment and at post-treatment. Results Binge-eating remission rates did not differ significantly between shCBT (25%) and UC (8.3%) at post-treatment. Mixed models of binge eating frequency determined using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) revealed significant decreases for both conditions but that shCBT and UC did not differ. Mixed models of binge eating frequency from repeated monthly EDE-questionnaire assessments revealed a significant treatment-by-time interaction indicating that shCBT had significant reductions whereas UC did not during the four-month treatments. Mixed models revealed no differences between groups on associated eating disorder psychopathology or depression. No weight loss was observed in either condition. Conclusions Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT did not show effectiveness relative to usual care for treating BED in obese patients in primary care. Thus, self-help CBT may not have utility as a front-line intervention for BED for obese patients in primary care and future studies should test guided-self-help methods for delivering CBT in primary care generalist settings. PMID:24189569

  1. Self-Care and Self-Help Groups for the Elderly: A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This document notes that, as health care costs continue to rise, the elderly are monitoring themselves as a means of cost containment, and as a way of enhancing their sense of well-being and their ability to lead active lives. It points out that more and more organizations are sponsoring health programs that promote the concept of self-care and…

  2. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…

  3. Making Self-Help More Helpful: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Augmenting Self-Help Materials with Implementation Intentions on Promoting the Effective Self-Management of Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Rachel; Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effectiveness of self-help materials may be constrained by failures to undertake recommended exercises or to deploy the techniques that one has learned at the critical moment. The present randomized controlled trial investigated whether augmenting self-help materials with if-then plans (or implementation intentions) could overcome…

  4. A comparison of online versus workbook delivery of a self-help positive parenting program.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Matthew R; Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Keown, Louise J

    2014-06-01

    A noninferiority randomized trial design compared the efficacy of two self-help variants of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: an online version and a self-help workbook. We randomly assigned families of 193 children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties to the online (N = 97) or workbook (N = 96) interventions. Parents completed questionnaire measures of child behavior, parenting, child maltreatment risk, personal adjustment and relationship quality at pre- and post-intervention and again at 6-month follow up. The short-term intervention effects of the Triple P Online program were not inferior to the workbook on the primary outcomes of disruptive child behavior and dysfunctional parenting as reported by both mothers and fathers. Both interventions were associated with significant and clinically meaningful declines from pre- to post-intervention in levels of disruptive child behavior, dysfunctional parenting styles, risk of child maltreatment, and inter-parental conflict on both mother and father report measures. Intervention effects were largely maintained at 6-month follow up, thus supporting the use of self-help parenting programs within a comprehensive population-based system of parenting support to reduce child maltreatment and behavioral problems in children. PMID:24500106

  5. A Web-Based Self-Help Intervention With and Without Chat Counseling to Reduce Cannabis Use in Problematic Cannabis Users: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Andreas; Berg, Oliver; Beck, Thilo; Stark, Lars; Buehler, Eveline; Haug, Severin

    2015-01-01

    Background After alcohol and tobacco, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance in many countries worldwide. Although approximately one in ten users develops serious problems of dependency, only a minority attend outpatient addiction counseling centers. A Web-based intervention could potentially reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers. Objective To test the efficacy of a Web-based self-help intervention with and without chat counseling—Can Reduce—in reducing the cannabis use of problematic cannabis users as an alternative to outpatient treatment services. Methods Altogether, 436 participants were recruited by various online and offline media for the Web-based trial. A total of 308 of these were eligible for study participation and were randomly allocated in an unblinded manner to either self-help with chat (n=114), self-help without chat (n=101), or a waiting list control group (n=93). The fully automated self-help intervention consisted of eight modules designed to reduce cannabis use, and was based on the principles of motivational interviewing, self-control practices, and methods of cognitive behavioral therapy. Additional individual chat counseling sessions were based on the same therapeutic principles. The sessions were conducted by trained counselors and addressed participants' personal problems. The main outcomes were the frequency (number of days) and quantity of cannabis use (number of standardized joints) per week, as entered into the consumption diary at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included self-reported symptoms of cannabis use disorder, severity of cannabis dependence, risky alcohol use, and mental health symptoms. Intervention participation and retention were extracted from the user progress data and the consumption diary, respectively. Results Can Reduce participants were older (U=2.296, P=.02) and reported a greater number of cannabis use days at baseline than patients who

  6. African Americans and Self-Help Education: The Missing Link in Adult Education. ERIC Digest No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    Self-help education and self-help literature is important in the lives of African American adults, but the basic models of learning, development, and program planning in adult education have often been developed with little concern for the unique needs of African Americans. In addition, current theories of adult learning often lack understanding…

  7. Evaluation of a DVD-Based Self-Help Program in Highly Socially Anxious Individuals--Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mall, Anna K.; Mehl, Annette; Kiko, Sonja; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Hermann, Christiane; Hoffmann, Torsten; Bohus, Martin; Steil, Regina

    2011-01-01

    High social anxiety is a risk factor for the incidence of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Early diagnosis and intervention may prevent more severe psychiatric courses. Self-help programs may be a convenient, accessible, and effective intervention. This study examined the efficacy of a newly developed self-help program for SAD in individuals with…

  8. Usability and Utility of a Computerized Cognitive-Behavioral Self-Help Program for Public Speaking Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Page; Zimand, Elana; Schmertz, Stefan K.; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the use of a cognitive-behavioral computer-administered self-help program with minimal therapist contact for public speaking anxiety. Participants (N = 10) with social phobia, as measured by a structured clinical interview, completed the self-help program in an open clinical trial. The program was delivered via a CD-ROM during…

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart I of... - Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help...-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement This Agreement dated, 19__ between a nonprofit...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart I of... - Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help...-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement This Agreement dated, 19__ between a nonprofit...

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart I of... - Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help...-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement This Agreement dated, 19__ between a nonprofit...

  12. Development policy and the evaluation of community self-help: the Harambee school movement in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keller, E J

    1983-01-01

    This attempt to objectively assess the costs and benefits of involvement in the harambee education movement for individuals and families is directed at policymakers and is an exercise in policy analysis. Evaluative studies of this nature are essential to the improvement of the of the overall quality of policymaking. Despite general agreement that harambee education projects involving secondary schools differ in many ways from types of self-help projects, few attempts have been made to assess the long-term social impact of the harambee education movement. For nearly 2 decades Kenya's harambee movement has flourished and has been largely viewed as a positive contribution to national development. Between 1969-79, the total value of contributions to self-help projects rose from around $6 million to almost $27 million, demostrating the substantial inputs of local communities to the economic growth of the country as a whole. Policymakers, after initial reservations about independent self-help, in recent years have come to rely on such activities as complementary to the government's efforts. Self-help activities aimed at expanding educational opportunity are the most significant in terms of both monetary resources expended and the scope of human involvement. Benefits are difficult to extimate. The growing number of students in harambee schools does not necessarly indicate that the majority of these students are acquiring marketable skills or that their consequent levels of academic training will prepare them to complete successfully in the job market with the average student educated in government-sponsored schools. The evidence, in fact, clearly points in the opposite direction. Yet, politicians, policymakers, and citizens continue to regard harambee activities for expanding educational opportunities atall levels as necessary contributions to Kenya's development program and to individual achievement. The direct cost to government for harambee education can be compared

  13. Snow Control - An RCT protocol for a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption in problematic cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cocaine use has increased in most European countries, including Switzerland, and many states worldwide. The international literature has described treatment models that target the general population. In addition to supplying informative measures at the level of primary and secondary prevention, the literature also offers web-based self-help tools for problematic substance users, which is in line with tertiary prevention. Such programs, however, have been primarily tested on individuals with problematic alcohol and cannabis consumption, but not on cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods/Design This paper presents the protocol of a randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine use in problematic cocaine users. The primary outcome is severity of cocaine dependence. Secondary outcome measures include cocaine craving, consumption of cocaine and other substances of abuse in the past month, and changes in depression characteristics. The therapy group will receive a 6-week self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption based on methods of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, principles of Motivational Interviewing and self-control practices. The control group will be presented weekly psycho-educative information with a quiz. The predictive validity of participant characteristics on treatment retention and outcome will be explored. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of online self-help therapy to reduce or abstain from cocaine use. It will also investigate predictors of outcome and retention. This trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials and is traceable as NTR-ISRCTN93702927. PMID:21943294

  14. Acceptability and feasibility of self-help Cognitive Remediation Therapy for anorexia nervosa delivered in collaboration with carers: a qualitative preliminary evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Lang, Katie; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2015-02-28

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder without a recommended first-line treatment. Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) is showing great promise in helping patients reduce cognitive inflexibility and excessive detail focus, thinking styles that could make engaging in psychological therapies difficult. CRT has shown to be effective, feasible and acceptable in both individual and group formats, and positive qualitative data has been gathered from both service users and clinicians. The aim of the current study was to assess the use of CRT as a self-help treatment for individuals with AN delivered in collaboration with carers. Six families underwent a six-week self-help CRT intervention. Feedback was gathered from qualitative interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Neuropsychological outcomes were also collected. Participant feedback regarding the intervention was generally positive, with participants describing a number of benefits such as it creating a space for families to spend time together outside of the eating disorder, acting as a 'gateway' for more emotional work and helping participants to gain insight into their cognitive profiles. These preliminary findings suggest that self-help CRT delivered in collaboration with carers is an acceptable form of treatment, and adds to the growing literature supporting CRT for AN. PMID:25555418

  15. Dental writings in a medical self-help book of 1650.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2004-11-01

    Only one copy exists of the very first medical self-help book written in the Yiddish language. The author, a well respected. barber-surgeon in Prague, states that he wrote the book for those too poor to consult a physician. Physicians were not as knowledgable or experienced as the barber-surgeons who were the principal providers of medical care for the masses. The book follows the format of discussing illnesses from head to toe, and includes numerous prescriptions for toothache, loose teeth, foul mouth and sore tongue. We derive an interesting picture of what dental treatment was like in the mid-seventeenth century. PMID:15666502

  16. Do grief self-help books convey contemporary perspectives on grieving?

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2012-01-01

    Grief therapy and psychology literatures of the modern Western world conceptualized bereavement and grief as processes to be "worked through" so that other relationships could be pursued. In the last decade or so, however, grief theorists have endorsed the value of attaining new meaning(s) and continuing bonds with our lost loved ones instead of "moving on from," "letting go of" or "achieving closure from" them. This article tracks the evolution of thought pertaining to this shift and examines its relevance to grief self-help books that may offer Americans guidance in the ways of grieving. PMID:24567996

  17. How to implement the Science Fair Self-Help Development Program in schools

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, D.

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended to act as a working guide for setting up a Science Fair Volunteer Support Committee at your school. The Science Fair Volunteer Support Committee, or SFVSC, is the key component of the Science Fair Self-Help program, which was developed by Sandia National Laboratories and is designed to support a school`s science activities. The SFVSC is a team of parents and community volunteers who work in concert with a school`s teaching staff to assist and manage all areas of a school Science and Engineering Fair. The main advantage of creating such a committee is that it frees the science teachers from the organizational aspects of the fair and lets them concentrate on their job of teaching science. This manual is based on information gained through a Self-Help Development pilot program that was developed by Sandia National Laboratories during the 1991--92 school year at three Albuquerque, NM, middle schools. The manual describes the techniques that were successful in the pilot program and discusses how these techniques might be implemented in other schools. This manual also discusses problems that may be encountered, including suggestions for how they might be resolved.

  18. The effectiveness of self-help mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a student sample: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lever Taylor, Billie; Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Jones, Fergal

    2014-12-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) involves approximately twenty hours of therapist contact time and is not universally available. MBCT self-help (MBCT-SH) may widen access but little is known about its effectiveness. This paper presents a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of MBCT-SH for students. Eighty students were randomly assigned to an eight-week MBCT-SH condition or a wait-list control. ANOVAs showed significant group by time interactions in favour of MBCT-SH on measures of depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life, mindfulness and self-compassion. Post-intervention between-group effect sizes ranged from Cohen's d = 0.22 to 1.07. Engagement with MBCT-SH was high: participants engaged in mindfulness practice a median of two to three times a week and 85% read at least half the intervention book. Only 5% of participants dropped out. This is the first published RCT of MBCT-SH and benefits were found relative to a control group. MBCT-SH has the potential to be a low-cost, readily available and highly acceptable intervention. Future research should include an active control condition and explore whether findings extend to clinical populations. PMID:25302763

  19. The relative efficacy of fluoxetine and manual-based self-help in the treatment of outpatients with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J E; Fletcher, L; Hanson, K; Mussell, M P; Seim, H; Crosby, R; Al-Banna, M

    2001-06-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted examining the singular and combined effects of fluoxetine and a self-help manual on suppressing bulimic behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa. A total of 91 adult women with bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: placebo only, fluoxetine only, placebo and a self-help manual, or fluoxetine and a self-help manual. Subjects were treated for 16 weeks. Primary outcome measures included self-reports of bulimic behaviors. Fluoxetine and a self-help manual were found to be effective in reducing the frequency of vomiting episodes and in improving the response rates for vomiting and binge-eating episodes. Furthermore, both factors were shown to be acting additively on the primary and secondary efficacy measures in this study. Results are discussed in relation to previous research and the implications for treatment of bulimia nervosa. PMID:11386493

  20. Self-help, mutual aid and chronic patients' clubs in Croatia, Yugoslavia: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    Kulcar, Z

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the clubs for patients with hypertension which have operated effectively in parts of Croatia and Slovenia (Yugoslavia) for more than 15 years, with many thousands of patients enrolling voluntarily. Based on the principle of self-help, yet involving the regular participation of members of a patient's own primary health team, they increase compliance with long-term treatment regimens and improve the quality of life. Such programmes are capable of reducing the amount of time devoted by a medical practitioner while increasing the effectiveness of treatments. If they are to succeed, it is essential to ensure regular club meetings, social activities and encouragement to each individual member to find a role and to continue attending for as long as possible. A new life style and consequent benefits to health are obtained only through long membership. PMID:2041007

  1. User-centered methods for designing patient-centric self-help tools.

    PubMed

    Arsand, Eirik; Demiris, George

    2008-09-01

    Involving end users in the design process can be challenging and in many cases fails to become a priority for system developers. This is also the case with numerous applications in the health care domain. This article focuses on the design process for applications intended for direct use by the patients themselves, often referred to as self-help tools. A framework for the user involvement in the design process is presented. This framework is inspired both from existing methods and standards within the field of human computer interaction, as well as documented experiences from relevant e-health projects. An analysis of three case studies highlights the importance of patient involvement in the design process and informs guidelines for patient-centric system design. PMID:18850399

  2. Perceptions of cognitive behavioural guided self-help treatment for bulimia nervosa in primary care.

    PubMed

    Banasiak, Susan J; Paxton, Susan J; Hay, Phillipa J

    2007-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of 36 women who participated in Guided Self-Help (GSH) treatment for bulimia nervosa delivered by general practitioners (GPs) in primary care. Qualitative responses revealed factors perceived to contribute toward treatment effectiveness including: improved eating behaviours, body image and emotional and general well-being; the empathic and practical style of the manual; specific behavioural strategies; GP facilitated positive therapeutic alliance and interventions with program implementation; and accessible treatment. Factors perceived as contributing to treatment ineffectiveness concerned: lack of changes to eating and body image; inadequacies of treatment program and approach; inadequate treatment dose; poor service delivery; and perceptions of low GP competence/professionalism and poor therapeutic alliance. PMID:17162639

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.600 - What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? 102-75.600 Section 102... Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.600 What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? In the absence of...

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.560 - Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance purposes is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.560 Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.555 - Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance for low-income individuals or... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.555 Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.555 - Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance for low-income individuals or... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.555 Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.600 - What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? 102-75.600 Section 102... Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.600 What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? In the absence of...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.595 - What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance use... Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.595 What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or...

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.595 - What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance use... Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.595 What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.555 - Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance for low-income individuals or... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.555 Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.600 - What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? 102-75.600 Section 102... Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.600 What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? In the absence of...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.560 - Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance purposes is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.560 Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.560 - Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance purposes is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.560 Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.600 - What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? 102-75.600 Section 102... Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.600 What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? In the absence of...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.555 - Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance for low-income individuals or... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.555 Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.560 - Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance purposes is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.560 Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.595 - What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance use... Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.595 What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or...

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.595 - What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance use... Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.595 What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or...

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.600 - What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? 102-75.600 Section 102... Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.600 What happens if HUD does not approve any applications for self-help housing or housing assistance use? In the absence of...

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.595 - What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance use... Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.595 What responsibilities do landholding agencies have concerning properties to be used for self-help housing or...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.560 - Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... public agencies that real property to be used for self-help housing or housing assistance purposes is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.560 Who notifies eligible public agencies that real property to be used for self-help...

  2. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from a chronic wasting disease (CWD) endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008–2013), we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes) to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics. PMID:27007808

  3. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    PubMed

    Mejía Salazar, María Fernanda; Waldner, Cheryl; Stookey, Joseph; Bollinger, Trent K

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from a chronic wasting disease (CWD) endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013), we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes) to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics. PMID:27007808

  4. Development and preliminary testing of a web-based, self-help application for disaster-affected families

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Erica K; Gros, Kirstin; Welsh, Kyleen E; McCauley, Jenna; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla K; Price, Matthew; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Technology-based self-help interventions have the potential to increase access to evidence-based mental healthcare, especially for families affected by natural disasters. However, development of these interventions is a complex process and poses unique challenges. Usability testing, which assesses the ability of individuals to use an application successfully, can have a significant impact on the quality of a self-help intervention. This article describes (a) the development of a novel web-based multi-module self-help intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents and (b) a mixed-methods formal usability study to evaluate user response. A total of 24 adolescents were observed, videotaped, and interviewed as they used the depressed mood component of the self-help intervention. Quantitative results indicated an above-average user experience, and qualitative analysis identified 120 unique usability issues. We discuss the challenges of developing self-help applications, including design considerations and the value of usability testing in technology-based interventions, as well as our plan for widespread dissemination. PMID:25933798

  5. Development and preliminary testing of a web-based, self-help application for disaster-affected families.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Erica K; Gros, Kirstin; Welsh, Kyleen E; McCauley, Jenna; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla K; Price, Matthew; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2016-09-01

    Technology-based self-help interventions have the potential to increase access to evidence-based mental healthcare, especially for families affected by natural disasters. However, development of these interventions is a complex process and poses unique challenges. Usability testing, which assesses the ability of individuals to use an application successfully, can have a significant impact on the quality of a self-help intervention. This article describes (a) the development of a novel web-based multi-module self-help intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents and (b) a mixed-methods formal usability study to evaluate user response. A total of 24 adolescents were observed, videotaped, and interviewed as they used the depressed mood component of the self-help intervention. Quantitative results indicated an above-average user experience, and qualitative analysis identified 120 unique usability issues. We discuss the challenges of developing self-help applications, including design considerations and the value of usability testing in technology-based interventions, as well as our plan for widespread dissemination. PMID:25933798

  6. Feasibility of Group Voice Therapy for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Wilson, Kristel; Haring, Karen; Dietsch, Angela; Lyons, Kelly; Pahwa, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose was to demonstrate the feasibility of executing treatment tasks focused on increasing loudness in a group format for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). A second purpose was to report preliminary pre-to-post treatment outcomes for individuals with PD immediately after they complete the group program. Methods:…

  7. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    PubMed

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings. PMID:26462112

  8. Expanding the limits of bibliotherapy for panic disorder: randomized trial of self-help without support but with a clear deadline.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Sara; Carlbring, Per; Cuijpers, Pim; Andersson, Gerhard

    2010-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral bibliotherapy for panic disorder has been found to be less effective without therapist support. In this study, participants were randomized to either unassisted bibliotherapy (n=20) with a scheduled follow-up telephone interview or to a waiting list control group (n=19). Following a structured psychiatric interview, participants in the treatment group were sent a self-help book consisting of 10 chapters based on cognitive behavioral strategies for the treatment of panic disorder. No therapist contact of any kind was provided during the treatment phase, which lasted for 10 weeks. Results showed that the treatment group had, in comparison to the control group, improved on all outcome measures at posttreatment and at 3-month follow-up. The tentative conclusion drawn from these results is that pure bibliotherapy with a clear deadline can be effective for people suffering from panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. PMID:20569776

  9. Early response as a predictor of success in guided self-help treatment for bulimic disorders.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Ana R; Conceição, Eva; Machado, Paulo P P

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the number of sessions and time required for a clinical meaningful symptomatic change with a guided self-help treatment and to assess the predictive value of early response and other potential predictors of end-of-treatment clinical status. Participants were 42 patients with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or ED not otherwise specified. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier) were performed to estimate the median time required to attain a 51% reduction in bulimic symptoms. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of symptom remission. Results showed that the median time to achieve a 51% reduction in binge and purge frequencies was 3.68 and 3.77, respectively. This change occurred at session 3 for 50% of the participants. Early response was the most significant predictor of binge eating remission. No pretreatment predictors of time to achieve early response were found. These results have implications for allocating treatment resources in a stepped-care intervention model. PMID:24123526

  10. Cognitive-behavioral guided self-help for eating disorders: effectiveness and scalability.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Zandberg, Laurie J

    2012-06-01

    Given the well-documented shortage of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, there is a compelling need for advances in dissemination. Guided self-help based on cognitive-behavioral principles (CBTgsh) provides a robust means of improving implementation and scalability of evidence-based treatment for eating disorders. It is a brief, cost-effective treatment that can be implemented by a wide range of mental health providers, including non-specialists, via face-to-face contact and internet-based technology. Controlled studies have shown that CBTgsh can be an effective treatment for binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa, although it is contraindicated for anorexia nervosa. Several studies have shown that CBTgsh can be as effective as more complex specialty therapies and that it is not necessarily contraindicated for patients with comorbid conditions. Mental health providers with relatively minimal professional credentials have in some studies obtained results comparable to specialized clinicians. Establishing the nature of optimal "guidance" in CBTgsh and the level of expertise and training required for effective implementation is a research priority. Existing manuals used in CBTgsh are outdated and can be improved by incorporating the principles of enhanced transdiagnostic CBT. Obstacles to wider adoption of CBTgsh are identified. PMID:22504491

  11. The universality of a self-help program of American origin: narcotics anonymous in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ronel, N

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological field study of Narcotics Anonymous (NA) in Israel focused on the way a self-help program, based on American Christian ideology was adopted in Israel. Acculturation problems were anticipated, due to cultural, demographic and religious differences. Participant observations and open-ended interviews supplied the raw data. Emphasis was placed on the factors and processes definable as typically American: voluntarism and pragmatism, personal sharing as a basis for relationships, spiritual rather than religious faith, the idea of a "personal God" guiding individuals, faith in God without religious tradition and formal ritualism. The results showed that, for the substance-dependents, the issue is generally irrelevant, and they accepted most "American" components of the program unquestioningly. However, two discrete features of Christian ideology required conscious incorporation by NA's Israeli members: (1) the concept of a "Loving God" who is non-punitive, which for many members was opposed to their traditions and upbringing, and (2) kneeling to pray, a recommendation which many members initially found problematic. The conclusion denotes a factor facilitating the transfer of therapeutic programs from one culture to another--that of personal suffering as a universal domain. It transcends all cultural boundaries and generates willingness to accept foreign concepts which reveal suffering and propose a pragmatic way to end it. PMID:9358602

  12. Treatment Outcome and Predictors of Internet Guided Self-Help for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Wootton, Bethany M; Bragdon, Laura B; Moshier, Samantha J; Tolin, David F

    2015-11-01

    Internet-guided self-help (iGSH) has amassed significant empirical support for a variety of psychiatric conditions; however, it is not known who responds best to these treatments. This open trial examined the clinical outcomes and predictors of a 17-week iGSH program for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therapist support was provided either in person or by phone 9 times for an average of 13minutes per session. Twenty-four patients initiated treatment, and 17 of these (70.8%) completed. Results of the intent-to-treat sample indicated statistically significant improvements at posttreatment with large treatment effects for OCD symptoms as assessed by the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (d=0.87), and small to moderate improvements in depression (d=0.19), functioning (d=0.53), and quality of life (d=-0.18). These outcomes were largely maintained over a 6-month follow-up. Readiness to reduce avoidance of OCD triggers and attendance to therapist sessions were moderately associated with posttreatment response, and correctly classified the responder status (defined as clinically significant change) of nearly 9 out of 10 patients at posttreatment. These same variables did not predict responder status at 6-month follow-up. These results lend further empirical support to iGSH as a treatment for OCD and provide direction on the development of predictor models to identify patients who are and are not likely to acutely respond to iGSH. PMID:26520219

  13. Examination of predictors and moderators for self-help treatments of binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2008-10-01

    Predictors and moderators of outcomes were examined in 75 overweight patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments. Age variables, psychiatric and personality disorder comorbidity, and clinical characteristics were tested as predictors and moderators of treatment outcomes. Current age and age of BED onset did not predict outcomes. Key dimensional outcomes (binge frequency, eating psychopathology, and negative affect) were predominately predicted, but not moderated, by their respective pretreatment levels. Presence of personality disorders, particularly Cluster C, predicted both posttreatment negative affect and eating disorder psychopathology. Negative affect, but not major depressive disorder, predicted attrition, posttreatment negative affect, and eating disorder psychopathology. Despite the prognostic significance of these findings for dimensional outcomes, none of the variables tested were predictive of binge remission (i.e., a categorical outcome). No moderator effects were found. The present study found poorer prognosis for patients with negative affect and personality disorders, suggesting that treatment outcomes may be enhanced by attending to the cognitive and personality styles of these patients. PMID:18837607

  14. Sustaining mother tongue medium education: An inter-community self-help framework in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiatoh, Blasius A.

    2011-12-01

    Advocating mother tongue education implies recognising the centrality of linguistic and cultural diversity in quality and accessible education planning and delivery. In minority linguistic settings, this need becomes particularly urgent. Decades of exclusive promotion of foreign languages have rendered the educational system incapable of guaranteeing maximum quality, accessibility and equity. Also, due to long periods of marginalisation and disempowerment, most indigenous communities are unable to undertake viable self-reliant educational initiatives. As a result, planning and management of education is not adapted to the needs and realities of target populations. What such an educational approach has succeeded in achieving is to cultivate a culture of near-total dependence and consumerism. In minority language situations where mother tongue education is still primarily in the hands of private institutions and individuals, successful planning also means influencing the perceptions and attitudes of indigenous people and systematically integrating them into the educational process. This paper discusses grass-roots mother tongue education in Cameroon. It focuses on the inter-community self-help initiative as a local response framework and argues that this initiative is a strong indication of the desire of communities to learn and promote learning in their own languages.

  15. Web-based guided self-help for employees with depressive symptoms (Happy@Work): design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in the working population and are associated with excessive costs for both society and companies. Effective treatment for employees with depressive symptoms in occupational health care is limited. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an indicated preventive web-based guided self-help course for employees with depressive symptoms. Methods The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a web-based guided self-help course with care-as-usual. The self-help course consists of 6 weekly lessons. Weekly support will be provided by a coach via the website. Subjects in the care-as-usual group do not receive any treatment in addition to regular care. 200 white collar workers from several national and international companies in the Netherlands will be recruited via different methods such as banners on the company’s intranet, pamphlets and posters. Subjects will be included when they: have elevated depressive symptoms (score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale), are 18 years of age or older, have access to the Internet and can be contacted via e-mail. Exclusion criteria are: partial or full work absenteeism, a legal labor dispute with the employer and receiving treatment from the company’s occupational health care at study entrance. The primary outcome is depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include work absenteeism, work performance, burnout, anxiety, quality of life, health care use and production losses. Outcome data will be collected at 8 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after baseline. Analyses will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. The cost-effectiveness analyses will be performed from a societal and a company’s perspective. A process evaluation will be conducted alongside the study. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a web-based guided self-help course for employees

  16. Internet-based self-help treatment for panic disorder: a randomized controlled trial comparing mandatory versus optional complementary psychological support.

    PubMed

    Oromendia, Pablo; Orrego, Jorge; Bonillo, Albert; Molinuevo, Beatriz

    2016-06-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Web-based self-help treatments for PD have had promising results. These online treatments seem to have larger effect sizes (ESs) when professional support is added. However, the amount of support or how it should be administered is not yet clear. The aim of this trial was to study two ways of administering psychological support provided by phone as a part of Internet-based self-help treatment for PD based on cognitive behavioral therapy. Seventy-seven participants diagnosed with PD were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: a waiting list control group; a treatment group with non-scheduled psychological support; or a treatment group with scheduled psychological support. PD symptoms of participants who received treatment improved significantly compared to the control group (mean ES d = 1.18, p < .05). In addition, there were statistically and clinically significant differences between treatment groups (Mean difference = -3.20, p = .005, 95% CI [-5.62, -.79]). The scheduled group showed a larger ES, a lower dropout rate, and better adherence to treatment than the non-scheduled group. Scheduled support seems to be indicated for patients who seek Web-based treatment for PD, and their symptoms of panic, anxiety, and depression improve at post-treatment and six-month follow-up. In contrast, when support depends on patient demand, they receive less support and so, the therapeutic effect is poorer. PMID:27007256

  17. A Review of Treatments for Deficits in Social Skills and Self-Help Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Lorna; Healy, Olive

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social skills and self-help skills present significant challenges for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Much research in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has been devoted to treatments for deficits in social skills and there exist a number of extensive reviews on the research in this area. Some research has…

  18. Internet-Based Self-Help Career Assessments and Interventions: Challenges and Implications for Evidence-Based Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Asulin-Peretz, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    A major characteristic of the 21st century with significant implications on career decision making is the growing prevalence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Challenges involving ICT-based self-assessment and self-help interventions aimed at facilitating career decision making are discussed. Specifically, this article focuses…

  19. A Decade of Advice for Women and Men in the Best-Selling Self-Help Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Holm, Kristen E.; Haddock, Shelley A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a content analysis of the top ten self-help books on the New York Times best-seller list over a ten year period to determine the degree to which the books empower individuals to resist gender-based socialization messages. The four best sellers contained advice for both genders to behave consistently with traditional gender socialization,…

  20. Self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy with minimal therapist contact for social phobia: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Moore, Elizabeth L; Braddock, Autumn E; Harrington, Diana L

    2009-03-01

    Due to treatment accessibility and cost issues, interest in self-help programs (e.g., bibliotherapy, telehealth) for common psychological disorders is growing. Research supporting the efficacy of such a program for social anxiety, however, is limited. The present study examined the efficacy of an 8-week self-directed cognitive behavioral treatment with minimal therapist involvement for social phobia based on a widely available self-help book. Twenty-one adults with social phobia initially received either treatment (i.e. assigned readings in the workbook with limited therapist contact) or were wait-listed. Wait-listed patients eventually received the same self-directed treatment. Results revealed that the self-help/minimal therapist contact treatment was superior to wait-list on most outcome measures. Across the entire sample, reductions in social anxiety, global severity, general anxiety, and depression were observed at posttest and 3-month follow-up. These findings provide preliminary support for using this self-help workbook for individuals with mild to moderate social anxiety in conjunction with infrequent therapist visits to reinforce the treatment principles. Study limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:18514614

  1. 77 FR 40892 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... rehabilitation of the SHOP units. Low-income homebuyers must contribute their sweat equity to the construction of... (SHOP) for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION... Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This...

  2. 76 FR 67759 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... administrative tasks. Donated volunteer labor is also required. The SHOP funds together with the sweat equity and... (SHOP) for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION... Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This...

  3. 75 FR 62849 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... administrative tasks. Donated volunteer labor is also required. The SHOP funds together with the sweat equity and... (SHOP) for Fiscal Year 2009 AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION... Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This...

  4. 78 FR 57650 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... equity towards the development of the SHOP units. Sweat equity involves participation in the construction... (SHOP) for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION... the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) that was posted on the Grants.gov Web...

  5. Reliability and Validity of the SAINT: A Guided Self-Help Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Eddie; Chester, Rebecca; Tsakanikos, Elias; McCarthy, Jane; Craig, Tom; Bouras, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the main psychometric properties of the Self Assessment and Intervention (SAINT), a unique and recently developed Guided Self-Help tool for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Fifty-four adults with ID identified with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression completed the study. They were between 18 and 77 years old…

  6. Using an Instructional Package Including Video Technology To Teach Self-Help Skills to Elementary Students with Mental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Jacqueline M.; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a treatment package that included video technology (e.g., video modeling and video prompting) to teach 3 self-help skills (cleaning sunglasses, putting on a wrist watch, and zipping a jacket) to 3 elementary students with mental disabilities. Results indicate the treatment package was effective. (Contains…

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effectiveness of a Tailored Self-Help Smoking-Cessation Intervention for Postsecondary Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Heather E.; Lawrance, Kelli-an G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Between September 2002 and February 2003, the authors assessed the effectiveness of a new, age-tailored, self-help smoking-cessation program for college students. Participants: College student smokers (N = 216) from 6 Ontario universities participated. Methods: The researchers used a randomized controlled trial with a 3-month telephone…

  8. How To Land the Best Jobs in School Administration: The Self-Help Workbook for Practicing and Aspiring School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmoski, Georgia J.

    This self-help workbook is written for those who intend to seek a position in school administration. It is designed to help with each step of the job-search process and provides tips on writing a professional letter of intent and resume and advice on how to optimize personal and professional strengths. The information in the workbook was derived…

  9. 76 FR 48876 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...In accordance with Section 102(a)(4)(C) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding decisions made by the Department in a competition for funding under the Fiscal Year 2010 (FY 2010) Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This announcement contains the......

  10. Attrition and outcome in self-help treatment for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: a constructive replication.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Ata

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a 12-week CBT-based pure and guided self-help among 29 patients with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. In the intention-to-treat analyses, self-help had a moderately positive and sustained effect on the patients' eating problems. The patients reduced their mean number of objective bulimic episodes and purging behavior by 26% and 22% over the course of treatment. The corresponding reduction levels for the treatment completers (n=21) were 41% and 34%, respectively. As in the previous study, there were no significant differences between the pure and guided self-help mode in terms of outcome, and the results were sustained 6 months after the end of the treatment. The findings are discussed in relation to the shorter duration of the self-help, the lower rate of attrition, and the characteristics of the sample compared to the earlier trial. PMID:17056405

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart I of... - Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement C Exhibit C to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. C Exhibit C to Subpart I of Part 1944—Amendment to...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart I of... - Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Amendment to Self-Help Technical Assistance Grant Agreement C Exhibit C to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Technical Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. I, Exh. C Exhibit C to Subpart I of Part 1944—Amendment to...

  13. Self-Help Medical Literature in 19th-Century Canada and the Rhetorical Convention of Plain Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines self-help medical literature in 19th-century Canada. Shows that while authors repeatedly called for "plain" language in contrast to mysterious terminology employed by medical practitioners, comparison of their style with that of medical textbook authors reveals few real differences. Concludes that the posture adopted by Canadian self-help…

  14. The Feasibility, Acceptability, and Efficacy of Delivering Internet-Based Self-Help and Guided Self-Help Interventions for Generalized Anxiety Disorder to Indian University Students: Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michelle G; Ruzek, Josef I; Kuhn, Eric; Manjula, M; Jones, Megan; Thomas, Neil; Abbott, Jo-Anne M; Sharma, Smita; Taylor, C. Barr

    2015-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders among university students; however, many students go untreated due to treatment costs, stigma concerns, and limited access to trained mental health professionals. These barriers are heightened in universities in India, where there are scant mental health care services and severe stigma surrounding help seeking. Objective To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of Internet-based, or “online,” cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based unguided and guided self-help interventions (using the programs GAD Online and Lantern, respectively) to reduce GAD symptoms in students with clinical and subthreshold GAD and, ultimately, reduce the prevalence and incidence of GAD among the student population. Methods Students will be recruited via 3 colleges in Hyderabad, India, and referred for a campus-wide online screening. Self-report data will be collected entirely online. A total of 300 qualifying students will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive GAD Online, Lantern, or to be in a wait-list control condition, stratified by clinical and subthreshold GAD symptomatology. Students will complete a postintervention assessment after 3 months and a follow-up assessment 6 months later, at which point students in the wait-list control condition will receive one of the programs. The primary outcome is GAD symptom severity at 3 months postintervention. Secondary outcomes include GAD caseness at 9 months, other anxiety and depression symptoms, self-efficacy, and functional measures (eg, sleep, social functioning) at 3 and 9 months, respectively. Primary analyses will be differences between each of the intervention groups and the wait-list control group, analyzed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis using mixed-design ANOVA. Results The study commenced in February 2015. The sample was recruited over a 3-week period at each college. The trial is expected to end in December 2015

  15. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  16. Disease Manifestations and Pathogenic Mechanisms of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Timothy C.; McArthur, Jason D.; Cole, Jason N.; Gillen, Christine M.; Henningham, Anna; Sriprakash, K. S.; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L.; Nizet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Genomic and molecular analyses have now characterized a large number of GAS virulence determinants, many of which exhibit overlap and redundancy in the processes of adhesion and colonization, innate immune resistance, and the capacity to facilitate tissue barrier degradation and spread within the human host. This improved understanding of the contribution of individual virulence determinants to the disease process has led to the formulation of models of GAS disease progression, which may lead to better treatment and intervention strategies. While GAS remains sensitive to all penicillins and cephalosporins, rising resistance to other antibiotics used in disease treatment is an increasing worldwide concern. Several GAS vaccine formulations that elicit protective immunity in animal models have shown promise in nonhuman primate and early-stage human trials. The development of a safe and efficacious commercial human vaccine for the prophylaxis of GAS disease remains a high priority. PMID:24696436

  17. Disease manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms of Group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark J; Barnett, Timothy C; McArthur, Jason D; Cole, Jason N; Gillen, Christine M; Henningham, Anna; Sriprakash, K S; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; Nizet, Victor

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Genomic and molecular analyses have now characterized a large number of GAS virulence determinants, many of which exhibit overlap and redundancy in the processes of adhesion and colonization, innate immune resistance, and the capacity to facilitate tissue barrier degradation and spread within the human host. This improved understanding of the contribution of individual virulence determinants to the disease process has led to the formulation of models of GAS disease progression, which may lead to better treatment and intervention strategies. While GAS remains sensitive to all penicillins and cephalosporins, rising resistance to other antibiotics used in disease treatment is an increasing worldwide concern. Several GAS vaccine formulations that elicit protective immunity in animal models have shown promise in nonhuman primate and early-stage human trials. The development of a safe and efficacious commercial human vaccine for the prophylaxis of GAS disease remains a high priority. PMID:24696436

  18. Modeling Disease Progression via Fused Sparse Group Lasso

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiayu; Liu, Jun; Narayan, Vaibhav A.; Ye, Jieping

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with aging. Understanding how the disease progresses and identifying related pathological biomarkers for the progression is of primary importance in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease. In this paper, we develop novel multi-task learning techniques to predict the disease progression measured by cognitive scores and select biomarkers predictive of the progression. In multi-task learning, the prediction of cognitive scores at each time point is considered as a task, and multiple prediction tasks at different time points are performed simultaneously to capture the temporal smoothness of the prediction models across different time points. Specifically, we propose a novel convex fused sparse group Lasso (cFSGL) formulation that allows the simultaneous selection of a common set of biomarkers for multiple time points and specific sets of biomarkers for different time points using the sparse group Lasso penalty and in the meantime incorporates the temporal smoothness using the fused Lasso penalty. The proposed formulation is challenging to solve due to the use of several non-smooth penalties. One of the main technical contributions of this paper is to show that the proximal operator associated with the proposed formulation exhibits a certain decomposition property and can be computed efficiently; thus cFSGL can be solved efficiently using the accelerated gradient method. To further improve the model, we propose two non-convex formulations to reduce the shrinkage bias inherent in the convex formulation. We employ the difference of convex (DC) programming technique to solve the non-convex formulations. We have performed extensive experiments using data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed progression models in comparison with existing methods for disease progression. We also perform

  19. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit B-1 to Subpart I of... - Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Subpart I of Part 1944—Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants B Exhibit B-1 to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit B-1 to Subpart I of... - Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Subpart I of Part 1944—Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants B Exhibit B-1 to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit B-1 to Subpart I of... - Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Subpart I of Part 1944—Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants B Exhibit B-1 to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.620 - What happens if property that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance use requirement is found to be... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.620 What happens if property that was transferred to meet a...

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.620 - What happens if property that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance use requirement is found to be... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.620 What happens if property that was transferred to meet a...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.620 - What happens if property that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance use requirement is found to be... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.620 What happens if property that was transferred to meet a...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.620 - What happens if property that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance use requirement is found to be... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.620 What happens if property that was transferred to meet a...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.620 - What happens if property that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that was transferred to meet a self-help housing or housing assistance use requirement is found to be... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.620 What happens if property that was transferred to meet a...

  8. The effect of Self-Help Groups on access to maternal health services: evidence from rural India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The main challenge for achieving universal health coverage in India is ensuring effective coverage of poor and vulnerable communities in the face of high levels of income and gender inequity in access to health care. Drawing on the social capital generated through women’s participation in community organizations like SHGs can influence health outcomes. To date, evidence about the impact of SHGs on health outcomes has been derived from pilot-level interventions, some using randomised controlled trials and other rigorous methods. While the evidence from these studies is convincing, our study is the first to analyse the impact of SHGs at national level. Methods We analyzed the entire dataset from the third national District Level Household Survey from 601 districts in India to assess the impact of the presence of SHGs on maternal health service uptake. The primary predictor variable was presence of a SHG in the village. The outcome variables were: institutional delivery; feeding new-borns colostrum; knowledge about family planning methods; and ever used family planning. We controlled for respondent education, wealth, heard or seen health messages, availability of health facilities and the existence of a village health and sanitation committee. Results Stepwise logistic regression shows respondents from villages with a SHG were 19 per cent (OR: 1.19, CI: 1.13-1.24) more likely to have delivered in an institution, 8 per cent (OR: 1.08, CI: 1.05-1.14) more likely to have fed newborns colostrum, have knowledge (OR: 1.48, CI 1.39 – 1.57) and utilized (OR: 1.19, CI 1.11 – 1.27) family planning products and services. These results are significant after controlling for individual and village-level heterogeneities and are consistent with existing literature that the social capital generated through women’s participation in SHGs influences health outcome. Conclusion The study concludes that the presence of SHGs in a village is associated with higher knowledge of family planning and maternal health service uptake in rural India. To achieve the goal of improving public health nationally, there is a need to understand more fully the benefits of systematic collaboration between the public health community and these grassroots organizations. PMID:23714337

  9. Using Personal Ads and Online Self-Help Groups to Teach Content Analysis in a Research Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jerry; Dillon, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes methods for teaching content analysis as part of the Research sequence in social work education. Teaching content analysis is used to develop research skills as well as to promote students' knowledge and critical thinking and about new information technology resources that are being increasingly used by the general public. The…

  10. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness and efficacy of unguided internet-based self-help intervention for the prevention of depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lintvedt, Ove K; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Sørensen, Kristian; Østvik, Andreas R; Wang, Catharina E A; Eisemann, Martin; Waterloo, Knut

    2013-01-01

    The Internet has the potential to increase the capacity and accessibility of mental health services. This study aimed to investigate whether an unguided Internet-based self-help intervention delivered without human support or guidance can reduce symptoms of depression in young people at risk of depression. The study also aimed to explore the usage of such sites in a real-life setting, to estimate the effects of the intervention for those who received a meaningful intervention dose and to evaluate user satisfaction. Young adults were recruited by means of a screening survey sent to all students at the University of Tromsø. Of those responding to the survey, 163 students (mean age 28.2 years) with elevated psychological distress were recruited to the trial and randomized to an Internet intervention condition or the waiting list control group. The Internet condition comprised a depression information website and a self-help Web application delivering automated cognitive behavioural therapy. The participants in the waiting list condition were free to access formal or informal help as usual. Two-thirds of the users who completed the trial initially reported an unmet need for help. The findings demonstrated that an unguided intervention was effective in reducing symptoms of depression and negative thoughts and in increasing depression literacy in young adults. Significant improvements were found at 2-month follow up. Internet-based interventions can be effective without tracking and thus constitute a minimal cost intervention for reaching a large number of people. User satisfaction among participants was high. PMID:21887811

  12. Long-Term Results of a Web-Based Guided Self-Help Intervention for Employees With Depressive Symptoms: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in the working population and are associated with excessive costs. The evidence for effective worker-directed interventions for employees with depressive symptoms is limited. Treating employees with depressive symptoms via the Internet before they report sick from work could be beneficial and cost saving. Objective In this study, we tested the effectiveness over the period of 1 year of a Web-based guided self-help intervention, called Happy@Work, for employees with depressive symptoms who were not on sick leave. Methods A two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a worker-directed, Web-based, guided self-help intervention to care as usual (CAU) was carried out. We recruited employees from 6 companies via the company’s Intranet and by putting up posters. The inclusion criteria were elevated depressive symptoms as measured by a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and not being on sick leave. The intervention contained 6 lessons and consisted of problem-solving treatment and cognitive therapy. Participants were asked to submit weekly assignments via the website after completion of a lesson and they received feedback from a coach via the website. Self-report questionnaires on depressive symptoms (CES-D; primary outcome), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), work performance (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, HPQ), duration of absenteeism, and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS; secondary outcomes), were completed at baseline, posttreatment, and at 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Several subgroup and per-protocol analyses were performed. Results A total of 231 employees were randomized to either the intervention group (n=116) or to CAU (n=115). Completion of assessments varied between 54%-74%. Improvement in depressive symptoms between baseline and posttreatment was shown in all participants and these effects sustained over time. However, there

  13. BOLD delay times using group delay in sickle cell disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloigner, Julie; Vu, Chau; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that effects red blood cells, which can lead to vasoocclusion, ischemia and infarct. This disease often results in neurological damage and strokes, leading to morbidity and mortality. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique for measuring and mapping the brain activity. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals contain also information about the neurovascular coupling, vascular reactivity, oxygenation and blood propagation. Temporal relationship between BOLD fluctuations in different parts of the brain provides also a mean to investigate the blood delay information. We used the induced desaturation as a label to profile transit times through different brain areas, reflecting oxygen utilization of tissue. In this study, we aimed to compare blood flow propagation delay times between these patients and healthy subjects in areas vascularized by anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In a group comparison analysis with control subjects, BOLD changes in these areas were found to be almost simultaneous and shorter in the SCD patients, because of their increased brain blood flow. Secondly, the analysis of a patient with a stenosis on the anterior cerebral artery indicated that signal of the area vascularized by this artery lagged the MCA signal. These findings suggest that sickle cell disease causes blood propagation modifications, and that these changes could be used as a biomarker of vascular damage.

  14. Effects of a sleep education program with self-help treatment on sleeping patterns and daytime sleepiness in Japanese adolescents: A cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Norihisa; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insufficient sleep and delayed sleep-wake patterns have been reported as the primary causes for daytime sleepiness, a reasonably significant and prevalent problem for adolescents worldwide. Systematic reviews have indicated that the success of sleep education programs has thus far been inconsistent, due to the lack of a tailored approach that allows for evaluation of individual differences in behavior patterns. One way to resolve this problem is to assess the individual sleep behaviors of adolescents by using a checklist containing the recommended behaviors for promoting sleep health. Such self-help education programs have already been implemented for elementary school children, school nurses and the elderly. The present study aimed to verify the effects of a sleep education program with supplementary self-help treatment, based on a checklist of sleep-promoting behaviors, in addition to evaluation of changes in sleeping patterns, sleep-promoting behaviors and daytime sleepiness in adolescents. A cluster randomized controlled trial involving 5 Japanese junior high schools was conducted, and 243 students (sleep education: n = 122; waiting list: n = 121; 50.6% female; 7th grade) were included in the final analysis. The sleep education group was provided with information on proper sleep health and sleep-promoting behaviors. The students in this group were asked to practice one sleep-promoting behavior as a goal for 2 weeks and to monitor their practice using sleep diaries. Both pre- and post-treatment questionnaires were administered to students in order to assess knowledge of sleep-promoting behaviors, sleeping patterns and daytime functioning. Students in the sleep education group showed significant improvement in their knowledge of sleep health (F1,121 = 648.05, p < 0.001) and in their sleep-promoting behaviors (F1,121 = 55.66, p < 0.001). Bedtime on both school nights (F1,121 = 50.86, p < 0.001) and weekends (F1,121 = 15.03, p < 0.001), sleep

  15. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Guided Self-help Intervention for Outpatients With a Depressive Disorder: Short-term Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; Beekman, Aartjan; van Straten, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    Background Research has convincingly demonstrated that symptoms of depression can be reduced through guided Internet-based interventions. However, most of those studies recruited people form the general population. There is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness when delivered in routine clinical practice in outpatient clinics. Objective The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to study patients with a depressive disorder (as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, fourth edition), as assessed by trained interviewers with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, who registered for treatment at an outpatient mental health clinic. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of guided Internet-based self-help before starting face-to-face treatment. Methods We recruited 269 outpatients, aged between 18 and 79 years, from outpatient clinics and randomly allocated them to Internet-based problem solving therapy (n=136), with weekly student support, or to a control condition, who remained on the waitlist with a self-help booklet (control group; n=133). Participants in both conditions were allowed to take up face-to-face treatment at the outpatient clinics afterward. We measured the primary outcome, depressive symptoms, by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Secondary outcome measures were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), Insomnia Severity Index questionnaire (ISI), and EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS). All outcomes were assessed by telephone at posttest (8 weeks after baseline). Results Posttest measures were completed by 184 (68.4%) participants. We found a moderate to large within-group effect size for both the intervention (d=0.75) and the control (d=0.69) group. However, the between-group effect size was very small (d=0.07), and regression analysis on posttreatment CES-D scores revealed no significant differences between the groups (b=1.134, 95% CI –2

  16. How to treat the untreated: effectiveness of a self-help metacognitive training program (myMCT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hauschildt, Marit; Naber, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in the understanding and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), many patients undergoing interventions display incomplete symptom reduction. Our research group has developed a self-help manual entitled “My Metacognitive Training for OCD” (myMCT) aimed at raising patients' awareness about cognitive biases that seem to subserve OCD. The training is particularly intended for patients currently unable or unwilling to attend standard therapy, or in cases where such a treatment option is not available. For the present study, 86 individuals suffering from OCD were recruited over the Internet. Following the initial assessment participants were either immediately emailed the myMCT manual or allocated to a waitlist group. After 4 weeks, a second assessment was performed. The myMCT group showed significantly greater improvement for OCD symptoms according to the Y-BOCS total score compared with the waitlist group (d =.63), particularly for obsessions (d=.69). Medium to strong differences emerged for the OCI-R (d =.70) and the BDI-SF (d =.50). The investigation provides the first evidence for the effectiveness of the myMCT for OCD. PMID:20623925

  17. Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men

    PubMed Central

    Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats. PMID:21687447

  18. Re-Evaluation Co-Counseling: A Method of Peer Self Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockman, Ilene F.

    The college and university counseling center traditionally employs standard techniques in helping students, faculty, and staff in overcoming problems of mental stress (Berman, 1972). A technique suitable to both individual and group sessions, but rarely utilized is Re-Evaluation Co-Counseling or R.C. For the past twenty years, R.C. has gained an…

  19. Culturally adapted cognitive behavioral guided self-help for binge eating: a feasibility study with Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Cachelin, Fary M; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G Terence; Thompson, Douglas R; Striegel, Ruth H

    2014-07-01

    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating, or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at posttreatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides "proof of concept" for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

  20. Handheld Devices and Video Modeling to Enhance the Learning of Self-Help Skills in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joseph E; Morgan, Michele; Barnett, Veronica; Spreat, Scott

    2015-04-01

    The viewing of videos is a much-studied intervention to teach self-help, social, and vocational skills. Many of the studies to date looked at video modeling using televisions, computers, and other large screens. This study looked at the use of video modeling on portable handheld devices to teach hand washing to three adolescent students with an autism spectrum disorder. Three students participated in this 4-week study conducted by occupational therapists. Baseline data were obtained for the first student for 1 week, the second for 2 weeks, and the third for 3 weeks; videos were introduced when the participants each finished the baseline phase. Given the cognitive and motor needs of the participants, the occupational therapist set the player so that the participants only had to press the play button to start the video playing. The participants were able to hold the players and view at distances that were most appropriate for their individual needs and preferences. The results suggest that video modeling on a handheld device improves the acquisition of self-help skills. PMID:26460472

  1. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for Binge Eating: A Feasibility Study with Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G. Terence; Thompson, Douglas R.; Striegel, Ruth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pre-treatment to post-treatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

  2. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Obese Patients in Primary Care: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Self-Help and Medication

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Walsh, B. Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C.; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. Method 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N=26), placebo (N=27), shCBT+sibutramine (N=26), or shCBT+placebo (N=25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Results Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Discussion Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to

  3. How effective is bibliotherapy-based self-help cognitive behavioral therapy with Internet support in clinical settings? Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Högdahl, Louise; Birgegård, Andreas; Björck, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy-based guided self-help (CBT-GSH) via the Internet has been shown to be effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) and similar eating disorders (EDs), but it is rarely offered, and little is known about the effects, in clinical settings. The present study investigated the effects of a bibliotherapy-based CBT-GSH with Internet support in a clinical setting. Participants were 48 adult outpatients who were recruited without randomization from a specialized ED clinic, diagnosed with BN or similar eating disorder. Forty-eight patients in an intensive day patient program (DPP) were used as comparison group. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 measured pre- and post treatment symptoms. Results showed that both groups attained significant improvements in core- as well as related ED symptoms in both instruments. As expected, treatment effects were larger in the more intensive DPP. Nonetheless, bibliotherapy CBT-GSH appears to be a cost-effective treatment that represents a new way to provide more CBT in clinical settings. PMID:23757249

  4. Self-help smoking cessation and maintenance programs: a comparative study with 12-month follow-up by the American Lung Association.

    PubMed

    Davis, A L; Faust, R; Ordentlich, M

    1984-11-01

    One thousand two hundred thirty seven smokers responding to lung association announcements in five geographic areas were randomly assigned to one of four groups and mailed American Lung Association materials: 1) leaflets (L); 2) leaflets plus maintenance manual (L + M); 3) cessation manual (C); and 4) cessation and maintenance manuals (C + M). Five telephone interviews over one year achieved a 95 per cent follow-up completion rate. Nonrespondents as well as exclusive cigar and pipe users were classified as smokers. Twenty per cent quit initially, with 5 per cent continually abstinent in (C + M) at 12 months vs 2 per cent in (L) (p less than .05). Nonsmoking prevalence rates (no tobacco smoking in the past month), on the other hand, gradually increased after six months; at 12 months those with the maintenance component, (L + M) and (C + M), had higher rates (18 per cent) than (L) (12 per cent) or (C) (15 per cent). Leaflets and manual alone were least cost effective. Rising nonsmoking prevalence rates observed in all groups suggest that successful attempts to quit increased over time and that a contributing factor might have been the follow-up method. Although achieving lower quit rates than methods requiring attendance at a course, the self-help intervention has the advantages of greater availability, flexibility, and in some instances lower cost. PMID:6437257

  5. Use of biosimilars in inflammatory bowel disease: Statements of the Italian Group for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Annese, Vito; Vecchi, Maurizio

    2014-11-01

    The introduction of biological therapies, particularly anti-TNFα agents, has revolutionized the management of inflammatory bowel disease in those cases which are refractory to conventional treatment; however these drugs are not risk-free and their use has substantially increased the cost of treatment. As marketing protection expires for original, first-generation biopharmaceuticals, lower-cost "copies" of these drugs produced by competitor companies-referred to as biosimilars-are already entering the market. In September 2013, the European Medicines Agency approved two infliximab biosimilars for treatment of adult and paediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients, a decision based largely on efficacy and safety data generated in studies of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. For many clinicians, extrapolation practices and the general question of interchangeability between biosimilars and reference biologics are cause for concern. In the present paper, the Italian Group for inflammatory bowel disease presents its statements on these issues, with emphasis on the peculiar clinical characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease and the importance of providing physicians and patients with adequate information and guarantees on the safety and efficacy of these new drugs in the specific setting of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25139379

  6. An Internet-based self-help treatment for fear of public speaking: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Botella, C; Gallego, M J; Garcia-Palacios, A; Guillen, V; Baños, R M; Quero, S; Alcañiz, M

    2010-08-01

    This study offers data about the efficacy of "Talk to Me," an Internet-based telepsychology program for the treatment of fear of public speaking that includes the most active components in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social phobia (exposure and cognitive therapies). One hundred twenty-seven participants with social phobia were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: (a) an Internet-based self-administered program; (b) the same program applied by a therapist; (c) a waiting-list control group. Results showed that both treatment conditions were equally efficacious. In addition, Talk to Me and the same treatment applied by a therapist were more efficacious than the waiting-list condition. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The results from this study support the utility of Internet-delivered CBT programs in order to reach a higher number of people who could benefit from CBT. Internet-delivered CBT programs could also play a valuable role in the dissemination of CBT. PMID:20712499

  7. Client Self-Management: Promoting Self-Help for Parents of Children in Foster-Care

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Bjørn Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon Foucault's concepts of power, this article shows how a course given to parents whose children are in foster-care encourages a particular form of self-management—most notably, that their internal dialogues must be altered so that the parents can view themselves as people in control of their behaviour who are in a position to choose new behaviour. The article is based on a qualitative study conducted in Norway and centres on the support and development of participants in the course. Study results show increased self-confidence and self-respect in the participants, both as individuals and as parents. In addition, significant benefits were stated as finding that they could verbalise and describe difficult events and emotions, experiencing being ‘normal’ within a group and receiving feedback. From the perspective of child protective services, dialogue with parents is central, as it not only commits clients to specific behaviours, but—more importantly—commits them to a particular inner dialogue about parenthood. The course can be seen as a management tool in which the parent's ‘self’ becomes the central object, seeking to contradict the conventional conception of parents with children in foster-care as having nothing to contribute to their children's upbringing. PMID:27559212

  8. Assessing the Availability and Quality of Online Self-Help Videos: A Pilot Study with a Focus on Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Julia; Rennie, Brandon; Seekins, Tom; O'Donnell, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Internet and other electronic media may provide one part of a solution for reducing disparities in the availability of medical services. From a patient-centred perspective, an individual with a chronic, degenerative condition may ask what information is available that I can use to manage changes in my functional capacity over time,…

  9. Disseminating Self-Help: Positive Psychology Exercises in an Online Trial

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Acacia C

    2012-01-01

    Background The recent growth of positive psychology has led to a proliferation in exercises to increase positive thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Preliminary evidence suggests that these exercises hold promise as an approach for reducing depressive symptoms. These exercises are typically researched in isolation as single exercises. The current study examined the acceptability of several multi-exercise packages using online dissemination. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate methods of dissemination that could increase the acceptability and effectiveness of positive psychology exercises. To achieve this goal, we compared the use of positive psychology exercises when delivered in packages of 2, 4, or 6 exercises. Methods Self-help–seeking participants enrolled in this study by visiting an online research portal. Consenting participants were randomly assigned to receive 2, 4, or 6 positive psychology exercises (or assessments only) over a 6-week period. These exercises drew from the content of group positive psychotherapy. Participants visited an automated website that distributed exercise instructions, provided email reminders, and contained the baseline and follow-up assessments. Following each exercise, participants rated their enjoyment of the exercise, answered how often they had used each technique, and completed outcome measures. Results In total, 1364 individuals consented to participate. Attrition rates across the 2-, 4-, and 6-exercise conditions were similar at 55.5% (181/326), 55.8% (203/364), and 52.7% (168/319) respectively but were significantly greater than the attrition rate of 42.5% (151/355) for the control condition (χ2 3 = 16.40, P < .001). Participants in the 6-exercise condition were significant more likely than participants in the 4-exercise condition to use both the third (F 1,312 = 5.61, P = .02) and fourth (F 1,313 = 6.03, P = .02) exercises. For 5 of the 6 exercises, enjoyment was related to continued use of the

  10. When self-help is no help: traditional cognitive skills training does not prevent depressive symptoms in people who ruminate.

    PubMed

    Haeffel, Gerald J

    2010-02-01

    A randomized trial was conducted to test the efficacy of three self-directed prevention intervention workbooks for depression. Cognitively at-risk college freshmen were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: traditional cognitive, non-traditional cognitive, and academic skills. Consistent with hypotheses, participants who were high in rumination and experienced stress exhibited significantly greater levels of depressive symptoms after completing the traditional cognitive skills workbook than after completing the other two workbooks. This pattern of results held post-intervention and 4 months later. These findings indicate that rumination may hinder ones ability to identify and dispute negative thoughts (at least without the help of a trained professional). The results underscore the importance of identifying individual difference variables that moderate intervention efficacy. They also raise concerns about the potential benefits of self-help books, an industry that generates billions of dollars each year. PMID:19875102

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of ACT for Anxiety Disorders in a Self-Help Context: Outcomes From a Randomized Wait-List Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ritzert, Timothy R; Forsyth, John P; Sheppard, Sean C; Boswell, James F; Berghoff, Christopher R; Eifert, Georg H

    2016-07-01

    Rigorous evaluations of cognitive behavioral self-help books for anxiety in pure self-help contexts are lacking. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) self-help workbook for anxiety-related concerns, with no therapist contact, in an international sample. Participants (N=503; 94% mental health diagnosis) were randomized to an immediate workbook (n=256) or wait-list condition (n=247). Assessments at pretreatment, 12weeks, 6months, and 9months evaluated anxiety and related symptoms, quality of life, and ACT treatment processes (e.g., psychological flexibility). Participants in the wait-list arm crossed over to the workbook following the 12-week assessment. The workbook condition yielded significant improvements on all assessments from pre- to posttreatment relative to wait-list, and these gains were maintained at follow-ups. The pattern observed in the wait-list condition was virtually identical to the active treatment arm after receiving the workbook, but not before. Attrition was notable, but supplemental analyses suggested dropout did not influence treatment effects for all but one measure. Overall, findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of this self-help workbook and suggest ACT-based self-help bibliotherapy might be a promising low-cost intervention for people experiencing significant anxiety-related concerns. PMID:27423162

  12. Global oral health inequalities: task group--periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, L J; Armitage, G C; Klinge, B; Lang, N P; Tonetti, M; Williams, R C

    2011-05-01

    Periodontal diseases constitute one of the major global oral health burdens, and periodontitis remains a major cause of tooth loss in adults worldwide. The World Health Organization recently reported that severe periodontitis exists in 5-20% of adult populations, and most children and adolescents exhibit signs of gingivitis. Likely reasons to account for these prevalent diseases include genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors, as well as individual and socio-economic determinants. Currently, there are fundamental gaps in knowledge of such fundamental issues as the mechanisms of initiation and progression of periodontal diseases, which are undefined; inability to identify high-risk forms of gingivitis that progress to periodontitis; lack of evidence on how to prevent the diseases effectively; inability to detect disease activity and predict treatment efficacy; and limited information on the effects of integration of periodontal health as a part of the health care program designed to promote general health and prevent chronic diseases. In the present report, 12 basic, translational, and applied research areas have been proposed to address the issue of global periodontal health inequality. We believe that the oral health burden caused by periodontal diseases could be relieved significantly in the near future through an effective global collaboration. PMID:21490234

  13. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    PubMed

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. PMID:21095051

  14. Binge eating frequency and regular eating adherence: the role of eating pattern in cognitive behavioral guided self-help.

    PubMed

    Zendegui, Elaina A; West, Julia A; Zandberg, Laurie J

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh) is an evidence-based, brief, and cost-effective treatment for eating disorders characterized by recurrent binge eating. However, more research is needed to improve patient outcomes and clarify treatment components most associated with symptom change. A main component of CBTgsh is establishing a regular pattern of eating to disrupt dietary restriction, which prior research has implicated in the maintenance of binge eating. The present study used session-by-session assessments of regular eating adherence and weekly binge totals to examine the association between binge frequency and regular eating in a sample of participants (n = 38) receiving 10 sessions of CBTgsh for recurrent binge eating. Analyses were conducted using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to allow for data nesting, and a likelihood ratio test determined which out of three regression models best fit the data. Results demonstrated that higher regular eating adherence (3 meals and 2-3 planned snacks daily) was associated with lower weekly binge frequency in this sample, and both the magnitude and direction of the association were maintained after accounting for individual participant differences in binge and adherent day totals. Findings provide additional empirical support for the cognitive behavioral model informing CBTgsh. Possible clinical implications for treatment emphasis and sequencing in CBTgsh are discussed. PMID:24854811

  15. Parents' subjective evaluation of a self-help education-exercise program for asthmatic children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Selner, J C; Staudenmayer, H

    1979-10-01

    A self-help education-exercise program for asthmatic children and their parents was evaluated in Denver, Colorado. The objective of the program was to instill better self-care practices in the child which are expected to reduce utilization and cost of medical services and reduce the amount of interference in the child's normal activities. The program was designed to educate the family about the nature of asthma and its treatment, the importance of self-responsibility for the child, and the psychosocial aspects which may affect both the child and the parents in a family with an asthmatic child. The program also included specific lessons pertaining to self-care practices including general health exercises on land and in water, relaxation training, and diaphragmatic breathing. The results of subjective evaluations of the parents indicated that the program was successful in achieving its goals to: Reduce the number of severe attacks, reduce medication usage, improve compliance, reduce days of school missed, increase exercise activity, and control wheezing by the steps taught in the course. While the results are suggestive, a further, controlled evaluation of the program is recommended. PMID:262455

  16. Chronic Diseases in the Pediatric Age Group. Matrix No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael

    This paper briefly outlines current problems associated with chronic diseases in children and youth and provides indications for the types of future research and analysis needed to facilitate the development of solutions. In general, these problems are associated with the following: malignancies, hereditary anemias, cystic fibrosis, other chronic…

  17. Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke for six ethnic groups in California, 1985 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Wild, S H; Laws, A; Fortmann, S P; Varady, A N; Byrne, C D

    1995-11-01

    Coronary heart disease and stroke death rates were compared for six ethnic groups (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, African-American, Chinese, Japanese, and Asian Indian) by sex and age (25 to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 84, and 25 to 84 years old) using California census and 1985 to 1990 death data. African-American men and women in all age groups had the highest rates of death from coronary heart disease, stroke, and all causes (except for coronary heart disease in the oldest men). Hispanics, Chinese, and Japanese in all age-sex groups had comparatively low death rates for coronary heart disease and stroke, although stroke was proportionally an important cause of death for Chinese and Japanese groups. Coronary heart disease was an important cause of death for Asian Indians although death rates were generally not higher than those for other ethnic groups. Ethnic differences were most marked for women and younger age groups. PMID:8680605

  18. African American Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Support Groups and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit B-1 to Subpart I of... - Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of... to Subpart I of Part 1944—Instructions for Preparation of Evaluation Report of Self-Help Technical... keep the unsigned copy for its records. The evaluation report will be completed in accordance with...

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Self-Help Technique for Impulse Control Disorders: A Study on Nail-Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Steffen; Treszl, Andras; Rufer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nail-biting is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified. Although seldom targeted as a primary symptom, nail-biting is often associated with somatic complications and decreased quality of life. The present study assessed the effectiveness of an innovative self-help technique, titled decoupling (DC). DC aims at…

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart I of... - Guidance for Recipients of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants (Section 523 of Housing Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guidance for Recipients of Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants (Section 523 of Housing Act of 1949) E Exhibit E to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND...

  2. Development and Testing of a Science and Engineering Fair Self-Help Development Program: Results of the Pilot Program in Three Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menicucci, David F.

    In seven chapters, this report details the Science Fair Self-Help Development Program, which was initiated in a pilot project at three middles schools in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during school year 1991-1992. The purpose of the program was to provide guidance to schools in developing their own parental and community resources into a sustainable…

  3. "Helpful People in Touch" Consumer Led Self Help Programs for People with Multiple Disorders, Mental Illness, Drug Addiction, and Alcoholism (MIDAA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciacca, Kathleen

    This paper describes the consumer program, "Helpful People in Touch," a self-help treatment program for people with the multiple disorders of mental illness, drug addiction, and/or alcoholism. First, the terms, "Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers and Addicted" (MICAA) and "Chemical Abusing Mentally Ill" (CAMI) are defined and differentiated, with…

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.555 - Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which Federal agency receives the property assigned for self-help housing or housing assistance for low-income individuals or... assistance for low-income individuals or families? The head of the disposal agency, or designee, may...

  5. Molecular Basis for Group B β -hemolytic Streptococcal Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellerqvist, Carl G.; Sundell, Hakan; Gettins, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Group B β -hemolytic Streptococcus (GBS) is a major pathogen affecting newborns. We have investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the respiratory distress induced in sheep after intravenous injection of a toxin produced by this organism. The pathophysiological response is characterized by pulmonary hypertension, followed by granulocytopenia and increased pulmonary vascular permeability to protein. 31P NMR studies of GBS toxin and model components before and after reductive alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated that phosphodiester residues are an integral part of the GBS toxin. Reductive alkaline treatment cleaves phosphate esters from secondary and primary alcohols and renders GBS toxin nontoxic in the sheep model and inactive as a mediator of elastase release in vitro from isolated human granulocytes. We propose that the interaction of cellular receptors with mannosyl phosphodiester groups plays an essential role in the pathophysiological response to GBS toxin.

  6. Molecular basis for group B beta-hemolytic streptococcal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hellerqvist, C G; Sundell, H; Gettins, P

    1987-01-01

    Group B beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GBS) is a major pathogen affecting newborns. We have investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the respiratory distress induced in sheep after intravenous injection of a toxin produced by this organism. The pathophysiological response is characterized by pulmonary hypertension, followed by granulocytopenia and increased pulmonary vascular permeability to protein. 31P NMR studies of GBS toxin and model components before and after reductive alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated that phosphodiester residues are an integral part of the GBS toxin. Reductive alkaline treatment cleaves phosphate esters from secondary and primary alcohols and renders GBS toxin nontoxic in the sheep model and inactive as a mediator of elastase release in vitro from isolated human granulocytes. We propose that the interaction of cellular receptors with mannosyl phosphodiester groups plays an essential role in the pathophysiological response to GBS toxin. PMID:3540959

  7. Prevention of Early-onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marió, M. J. Soto; Valenzuela, I; Vásquez, A. E; Illanes, S. E

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of up to 50% of healthy adults and newborns; it is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Early detection can be used to establish the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to significantly reduce neonatal sepsis. This article reviews methods of detection and prevention of GBS infection in the neonate. PMID:24358406

  8. Valve repair in rheumatic heart disease in pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod K; Dharmapuram, Anil K; Swain, Sunil K; Ramdoss, Nagarajan; Raghavan, Sreekanth S; Murthy, Kona S

    2008-04-01

    Valve repair in children is technically demanding but more desirable than valve replacement. From April 2004 to September 2005, 1 boy and 8 girls with rheumatic heart disease, aged 2-13 years (median, 9 years), underwent valve repair for isolated mitral regurgitation in 5, combined mitral and aortic regurgitation in 2, mitral stenosis in 1, and mitral regurgitation associated with atrial septal defect in 1. Chordal shortening in 7, annular plication in 6, commissurotomy in 1, reconstruction of commissural leaflets in 7 were performed for mitral valve disease. Plication and reattachment of the aortic cusps was carried out in 2 patients. Annuloplasty rings were not used. All patients survived the operation, 8 had trivial or mild residual mitral regurgitation, and 1 had trivial aortic regurgitation. Mean left atrial pressure decreased from 14 to 7 mm Hg postoperatively. During follow-up of 3-18 months, all children were asymptomatic and enjoyed normal activity. None required reoperation. In addition to chordal shortening and annular plication, reconstruction of the commissural leaflets is considered the most important aspect of valve repair. It can be achieved without annuloplasty rings, giving good early and midterm results. PMID:18381871

  9. Iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: National Consultant for Gastroenterology Working Group Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bartnik, Witold; Gonciarz, Maciej; Kłopocka, Maria; Linke, Krzysztof; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Radwan, Piotr; Reguła, Jarosław; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a common complication associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). It substantially impairs quality of life, makes therapy more complicated, and increases costs of treatment. It seems that anaemia therapy is suboptimal in this group of patients in the Polish population. The recommendations presented below provide iron deficiency anaemia management clues in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25395998

  10. Promoting self-help activities for people living with HIV / AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Huu Luyen; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Narimani, P

    1999-01-01

    The rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City presents new challenges for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention in Vietnam. Most HIV/AIDS cases are found south of the country and this puts a burden on the Ho Chi Minh City AIDS Committee. Building on experiences from other countries, the AIDS Committee successfully implemented measures such as needle-exchange programs, condom distribution, peer education, and outreach activities. It also established a meeting place, the Cafe Hy Vong, for female sex workers and intravenous drug users. From the beginning, the Committee regarded meeting the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) as important prevention activities, and encouraged PHA to discuss their concerns with the committee. The PHA formed the Friend-to-Friend group in October 1995, where the Ho Chi Minh AIDS Committee gave its full support. The group organizes meetings and social gatherings where they can share their feelings and experiences, as well as get information and counseling. PMID:12349769

  11. Human Endogenous Retrovirus Group E and Its Involvement in Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Le Dantec, Christelle; Vallet, Sophie; Brooks, Wesley H.; Renaudineau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus group E (HERV-E) elements are stably integrated into the human genome, transmitted vertically in a Mendelian manner, and are endowed with transcriptional activity as alternative promoters or enhancers. Such effects are under the control of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTR) that are organized into three HERV-E phylogenetic subgroups, namely LTR2, LTR2B, and LTR2C. Moreover, HERV-E expression is tissue-specific, and silenced by epigenetic constraints that may be disrupted in cancer, autoimmunity, and human placentation. Interest in HERV-E with regard to these conditions has been stimulated further by concerns regarding the capacity of HERV-E elements to modify the expression of neighboring genes and/or to produce retroviral proteins, including immunosuppressive env peptides, which in turn may induce (auto)-antibody (Ab) production. Finally, better understanding of HERV-E elements may have clinical applications for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. PMID:25785516

  12. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective

    PubMed Central

    Trompetter, Hester R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Lamers, Sanne M. A.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.

    2016-01-01

    -based self-help ACT may not be allocated to chronic pain sufferers experiencing low levels of mental resilience resources such as self-acceptance, goals in life, and environmental mastery. Other subgroups are identified that potentially need specific tailoring of (web-based) ACT. Emotional and psychological wellbeing should receive much more attention in subsequent studies on chronic pain and illness. PMID:27014159

  13. Acceptability of Online Self-Help to People With Depression: Users’ Views of MoodGYM Versus Informational Websites

    PubMed Central

    Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Grime, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the factors that influence acceptability of and adherence to online psychological interventions. Evidence is needed to guide further development of promising programs. Objective Our goal was to investigate users’ views of two online approaches to self-help for depression: computerized cognitive behavior therapy (cCBT) and informational websites, in a workplace context. Computerized CBT offers an inexpensive and accessible alternative to face-to-face therapy, and employers have an interest in reducing the working time lost to depression or stress. Yet little is known about how employees, who have actual experience of using online approaches, judge the intervention as a process. Methods The qualitative data reported here were collected within an online randomized controlled trial whose participants had diagnosable depression. The experimental intervention was a 5-week cCBT program called MoodGYM, and the control condition was five informational websites about mental health. Data were collected via online questionnaires. There was no evidence of the superiority of either in terms of treatment outcomes. In parallel, using brief rating scales and open-ended questions designed for this purpose, we examined the relative acceptability of each approach over time, including perceptions of cCBT compared to seeing a health care professional. Results At least 60% of participants held online therapy to be at least as acceptable as seeing a professional about mental health issues, and they were more likely to retain this opinion over time if they used the interactive program, MoodGYM, rather than informational websites alone. Barriers to cCBT use fell into four categories: intrinsic, intrapersonal problems; extrinsic technical problems; generic issues mostly pertaining to perceptions of cCBT; and specific issues about the intervention or control condition. These indicate strategies for improving engagement. Conclusions As first-aid for mild to

  14. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective.

    PubMed

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Lamers, Sanne M A; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2016-01-01

    -based self-help ACT may not be allocated to chronic pain sufferers experiencing low levels of mental resilience resources such as self-acceptance, goals in life, and environmental mastery. Other subgroups are identified that potentially need specific tailoring of (web-based) ACT. Emotional and psychological wellbeing should receive much more attention in subsequent studies on chronic pain and illness. PMID:27014159

  15. Factors influencing the health related quality of life in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: long-term results (2001--2005) of patients in the German Lupus Erythematosus Self-Help Organization (LULA Study).

    PubMed

    Tamayo, T; Fischer-Betz, R; Beer, S; Winkler-Rohlfing, B; Schneider, M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine disease-specific and individual factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) organized in the German Lupus Erythematosus Self-Help Organization. Three hundred and seventeen patients aged between 11 and 77 years participated annually in five surveys carried out between 2001 and 2005. Regression analyses were carried out for physical and mental HRQOL as dependent variables. Factors influencing HRQOL were the respective HRQOL scores of the previous year, SLE activity as measured by the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ), and impairments in everyday life. Social support indicated by living in marriage or in a marriage-like partnership had a positive influence on both mental and physical HRQOL, whereas individual factors such as education seemed to be of minor importance. PMID:20829309

  16. Participation and outcome in manualized self-help for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder - a systematic review and metaregression analysis.

    PubMed

    Beintner, Ina; Jacobi, Corinna; Schmidt, Ulrike H

    2014-03-01

    There is a growing body of research on manualized self-help interventions for bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Study and treatment dropout and adherence represent particular challenges in these studies. However, systematic investigations of the relationship between study, intervention and patient characteristics, participation, and intervention outcomes are lacking. We conducted a systematic literature review using electronic databases and hand searches of relevant journals. In metaregression analyses, we analyzed study dropout as well as more specific measures of treatment participation in manualized self-help interventions, their association with intervention characteristics (e.g. duration, guidance, intervention type [bibliotherapy, CD-ROM or Internet based intervention]) and their association with treatment outcomes. Seventy-three publications reporting on 50 different trials of manualized self-help interventions for binge eating and bulimia nervosa published through July 9th 2012 were identified. Across studies, dropout rates ranged from 1% to 88%. Study dropout rates were highest in CD-ROM interventions and lowest in Internet-based interventions. They were higher in samples of BN patients, samples of patients with higher degrees of dietary restraint at baseline, lower age, and lower body mass index. Between 6% and 88% of patients completed the intervention to which they had been assigned. None of the patient, study and intervention characteristics predicted intervention completion rates. Intervention outcomes were moderated by the provision of personal guidance by a health professional, the number of guidance sessions as well as participants' age, BMI, and eating disorder related attitudes (Restraint, Eating, Weight and Shape Concerns) at baseline (after adjusting for study dropout and intervention completion rates). Guidance particularly improved adherence and outcomes in samples of patients with bulimia nervosa; specialist guidance led

  17. Infectious disease and group size: more than just a numbers game

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Jordán, Ferenc; McCabe, Collin M.; Verdolin, Jennifer L.; Fewell, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Increased risk of infectious disease is assumed to be a major cost of group living, yet empirical evidence for this effect is mixed. We studied whether larger social groups are more subdivided structurally. If so, the social subdivisions that form in larger groups may act as barriers to the spread of infection, weakening the association between group size and infectious disease. To investigate this ‘social bottleneck’ hypothesis, we examined the association between group size and four network structure metrics in 43 vertebrate and invertebrate species. We focused on metrics involving modularity, clustering, distance and centralization. In a meta-analysis of intraspecific variation in social networks, modularity showed positive associations with network size, with a weaker but still positive effect in cross-species analyses. Network distance also showed a positive association with group size when using intraspecific variation. We then used a theoretical model to explore the effects of subgrouping relative to other effects that influence disease spread in socially structured populations. Outbreaks reached higher prevalence when groups were larger, but subgrouping reduced prevalence. Subgrouping also acted as a ‘brake’ on disease spread between groups. We suggest research directions to understand the conditions under which larger groups become more subdivided, and to devise new metrics that account for subgrouping when investigating the links between sociality and infectious disease risk. PMID:25870397

  18. Group III Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Lung Disease: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatments.

    PubMed

    Klinger, James R

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with chronic lung disease (WHO group 3) is the second leading cause of PH and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is usually moderate and correlates with severity of lung disease. In a small minority, PAP may approach that seen in WHO group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current medications for treating PAH have not shown benefit in controlled trials of group 3 PH and their routine use is discouraged. Patients with severe group 3 PH should be considered for referral to expert centers or entry into clinical trials. PMID:27443138

  19. [Eating disorders on the internet: an experimental study on the effects of pro-eating disorders websites and self-help websites].

    PubMed

    Theis, Florian; Wolf, Markus; Fiedler, Peter; Backenstrass, Matthias; Kordy, Hans

    2012-02-01

    Pro-eating disorders (ED) websites are assumed to have a negative impact on internet users because these sites promote ED as a lifestyle, and present an extreme thin ideal as well as extreme weight loss measures. We tested the impact of reading pro-ED contents in a sample of 421 women. The participants were randomly assigned to one of 3 conditions in which they were exposed to either a pro-ED blog, a self-help blog, or a neutral control blog. Post-exposure negative affect was higher in participants of the pro-ED and the self-help conditions compared to the neutral blog condition. Participants with an elevated risk for developing an ED had a lower appearance self esteem after exposure to the pro-ED, or the self-help blog. According to the study, a subgroup of high risk individuals might be affected by ED-related internet content. The implications of this study are discussed in the context of the ongoing controversy around pro-ED websites. PMID:22334087

  20. Service users’ perspectives in the design of an online tool for assisted self-help in mental health: a case study of implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The involvement of persons with lived experiences of mental illness and service use is increasingly viewed as key to improving the relevance and utility of mental health research and service innovation. Guided by the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research we developed an online tool for assisted self-help in mental health. The resulting tool, PsyConnect, is ready for testing in two communities starting 2014. This case study reports from the design phase which entailed clarifying very basic questions: Who is the primary target group? What are the aims? What functions are priorities? Roles and responsibilities? What types of evidence can legitimize tool design decisions? Here we highlight the views of service users as a basis for discussing implications of user involvement for service design and research. Case description PsyConnect has become a tool for those who expect to need assistance over long periods of time regardless of their specific condition(s). The aim is to support service users in gaining greater overview and control, legitimacy, and sense of continuity in relationships. It has a personalized “my control panel” which depicts status → process → goals. Functionality includes support for: mapping life domains; medication overview; crisis management; coping exercises; secure messaging; and social support. While the types of evidence that can legitimize design decisions are scattered and indirectly relevant, recent trends in recovery research will be used to guide further refinements. Discussion PsyConnect has undoubtedly become something other than it would have been without careful attention to the views of service users. The tool invites a proactive approach that is likely to challenge treatment cultures that are reactive, disorder-focused and consultation-based. Service user representatives will need to play central roles in training peers and clinicians in order to increase the likelihood of tool usage in line with

  1. Development of a Self-Help Web-Based Intervention Targeting Young Cancer Patients With Sexual Problems and Fertility Distress in Collaboration With Patient Research Partners

    PubMed Central

    Obol, Claire Micaux; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Pelters, Britta; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet should be suitable for delivery of interventions targeting young cancer patients. Young people are familiar with the technologies, and this patient group is small and geographically dispersed. Still, only few psycho-educational Web-based interventions are designed for this group. Young cancer patients consider reproductive health, including sexuality, an area of great importance and approximately 50% report sexual problems and fertility-related concerns following cancer treatment. Therefore, we set out to develop a self-help Web-based intervention, Fex-Can, to alleviate such problems. To improve its quality, we decided to involve patients and significant others as research partners. The first 18 months of our collaboration are described in this paper. The intervention will subsequently be tested in a feasibility study followed by a randomized controlled trial. Objective The study aims to describe the development of a Web-based intervention in long-term collaboration with patient research partners (PRPs). Methods Ten former cancer patients and two significant others participated in building the Web-based intervention, using a participatory design. The development process is described according to the design step in the holistic framework presented by van Gemert-Pijnen et al and evaluates the PRPs’ impact on the content, system, and service quality of the planned intervention. Results The collaboration between the research group and the PRPs mainly took place in the form of 1-day meetings to develop the key components of the intervention: educational and behavior change content, multimedia (pictures, video vignettes, and audios), interactive online activities (eg, self-monitoring), and partial feedback support (discussion forum, tailored feedback from experts). The PRPs influenced the intervention’s content quality in several ways. By repeated feedback on prototypes, the information became more comprehensive, relevant, and understandable

  2. Group A Streptococcal Bacteremia without a Source is Associated with Less Severe Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gauguet, Stefanie; Ahmed, Asim A.; Zhou, Jing; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Ahnger-Pier, Kathryn K.; Harper, Marvin B.; Ozonoff, Al; Wessels, Michael R.; Lee, Grace M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of 86 Group A streptococcal (GAS) bacteremia cases at Boston Children’s Hospital from 1992-2012. Twenty-three percent of children had severe disease, using ICU admission (18), disability (7), or death (2) as indicators. Children with bacteremia without a source (30% of cases) were less likely to have severe disease than children with focal infections in adjusted models. PMID:25319760

  3. INTERBED: internet-based guided self-help for overweight and obese patients with full or subsyndromal binge eating disorder. A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Binge eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent clinical eating disorder associated with increased psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, overweight and obesity, and increased health care costs. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested efficacy of book-based self-help interventions in the treatment of this disorder. However, evidence from larger RCTs is needed. Delivery of self-help through new technologies such as the internet should be investigated in particular, as these approaches have the potential to be more interactive and thus more attractive to patients than book-based approaches. This study will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program (GSH-I) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which has been proven in several studies to be the gold standard treatment for BED, in a prospective multicenter randomized trial. Methods The study assumes the noninferiority of GSH-I compared to CBT. Both treatments lasted 4 months, and maintenance of outcome will be assessed 6 and 18 months after the end of treatment. A total of 175 patients with BED and a body mass index between 27 and 40 kg/m2 were randomized at 7 centers in Germany and Switzerland. A 20% attrition rate was assumed. As in most BED treatment trials, the difference in the number of binge eating days over the past 28 days is the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures include the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, body weight, quality of life, and self-esteem. Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome will be determined, and the cost-effectiveness of both treatment conditions will be evaluated. Results The methodology for the INTERBED study has been detailed. Conclusions Although there is evidence that CBT is the first-line treatment for BED, it is not widely available. As BED is still a recent diagnostic category, many cases likely remain undiagnosed, and a large number of

  4. Internet Therapy versus Internet Self-Help versus No Treatment for Problematic Alcohol Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankers, Matthijs; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Problematic alcohol use is the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease, partly because the majority of problem drinkers are not receiving treatment. Internet-based alcohol interventions attract an otherwise untreated population, but their effectiveness has not yet been established. The current study examined the…

  5. Impact of GOLD groups of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease on surgical complications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Choi, Sun Mi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased postoperative complications. Recently, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classified COPD patients into four groups based on spirometry results and the severity of symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of GOLD groups on postoperative complications. Patients and methods We reviewed the medical records of COPD patients who underwent preoperative spirometry between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. We divided the patients into GOLD groups according to the results of spirometry and self-administered questionnaires that assessed the symptom severity and exacerbation history. GOLD groups, demographic characteristics, and operative conditions were analyzed. Results Among a total of 405 COPD patients, 70 (17.3%) patients experienced various postoperative complications, including infection, wound, or pulmonary complications. Thoracic surgery, upper abdominal surgery, general anesthesia, large estimated blood loss during surgery, and longer anesthesia time were significant risk factors for postoperative complications. Patients in high-risk group (GOLD groups C or D) had an increased risk of postoperative complications compared to those in low-risk group (GOLD groups A or B). Conclusion COPD patients in GOLD groups representing a high exacerbation risk have an increased risk of postoperative complications compared to those with low risk. PMID:26929613

  6. Risk of group A meningococcal disease: bacterial interference and cross-reactive bacteria among mucosal flora.

    PubMed

    Filice, G A; Hayes, P S; Counts, G W; Griffiss, J M; Fraser, D W

    1985-08-01

    During outbreaks of group A meningococcal disease in Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Oreg., we studied the mucosal flora of the affected population and comparison groups to identify possible determinants of susceptibility and resistance to disease. Antimeningococcal immunoglobulin A can block the bactericidal activity of specific antibodies of other classes and has been associated with susceptibility in adults. We used immunoprecipitation and fluorescent-antibody techniques to detect mucosal microorganisms cross-reactive with group A meningococci that might have stimulated such antibodies. Cross-reactive strains of Bacillus pumilus and Streptococcus faecalis were found. Bacterial interference on mucosal surfaces has been shown to reduce susceptibility to other pathogens. With an agar overlay technique, we sought nasopharyngeal microorganisms that inhibited the growth of group A meningococci. Forty-five percent of subjects carried inhibitory strains representing at least nine different species. Inhibitory strains were less common (32%) in residents from "skid row" areas (see D.J. Bogue, Skid Row in American Cities, University of Chicago Press, for a comprehensive definition of these areas) than in a comparison group that did not experience meningococcal disease (61%), suggesting that their presence may be associated with resistance to acquisition of meningococci or to meningococcal disease. PMID:3928679

  7. A content analysis of chronic diseases social groups on Facebook and Twitter.

    PubMed

    De la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; Antón-Rodríguez, Míriam

    2012-01-01

    Research on the use of social networks for health-related purposes is limited. This study aims to characterize the purpose and use of Facebook and Twitter groups concerning colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and diabetes. We searched in Facebook ( www.facebook.com ) and Twitter ( www.twitter.com ) using the terms "colorectal cancer," "breast cancer," and "diabetes." Each important group has been analyzed by extracting its network name, number of members, interests, and Web site URL. We found 216 breast cancer groups, 171 colorectal cancer groups, and 527 diabetes groups on Facebook and Twitter. The largest percentage of the colorectal cancer groups (25.58%) addresses prevention, similarly to breast cancer, whereas diabetes groups are mainly focused on research issues (25.09%). There are more social groups about breast cancer and diabetes on Facebook (around 82%) than on Twitter (around 18%). Regarding colorectal cancer, the difference is less: Facebook had 62.23%, and Twitter 31.76%. Social networks are a useful tool for supporting patients suffering from these three diseases. Regarding the use of these social networks for disease support purposes, Facebook shows a higher usage rate than Twitter, perhaps because Twitter is newer than Facebook, and its use is not so generalized. PMID:22650380

  8. Barriers to Community Participation in Development Planning: Lessons from the Mutengene (Cameroon) Self-Help Water Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoh, Ambe J.

    2002-01-01

    A community water supply project in Cameroon illustrates the following constraints on community participation in development: paternalistic authorities, prescriptive role of the state, selective participation, bias toward "hard" issues, inattention to negative results, group conflicts, gatekeeping, pressure for immediate results, population size,…

  9. Coping with mental health issues: subjective experiences of self-help and helpful contextual factors at the start of mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Biringer, Eva; Davidson, Larry; Sundfør, Bengt; Lier, Haldis Ø.; Borg, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Self-help strategies and various contextual factors support recovery. However, more in-depth knowledge is needed about how self-help strategies and supportive environments facilitate the recovery process. Aims: To explore what individuals who have recently been referred to a specialist Community Mental Health Center experience as helpful and what they do to help themselves. Method: Ten service users participated in in-depth interviews within a collaborative-reflexive framework. A hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was used. Results: Participants described a variety of helpful strategies and environmental supports. Four relevant main themes were identified: helpful activities, helpful people and places, self-instruction and learning about mental problems and medication and self-medication. Conclusions: The process of recovery is initiated before people become users of mental health services. This study confirms that recovery takes place within the person’s daily life context and involves the interplay of contextual factors, such as family, friends, good places, work and other meaningful activities. The coping strategies reported may represent an important focus for attention and clinical intervention. PMID:26484831

  10. 75 FR 55793 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the World Health Organization (U18) AGENCY: Food and Drug... fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to the World Health Organization (WHO). One of the primary goals of the WHO is to... the estimation of foodborne disease burden where data are lacking; develop cause attribution models...

  11. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  12. Support Groups: A Special Therapeutic Entity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Pearl P.

    1984-01-01

    Addresses the characteristics and boundaries of a professionally led support group and how it differs from a self-help group and group psychotherapy. Points out that core differences among the three types of groups tend to revolve around membership screening and interactions, goals, dynamics of change, and leadership strategies. (LLL)

  13. Vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal capsular group B disease: What have we recently learned?

    PubMed

    Findlow, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a feared and devastating cause of sepsis and meningitis. Disease incidence is highest among infants and children although a significant burden of disease is experienced by adolescents, young adults and those with specific risk-factors. Prevention of disease against capsular groups A, C, W and Y; 4 of the 5 most pathogenic groups is achievable using capsular polysaccharide vaccines. It has only recently been possible to provide protection against capsular group B (MenB) strains following the licensure of a 4 component group B vaccine (4CMenB) in Europe in 2013. Following licensure, 4CMenB has been used in specific at-risk groups and in response to outbreaks of MenB disease. The largest outbreak interventions have been in students at 2 universities in the United States and for all individuals aged 2 months to 20 years of age in Quebec, Canada. The vaccine was recommended in February 2014 for implementation into the UK infant schedule at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, although it has taken over 12 months to resolve procurement discussions to enable implementation. The UK recommendation incorporates prophylactic paracetamol with infant doses when 4CMenB is administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. This is based on recent data demonstrating the ability of paracetamol to reduce fever rates to background levels without impacting immunogenicity. Post-implementation surveillance will be important to provide vaccine efficacy data as this was not possible to determine in pre-licensure studies due to the relative infrequency of MenB cases. PMID:26619037

  14. [50 years WATL (Scientific Working Group for the Therapy of Lung Diseases)].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, H; Kropp, R; Behr, J; Costabel, U; Bonnet, R; Schönfeld, N; Prasse, A; Kardos, P; Seehausen, V; Loddenkemper, R

    2014-03-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Scientific Working Group for the Therapy of Lung Diseases (WATL) the history is described from its foundation to the present situation. Research topics during this long period are specified and the studies are briefly outlined. In the beginning, WATL was engaged mainly in studies on tuberculosis, later on, the spectrum of WATL was broadened considerably to diseases like sarcoidosis, pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, pulmonary emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency, chronic obstructive bronchitis and bronchial asthma as well as nontuberculous mycobacterioses. Finally, realising that the methodological capabilities of WATL were not sufficient to conduct large trials in classical lung diseases considering current requirements, WATL has begun to acquire competence in rare lung diseases such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis and alveolar proteinosis. In addition, WATL is dedicated to educative aims by organising conferences on topics which are not part of main stream respiratory medicine. PMID:24595854

  15. Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).

    PubMed

    Seligman, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ≤11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ≥56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD. PMID:25192973

  16. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Andrea L.; Huber, Victor C.; Chaussee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  17. An Update on the Streptococcus bovis Group: Classification, Identification, and Disease Associations.

    PubMed

    Dekker, John P; Lau, Anna F

    2016-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis group has undergone significant taxonomic changes over the past 2 decades with the advent of new identification methods with higher discriminatory power. Although the current classification system is not yet embraced by all researchers in the field and debate remains over the performance of molecular techniques for identification to the species level within the group, important disease associations for several members of the group have been clarified. Here, we provide a brief overview of the history of the S. bovis group, an outline of the currently accepted classification scheme, a review of associated clinical syndromes, and a summary of the performance and diagnostic accuracy of currently available identification methods. PMID:26912760

  18. Recruitment for a Guided Self-Help Binge Eating Trial: Potential Lessons for Implementing Programs in Everyday Practice Settings

    PubMed Central

    DeBar, Lynn L.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; Wilson, G. Terence; Kraemer, Helena C.; Green, Rory; Lynch, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore effects of various recruitment strategies on randomized clinical trial (RCT)-entry characteristics for patients with eating disorders within an everyday health-plan practice setting. Methods Randomly selected women, aged 25-50, in a Pacific Northwest HMO were invited to complete a self-report binge-eating screener for two treatment trials. We publicized the trials within the health plan to allow self-referral. Here, we report differences on eating-disorder status by mode and nature of recruitment (online, mail, self-referred) and assessment (comprehensive versus abbreviated) and on possible differences in enrollee characteristics between those recruited by strategy (self-referred versus study-outreach efforts). Results Few differences emerged among those recruited through outreach who responded by different modalities (internet versus mail), early-versus-late responders, and those enrolling under more comprehensive or abbreviated assessment. Self-referred were more likely to meet binge-eating thresholds and reported higher average BMI than those recruited by outreach and responding by mail; however, in most respects the groups were more similar than anticipated. Fewer than 1% of those initially contacted through outreach enrolled. Conclusions Aggressive outreach and screening is likely not feasible for broader dissemination in everyday practice settings and recruits individuals with more similar demographic and clinical characteristics to those recruited through more abbreviated and realistic screening procedures than anticipated. PMID:19275947

  19. Effect of Duration of Disease on Ventilatory Function in an Ethnic Saudi Group of Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan A.; Al Drees, Abdul Majeed; Ahmed, Jehangeer; Ahmed Shah, Sayed Fayaz; Al-Regaiey, Khalid; Husain, Ashraf; Al-Rubean, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of illness and death across the world and is responsible for a growing proportion of global health care expenditures. The present study was designed to observe the effect of diabetes mellitus on lung function in patients with diabetes belonging to a specific ethnic group, namely Saudis. Method In this study, a group of 47 apparently healthy volunteer male Saudi patients with diabetes was randomly selected. Their ages ranged from 20 to 70 years. The patients were matched with another group of 50 healthy male control subjects in terms of age, height, weight, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Both groups met exclusion criteria as per standard. Spirometry was performed with an electronic spirometer (Schiller AT-2 Plus, Switzerland), and results were compared by a Student's t test. Results Subjects with diabetes showed a significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) relative to their matched controls. However, there were no significant differences in the forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC%) and the middle half of the FVC (FEF25–75%) between the groups. We observed a significantly negative correlation between duration of disease and pulmonary function, as measured by FEV1 (r = 0.258, p = 0.04), FVC (r = 0.282, p = 0.28), and the middle half of the FVC (FEF25–75%) (r = 0.321, p = 0.014). Conclusions Pulmonary function in a specific ethnic group of patients with diabetes was impaired as evidenced by a decrease in FVC and FEV1 compared to pulmonary function in matched controls. Stratification of results by years of disease revealed a significant correlation between duration of disease and a decline in pulmonary function. PMID:19885139

  20. Detection of Alzheimer's disease using group lasso SVM-based region selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuo; Fan, Yong; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van de Giessen, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequent forms of dementia and an increasing challenging public health problem. In the last two decades, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown potential in distinguishing patients with Alzheimer's disease and elderly controls (CN). To obtain AD-specific biomarkers, previous research used either statistical testing to find statistically significant different regions between the two clinical groups, or l1 sparse learning to select isolated features in the image domain. In this paper, we propose a new framework that uses structural MRI to simultaneously distinguish the two clinical groups and find the bio-markers of AD, using a group lasso support vector machine (SVM). The group lasso term (mixed l1- l2 norm) introduces anatomical information from the image domain into the feature domain, such that the resulting set of selected voxels are more meaningful than the l1 sparse SVM. Because of large inter-structure size variation, we introduce a group specific normalization factor to deal with the structure size bias. Experiments have been performed on a well-designed AD vs. CN dataset1 to validate our method. Comparing to the l1 sparse SVM approach, our method achieved better classification performance and a more meaningful biomarker selection. When we vary the training set, the selected regions by our method were more stable than the l1 sparse SVM. Classification experiments showed that our group normalization lead to higher classification accuracy with fewer selected regions than the non-normalized method. Comparing to the state-of-art AD vs. CN classification methods, our approach not only obtains a high accuracy with the same dataset, but more importantly, we simultaneously find the brain anatomies that are closely related to the disease.

  1. Epidemiology of Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in Alberta, Canada, from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Alhhazmi, Areej; Hurteau, Donna; Tyrrell, Gregory J

    2016-07-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) cause severe invasive disease in both neonates and adults. Understanding the epidemiology of GBS provides information that can include determining disease prevalence rates in defined populations and geographic regions, documenting the success of GBS screening programs, and understanding antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. In Alberta, only neonatal invasive GBS (iGBS) disease is notifiable to health authorities. We performed a surveillance study of iGBS in Alberta, Canada, from 2003 to 2013. Over the 11-year period, the disease incidence rate increased from a low of 3.92 cases/100,000 population to a high of 5.99 cases/100,000 population. The capsular polysaccharide serotypes (CPSs) found were CPS III (20.3%), CPS V (19.1%), CPS Ia (18.9%), CPS Ib (12.7%), CPS II (11.1%), CPS IV (6.3%), and nontypeable GBS (9.4%). Rates of early-onset disease (0 to 7 days) increased from 0.15 cases/1,000 live births (in 2003) to 0.34 cases/1,000 live births (in 2013). Rates of late-onset disease (>7 to 90 days) also rose, from 0.15 cases/1,000 live births (in 2003) to 0.39 cases/1,000 live births (in 2013). Alberta also experienced an increase in CPS IV isolates, from 2 cases (in 2003) to 24 cases (in 2013), of which the majority were hvgA positive (86.6%). The predominant sequence type (ST) in 2013 was ST459. Erythromycin resistance rose from 23.6% to 43.9% (in 2013). Clindamycin resistance also increased, from 12.2% to 32.5%. In summary, Alberta, Canada, has experienced an increase in GBS disease; the increase includes both neonatal and adult disease. CPS IV cases also notably increased during the surveillance period, as did resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. PMID:27098960

  2. The role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingjie; Guan, Xiaofeng; Zuo, Xiaocong; Wang, Jianglin; Yin, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that can bind to DNA and act as a co-factor for gene transcription. When released into extracellular fluid, it plays a proinflammatory role by acting as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP) (also known as an alarmin) to initiate innate immune responses by activating multiple cell surface receptors such as the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR2, TLR4 or TLR9. This proinflammatory role is now considered to be important in the pathogenesis of a wide range of kidney diseases whether they result from hemodynamic changes, renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, kidney tissue fibrosis or inflammation. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of HMGB1 in kidney diseases and how the HMGB1-mediated signaling pathway may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of kidney diseases. PMID:27175328

  3. The role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingjie; Guan, Xiaofeng; Zuo, Xiaocong; Wang, Jianglin; Yin, Wenjun

    2016-05-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that can bind to DNA and act as a co-factor for gene transcription. When released into extracellular fluid, it plays a proinflammatory role by acting as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP) (also known as an alarmin) to initiate innate immune responses by activating multiple cell surface receptors such as the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR2, TLR4 or TLR9. This proinflammatory role is now considered to be important in the pathogenesis of a wide range of kidney diseases whether they result from hemodynamic changes, renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, kidney tissue fibrosis or inflammation. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of HMGB1 in kidney diseases and how the HMGB1-mediated signaling pathway may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of kidney diseases. PMID:27175328

  4. Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Kien Hoa; Trüschel, Anna; Jarl, Linnea; Magnusson, Susanna; Windahl, Tove; Johansson, Robert; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of two smartphone-delivered treatments: one based on behavioural activation (BA) and other on mindfulness. Design Parallel randomised controlled, open, trial. Participants were allocated using an online randomisation tool, handled by an independent person who was separate from the staff conducting the study. Setting General community, with recruitment nationally through mass media and advertisements. Participants 40 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder received a BA treatment, and 41 participants received a mindfulness treatment. 9 participants were lost at the post-treatment. Intervention BA: An 8-week long behaviour programme administered via a smartphone application. Mindfulness: An 8-week long mindfulness programme, administered via a smartphone application. Main outcome measures The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9). Results 81 participants were randomised (mean age 36.0 years (SD=10.8)) and analysed. Results showed no significant interaction effects of group and time on any of the outcome measures either from pretreatment to post-treatment or from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the BA treatment was more effective than the mindfulness treatment among participants with higher initial severity of depression from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 362.1)=5.2, p<0.05). In contrast, the mindfulness treatment worked better than the BA treatment among participants with lower initial severity from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 69.3)=7.7, p<0.01); BDI-II: (F(1, 53.60)=6.25, p<0.05). Conclusions The two interventions did not differ significantly from one another. For participants with higher severity of depression, the treatment based on BA was superior to the treatment based on mindfulness. For participants with lower initial severity, the

  5. Absence of Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Diseases among Lacandonians, a Pure Amerindian Ethnic Group in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores, Jose; González, Silvia; Morales, Ximena; Yescas, Petra; Ochoa, Adriana; Corona, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants. PMID:22973516

  6. Absence of Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Diseases among Lacandonians, a Pure Amerindian Ethnic Group in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Jose; González, Silvia; Morales, Ximena; Yescas, Petra; Ochoa, Adriana; Corona, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants. PMID:22973516

  7. International Myeloma Working Group consensus criteria for response and minimal residual disease assessment in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji; Paiva, Bruno; Anderson, Kenneth C; Durie, Brian; Landgren, Ola; Moreau, Philippe; Munshi, Nikhil; Lonial, Sagar; Bladé, Joan; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Kastritis, Efstathios; Boccadoro, Mario; Orlowski, Robert; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Spencer, Andrew; Hou, Jian; Chng, Wee Joo; Usmani, Saad Z; Zamagni, Elena; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Jagannath, Sundar; Johnsen, Hans E; Terpos, Evangelos; Reiman, Anthony; Kyle, Robert A; Sonneveld, Pieter; Richardson, Paul G; McCarthy, Philip; Ludwig, Heinz; Chen, Wenming; Cavo, Michele; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Hillengass, Jens; Palumbo, Antonio; Orfao, Alberto; Rajkumar, S Vincent; San Miguel, Jesus; Avet-Loiseau, Herve

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of multiple myeloma has substantially changed over the past decade with the introduction of several classes of new effective drugs that have greatly improved the rates and depth of response. Response criteria in multiple myeloma were developed to use serum and urine assessment of monoclonal proteins and bone marrow assessment (which is relatively insensitive). Given the high rates of complete response seen in patients with multiple myeloma with new treatment approaches, new response categories need to be defined that can identify responses that are deeper than those conventionally defined as complete response. Recent attempts have focused on the identification of residual tumour cells in the bone marrow using flow cytometry or gene sequencing. Furthermore, sensitive imaging techniques can be used to detect the presence of residual disease outside of the bone marrow. Combining these new methods, the International Myeloma Working Group has defined new response categories of minimal residual disease negativity, with or without imaging-based absence of extramedullary disease, to allow uniform reporting within and outside clinical trials. In this Review, we clarify several aspects of disease response assessment, along with endpoints for clinical trials, and highlight future directions for disease response assessments. PMID:27511158

  8. Demographics and Disease Prevalence of Two New Refugee Groups in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, Brigid R.; DeLay, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Of all the Ethiopian (N=110) and Afghan (N=59)refugees seen at the Refugee Screening Clinic at San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center between May 1982 and July 1983, most were young men and more than 80% of each group were unable to speak English. The most frequently noted medical conditions in both groups were pathogenic parasites, dental caries and skin disorders. Most had positive PPD tests, but only a few cases of class A or class B tuberculosis were found. Among the Ethiopians two active cases each of Plasmodium vivax malaria and trachoma were diagnosed. Although a wide range of diseases were seen, most were common rather than exotic. In addition to the need for translators, traditional beliefs and customs must be sensitively considered when providing health care to these groups. PMID:4036130

  9. Group comparison of spatiotemporal dynamics of intrinsic networks in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Askren, Mary K; Zhang, Jing; Leverenz, James B; Montine, Thomas J; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    right insula, an area implicated in network shifting and associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, was more highly correlated with both these networks in Parkinson's disease than in controls. In Parkinson's disease, increased correlation of the insula with the default mode network was related to lower attentional accuracy. We demonstrated that in an omnibus sense, correlations among network kernels describe biological impact of pathophysiological processes (through correlation with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers) and clinical status (by classification of patient group). At a greater level of detail, we demonstrate aberrant involvement of the insula in the default mode network and the frontal frontoparietal task control network kernel. Network kernel analysis holds promise as a sensitive method for detecting biologically and clinical relevant changes to specific networks that support cognition and are impaired in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26173859

  10. Insights into Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Human Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Karta, Maya R; Broide, David H; Doherty, Taylor A

    2016-01-01

    Recent discoveries have led to the identification of a novel group of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The members of this group are divided into three subpopulations: ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s. ILC2s produce Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, upon activation by epithelial cell-derived cytokines, lipid mediators (cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2), and TNF family member TL1A and promote structural and immune cell responses in the airways after antigen exposure. In addition, ILC2 function is also influenced by inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS)/ICOS-ligand (ICOS-L) interactions via direct contact between immune cells. The most common airway antigens are allergens and viruses which are highly linked to the induction of airway diseases with underlying type 2 inflammation including asthma and allergic rhinitis. Based on recent findings linking ILC2s and airway Th2 responses, there is intensive investigation into the role of ILC2s in human disease with the hope of a better understanding of the pathophysiology and the discovery of novel potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the recent advances made in elucidating ILC2 involvement in human Th2 airway disease. PMID:26746844

  11. Patients Presenting with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Epidemiological Features by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged ≥ 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease. PMID:26839469

  12. Therapeutic potential of targeting group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Duty, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Current drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), for example, L-DOPA and dopamine agonists, are very effective at reversing the motor symptoms of the disease. However, they do little to combat the underlying degeneration of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and their long-term use is associated with the appearance of adverse effects such as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Much emphasis has therefore been placed on finding alternative non-dopaminergic drugs that may circumvent some or all of these problems. Group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were first identified in the basal ganglia a decade ago. One or more of these receptors (mGlu4, mGlu7 or mGlu8) is found on pre-synaptic terminals of basal ganglia pathways whose overactivity is implicated not only in the generation of motor symptoms in PD, but also in driving the progressive SNc degeneration. The finding that drugs which activate group III mGlu receptors can inhibit transmission across these overactive synapses has lead to the proposal that group III mGlu receptors are promising targets for drug discovery in PD. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the role and target potential of group III mGlu receptors in the basal ganglia. Overwhelming evidence obtained from in vitro studies and animal models of PD supports group III mGlu receptors as potentially important drug targets for providing both symptom relief and neuroprotection in PD. PMID:20735415

  13. Association of elevated levels of cellular lipoteichoic acids of group B streptococci with human neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Nealon, T J; Mattingly, S J

    1983-01-01

    Cell-associated lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) from late-exponential-phase cultures (serotypes Ia, Ib, Ic, II, and III) of group B streptococci isolated from infected and asymptomatically colonized infants were quantitated and characterized by growing the organisms in a chemically defined medium containing [3H]glycerol and [14C]acetate. Cell pellets were extracted with 45% aqueous phenol and chloroform-methanol and subjected to DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography. Elution profiles resolved three major peaks, I, II, and III, with glycerol and phosphate present in a 1:1 molar ratio in each peak, and results obtained by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion analysis confirmed the presence of poly(glycerol phosphate). Saponification indicated that [14C]acetate was incorporated into fatty acids of peaks I and II only, suggesting that these were cell-associated LTAs. Peak II was of small molecular weight (less than 10,000) and probably represented another species of LTA. Peaks I and II were further demonstrated to be LTA by their ability to sensitize human type O erythrocytes. Peak III lacked fatty acids and was shown to probably be deacylated LTA. Quantitation of cell-associated teichoic acid material produced by the group B streptococcal strains indicated that the clinical isolates from infants with early- or late-onset disease possessed significantly higher levels than did the asymptomatic (clinical isolates from infants without symptoms of disease) group B streptococcal strains. Images PMID:6341233

  14. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: New Players in Human Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, TA; Broide, DH

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by tissue eosinophilia, mucus secretion, IgE production, and activation of mast cells and TH2 cells. Production of TH2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 has mainly been attributed to CD4+ TH2 cells. However, the recent discovery of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in humans and findings from experimental disease models have challenged conventional concepts associated with the contribution of specific cells to type 2 inflammation in allergic diseases. ILC2s produce high levels of TH2 cytokines and have been detected in human lung tissue, peripheral blood, the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and sinonasal tissue, suggesting that ILC2s could contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and gastrointestinal allergic disease. Moreover, depletion of ILC2s in animal models suggests a role for these cells in atopic dermatitis and asthma. This review will focus on the role of ILC2s in human allergy and asthma and provide a mechanistic insight from animal models. PMID:25898689

  15. [Experience of using bacterial lysate IRS 19 for the prophylaxis of the diseases of respiratory organs in organized groups].

    PubMed

    Volgin, A R; Demina, Iu V

    2005-01-01

    To solve the problem of unfavorable sanitary and epidemiological situation in diseases of respiratory organs in one of the organized groups in the Moscow region, a preparation prepared from a group of curative vaccines, IRS 19, was used. For controlling the effectiveness of its prophylactic action two groups of 250 persons were formed. As a result, morbidity rate in respiratory diseases decreased 2.5-3 times. In 1.5 months after the use of the preparation was started the coefficient of protection against the whole group of diseases of respiratory organs was 70%. PMID:16028523

  16. [Late-onset Group B Streptococcus disease in twins delivered by caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Escolano Serrano, S; Ruiz Alcántara, I; Alfonso Diego, J; González Muñoz, A; Gastaldo Simeón, E

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal pathogen of the gut microflora with a well-established role in the aetiology of early and late onset GBS infections in the newborn. The incidence of early onset infections by vertical transmission has been drastically reduced in recent decades with the use of intravenous intrapartum prophylaxis. Progress in risk factor detection and prophylaxis of late-onset infection has however remained static. The ongoing modifications and improvements of the guidelines regarding prophylaxis, risk factors and prevention of the early-onset GBS disease have not addressed late-onset GBS infection in detail. The following cases illustrate the presence of grey areas in current guidelines and in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of late-onset disease. PMID:24588958

  17. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in South Africa: Importance of Surveillance Methodology.

    PubMed

    Quan, Vanessa; Verani, Jennifer R; Cohen, Cheryl; von Gottberg, Anne; Meiring, Susan; Cutland, Clare L; Schrag, Stephanie J; Madhi, Shabir A

    2016-01-01

    Data on neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) invasive disease burden are needed to refine prevention policies. Differences in surveillance methods and investigating for cases can lead to varying disease burden estimates. We compared the findings of laboratory-based passive surveillance for GBS disease across South Africa, and for one of the provinces compared this to a real-time, systematic, clinical surveillance in a population-defined region in Johannesburg, Soweto. Passive surveillance identified a total of 799 early-onset disease (EOD, <7 days age) and 818 LOD (late onset disease, 7-89 days age) cases nationwide. The passive surveillance provincial incidence varied for EOD (range 0.00 to 1.23/1000 live births), and was 0.03 to 1.04/1000 live births for LOD. The passive surveillance rates for Soweto, were not significantly different compared to those from the systematic surveillance (EOD 1.23 [95%CI 1.06-1.43] vs. 1.50 [95%CI 1.30-1.71], respectively, rate ratio 0.82 [95%CI 0.67-1.01]; LOD 1.04 [95% CI 0.90-1.23] vs. 1.22 [95%CI 1.05-1.42], rate ratio 0.85 [95% CI 0.68-1.07]). A review of the few cases missed in the passive system in Soweto, suggested that missing key identifiers, such as date of birth, resulted in their omission during the electronic data extraction process. Our analysis suggests that passive surveillance provides a modestly lower estimate of invasive GBS rates compared to real time sentinel-site systematic surveillance, however, this is unlikely to be the reason for the provincial variability in incidence of invasive GBS disease in South Africa. This, possibly reflects that invasive GBS disease goes undiagnosed due to issues related to access to healthcare, poor laboratory capacity and varying diagnostic procedures or empiric antibiotic treatment of neonates with suspected sepsis in the absence of attempting to making a microbiological diagnosis. An efficacious GBS vaccine for pregnant women, when available, could be used as a probe to better

  18. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in South Africa: Importance of Surveillance Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Cheryl; von Gottberg, Anne; Meiring, Susan; Cutland, Clare L.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Madhi, Shabir A.

    2016-01-01

    Data on neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) invasive disease burden are needed to refine prevention policies. Differences in surveillance methods and investigating for cases can lead to varying disease burden estimates. We compared the findings of laboratory-based passive surveillance for GBS disease across South Africa, and for one of the provinces compared this to a real-time, systematic, clinical surveillance in a population-defined region in Johannesburg, Soweto. Passive surveillance identified a total of 799 early-onset disease (EOD, <7 days age) and 818 LOD (late onset disease, 7–89 days age) cases nationwide. The passive surveillance provincial incidence varied for EOD (range 0.00 to 1.23/1000 live births), and was 0.03 to 1.04/1000 live births for LOD. The passive surveillance rates for Soweto, were not significantly different compared to those from the systematic surveillance (EOD 1.23 [95%CI 1.06–1.43] vs. 1.50 [95%CI 1.30–1.71], respectively, rate ratio 0.82 [95%CI 0.67–1.01]; LOD 1.04 [95% CI 0.90–1.23] vs. 1.22 [95%CI 1.05–1.42], rate ratio 0.85 [95% CI 0.68–1.07]). A review of the few cases missed in the passive system in Soweto, suggested that missing key identifiers, such as date of birth, resulted in their omission during the electronic data extraction process. Our analysis suggests that passive surveillance provides a modestly lower estimate of invasive GBS rates compared to real time sentinel-site systematic surveillance, however, this is unlikely to be the reason for the provincial variability in incidence of invasive GBS disease in South Africa. This, possibly reflects that invasive GBS disease goes undiagnosed due to issues related to access to healthcare, poor laboratory capacity and varying diagnostic procedures or empiric antibiotic treatment of neonates with suspected sepsis in the absence of attempting to making a microbiological diagnosis. An efficacious GBS vaccine for pregnant women, when available, could be used as a

  19. Graded Exercise Therapy Guided Self-Help Trial for Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (GETSET): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial and Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    McCrone, Paul; Ridge, Damien; Cheshire, Anna; Vergara-Williamson, Mario; Pesola, Francesca; White, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome, also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), is characterized by chronic disabling fatigue and other symptoms, which are not explained by an alternative diagnosis. Previous trials have suggested that graded exercise therapy (GET) is an effective and safe treatment. GET itself is therapist-intensive with limited availability. Objective While guided self-help based on cognitive behavior therapy appears helpful to patients, Guided graded Exercise Self-help (GES) is yet to be tested. Methods This pragmatic randomized controlled trial is set within 2 specialist CFS/ME services in the South of England. Adults attending secondary care clinics with National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)-defined CFS/ME (N=218) will be randomly allocated to specialist medical care (SMC) or SMC plus GES while on a waiting list for therapist-delivered rehabilitation. GES will consist of a structured booklet describing a 6-step graded exercise program, supported by up to 4 face-to-face/telephone/Skype™ consultations with a GES-trained physiotherapist (no more than 90 minutes in total) over 8 weeks. The primary outcomes at 12-weeks after randomization will be physical function (SF-36 physical functioning subscale) and fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes will include healthcare costs, adverse outcomes, and self-rated global impression change scores. We will follow up all participants until 1 year after randomization. We will also undertake qualitative interviews of a sample of participants who received GES, looking at perceptions and experiences of those who improved and worsened. Results The project was funded in 2011 and enrolment was completed in December 2014, with follow-up completed in March 2016. Data analysis is currently underway and the first results are expected to be submitted soon. Conclusions This study will indicate whether adding GES to SMC will benefit patients who often spend many months

  20. Social positioning by people with Alzheimer's disease in a support group.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Ragnhild; Hellström, Ingrid; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Hansebo, Görel; Norberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often negatively positioned by others, resulting in difficulties upholding a positive sense of self. This might cause them to withdraw socially and apparently 'lose their minds'. Conversely, the sense of self can be strengthened with the support from others. This study aimed to describe, in accordance with positioning theory, how people with moderate AD positioned themselves and each other in a support group for people with AD. We describe five first-order positions; the project manager, the storyteller, the moral agent, the person burdened with AD, and the coping person. In the interactions that followed among the support group participants, those positions were mainly affirmed. This enabled participants to construct strong and agentic personae, and to have the severity of their illness acknowledged. Despite their language impairment participants managed to position and reposition themselves and others by assistance of the trained facilitator. PMID:24384363

  1. [The prevalence of epidemic diseases in Inner Mongolia region and the social vicissitude of Mongolian ethnic group].

    PubMed

    Tan, Gang

    2013-03-01

    Since modern times, due to the natural environment, medical and health conditions, living habits and other reasons, the diseases were prevalent in the region of Inner Mongolia, including fulminating infectious diseases like plague; chronic diseases like syphilis, trachoma; along with many common chronic disorders like stomach disease and rheumatism etc. The high incidence of some of these diseases in Inner Mongolia region, especially plague and venereal diseases, greatly affected the growth of the population of Mongolian ethnic group in modern times, and also seriously hindered the development of social economy in this region. PMID:24135476

  2. International Myeloma Working Group Recommendations for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma–Related Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Terpos, Evangelos; Morgan, Gareth; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Drake, Matthew T.; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Raje, Noopur; Sezer, Orhan; García-Sanz, Ramón; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Turesson, Ingemar; Reiman, Tony; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Merlini, Giampaolo; Spencer, Andrew; Leleu, Xavier; Cavo, Michele; Munshi, Nikhil; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Durie, Brian G.M.; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the International Myeloma Working Group was to develop practice recommendations for the management of multiple myeloma (MM) –related bone disease. Methodology An interdisciplinary panel of clinical experts on MM and myeloma bone disease developed recommendations based on published data through August 2012. Expert consensus was used to propose additional recommendations in situations where there were insufficient published data. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendations were assigned and approved by panel members. Recommendations Bisphosphonates (BPs) should be considered in all patients with MM receiving first-line antimyeloma therapy, regardless of presence of osteolytic bone lesions on conventional radiography. However, it is unknown if BPs offer any advantage in patients with no bone disease assessed by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Intravenous (IV) zoledronic acid (ZOL) or pamidronate (PAM) is recommended for preventing skeletal-related events in patients with MM. ZOL is preferred over oral clodronate in newly diagnosed patients with MM because of its potential antimyeloma effects and survival benefits. BPs should be administered every 3 to 4 weeks IV during initial therapy. ZOL or PAM should be continued in patients with active disease and should be resumed after disease relapse, if discontinued in patients achieving complete or very good partial response. BPs are well tolerated, but preventive strategies must be instituted to avoid renal toxicity or osteonecrosis of the jaw. Kyphoplasty should be considered for symptomatic vertebral compression fractures. Low-dose radiation therapy can be used for palliation of uncontrolled pain, impending pathologic fracture, or spinal cord compression. Orthopedic consultation should be sought for long-bone fractures, spinal cord compression, and vertebral column instability. PMID:23690408

  3. von Willebrand Factor Propeptide: A Potential Disease Biomarker Not Affected by ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Marianor, Mahat; Zaidah, Abdullah Wan; Maraina, CH Che

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that vascular-related disorders are associated with high von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF propeptide (VWFpp). VWFpp is secreted together with VWF:Ag upon endothelial cell activation, hence it could be a potential biomarker. This study was conducted to compare between VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels among 30 healthy individuals and 42 patients with high levels of VWF:Ag in different medical conditions and ABO blood groups. VWFpp levels were strongly correlated with VWF:Ag. VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy individuals. VWFpp is not affected by ABO blood group in both healthy individual and patient groups unlike VWF:Ag. As expected, this study showed that VWFpp levels increased in parallel with VWF:Ag levels in patients with diseases associated with endothelial activation. VWFpp though nonspecific is a potential biomarker reflecting underlying pathophysiological changes in various medical conditions with an additional advantage of not being influenced by ABO blood groups. PMID:26339184

  4. Selling an Energy Efficiency Loan Portfolio in Oregon: Resale of the Craft3 loan portfolio to Self-Help Credit Union

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Peter; Borgeson, Merrian; Kramer, Chris; Zimring, Mark; Goldman, Charles

    2014-05-30

    Under the Clean Energy Works (CEW) program, Craft3 developed a loan product that widened access to financing for homeowners, offered long term funding, and collected repayments through the customer?s utility bill. The program?s success led Craft3 to pursue the sale of the loan portfolio to both mitigate its own risks and replenish funds for lending. This sale breaks new ground for energy efficiency finance and is notable as it was completed even with many novel program design elements. It replenished Craft3?s program capital and uncovered some valuable lessons that may facilitate future transactions. However, the lack of data history and the unproven nature of the loan portfolio meant that Craft3 had to limit the risk of losses to Self-Help, the purchaser of the portfolio. It remains to be seen whether this experience will pave the way for more sales of on-bill energy efficiency loan portfolios. This case study illustrates how certain program design decisions can sometimes both facilitate programmatic objectives and possibly present challenges for the sale of a portfolio of energy efficiency loans.

  5. Health Social Networks as Online Life Support Groups for Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Edhelmira Lima; Loques, Orlando; Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco

    2013-01-01

    The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences. PMID:24030085

  6. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  7. THE BURDEN OF INVASIVE NEONATAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL (GBS) DISEASE IN THAILAND AND THE PHILIPPINES.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Uy, Ma Esterlita; Wongsiridej, Pimol; Sangtawesin, Varaporn; Chiu, Vivina; Tallo, Veronica; Nazaire-Bermal, Nancy; Bock, Hans; Cunnington, Marianne; Nan, Cassandra; Boudville, Irving

    2015-07-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in infancy, but burden of disease data are scarce for Asia. We performed two hospital-based, prospective, descriptive, observational studies using similar protocols in the Philippines and Thailand to evaluate neonatal GBS disease epidemiology. Infants aged <90 days with a GBS-positive culture from normally sterile sites using routine microbiological standards were eligible for inclusion. Awareness of GBS symptoms was raised by informing all women at delivery and follow-up for 90 days post-delivery. Infections were classified as early onset disease (EOD) if they occurred within 6 days of birth and late Onset disease (LOD) if they occurred 7-89 days after birth. Due to ethical requirements in Thailand, consent for study participation, including periodic post-discharge telephone calls, was obtained at delivery. Parents in the Philippines gave consent for study participation at case identification. The clinical outcomes of GBS infections were recorded. During the 6-month study period, two cases (one fatal) of EOD were identified among 8,409 live births at the study hospitals in Thailand and three cases (two fatal) of EOD were identified among 11,768 live births reported at the study hospitals in the Philippines. Incidence rates per 1,000 live births were 0.2 (95% CI: 0.0-0.8) and 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1-0.8) in Thailand and the Philippines, respectively. There were no cases of reported LOD. The low number of cases precluded analysis of serotype distribution and case fatality rates. Large epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the factors influencing GBS infection incidence in Asia. PMID:26867393

  8. Adherence to prescribed medications of Iranian traditional medicine in a group of patients with chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem; Rassouli, Maryam; Sadighi, Jila; Ghods, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The extent to which a person's health-related behavior corresponds with medical instructions (adherence) is an important modifier of health system effectiveness. This study was designed to determine the patients’ adherence to Iranian traditional medicine in a group of patients with chronic disease. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to enroll 320 patients with chronic diseases from January 2014 to January 2015 in clinics of traditional medicine affiliated with medical universities in Tehran. Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was used to measure the adherence. After describing the variables and the frequency of adherence, logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influencing factors. Findings: Mean age was 40.8 (standard deviation [SD] =13) years. The mean of the duration of disease was 54.6 (SD = 56.1) months and mean of the duration of referring to the clinics 6.5 (SD = 6.9) months. Total score of MMAS was zero in 33 (10.3%) of patients (high adherence), one or two in 128 (40%) of patients (moderate adherence), and more than two in 159 (49.7%) of patients (low adherence). Forgetfulness, bad taste, not availability, and the high cost of the drugs were the most commonly reported causes of non-adherence. Adherence was associated with age (odds ratio [OR] =1.05, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1–1.1), marriage (OR = 10.8, 95% CI 2.05–57.6), number of prescribed drugs (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02–0.14), and duration of disease (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 1–1.02). Conclusion: Considering the low adherence in users of medications of Iranian traditional medicine, health care practitioners need to be trained in adherence and the influencing factors and also to use some interventions to increase the adherence. PMID:26985436

  9. The ABO, Lewis or P blood group phenotypes are not associated with recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Sigler, E; Fenakel, K

    1991-01-01

    An assumption that ABO, Lewis, or P blood group phenotypes are associated with recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in a similar way as with recurrent urinary tract infection has been tried to establish. Of 20 patients with PID 9 (45%) had blood type A, 6 (30%) type B, 1 (5%) type AB and 4 (20%) type O; 14 (70%) had Le(a-b+), 5 (25%) had Le(a+b-), and 1 (5%) had Le(a-b-). Of the 20 controls 10 (50%) had blood type A, 3 (15%) type B, 1 (5%) type AB and 6 (30%) type O; 12 (60%) had Le(a-b+), 4 (20%) had Le(a+b-), and 4 (20%) had Le(a-b-). The difference in the proportions of the A, B, AB, and O phenotypes as well as the proportion of combined recessive and nonsecretor phenotype Le(a+/-b-) between patients with recurrent PID and controls were not statistically significant. The distribution was consistent with that in the general population. 2 of the patient group (10%) and 6 (30%) of the controls had positive blood type P1 (Fisher's exact probability = 0.0958). The distribution of P1 between the patients and controls was opposite to that in the general population. We could not demonstrate association of ABO, Lewis or P blood group phenotypes with recurrent PID. PMID:2071054

  10. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  11. The relationship between ABO blood group and cardiovascular disease: results from the Cardiorisk program

    PubMed Central

    Capuzzo, Enrico; Bonfanti, Carlo; Frattini, Francesco; Montorsi, Paolo; Turdo, Rosalia; Previdi, Maria Grazia; Turrini, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group exerts a profound influence on hemostasis, and it has hence been associated with the development of thrombotic cardiovascular adverse events. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the ABO blood group and the risk of cardiovascular disease assessed with the Cardiorisk score. Methods All blood donors aged between 35 and 65 years were enrolled in the Cardiorisk program, which included the assessment of 8 variables (sex, age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, plasma glucose, arterial blood pressure, anti-hypertensive therapy and smoking) which were used to generate a score. Individuals with a resulting score ≥20, considered at high cardiovascular risk, underwent additional instrumental tests (chest X-ray, stress electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound of supra-aortic trunks) and were closely clinically monitored. Results Between January 2005 and December 2015, 289 blood donors with Cardiorisk ≥20 were identified, 249 of whom were included in the study with at least 2 years of follow-up. Among these, 36 (14.5%) had instrumental abnormality tests and developed adverse cardiovascular events (10 acute coronary syndrome, 2 cerebral ischemia, 3 cardiac arrhythmia, 8 stenosis of supra-aortic trunks or iliac arteries) during a median follow-up of 5.3 years. In this group of 249 high risk individuals, a statistically significant association (P=0.02) was found between the non-O blood type and the risk of developing subclinical or clinical cardiovascular events (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1–10.1; P=0.033). Conclusions The results of this study underline the both key role of ABO blood group for the risk of developing arterial thrombotic events and the need for including such unmodifiable variable on the scores assessing the thrombotic risk. PMID:27294085

  12. Efficacy of an internet-based self-help intervention to reduce co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. Methods and analysis This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions’ cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. Trial registration

  13. Serotype-specific outbreak of group B meningococcal disease in Iquique, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, C.; Pavez, G.; Aguilar, E.; Grawe, L.; Cam, J.; Mendez, F.; Garcia, J.; Ruiz, S.; Vicent, P.; Canepa, I.; Martinez, M.; Boslego, J.; Zollinger, W.; Arthur, J.; Caugant, D.

    1990-01-01

    From 1979 to August 1987, there have been 178 cases of meningococcal disease in Iquique, Chile, a city of about 140000. The attack rate for the last 5 years has been in excess of 20/100000 per year, more than 20 times greater than for the country overall. The mortality rate was 6%. The disease occurred in patients with ages from 4 months to 60 years, but 89% of cases were in patients < 21 years. The largest number of cases were in the age group 5—9 years (n = 54), but the highest incidence occurred in children less than 1 year of age (72·8/100000 per year). The male/female ratio was 1·2. Cases occurred all year round with little seasonal variation. Of the 178 cases, 173 were biologically confirmed. Serogroup analysis of strains from 135 patients revealed A = 1, B = 124, C = 10. Forty-four group B strains from 1985-7 were serotyped: 15:P1.3 = 36, 15:NT = 4, 4:P1.3 = 2, NT:NT = 2. Ten of 11 of the outbreak strains tested were sulfadiazine-resistant. This is the first recognized outbreak caused by a Gp B:15 strain in South America. It shares many of the characteristics of outbreaks caused by closely related strains in Europe, such as a predilection for older children and adolescents, sulfadiazine-resistance, and sustained high attack rates. The Iquique strain (B:15:P1.3) belongs to the same genetic clone (ET-5 complex) as the Norway (B:15:P1.16) and the Cuban (B:4:P1.15) strains. PMID:2116973

  14. RECIST 1.1 - Standardisation and disease-specific adaptations: Perspectives from the RECIST Working Group.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lawrence H; Seymour, Lesley; Litière, Saskia; Ford, Robert; Gwyther, Stephen; Mandrekar, Sumithra; Shankar, Lalitha; Bogaerts, Jan; Chen, Alice; Dancey, Janet; Hayes, Wendy; Hodi, F Stephen; Hoekstra, Otto S; Huang, Erich P; Lin, Nancy; Liu, Yan; Therasse, Patrick; Wolchok, Jedd D; de Vries, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Radiologic imaging of disease sites plays a pivotal role in the management of patients with cancer. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), introduced in 2000, and modified in 2009, has become the de facto standard for assessment of response in solid tumours in patients on clinical trials. The RECIST Working Group considers the ability of the global oncology community to implement and adopt updates to RECIST in a timely manner to be critical. Updates to RECIST must be tested, validated and implemented in a standardised, methodical manner in response to therapeutic and imaging technology advances as well as experience gained by users. This was the case with the development of RECIST 1.1, where an expanded data warehouse was developed to test and validate modifications. Similar initiatives are ongoing, testing RECIST in the evaluation of response to non-cytotoxic agents, immunotherapies, as well as in specific diseases. The RECIST Working Group has previously outlined the level of evidence considered necessary to formally and fully validate new imaging markers as an appropriate end-point for clinical trials. Achieving the optimal level of evidence desired is a difficult feat for phase III trials; this involves a meta-analysis of multiple prospective, randomised multicentre clinical trials. The rationale for modifications should also be considered; the modifications may be proposed to improve surrogacy, to provide a more mechanistic imaging technique, or be designed to improve reproducibility of the imaging biomarker. Here, we present the commonly described modifications of RECIST, each of which is associated with different levels of evidence and validation. PMID:27237360

  15. Radiation therapy in clinical stage I and II Hodgkin's disease. The Princess Margaret Hospital Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Gospodarowicz, M K; Sutcliffe, S B; Bergsagel, D E; Chua, T

    1992-01-01

    A review of the Princess Margaret Hospital experience over the last 20 years in treating clinically staged patients with stage I and II Hodgkin's disease was performed to analyse the impact of patient selection and extended field radiation on relapse and survival. Of the 878 patients with stage I and II Hodgkin's disease, 521 with clinical stages I and II received radiation alone as the initial treatment. The actuarial survival for all stage I and II patients was 85.1% at 5 years and 76.2% at 10 years, and for clinically staged patients treated with radiation alone, 87.2 and 77.6%, respectively. The relapse-free rate (RFR) for all clinical stage I and II patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone was 70.1% at 5 years and 65.8% at 10 years. Significant prognostic factors for RFR and survival included age, stage and histology. In addition, the extent of radiation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for survival as well as for relapse. The RFR for those treated with involved field RT was 58.4% at 5 years and 50.5% at 10 years; for patients treated with mantle RT, 69.9 and 65.6%, and those treated with extended field RT 77.4 and 75.8%, respectively. In a highly selected group of patients with no adverse features, i.e. with stages IA-IIA, lymphocyte predominant or nodular sclerosis histology, erythrocyte sedimentation rate < 40, age < 50, no large mediastinal mass, and no E-lesions--the policy of mantle RT (M) and extended field RT (EF) produced comparable 5-year relapse-free rates (M, 84.9%; EF, 87.1%; P = 0.53). We conclude that a policy of treatment selection based upon clinicopathological prognostic factors and the use of extended field RT confers excellent results in the treatment of clinical stage I and II Hodgkin's disease. PMID:1389522

  16. [Diseases of the digestive system and a system for patient classification: diagnostic-related groups (DRG)].

    PubMed

    Poves Martínez, E

    1996-10-01

    In the last years different classification systems for hospitalized patients have been developed in the United States, that allow to evaluate different aspects of any Hospital: The quality, the efficacy and the efficiency. The classification of "The Diagnosis Related Groups" (DRG) relates the hospitalized patients with the expenses that they generate, and it is the most used in Europe. In the version DRG-All Patient, all the diagnoses and procedures of the hospitalized patients, using the International Classification of Diseases, are divided in to 25 Major Diagnostic Categories (MDC) where each one excludes all the others. We describe the behavior with respect to the age, sex and stay of all the GDR integrated in the CDM 6 and 7: diseases and disorders of the digestive tract, and diseases and disorders of the hepatobiliary system and the pancreas. The study has been carried out with a national data base of two millions of cases seen from 214 acute-care Hospitals. The MDC number 6 is the most frequent, with an important number of patients in the pediatric age; it is more frequent in males; the average stay is 8.59 days and 19 GDR (36.5%) have a variation coefficient greater than one. The other MDC, number 7 is less frequent, the majority of the patients are between 60-80 years of age, the average stay is 12.2 days with a coefficient of variation greater than one in 4 GDR (17.4%). Clinical Services should know the characteristics and behavior of their patients, as well as the comparison with the national data bases. This may allow a control of the quality and the costs by using a common "language" with the managers. PMID:8983307

  17. Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn in a group B African-American infant delivered by a group O mother.

    PubMed

    Drabik-Clary, Kathryn; Reddy, Vishnu V B; Benjamin, William H; Boctor, Fouad N

    2006-01-01

    Maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility is a common hematological problem affecting the newborn. In general, hemolysis is minimal and the clinical course is relatively benign, rarely causing the escalating levels of hyperbilirubinemia and significant anemia commonly associated with Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The incidence of HDN ranges from one in 150 births to 1:3000 births, depending on the degree of anemia and level of serum bilirubin. The etiology of ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (ABO-HDN) is complex because anti-A and anti-B antibodies are composed mainly of IgM. Since only IgG antibodies cross the placenta, those pregnant women with high levels of IgG anti-A,B, anti-A, or anti-B with an ABO incompatible fetus will be the ones to give birth to an infant with ABO-HDN. We describe a case of a B/Rh positive term newborn born to an O/Rh negative African-American mother demonstrating aggressive hemolysis and a robust response of the bone marrow. This case was successfully managed with phototherapy and simple RBC transfusion without the need for exchange transfusion. PMID:16682519

  18. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease. An immunohistochemical analysis of 208 reviewed Hodgkin's disease cases from the German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    von Wasielewski, R.; Werner, M.; Fischer, R.; Hansmann, M. L.; Hübner, K.; Hasenclever, D.; Franklin, J.; Sextro, M.; Diehl, V.; Georgii, A.

    1997-01-01

    There is wide consensus that lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease (LPHD) represents a distinct clinicopathological entity of B-cell origin. However, inconsistent results of immunophenotyping studies and low confirmation rates among multi-center trials pose the question of whether LPHD really expresses heterogeneous marker profiles or whether it represents a mixture of morphologically similar entities. Among 2,836 cases reviewed by the German Hodgkin Study Group, immunophenotyping was performed on 1) cases classified or confirmed as LPHD by the reference panel (n = 104) or 2) cases not confirmed as LPHD but classified as classical HD (cHD) within the reference study trial (n = 104). In most cases, immunohistochemistry revealed a phenotype either LPHD-like (CD20+, CD15-, CD30-, CD45+) or cHD-like (CD15+, CD30+, CD20-, CD45-). In 27 cases, the immunophenotype was not fully conclusive. Additional markers for Epstein-Barr virus and CD57 and in situ hybridization for mRNA light chains allowed for a more clear-cut distinction between LPHD and cHD. However, in 25 of 104 cases, immunohistochemistry disproved the morphological diagnosis of LPHD of the panel experts, whereas 13 cases originally not confirmed as LPHD showed a LPHD-like immunopattern. Immunohistochemically confirmed LPHD cases showed a significantly better freedom from treatment failure (P = 0.033) than cHD; this was not observed in the original study classification based only on morphology (P > 0.05). Significantly better survival for LPHD cases improved from P = 0.047 (original study classification) to P = 0.0071 when classified by immunohistochemistry. Our results show that LPHD is a more immunohistochemical rather than a purely morphological diagnosis. Immunophenotyping of HD biopsies suspected of being LPHD is mandatory when a modified therapy protocol, that is, one different from those used in cHD, is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9060817

  19. Burden of Invasive Group B Streptococcus Disease and Early Neurological Sequelae in South African Infants

    PubMed Central

    Dangor, Ziyaad; Lala, Sanjay G.; Cutland, Clare L.; Koen, Anthonet; Jose, Lisa; Nakwa, Firdose; Ramdin, Tanusha; Fredericks, Joy; Wadula, Jeannette; Madhi, Shabir A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. We aimed to evaluate the burden of invasive early-onset (0–6 days of life, EOD) and late-onset (7–89 days, LOD) GBS disease and subsequent neurological sequelae in infants from a setting with a high prevalence (29.5%) of HIV among pregnant women. Methods A case-control study was undertaken at three secondary-tertiary care public hospitals in Johannesburg. Invasive cases in infants <3 months age were identified by surveillance of laboratories from November 2012 to February 2014. Neurodevelopmental screening was done in surviving cases and controls at 3 and 6 months of age. Results We identified 122 cases of invasive GBS disease over a 12 month period. Although the incidence (per 1,000 live births) of EOD was similar between HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants (1.13 vs. 1.46; p = 0.487), there was a 4.67-fold (95%CI: 2.24–9.74) greater risk for LOD in HIV-exposed infants (2.27 vs. 0.49; p<0.001). Overall, serotypes Ia, Ib and III constituted 75.8% and 92.5% of EOD and LOD, respectively. Risk factors for EOD included offensive draining liquor (adjusted Odds Ratio: 27.37; 95%CI: 1.94–386.50) and maternal GBS bacteriuria (aOR: 8.41; 95%CI: 1.44–49.15), which was also a risk-factor for LOD (aOR: 3.49; 95%CI: 1.17–10.40). The overall case fatality rate among cases was 18.0%. The adjusted odds for neurological sequelae at 6 months age was 13.18-fold (95%CI: 1.44–120.95) greater in cases (13.2%) than controls (0.4%). Discussion The high burden of invasive GBS disease in South Africa, which is also associated with high case fatality rates and significant neurological sequelae among survivors, is partly due to the heightened risk for LOD in infants born to HIV-infected women. An effective trivalent GBS conjugate vaccine targeted at pregnant women could prevent invasive GBS disease in this setting. PMID:25849416

  20. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Farber, Gregory K; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D; Burns, Kristin M; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C; Chung, Wendy K; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H; Forrest, Christopher B; Gaynor, William J; Gaies, Michael G; Go, Alan S; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schwartz, Steven M; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of congenital heart disease data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in congenital heart disease, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the working group. PMID:27045129

  1. Communication and Huntington's Disease: Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups with Persons with Huntington's Disease, Family Members, and Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartelius, Lena; Jonsson, Maria; Rickeberg, Anneli; Laakso, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Background: As an effect of the cognitive, emotional and motor symptoms associated with Huntington's disease, communicative interaction is often dramatically changed. No study has previously included the subjective reports on this subject from individuals with Huntington's disease. Aims: To explore the qualitative aspects of how communication is…

  2. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia – Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. Methods The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. Results There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (P < 0.001), and in 50.0% VTE was the main cause of death. Estimated incidence of VTE in Croatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Conclusion Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden. PMID:26718761

  3. Body composition assessment and coronary heart disease risk factors among college students of three ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Koutoubi, Samer; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study identified and compared anthropometric measurements, body composition and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors among college students of three ethnic groups. METHODS: Subjects were assessed for cardiovascular risk. Body composition analysis was performed using the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). RESULTS: Black non-Hispanic females (30%) were significantly (p < 0.017) more in the "overweight" category compared to white non-Hispanic females (6.7%). Black non-Hispanic females had significantly (p < 0.044) higher percentages of body fat and lower percentages of body lean, and significantly (p < 0.040) lower percentages of body water than white non-Hispanic females. Significant positive correlations were found between CHD Risk Point Standard (CHDRPS) and percentages of body fat in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.005), Hispanic males (p < 0.016) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001). Significant inverse correlations were found between CHDRPS and percentages of body water in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.004), Hispanic males (p < 0.013) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001): body lean in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.005), Hispanic males (p < 0.016) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001); and lean/fat ratio in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.008), Hispanic males (p < 0.030), black non-Hispanic males (p < 0.020) and Hispanic females (p < 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of overweight justifies a high priority for weight control in young adults in an effort to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) later in life. PMID:16035576

  4. Distribution and Determinants of Non Communicable Diseases among Elderly Uyghur Ethnic Group in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xihua; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Tang, Weiming; Ben, Yanli; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Wang, Faxing

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend globally as well as in China. Elderly population are more prone to these NCDs. Situation in China is worse owing to the higher proportion of geriatric population. Burden of NCDs and the role of their socio-demographic and behavioral predictors among these elderly and more so among the ethnic minority groups among them, need to be investigated specifically, owing to their distinct genetic background, lifestyles and behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 randomly selected persons of Uyghur ethnicity, aged 60 years or more in Xinjiang, the largest administrative division in China to measure the burden of NCDs, understand the distribution of socio-demographic, behavioral and life event-related potential correlates of them and to estimate the association of the NCDs with these correlates. Results Among these participants 54.2% were female, 86.8% were married and more than half had only attended elementary school or less. 41.46% was suffering from at least one NCD. 20.22% had one NCD, 12.11% had two and 8.58% had three or more. 27.3% had hypertension, 4.06% had diabetes, 6.02% had hyperlipidemia, 7.37% had angina, 14.52% had cardiovascular diseases, 11.59% had any kind of cancers and 9.78% had chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Rural residents (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.17–1.80, AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.53–2.61) and current smokers had higher odds of having more NCDs (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00–2.34). Additionally not being satisfied with current life, not being able to take care of self in daily life, currently not being involved in farm work, less intake of fresh vegetables, fruits and garlic, too less or too much salt intake, not having hobbies were found to be positively associated with having more NCDs. Conclusion Implementation of effective intervention strategies to promote healthy life styles among the Uyghur elderly population of China seems

  5. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roberta G; Pearson, Gail D; Barst, Robyn J; Child, John S; del Nido, Pedro; Gersony, Welton M; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Myerson, Merle; Neish, Steven R; Sahn, David J; Verstappen, Amy; Warnes, Carole A; Webb, Catherine L

    2006-02-21

    The Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) was convened in September 2004 under the sponsorship of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the Office of Rare Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, to make recommendations on research needs. The purpose of the Working Group was to advise the NHLBI on the current state of the science in ACHD and barriers to optimal clinical care, and to make specific recommendations for overcoming those barriers. The members of the Working Group were chosen to provide expert input on a broad range of research issues from both scientific and lay perspectives. The Working Group reviewed data on the epidemiology of ACHD, long-term outcomes of complex cardiovascular malformations, issues in assessing morphology and function with current imaging techniques, surgical and catheter-based interventions, management of related conditions including pregnancy and arrhythmias, quality of life, and informatics. After research and training barriers were discussed, the Working Group recommended outreach and educational programs for adults with congenital heart disease, a network of specialized adult congenital heart disease regional centers, technology development to support advances in imaging and modeling of abnormal structure and function, and a consensus on appropriate training for physicians to provide care for adults with congenital heart disease. PMID:16487831

  6. Different Risk of Common Gastrointestinal Disease Between Groups Undergoing Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis or With Non-End Stage Renal Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Che; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chang, Min-Yu; Ho, Li-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ching-Fang; Chen, Ho-Ching; Wang, Wei-Ming; Sung, Junne-Ming; Chiou, Yuan-Yow; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2015-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is one type of renal replacement therapy, but potential peritoneal damage and gastrointestinal (GI) tract adverse effects during long-term exposure to bio-incompatible dialysate remain a concern. Although GI disease frequently occurs in dialysis patients, whether the risk of GI diseases differs among PD and hemodialysis (HD) or non-uremic groups is still uncertain.In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database, which includes almost all dialysis patients in Taiwan. Between 2000 and 2009, a total of 1791 PD and 8955 HD incident patients were enrolled and matched for age and sex or for propensity score. In addition, a comparison cohort of 8955 non-uremic patients was also selected. Individuals were monitored for the occurrence of common GI diseases until 2010, and data were analyzed using several different models.Generally speaking, the results showed that the risk of gastroesophageal reflux, intestinal obstruction or adhesions, and abdominal hernia was significantly higher in the PD group, whereas the risk of peptic ulcer disease and lower GI diverticula and bleeding was significantly greater in the HD group. Meanwhile, the risk of mesenteric ischemia, liver cirrhosis, and acute pancreatitis was higher in dialysis patients, but was not significantly different between the PD and HD groups; moreover, the risk of appendicitis in the PD group appeared to be lower than that in the HD group.In conclusion, dialysis patients have a higher risk of most common GI diseases, and PD and HD modalities are associated with different GI diseases. PMID:26356710

  7. Different Risk of Common Gastrointestinal Disease Between Groups Undergoing Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis or With Non-End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Che; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chang, Min-Yu; Ho, Li-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ching-Fang; Chen, Ho-Ching; Wang, Wei-Ming; Sung, Junne-Ming; Chiou, Yuan-Yow; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is one type of renal replacement therapy, but potential peritoneal damage and gastrointestinal (GI) tract adverse effects during long-term exposure to bio-incompatible dialysate remain a concern. Although GI disease frequently occurs in dialysis patients, whether the risk of GI diseases differs among PD and hemodialysis (HD) or non-uremic groups is still uncertain. In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database, which includes almost all dialysis patients in Taiwan. Between 2000 and 2009, a total of 1791 PD and 8955 HD incident patients were enrolled and matched for age and sex or for propensity score. In addition, a comparison cohort of 8955 non-uremic patients was also selected. Individuals were monitored for the occurrence of common GI diseases until 2010, and data were analyzed using several different models. Generally speaking, the results showed that the risk of gastroesophageal reflux, intestinal obstruction or adhesions, and abdominal hernia was significantly higher in the PD group, whereas the risk of peptic ulcer disease and lower GI diverticula and bleeding was significantly greater in the HD group. Meanwhile, the risk of mesenteric ischemia, liver cirrhosis, and acute pancreatitis was higher in dialysis patients, but was not significantly different between the PD and HD groups; moreover, the risk of appendicitis in the PD group appeared to be lower than that in the HD group. In conclusion, dialysis patients have a higher risk of most common GI diseases, and PD and HD modalities are associated with different GI diseases. PMID:26356710

  8. High burden of invasive group A streptococcal disease in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R; Patel, M; Currie, B J; Holt, D C; Harris, T; Krause, V

    2016-04-01

    Although the incidence of invasive group A streptococcal disease in northern Australia is very high, little is known of the regional epidemiology and molecular characteristics. We conducted a case series of Northern Territory residents reported between 2011 and 2013 with Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from a normally sterile site. Of the 128 reported episodes, the incidence was disproportionately high in the Indigenous population at 69·7/100 000 compared to 8·8/100 000 in the non-Indigenous population. Novel to the Northern Territory is the extremely high incidence in haemodialysis patients of 2205·9/100 000 population; and for whom targeted infection control measures could prevent transmission. The incidences in the tropical north and semi-arid Central Australian regions were similar. Case fatality was 8% (10/128) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred in 14 (11%) episodes. Molecular typing of 82 isolates identified 28 emm types, of which 63 (77%) were represented by four emm clusters. Typing confirmed transmission between infant twins. While the diverse range of emm types presents a challenge for effective coverage by vaccine formulations, the limited number of emm clusters raises optimism should cluster-specific cross-protection prove efficacious. Further studies are required to determine effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis for contacts and to inform public health response. PMID:26364646

  9. Sickle cell disease increases high mobility group box 1: a novel mechanism of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Wandersee, Nancy J.; Guo, YiHe; Jones, Deron W.; Holzhauer, Sandra L.; Hanson, Madelyn S.; Machogu, Evans; Brousseau, David C.; Hogg, Neil; Densmore, John C.; Kaul, Sushma; Hillery, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a chromatin-binding protein that maintains DNA structure. On cellular activation or injury, HMGB1 is released from activated immune cells or necrotic tissues and acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Little is known concerning HMGB1 release and TLR4 activity and their role in the pathology of inflammation of sickle cell disease (SCD). Circulating HMGB1 levels were increased in both humans and mice with SCD compared with controls. Furthermore, sickle plasma increased HMGB1-dependent TLR4 activity compared with control plasma. HMGB1 levels were further increased during acute sickling events (vasoocclusive crises in humans or hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in mice). Anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibodies reduced the majority of sickle plasma-induced TLR4 activity both in vitro and in vivo. These findings show that HMGB1 is the major TLR4 ligand in SCD and likely plays a critical role in SCD-mediated inflammation. PMID:25339362

  10. Screening for celiac disease in the general population and in high-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    Card, Timothy R; Kaukinen, Katri; Bai, Julio; Zingone, Fabiana; Sanders, David S; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) occurs in approximately 1% of the Western population. It is a lifelong disorder that is associated with impaired quality of life (QOL) and an excessive risk of comorbidity and death. Objectives To review the literature on screening for CD in relation to the current World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for mass screening. Methods We performed a PubMed search to identify indexed papers on CD screening with a publication date from 1900 until 1 June 2014. When we deemed an abstract relevant, we read the corresponding paper in detail. Results CD fulfills several WHO criteria for mass screening (high prevalence, available treatment and difficult clinical detection), but it has not yet been established that treatment of asymptomatic CD may reduce the excessive risk of severe complications, leading to higher QOL nor that it is cost-effective. Conclusions Current evidence is not sufficient to support mass screening for CD, but active case-finding may be appropriate, as we recognize that most patients with CD will still be missed by this strategy. Although proof of benefit is still lacking, screening for CD may be appropriate in high-risk groups. PMID:25922671

  11. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) participates in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD).

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaodong; Antoine, Daniel J; Lu, Yongke; Arriazu, Elena; Leung, Tung-Ming; Klepper, Arielle L; Branch, Andrea D; Fiel, Maria Isabel; Nieto, Natalia

    2014-08-15

    Growing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that sterile inflammation contributes to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is highly induced during liver injury; however, a link between this alarmin and ALD has not been established. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine whether HMGB1 contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD. Liver biopsies from patients with ALD showed a robust increase in HMGB1 expression and translocation, which correlated with disease stage, compared with healthy explants. Similar findings were observed in chronic ethanol-fed wild-type (WT) mice. Using primary cell culture, we validated the ability of hepatocytes from ethanol-fed mice to secrete a large amount of HMGB1. Secretion was time- and dose-dependent and responsive to prooxidants and antioxidants. Selective ablation of Hmgb1 in hepatocytes protected mice from alcohol-induced liver injury due to increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, phosphorylated 5'AMP-activated protein kinase-α, and phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α expression along with elevated LDL plus VLDL export. Native and post-translationally modified HMGB1 were detected in humans and mice with ALD. In liver and serum from control mice and in serum from healthy volunteers, the lysine residues within the peptides containing nuclear localization signals (NLSs) 1 and 2 were non-acetylated, and all cysteine residues were reduced. However, in livers from ethanol-fed mice, in addition to all thiol/non-acetylated isoforms of HMGB1, we observed acetylated NLS1 and NLS2, a unique phosphorylation site in serine 35, and an increase in oxidation of HMGB1 to the disulfide isoform. In serum from ethanol-fed mice and from patients with ALD, there was disulfide-bonded hyperacetylated HMGB1, disulfide-bonded non-acetylated HMGB1, and HMGB1 phosphorylated in serine 35. Hepatocytes appeared to be a major source of these HMGB1 isoforms. Thus, hepatocyte HMGB1 participates in

  12. Changing Emergence of Shigella Sero-Groups in Bangladesh: Observation from Four Different Diarrheal Disease Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ferdous, Farzana; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Leung, Daniel T.; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Raqib, Rubhana

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. Methods Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008–2011; n = 10,650), and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009–2011; n = 3,585), were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008–2011; n = 6,399) and rural Mirzapur (2010–2011; n = 2,812) were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3%) were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8%) from Matlab, 109 (3%) from Mirpur and 369 (13%) from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. Results Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55→29%; p value of χ2-for trend = 0.019) and Mirzapur (59→47%; p = 0.025). A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58→48%), while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73→81%). Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8→25%; p<0.001) and Mirpur (10→33%; p = 0.015), whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32→23%; p = 0.056). The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3→28%; p<0.001); (3→27%; p<0.001)]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25→16%); under-5 (16→9%)]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. Conclusion and Significance Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important

  13. Costs of Neisseria meningitidis Group A Disease and Economic Impact of Vaccination in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Colombini, Anaïs; Trotter, Caroline; Madrid, Yvette; Karachaliou, Andromachi; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. Five years since the successful introduction of MenAfriVac in a mass vaccination campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso, consideration must be given to the optimal strategies for sustaining population protection. This study aims to estimate the economic impact of a range of vaccination strategies in Burkina Faso. Methods. We performed a cost-of-illness study, comparing different vaccination scenarios in terms of costs to both households and health systems over a 26-year time horizon. These scenarios are (1) reactive vaccination campaign (baseline comparator); (2) preventive vaccination campaign; (3) routine immunization at 9 months; and (4) a combination of routine and an initial catchup campaign of children under 5. Costs were estimated from a literature review, which included unpublished programmatic documents and peer-reviewed publications. The future disease burden for each vaccination strategy was predicted using a dynamic transmission model of group A Neisseria meningitidis. Results. From 2010 to 2014, the total costs associated with the preventive campaign targeting 1- to 29-year-olds with MenAfriVac were similar to the estimated costs of the reactive vaccination strategy (approximately 10 million US dollars [USD]). Between 2015 and 2035, routine immunization with or without a catch-up campaign of 1- to 4-year-olds is cost saving compared with the reactive strategy, both with and without discounting costs and cases. Most of the savings are accrued from lower costs of case management and household costs resulting from a lower burden of disease. After the initial investment in the preventive strategy, 1 USD invested in the routine strategy saves an additional 1.3 USD compared to the reactive strategy. Conclusions. Prevention strategies using MenAfriVac will be significantly cost saving in Burkina Faso, both for the health system and for households, compared with the reactive strategy. This will protect households from

  14. Reinforcement Learning and Dopamine in Schizophrenia: Dimensions of Symptoms or Specific Features of a Disease Group?

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, Lorenz; Boehme, Rebecca; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in reinforcement learning are a key finding in schizophrenia and have been proposed to be linked to elevated levels of dopamine neurotransmission. Behavioral deficits in reinforcement learning and their neural correlates may contribute to the formation of clinical characteristics of schizophrenia. The ability to form predictions about future outcomes is fundamental for environmental interactions and depends on neuronal teaching signals, like reward prediction errors. While aberrant prediction errors, that encode non-salient events as surprising, have been proposed to contribute to the formation of positive symptoms, a failure to build neural representations of decision values may result in negative symptoms. Here, we review behavioral and neuroimaging research in schizophrenia and focus on studies that implemented reinforcement learning models. In addition, we discuss studies that combined reinforcement learning with measures of dopamine. Thereby, we suggest how reinforcement learning abnormalities in schizophrenia may contribute to the formation of psychotic symptoms and may interact with cognitive deficits. These ideas point toward an interplay of more rigid versus flexible control over reinforcement learning. Pronounced deficits in the flexible or model-based domain may allow for a detailed characterization of well-established cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients based on computational models of learning. Finally, we propose a framework based on the potentially crucial contribution of dopamine to dysfunctional reinforcement learning on the level of neural networks. Future research may strongly benefit from computational modeling but also requires further methodological improvement for clinical group studies. These research tools may help to improve our understanding of disease-specific mechanisms and may help to identify clinically relevant subgroups of the heterogeneous entity schizophrenia. PMID:24391603

  15. Identifying patients with a high risk of relapse in quiescent Crohn's disease. The GETAID Group. The Groupe d'Etudes Thérapeutiques des Affections Inflammatoires Digestives.

    PubMed Central

    Sahmoud, T; Hoctin-Boes, G; Modigliani, R; Bitoun, A; Colombel, J F; Soule, J C; Florent, C; Gendre, J P; Lerebours, E; Sylvester, R

    1995-01-01

    No reliable identification of quiescent Crohn's disease (CD) patients with a high risk of relapse is available. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic index to identify those patients. Untreated adult patients with quiescent disease (not induced by surgery) included in three phase III clinical trials were analysed retrospectively with respect to time to relapse. Nineteen factors related to biology, disease history, and topography were investigated. A relapse was defined as either a CD Activity Index (CDAI) > or = 200, a CDAI > or = 150 but over the baseline value by more than 100, or acute complications requiring surgery. The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 178 patients. The median follow up was 23 months. The Cox model retained the following bad prognostic factors: age < or = 25 years, interval since first symptoms > 5 years, interval since previous relapse < or = 6 months, and colonic involvement (p < 0.001). Bootstrapping confirmed the variable selection. Patients were classified into three groups with an increasing risk of relapse (p < 0.001). The worst risk group was composed of patients presenting at least three of the four bad prognostic factors. These results make possible the design of clinical trials in quiescent CD patients with a high risk of relapse. PMID:8537053

  16. Marital Discord and Coronary Artery Disease: A Comparison of Behaviorally Defined Discrete Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Marital difficulties can confer risk of coronary heart disease, as in a study of outwardly healthy couples (T. W. Smith et al., 2011) where behavioral ratings of low affiliation and high control during marital disagreements were associated with asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). However, taxometric studies suggest that marital…

  17. Celiac disease with pure red cell aplasia: an unusual hematologic association in pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sitangshu; Dey, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Pratyay; Sinha, Malay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Anemia in Celiac disease (CD) is usually hypoproliferative, reflecting impaired absorption of essential nutrients like iron and various vitamins. We report a 2-year-old boy with Celiac disease and severe anemia due to pure red cell aplasia, diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy. This rare, unexplained extra digestive manifestation responded to gluten free diet. PMID:25332626

  18. An emerging potato purple top disease caused by a new 16SrIII group phytoplasma in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato purple top (PPT) is a devastating disease that occurs in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Russia, and elsewhere. There are at least seven distinct phytoplasma strains belonging to five different phytoplasma groups (16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrVI, 16SrXII, and 16SrXVIII) that were reported to cause p...

  19. Using Focus Groups To Develop a Heart Disease Prevention Program for Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettleman, Lynn; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups with diverse low-income women generated ideas about cardiovascular disease interventions. Women preferred programs that: addressed multiple risk factors; emphasized staying healthy for themselves; taught skills for adopting heart-healthy behaviors; and offered choices in effecting behavior change. Women stressed the need for health…

  20. The Group Project for Holocaust Survivors and Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danieli, Yael

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program, both rehabilitative and preventive, which provides individual, family, group, and community work for Holocaust survivors and their children. Six group experiences are offered: awareness, self-help, long-term therapy, mixed, multiple-family, and intergenerational. (Author/DB)

  1. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report From an NHLBI/ACHA Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S; Daniels, Curt J; Fuller, Stephanie M P N; Honein, Margaret A; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Mahle, William T; Mann, Douglas L; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W; Pearson, Gail D; Starling, Randall C; Tringali, Glenn R; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C; Califf, Robert M

    2016-04-26

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary working group to identify high-impact research questions in adult CHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease, and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single-ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy. PMID:27102511

  2. Improving the Care of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Using Group Visits: A Pilot Study to Reflect an Emphasis on the Patients Rather Than the Disease.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Vicki; Sole, Mary Lou; Norris, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    This two-group, repeated-measures experimental study assessed the efficacy of a nurse practitioner-facilitated chronic kidney disease (CKD) group visit (GV) model versus usual nephrology care for patients with Stage 4 CKD. The study enrolled patients from two sites of an outpatient nephrology practice (n = 30) and randomized subjects to usual care (n = 14) or to the GV model (n = 16). Data regarding CKD knowledge, self-efficacy/disease self-management, and physiologic measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 9 months. Satisfaction was obtained at 6 months and 9 months. Usual nephrology office visit components were maintained during six monthly GVs, with group discussions of CKD-related topies. Results indicated a statistical improvement in CKD knowledge for both groups (F[1.498, 34.446] = 6.363, p = 0.008). An upward trend in mean scores for self-management subscales and self-efficacy scores was demonstrated in the GV patients, with no improvement found in the usual care group. Twenty-six of 30 patients completed the study, with 92% attendance in the GV group. GV satisfaction was high. PMID:27501629

  3. Review on the association of Group B Streptococcus capsular antibody and protection against invasive disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Ziyaad; Kwatra, Gaurav; Izu, Alane; Lala, Sanjay G; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-01-01

    A trivalent Group B streptococcus (GBS) polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine for vaccination of pregnant women is under development to protect their newborns against invasive GBS disease. Establishing sero-correlates of protection against invasive GBS disease in infants could expedite the licensure pathway of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine. A systematic review of studies reporting on the association of capsular antibodies and invasive GBS disease in infants and colonization in women or newborns was undertaken. Most studies that described maternal and/or infant capsular antibody levels in infants with invasive GBS disease identified an association between low capsular antibody levels in invasive GBS cases compared to controls. Different assay methods and the lack of standardized reference ranges for serotype-specific antibody levels makes it difficult to select an antibody level that may be used as a reliable sero-correlate of protection. Further studies using standardized methods are warranted. PMID:25242617

  4. Sweet's syndrome: an unusual cutaneous feature of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The South West Gastroenterology Group.

    PubMed

    Travis, S; Innes, N; Davies, M G; Daneshmend, T; Hughes, S

    1997-07-01

    Sweet's syndrome is characterized by tender, red inflammatory nodules or papules, usually affecting the upper limbs, face or neck. It is part of the group of acute neutrophilic dermatoses that includes pyoderma gangrenosum, but can be distinguished by its appearance, distribution and histological features. Four patients with Sweet's syndrome and Crohn's disease are reported. A total of 30 cases from the literature suggest that Sweet's syndrome is an unusual extraintestinal manifestation of either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. There is a strong predilection for women (87%), patients with colonic disease (100%) and those with other extraintestinal features (77%). The rash is associated with active disease in 67-80%, but may precede the onset of intestinal symptoms in 21% and has been reported 3 months after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. PMID:9262983

  5. Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Blondeau, Joseph M.; Boothe, Dawn; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Guardabassi, Luca; Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H.; Papich, Mark G.; Rankin, Shelley C.; Turnidge, John D.; Sykes, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse) of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. PMID:21776346

  6. Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Gene Transcription and Implications for Synaptic Plasticity and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansen; Zhuo, Min

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) initiates a wide variety of signaling pathways. Group I mGluR activation can regulate gene expression at both translational and transcriptional levels, and induces translation or transcription-dependent synaptic plastic changes in neurons. The group I mGluR-mediated translation-dependent neural plasticity has been well reviewed. In this review, we will highlight group I mGluR-induced gene transcription and its role in synaptic plasticity. The signaling pathways (PKA, CaMKs, and MAPKs) which have been shown to link group I mGluRs to gene transcription, the relevant transcription factors (CREB and NF-κB), and target proteins (FMRP and ARC) will be documented. The significance and future direction for characterizing group I mGluR-mediated gene transcription in fragile X syndrome, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and other neurological disorders will also be discussed. PMID:23125836

  7. Transmission of group II heteronymous pathways is enhanced in rigid lower limb of de novo patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Simonetta Moreau, M; Meunier, S; Vidailhet, M; Pol, S; Galitzky, M; Rascol, O

    2002-09-01

    A potent heteronymous excitation of quadriceps motoneurones via common peroneal group II afferents has recently been demonstrated in normal subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this group II excitation contributes to rigidity in Parkinson's disease. The early and late facilitations of the quadriceps H reflex elicited by a conditioning volley to the common peroneal nerve (CPN) at twice motor threshold, attributed to non-monosynaptic group I and group II excitations, respectively, were investigated. The comparison was drawn between results obtained in 20 "de novo" patients with Parkinson's disease (hemiparkinsonian, 17; bilateral, three) and 20 age-matched normal subjects. There was no statistically significant effect of "group" (patients/controls), "duration", "global severity" [Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)] or "side" (unilaterally versus bilaterally affected) factors on either group I or group II facilitations. To further the analysis, the factors of status (affected or non-affected limb), akinesia (lower limb akinesia score) and rigidity (lower limb rigidity score) were entered in a general linear model to explain the variations of the quadriceps H reflex facilitation. Rigidity was the only factor useful in predicting the value of the group II facilitation of the quadriceps H reflex (P < 0.007). Group I and group II facilitation was then compared between the rigid, non-rigid and control lower limbs [multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)]. Results are represented as mean +/- SEM (standard error of the mean). Group II facilitation was enhanced in the rigid lower limb of unilaterally affected patients (153.2 +/- 7% of control H reflex) compared with non-rigid lower limbs (124 +/- 4% of control H reflex; P < 0.007) or control lower limbs (126.1 +/- 4.1%; P < 0.01). There was no difference between the non-rigid lower limbs of the unilaterally affected patients and the control lower limbs, but a difference was observed

  8. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events. PMID:25377464

  9. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events.

  10. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD. PMID:26988722

  11. Low Compliance with National Guidelines for Preventing Transmission of Group 1 Nationally Notifiable Infectious Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eu Suk; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Baek-Nam; Kwak, Yee Gyung; Lee, Chang-Seop; Park, Sang Won; Moon, Chisook; Park, Kyung Hwa; Jang, Hee-Chang; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Oh, Won Sup; Kim, Chung-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the compliance with, and adequacy of, the Korean national guidelines which had been recommended until 2011 for isolation of patients with group 1 nationally notifiable infectious diseases (NNIDs), namely cholera, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, shigellosis, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection. Materials and Methods We evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of confirmed cases of group 1 NNIDs and compliance with the guidelines in 20 Korean hospitals nationwide in 2000-2010. We also compared the Korean guidelines with international guidelines. Results Among 528 confirmed cases (8 cases of cholera, 232 of typhoid fever, 81 of paratyphoid fever, 175 of shigellosis, and 32 EHEC infections), strict compliance with the Korean guideline was achieved in only 2.6% to 50.0%, depending on the disease. While the Korean guidelines recommend isolation of all patients with group 1 NNIDs, international guidelines recommend selective patient isolation and screening for fecal shedding, depending on the type of disease and patient status. Conclusion Compliance with the previous national guidelines for group 1 NNIDs in Korea was generally very low. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether compliance was improved after implementation of the new guideline in 2012. PMID:24532515

  12. Internet-based preventive intervention for reducing eating disorder risk: A randomized controlled trial comparing guided with unguided self-help

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Safer, Debra L.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Cunning, Darby; Rizk, Marianne T.; Genkin, Brooke H.; Weisman, Hannah L.; Bailey, Jakki O.; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Student Bodies, an internet-based intervention, has successfully reduced weight/shape concerns and prevented eating disorders in a subset of college-age women at highest risk for an eating disorder. Student Bodies includes an online, guided discussion group; however, the clinical utility of this component is unclear. This study investigated whether the guided discussion group improves program efficacy in reducing weight/shape concerns in women at high risk for an eating disorder. Exploratory analyses examined whether baseline variables predicted who benefitted most. Women with high weight/shape concerns (N=151) were randomized to Student Bodies with a guided discussion group (n=74) or no discussion group (n=77). Regression analyses showed weight/shape concerns were reduced significantly more among guided discussion group than no discussion group participants (p = 0.002; d = 0.52); guided discussion group participants had 67% lower odds of having high-risk weight/shape concerns post-intervention (p = 0.02). There were no differences in binge eating at post-intervention between the two groups, and no moderators emerged as significant. Results suggest the guided discussion group improves the efficacy of Student Bodies in reducing weight/shape concerns in college students at high risk for an eating disorder. PMID:25461783

  13. Internet-based preventive intervention for reducing eating disorder risk: A randomized controlled trial comparing guided with unguided self-help.

    PubMed

    Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Safer, Debra L; Sinton, Meghan M; Cunning, Darby; Rizk, Marianne T; Genkin, Brooke H; Weisman, Hannah L; Bailey, Jakki O; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr

    2014-12-01

    Student Bodies, an internet-based intervention, has successfully reduced weight/shape concerns and prevented eating disorders in a subset of college-age women at highest risk for an eating disorder. Student Bodies includes an online, guided discussion group; however, the clinical utility of this component is unclear. This study investigated whether the guided discussion group improves program efficacy in reducing weight/shape concerns in women at high risk for an eating disorder. Exploratory analyses examined whether baseline variables predicted who benefitted most. Women with high weight/shape concerns (N = 151) were randomized to Student Bodies with a guided discussion group (n = 74) or no discussion group (n = 77). Regression analyses showed weight/shape concerns were reduced significantly more among guided discussion group than no discussion group participants (p = 0.002; d = 0.52); guided discussion group participants had 67% lower odds of having high-risk weight/shape concerns post-intervention (p = 0.02). There were no differences in binge eating at post-intervention between the two groups, and no moderators emerged as significant. Results suggest the guided discussion group improves the efficacy of Student Bodies in reducing weight/shape concerns in college students at high risk for an eating disorder. PMID:25461783

  14. Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Alan J; Evengard, Birgitta; Semenza, Jan C; Ogden, Nicholas; Børresen, Malene L; Berner, Jim; Brubaker, Michael; Sjöstedt, Anders; Evander, Magnus; Hondula, David M; Menne, Bettina; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Gounder, Prabhu; Larose, Tricia; Revich, Boris; Hueffer, Karsten; Albihn, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. PMID:25317383

  15. At the Bedside: The emergence of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in human disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ILC2s have been primarily identified at environmental-mucosal interfaces and can be activated quickly by environmental antigens and pathogens to produce large quantities of IL-5 and IL-13. As a result of the production of these cytokines, ILC2s have been implicated in the host response to allergens, viruses, and parasites. However, the exact role of ILC2s in any human disease state is presently unknown, as specifically eliminating these cells is not possible, given that potentially targetable cell-surface markers are shared with other immune cells. Likewise, selectively and completely inhibiting ILC2 activation is also not currently possible, as several activating cytokines, IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, act in redundancy or are not specific for ILC2 stimulation. Therefore, at this point, we can only identify the relative abundance of ILC2s in organs and tissue identified as being involved in specific diseases, and the contribution of ILC2s in human disease can only be inferred from mouse studies. Given these limitations, in this article, we will review the studies that have examined the presence of ILC2s in human disease states and speculate on their possible role in disease pathogenesis. The intent of the review is to identify priority areas for basic research based on clinical research insights. PMID:25516755

  16. APOE Genotype in the Ethnic Majority and Minority Groups of Laos and the Implications for Non-Communicable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Kaoru; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Southivong, Bouavanh; Rattanavong, Oudayvone; Sengkhygnavong, Vikham; Pyaluanglath, Amphay; Sayasithsena, Saymongkhonh; Nakamura, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Murata, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing age is associated with elevated risk of non-communicable diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a risk factor not only for AD, but also for cognitive decline, depressive symptoms, stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) is undergoing development; consequently, life expectancy has risen. To evaluate the future risk of non-communicable diseases, we investigated APOE genotypes and anthropometric characteristics in the Laotian population. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were 455 members of the Lao Loum majority and 354 members of ethnic minorities. APOE genotypes, anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and blood glucose were recorded. To compare individual changes, health examination data collected 5 years apart were obtained from a subset of Lao Loum subjects. APOE ε4 allele frequencies were higher among minorities (31.3%) than among Lao Loum (12.6%). In Lao Loum, but not in minorities, mean waist circumference and blood pressure increased significantly across age groups. Comparisons of health conditions between the beginning and end of the 5-year period revealed significant increases in obesity and blood glucose levels in Lao Loum. APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significant increases in resting heart rate in both ethnic groups. Conclusions/Significance A higher ε4 allele frequency was observed in Laotian minorities than in the Laotian majority. Furthermore, higher obesity, blood pressure and blood glucose were observed in the middle-aged ethnic majority. Therefore, given these genetic and non-communicable disease risk factors, it seems likely that as the Laotian population ages, elevated rates of non-communicable aging-related diseases, such as dementia, will also become more prevalent. PMID:27168072

  17. International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) Guidelines: management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Bellamy, David; Bouchard, Jacques; Henrichsen, Svein; Johansson, Gunnar; Langhammer, Arnulf; Reid, Jim; van Weel, Chris; Buist, Sonia

    2006-02-01

    COPD is a common and under-diagnosed disease which is increasing in prevalence worldwide. A more aggressive and optimistic approach must be adopted towards its management in primary care. This IPCRG Guideline on the management of COPD in primary care is fully consistent with GOLD guidelines. It highlights the goals of COPD treatment and the need for spirometric testing to make the diagnosis. It covers the classification of the disease according to disease severity, non-pharmacologic therapy including smoking cessation, avoidance of risk factors, patient education, pharmacologic therapy including the use of oxygen treatment, the management of exacerbations, the role of pulmonary rehabilitation, and the need for monitoring and ongoing care for COPD patients. PMID:16701758

  18. What does "a gene for heart disease" mean? A focus group study of public understandings of genetic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bates, Benjamin R; Templeton, Alan; Achter, Paul J; Harris, Tina M; Condit, Celeste M

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern in the medical community about potential genetic determinism in the patient population. Limited information about the public understanding of genetic factors in disease formation is available. To access public perceptions of potentially deterministic phrasing of genetic risk factors, we sought to establish interpretations of the phrase, "a gene for heart disease." Focus groups in urban, suburban, and rural communities were conducted from July through October, 2001 in Georgia. A total of 108 participants were recruited. Participants were recruited to balance sex and racial representation. We used three outcome measures for participants understandings of the phrase: (1) participants' statements of the meaning of the phrase; (2) the level of determinism assigned to genetic factors by participants; and (3) participant reports of the health consequences of having "a gene for heart disease." Participants did not report a single interpretation of the phrase. There were dominant participant interpretations under each outcome measure: (1) "a gene for heart disease" was interpreted as meaning genetic and environmental factors both played roles in disease formation; (2) genetic predisposition was perceived as heightened, not absolute, risk; (3) the perceived health impact was a greater risk of becoming sick. Minority interpretations were found under each measure. Overall, naming "a gene for heart disease" does not appear to have a deterministic impact on a plurality of participants' perceptions of risks associated with genetic factors. Genetic fatalism in patient populations may be confined to a sizable minority. Important considerations for provider intervention and patient education are indicated. PMID:12749055

  19. [Educative program about sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases: experience report with a group of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Souza, Márcia M; Brunini, Sandra; Almeida, Nilza A M; Munari, Denize B

    2007-01-01

    The object of this study was to give an account of the experiment with a teenage group by using sexual education experiences of their own. Ten workshops were made with low-income teenagers of Município de Aparecida de Goiânia /GO, which happened because of the socialization and reflections about the contents of this study. The work was based on Paulo Freire's Participative Methodology and made better by the attention of the coordinators to every single group, considering their special needs and possibilities. We conclude that for the success of this work, the coordinator must listen to the group with a very sensitive prospect, especially when dealing with a teenage group. It is necessary to stimulate the participation, so that more can be learnt and the citizen work can be able to change its social reality. PMID:17477178

  20. Differences in and correlations between cognitive abilities and brain volumes in healthy control, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease groups.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soon-Cheol; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Baek, Ji-Hye; Gim, Seon-Young; Choi, Young Chil; Lee, Beob-Yi; Lim, Dae-Woon; Kim, Boseong

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in and correlations between cognitive abilities and brain volumes in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups. The Korean Version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K), which is used to diagnose AD, was used to measure the cognitive abilities of the study subjects, and the volumes of typical brain components related to AD diagnosis-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM)-were acquired. Of the CERAD-K subtests, the Boston Naming Test distinguished significantly among the HC, MCI, and AD groups. GM and WM volumes differed significantly among the three groups. There was a significant positive correlation between Boston Naming Test scores and GM and WM volumes. In conclusion, the Boston Naming Test and GM and WM brain volumes differentiated the three tested groups accurately, and there were strong correlations between Boston Naming Test scores and GM and WM volumes. These results will help to establish a test method that differentiates the three groups accurately and is economically feasible. Clin. Anat. 29:473-480, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26710236

  1. A Group Intervention Model for Speech and Communication Skills in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Initial Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor, Yael; Posen, Jennie; Amir, Ofer; Dori, Nechama; Giladi, Nir

    2005-01-01

    Various speech and voice disorders affect 70% to 85% of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Speech treatment is generally conducted on an individual basis, with family member involvement. Clinical experience indicates that many patients do not practice treatments at home or apply the learned techniques in everyday situations. An…

  2. Project CARE: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Intervention Group for Alzheimer's Disease Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonyea, Judith G.; O'Connor, Maureen K.; Boyle, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease are a major contributor to caregiver distress and burden. Despite recent efforts to teach caregivers skills to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms and reduce burden, there continues to be limited evidence that these strategies have helped caregivers of individuals with…

  3. An Innovative Lab-Based Training Program to Help Patient Groups Understand Their Disease and the Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow “trainees” to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians. PMID:25668201

  4. Ecologic Correlations of Selected Food Groups With Disease Incidence and Mortality in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Harold; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little information regarding the impact of diet on disease incidence and mortality in Switzerland. We assessed ecologic correlations between food availability and disease. Methods In this ecologic study for the period 1970–2009, food availability was measured using the food balance sheets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Standardized mortality rates (SMRs) were obtained from the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the World Health Organization Health For All database and the Vaud Cancer Registry. Associations between food availability and mortality/incidence were assessed at lags 0, 5, 10, and 15 years by multivariate regression adjusted for total caloric intake. Results Alcoholic beverages and fruit availability were positively associated, and fish availability was inversely associated, with SMRs for cardiovascular diseases. Animal products, meat, and animal fats were positively associated with the SMR for ischemic heart disease only. For cancer, the results of analysis using SMRs and incidence rates were contradictory. Alcoholic beverages and fruits were positively associated with SMRs for all cancer but inversely associated with all-cancer incidence rates. Similar findings were obtained for all other foods except vegetables, which were weakly inversely associated with SMRs and incidence rates. Use of a 15-year lag reversed the associations with animal and vegetal products, weakened the association with alcohol and fruits, and strengthened the association with fish. Conclusions Ecologic associations between food availability and disease vary considerably on the basis of whether mortality or incidence rates are used in the analysis. Great care is thus necessary when interpreting our results. PMID:24140818

  5. A Simple, Semiselective Medium for Anaerobic Isolation of Anginosus Group Streptococci from Patients with Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Richard D.; Wareham, David W.; Gardiner, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic isolation of anginosus group streptococci (AGS) from respiratory specimens containing diverse microbiota using a semiselective blood agar medium incorporating nalidixic acid and sulfamethazine (NAS) is described. AGS were detected in 60% of tested sputa from patients with cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis. This demonstrates NAS to be a diagnostic tool for detecting AGS within the complex microbial communities associated with chronic lung disorders. PMID:22238446

  6. Consensus Statement on medication use in multiple sclerosis by the Spanish Society of Neurology's study group for demyelinating diseases.

    PubMed

    García-Merino, A; Fernández, O; Montalbán, X; de Andrés, C; Oreja-Guevara, C; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, A; Arbizu, T

    2013-01-01

    Treatments for multiple sclerosis therapy are rapidly evolving. It is believed that new drugs will be approved in the near future, thereby changing current indications for treatment. In this context, the Spanish Society of Neurology's study group on demyelinating diseases, which evaluates medication use in MS, has decided to draw up a consensus statement on the current indications and guidelines for multiple sclerosis treatment. PMID:23643683

  7. Using focus groups to develop a heart disease prevention program for ethnically diverse, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Gettleman, L; Winkleby, M A

    2000-12-01

    Although low-income women have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than higher-income women, health promotion and disease prevention are often low priorities due to financial, family, and health care constraints. In addition, most low-income women live in environments that tend to support and even promote high risk CVD behaviors. Low-income African-American, Hispanic, and White women constitute one of the largest groups at high risk for CVD but few heart disease prevention programs have effectively reached them. The purpose of this project was to use feedback from focus groups to generate ideas about how to best structure and implement future CVD intervention programs tailored to low-income populations. Seven focus groups were conducted with 51 low-income African-American, Hispanic, and White women from two urban and two agricultural communities in California. The women in the study shared many common experiences and barriers to healthy lifestyles, despite their ethnic diversity. Results of the focus groups showed that women preferred heart disease prevention programs that would address multiple CVD risk factors, emphasize staying healthy for themselves, teach specific skills about how to adopt heart-healthy behaviors, and offer them choices in effecting behavioral change. For health information, they preferred visual formats to written formats. They also expressed a desire to develop knowledge to help them separate health "myths" from health "facts" in order to reduce their misconceptions about CVD. Finally, they stressed that health care policies and programs need to address social and financial barriers that impede the adoption of heart-healthy behaviors. PMID:11071226

  8. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  9. Vaccination against meningococcal group A disease in Finland 1974-75.

    PubMed

    Peltola, H; Mäkelä, P H; ELO, O; Pettay, O; Renkonen, O V; Sivonen, A

    1976-01-01

    Meningococcal group A polysaccharide vaccine was used in children 3 months to 5 years of age in the winter 1974-75 during an epidemic caused by sulphanamide-resistant group A meningococci. In 3 provinces, the vaccine was offered on a double-blind basis, using Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccaride vaccine as control. Approximately 100 000 children were vaccinated with either one of the vaccines. In the Kymi province, approximately 22 000 children representing 90% of the child population of this age received the meningococcus vacine. Infants below 18 months received a booster dose of vaccine 3 months after the first dose. The meningococcus vaccine caused local symptoms in 71%, mild systemic reactions in 37%, and high fever (38.5 degrees C or more) in 1.8% The haemophilus vaccine produced fewer side effects. No clinical infections caused by group A meningococci were reported in the first 6 months after vaccination among those who had received the meningococcal vaccine. At the same time, group A cases continued to appear in other age groups and other areas of the country. PMID:788143

  10. Group A Streptococcus: a re-emergent pathogen. Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Rheumatic fever is still rare in North America but must continue to be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. Invasive or severe GABHS disease remains unusual and is unlikely to be missed by the practitioner; however, it is essential that GABHS infection be considered as a possible cause of a severe sepsis-like syndrome. Currently the routine management of GABHS infection is unchanged; however, heightened awareness of the infection's rare, more serious complications is needed. PMID:8500028

  11. Early Gut Microbiota Perturbations Following Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Group B Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, R. Paul; Biavati, Bruno; Corvaglia, Luigi T.; Faldella, Giacomo; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The faecal microbiota composition of infants born to mothers receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with ampicillin against group B Streptococcus was compared with that of control infants, at day 7 and 30 of life. Recruited newborns were both exclusive breastfed and mixed fed, in order to also study the effect of dietary factors on the microbiota composition. Massive parallel sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR analysis were performed. Antibiotic prophylaxis caused the most marked changes on the microbiota in breastfed infants, mainly resulting in a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, compared with control infants (52% vs. 14%, p = 0.044) and mixed-fed infants (52% vs. 16%, p = 0.13 NS) at day 7 and in a lower bacterial diversity compared to mixed-fed infants and controls. Bifidobacteria were also particularly vulnerable and abundances were reduced in breastfed (p = 0.001) and mixed-fed antibiotic treated groups compared to non-treated groups. Reductions in bifidobacteria in antibiotic treated infants were also confirmed by qPCR. By day 30, the bifidobacterial population recovered and abundances significantly increased in both breastfed (p = 0.025) and mixed-fed (p = 0.013) antibiotic treated groups, whereas Enterobacteriaceae abundances remained highest in the breastfed antibiotic treated group (44%), compared with control infants (16%) and mixed-fed antibiotic treated group (28%). This study has therefore demonstrated the short term consequences of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on the infant faecal microbial population, particularly in that of breastfed infants. PMID:27332552

  12. Tracking Parkinson’s Disease over One Year with Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Group of Older Patients with Moderate Disease

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Tracy R.; Myall, Daniel J.; MacAskill, Michael R.; Pitcher, Toni L.; Livingston, Leslie; Watts, Richard; Keenan, Ross J.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Anderson, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggests that Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with changes in cerebral tissue volume, diffusion tensor imaging metrics, and perfusion values. Here, we performed a longitudinal multimodal MRI study—including structural, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and perfusion MRI—to investigate progressive brain changes over one year in a group of older PD patients at a moderate stage of disease. Methods Twenty-three non-demented PD (mean age (SD) = 69.5 (6.4) years, disease duration (SD) = 5.6 (4.3) years) and 23 matched control participants (mean age: 70.6 (6.8)) completed extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessment, and multimodal 3T MRI scanning at baseline and one year later. We used a voxel-based approach to assess change over time and group-by-time interactions for cerebral structural and perfusion metrics. Results Compared to controls, in PD participants there was localized grey matter atrophy over time in bilateral inferior and right middle temporal, and left orbito-frontal cortices. Using a voxel-based approach that focused on the centers of principal white matter tracts, the PD and control cohorts exhibited similar levels of change in DTI metrics. There was no significant change in perfusion, cognitive, or motor severity measures. Conclusions In a cohort of older, non-demented PD participants, macrostructural MRI detected atrophy in the PD group compared with the control group in temporal and orbito-frontal cortices. Changes in diffusion MRI along principal white matter tracts over one year were found, but this was not differentially affected by PD. PMID:26714266

  13. At the Bench: Understanding group 2 innate lymphoid cells in disease

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Taylor A.

    2015-01-01

    The conventional paradigm of type 2 inflammatory responses is characterized by activation of CD4+ Th2 cells that produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, resulting in tissue eosinophil infiltration, mucus metaplasia, AHR, and IgE production. However, the recent discovery of ILC2s in mice and humans has brought forth a novel pathway in type 2 immunity that may work independent of, or in concert with, adaptive Th2 responses. ILC2s were described initially as lineage-negative lymphocytes that produce high levels of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to IL-25 and IL-33 and promote protection against helminth infections. More recent investigations have identified novel upstream regulators, as well as novel ILC2 products. ILC2s are found in mucosal surfaces, including respiratory tract and skin, and studies from experimental asthma and atopic dermatitis models support a role for ILC2s in promoting type 2 inflammatory responses. There are many unanswered questions about the role of ILC2s in chronic allergic diseases, including how ILC2s or upstream pathways can be targeted for therapy. As ILC2s are not antigen specific and may be activated after exposures to a variety of infectious agents and irritants thought to contribute to respiratory and skin diseases, future strategies to target ILC2 function in human disease may be promising. Our intent is to identify priority areas for ILC2 translational research based on basic research insights. PMID:25473099

  14. Women's knowledge about heart disease: Differences among ethnic and cultural groups in the Israeli Women's Health in Midlife Study.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to assess levels of knowledge about risk factors for heart disease among midlife Israeli women, and to evaluate the relationship of knowledge to personal risk factors and vulnerability to heart disease. Face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years were conducted during 2004-2006 within three population groups: long-term Jewish residents (LTR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and Arab women. The survey instrument included six knowledge statements relating to: the risk after menopause, family history, elevated cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, and warning signs of a heart attack. The findings showed wide disparities in knowledge by educational level and between immigrants and LTR, after taking into account personal risk factors and education. Personal risk factors were not significantly related to the knowledge items, except for personal history of cardiovascular disease, which was associated with knowledge about "warning signs of a heart attack" and "family history." Women who perceived themselves as more vulnerable to heart disease were more likely to identify several risk factors correctly. These findings stress the need to increase knowledge about heart disease, especially among less educated and minority women, and to emphasize the risk of patients' personal status by health providers. PMID:26214539

  15. Blood thicker than water: kinship, disease prevalence and group size drive divergent patterns of infection risk in a social mammal

    PubMed Central

    Delahay, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of social- and kin-structuring of populations for the transmission of wildlife disease is widely assumed but poorly described. Social structure can help dilute risks of transmission for group members, and is relatively easy to measure, but kin-association represents a further level of population sub-structure that is harder to measure, particularly when association behaviours happen underground. Here, using epidemiological and molecular genetic data from a wild, high-density population of the European badger (Meles meles), we quantify the risks of infection with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of tuberculosis) in cubs. The risk declines with increasing size of its social group, but this net dilution effect conceals divergent patterns of infection risk. Cubs only enjoy reduced risk when social groups have a higher proportion of test-negative individuals. Cubs suffer higher infection risk in social groups containing resident infectious adults, and these risks are exaggerated when cubs and infectious adults are closely related. We further identify key differences in infection risk associated with resident infectious males and females. We link our results to parent–offspring interactions and other kin-biased association, but also consider the possibility that susceptibility to infection is heritable. These patterns of infection risk help to explain the observation of a herd immunity effect in badgers following low-intensity vaccination campaigns. They also reveal kinship and kin-association to be important, and often hidden, drivers of disease transmission in social mammals. PMID:27440666

  16. Blood thicker than water: kinship, disease prevalence and group size drive divergent patterns of infection risk in a social mammal.

    PubMed

    Benton, Clare H; Delahay, Richard J; Robertson, Andrew; McDonald, Robbie A; Wilson, Alastair J; Burke, Terry A; Hodgson, Dave

    2016-07-27

    The importance of social- and kin-structuring of populations for the transmission of wildlife disease is widely assumed but poorly described. Social structure can help dilute risks of transmission for group members, and is relatively easy to measure, but kin-association represents a further level of population sub-structure that is harder to measure, particularly when association behaviours happen underground. Here, using epidemiological and molecular genetic data from a wild, high-density population of the European badger (Meles meles), we quantify the risks of infection with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of tuberculosis) in cubs. The risk declines with increasing size of its social group, but this net dilution effect conceals divergent patterns of infection risk. Cubs only enjoy reduced risk when social groups have a higher proportion of test-negative individuals. Cubs suffer higher infection risk in social groups containing resident infectious adults, and these risks are exaggerated when cubs and infectious adults are closely related. We further identify key differences in infection risk associated with resident infectious males and females. We link our results to parent-offspring interactions and other kin-biased association, but also consider the possibility that susceptibility to infection is heritable. These patterns of infection risk help to explain the observation of a herd immunity effect in badgers following low-intensity vaccination campaigns. They also reveal kinship and kin-association to be important, and often hidden, drivers of disease transmission in social mammals. PMID:27440666

  17. Application of Whole-Genome Sequencing to an Unusual Outbreak of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Clement, Meredith E.; Sharma Kuinkel, Batu K.; Ruffin, Felicia; Flores, Anthony R.; Levinson, Howard; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Moore, Zack; Fowler, Vance G.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome analysis was applied to investigate atypical point-source transmission of 2 invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. Isolates were serotype M4, ST39, and genetically indistinguishable. Comparison with MGAS10750 revealed nonsynonymous polymorphisms in ropB and increased speB transcription. This study demonstrates the usefulness of whole-genome analyses for GAS outbreaks. PMID:27006966

  18. [Skeletal scintigraphy in diseases of the psoriasiform group. A study in 182 patients].

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, P; Holzmann, H; Buhles, N; Hör, G

    1987-11-01

    Bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-EHDP was carried out in 147 psoriatics of both sexes and in 35 nonpsoriatic patients. The psoriatics were subdivided into four groups according to clinical aspects: psoriasis vulgaris (Pv, n = 55), psoriasis inversa (Pinv, n = 32), psoriasis pustulosa of the Königsbeck-Barber type (PpK-B, n = 28), and pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (Ppp, n = 32). The following frequencies of joint involvement were found in the different groups: Pv = 18.3%; Pinv = 22.6%, PpK-B = 11.1%; Ppp = 12.5%; control group 2.3%. In patients suffering from psoriasis vulgaris and psoriasis inversa a pathologic preferential radionuclide uptake was demonstrated in the small peripheral joints of the hands and fingers. The characteristic psoriatic pattern with axial and transverse joint involvement was found in all groups of psoriatic patients. No correlation could be proved between age and pathologic accumulation of the radionuclide or between duration of psoriasis and joint involvement. The so-called anterior chest wall syndrome was found in all patients, but predominantly in those with psoriasis palmaris et plantaris. Finally the indications for bone scintigraphy are discussed. PMID:2962969

  19. Evaluation of a disease management program for COPD using propensity matched control group

    PubMed Central

    George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang; Abisheganaden, John; Ng, Alan Wei Keong; Lim, Fong Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease management programs (DMPs) have proliferated recently as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care for patients with chronic illness. These programs include education about disease, optimization of evidence-based medications, information and support from case managers, and institution of self-management principles. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Singapore and worldwide. DMP aims to reduce mortality, hospitalizations, and average length of stay in such patients. This study assesses the outcomes of the DMP, comparing the propensity score matched DMP patients with controls. Methods DMP patients were compared with the controls, who were COPD patients fulfilling the DMP’s inclusion criteria but not included in the program. Control patients were identified from Operations Data Store (ODS) database. The outcomes of interest were average length of stay, number of days admitted to hospital per 100 person days, readmission, and mortality rates per person year. The risk of death and readmission was estimated using Cox, and competing risk regression respectively. Propensity score was estimated to identify the predictors of DMP enrolment. DMP patients and controls were matched on their propensity score. Results There were 170 matched DMP patients and control patients having 287 and 207 hospitalizations respectively. Program patient had lower mortality than the controls (0.12 vs. 0.27 per person year); cumulative 1-year survival was 91% among program patient and 76% among the control patients. Readmission, and hospital days per 100 person-days was higher for the program patients (0.36 vs. 0.17 per person year), and (2.19 vs. 1.88 per person year) respectively. Conclusions Participation in “DMP” was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to the controls. This survival gain in the program patients was paradoxically associated with an increase in readmission rate and

  20. High prevalence of Escherichia coli belonging to the B2+D phylogenetic group in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kotlowski, Roman; Bernstein, Charles N; Sepehri, Shadi; Krause, Denis O

    2007-01-01

    Background It is not clear which species of bacteria may be involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). One way of determining which bacteria might be likely candidates is to use culture‐independent methods to identify microorganisms that are present in diseased tissues but not in controls. Aims (1) To assess the diversity of microbial communities of biopsy tissue using culture‐independent methods; (2) to culture the bacteria found in the tissues of patients with IBD but not in the controls; (3) to identify potential virulence factors associated with cultured bacteria. Methods 84 biopsy specimens were collected from 15 controls, 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 19 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) from a population‐based case–control study. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) was conducted to identify unique DNA bands in tissues from patients with CD and UC that did not appear in controls. Results RISA followed by DNA sequencing identified unique bands in biopsy specimens from patients with IBD that were classified as Escherichia coli. Targeted culture showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher number of Enterobacteriaceae in specimens from patients with IBD. The B2+D phylogenetic group, serine protease autotransporters (SPATE) and adherence factors were more likely to be associated with tissues from patients with UC and CD than with controls. Conclusions The abundance of Enterobacteriaceae is 3–4 logs higher in tissues of patients with IBD and the B2+D phylogenetic groups are more prevalent in patients with UC and CD. The B2+D phylogenetic groups are associated with SPATE and adherence factors and may have a significant role in disease aetiology. PMID:17028128

  1. Tete a Tete: Reading Groups and Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Sara-Jane; Faulkner, Guy

    2005-01-01

    This project was inspired by an awareness of the lack of engagement with the research literature by our students. The project consisted of self-help reading groups that centralized student discussion with three research objectives: to encourage students to engage with a broader range of literature, to encourage critical thinking around subject…

  2. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Serum Amyloid A and Protein Carbonyl Group Levels in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Hami; Abolfathi, Ali Akbar; Badalzadeh, Reza; Majidinia, Maryam; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Asadi, Maryam; Yousefi, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serum amyloid-A (SAA) and protein carbonyl group are rigorously related with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) as a sensitive marker of an acute inflammatory state and as an important index of oxidative stress, respectively. Moreover, diet is one of the main factors that can modify cardiovascular risks. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on SAA and protein carbonyl group levels in patients with CVDs. Methods: Twenty-one patients (21 male; mean age 52±9 years old) with CVDs (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular, or peripheral arterial diseases) were participated in this study. Biochemical parameters were measured in patients 2 days before and 2 days after Ramadan fasting. SAA levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Cayman’s protein carbonyl colorimetric assay was provided for measuring protein carbonyl groups. Results: According to the findings of the study, post-Ramadan levels of inflammatory biomarker, SAA was decreased significantly in patients with CVDs in comparison with the baseline before-fasting values (16.84±8.20 vs. 24.40±6.72 μg/ml, P = 0.021). In addition, Ramadan fasting significantly reduced the levels of protein carbonyl group in patients as compared with those of baseline values (33.08±15.31 vs. 43.65±16.88 nmol/ml, P = 0.039). Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has impressive effects on modulating CVDs by decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress markers. However, to get a clear conclusion with more results, further investigation is warranted. PMID:26191392

  3. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    PubMed

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays. PMID:20397044

  4. [The Saint-Petersburg summit of Group of Eight: the problems of infectious diseases and the ways of their solution].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, being the presiding country at the Group of Eight Summit for the first time, Russia proposed the issue of counteraction with infectious diseases as one of the priority issues. In addition to the realization of the priority National Health Project, which is to a large degree dedicated to the immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases as well as the prevention and treatment of HIV-infection/AIDS and hepatites B and C, a meeting of the Presidium of Russian Federation State Council presided by President V. V. Putin, dedicated to the problem of HIV-infection epidemic spread, was held on April 21; the meeting resulted in the formation of Governmental Commission on the problems of HIV-infection/AIDS. On July 16, the leaders of Group of Eight during their meeting in Saint-Petersburg, discussed and validated the Declaration on counteraction with infectious diseases, reflecting the position of the leaders on the entire complex of problems connected with the spread of infectious diseases, and determining the main principles of the global strategy of counteraction with epidemics under the threats associated with the appearance of new infections, such as avian influenza, HIV-infection/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. While preparing for the Summit, Russia made a range of suggestion aimed mostly on the reinforcement of possibilities to control infectious diseases in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Practically all Russia's initiatives were supported by the partners, which was also reflected in the conclusive document of the Summit. Following Russian initiatives, Group of Eight intends to increase the effectiveness of international affords on the prevention and elimination of the consequences of natural disasters, including the use of fast response teams. To provide Russia's contribution to this initiative, modernized specialized antiepidemic teams will be used. Taking into consideration the present-day financial participation of Russian Federation in the realization of

  5. A Sharing Experience: Development of a Group for Families Affected by HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Diane; Appleby, Sue

    1995-01-01

    Describes the establishment and development of a support group for the parents of children infected and/or affected by HIV infection. The group is hospital-based, meeting monthly since April 1992, facilitated by professionals but with a self-help and peer support emphasis. Explains the planning, setting, and running of the group. Identifies…

  6. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease Caused by Strains of Uncommon emm Types in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Athey, Taryn B T; Teatero, Sarah; Sieswerda, Lee E; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Li, Aimin; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; McGeer, Allison; Williams, David; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of type emm59 invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease was declared in 2008 in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, 2 years after a countrywide emm59 epidemic was recognized in Canada. Despite a declining number of emm59 infections since 2010, numerous cases of iGAS disease continue to be reported in the area. We collected clinical information on all iGAS cases recorded in Thunder Bay District from 2008 to 2013. We also emm typed and sequenced the genomes of all available strains isolated from 2011 to 2013 from iGAS infections and from severe cases of soft tissue infections. We used whole-genome sequencing data to investigate the population structure of GAS strains of the most frequently isolated emm types. We report an increased incidence of iGAS in Thunder Bay compared to the metropolitan area of Toronto/Peel and the province of Ontario. Illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, homelessness, and hepatitis C infection were underlying diseases or conditions that might have predisposed patients to iGAS disease. Most cases were caused by clonal strains of skin or generalist emm types (i.e., emm82, emm87, emm101, emm4, emm83, and emm114) uncommonly seen in other areas of the province. We observed rapid waxing and waning of emm types causing disease and their replacement by other emm types associated with the same tissue tropisms. Thus, iGAS disease in Thunder Bay District predominantly affects a select population of disadvantaged persons and is caused by clonally related strains of a few skin and generalist emm types less commonly associated with iGAS in other areas of Ontario. PMID:26491184

  7. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease Caused by Strains of Uncommon emm Types in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Athey, Taryn B. T.; Teatero, Sarah; Sieswerda, Lee E.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Li, Aimin; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; McGeer, Allison; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of type emm59 invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease was declared in 2008 in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, 2 years after a countrywide emm59 epidemic was recognized in Canada. Despite a declining number of emm59 infections since 2010, numerous cases of iGAS disease continue to be reported in the area. We collected clinical information on all iGAS cases recorded in Thunder Bay District from 2008 to 2013. We also emm typed and sequenced the genomes of all available strains isolated from 2011 to 2013 from iGAS infections and from severe cases of soft tissue infections. We used whole-genome sequencing data to investigate the population structure of GAS strains of the most frequently isolated emm types. We report an increased incidence of iGAS in Thunder Bay compared to the metropolitan area of Toronto/Peel and the province of Ontario. Illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, homelessness, and hepatitis C infection were underlying diseases or conditions that might have predisposed patients to iGAS disease. Most cases were caused by clonal strains of skin or generalist emm types (i.e., emm82, emm87, emm101, emm4, emm83, and emm114) uncommonly seen in other areas of the province. We observed rapid waxing and waning of emm types causing disease and their replacement by other emm types associated with the same tissue tropisms. Thus, iGAS disease in Thunder Bay District predominantly affects a select population of disadvantaged persons and is caused by clonally related strains of a few skin and generalist emm types less commonly associated with iGAS in other areas of Ontario. PMID:26491184

  8. [SCREENING-EVALUATION OF THE CARDIAC ARTERY DISEASE IN CIVIL PILOTS OF THE SENIOR AGE GROUP].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnostics of cardiac artery disease (CAD) is essential for annual medical flight certification. The investigation was aimed at screening-evaluation of senior civil pilots for CAD using the criteria of ECG findings during the submaximal bicycle ergometry test (BT). The investigation embraced 1189 civil pilots, on reaching the age of 55 years and older in 2009-2010. BT with ECG recording was completed by 976 pilots (82.1%). The test was considered CAD negative in 909 pilots (93.1 %) and CAD positive in 9 pilots (0.9%); of 53 doubtful tests (5.5%), CAD was stated by the ST-criterion in 40 pilots (4.1%) and because of arrhythmias in 13 pilots (1.4%). In 5 cases (0.5%) test results were uninterpretable. Further analysis of the screening results led to diagnosing of clinically significant atherosclerosis of coronary arteries in 17 pilots (1.75%). PMID:26738309

  9. Antioxidant status in a group of institutionalised elderly people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ortega, Rosa M; Andrés, Pedro; Aparicio, Aránzazu; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Navia, Beatriz; Perea, José M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Paula

    2016-05-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important and prevalent diseases suffered by the elderly. Evidence exists that its onset and severity might be conditioned by antioxidant status. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and COPD in institutionalised elderly people. In all, 183 elderly people aged >65 years (twenty-one had COPD and 160 healthy controls) were studied. The subjects' diets were investigated via the use of precise individual weighing for 7 d. Body weight, height, and biceps and triceps skinfold thickness were measured, and body fat (kg) and BMI (kg/m2) were calculated. Serum retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C levels were determined. Subjects with COPD ate less fruits than healthy controls (117 (sd 52) v. 192 (sd 161) g/d), their coverage of the recommended intake of vitamin C was smaller (150 (sd 45) v. 191 (sd 88) %; note that both exceeded 100 %) and their diets had a lower antioxidant capacity (6558 (sd 2381) v. 9328 (sd 5367) mmol trolox equivalent/d). Those with COPD had lower serum vitamin C and α-tocopherol concentrations than healthy controls (32·4 (sd 15·3) v. 41·5 (sd 14·8) µmol/l and 12·1 (sd 3·2) v. 13·9 (sd 2·8) µmol/l, respectively). In addition, subjects with α-tocopherol <14·1µmol/l (50th percentile) were at 6·43 times greater risk of having COPD than those subjects with ≥14·1µmol/l (OR 6·43; 95 % CI 1·17, 35·24; P<0·05), taking sex, age, use of tobacco, body fat and vitamin E intake as covariables. Subjects with COPD had diets of poorer antioxidant quality, especially with respect to vitamins C and E, compared with healthy controls. PMID:27002926

  10. Lymph node-based disease and HHV-8/KSHV infection in HIV seronegative patients: report of three new cases of a heterogeneous group of diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Antonio; Addesso, Maria; Memoli, Domenico; Liguori, Pina; Cuomo, Roberto; Boscaino, Amedeo; Nappi, Oscar

    2011-06-01

    We describe three cases of lymph proliferative diseases characterized by the presence of lymphoma cells expressing the KSHV/HHV-8 antigen with or without EBV expression. The patients were HIV seronegative without serous effusions. One case was diagnosed as KSHV-germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder due to the presence of atypical plasmablasts involving germinal centers. These plasmablasts were positive for MUM1 and vIL6, co-expressed EBV and LNA-1 of HHV-8/KSHV, and showed a polyclonal pattern of Ig gene rearrangements on PCR. The disease was localized and the prognosis was good. In two other cases, a diagnosis of KSHV/HHV-8-related diffuse large cell B-lymphoma morphology was made. The lymphoma cells were anaplastic or frankly pleomorphic, expressed KSHV but not EBV, and were positive for CD20, MUM1, PAX-5, and vIL6. In both cases the prognosis was poor. On the basis of the features observed, we raise three considerations: (1) KSHV-related lymphoproliferative disorders represent a distinctive and heterogeneous group of diseases with variable clinico-pathologic findings and immunophenotypes (BCL6-/MUM1+/CD138- and BCL6+/MUM1+/CD138- or BCL6-/MUM1+/CD138+). (2) Although the pathogenic mechanism of HHV8 in lymphomagenesis is unclear, the presence the viral DNA in lymph nodes of HIV- patients is not a simply opportunistic infection, but is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of KSHV-related diseases; the activation of IL-6 receptor signalling may play an important role in most cases. (3) The different prognoses among different diseases with KSHV etiology may be related to the fact that the pathogenic potential appears to be constrained by a competent immune system. PMID:21509436

  11. Clonal Complex 17 Group B Streptococcus strains causing invasive disease in neonates and adults originate from the same genetic pool

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Ramoutar, Erin; McGeer, Allison; Li, Aimin; Melano, Roberto G.; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of group B Streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease, particularly late-onset disease, is associated with strains of serotype III, clonal complex (CC) 17. CC17 strains also cause invasive infections in adults. Little is known about the phylogenetic relationships of isolates recovered from neonatal and adult CC17 invasive infections. We performed whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis of 93 temporally and geographically matched CC17 strains isolated from both neonatal and adult invasive infections in the metropolitan region of Toronto/Peel, Canada. We also mined the whole-genome data to reveal mobile genetic elements carrying antimicrobial resistance genes. We discovered that CC17 GBS strains causing neonatal and adult invasive disease are interspersed and cluster tightly in a phylogenetic tree, signifying that they are derived from the same genetic pool. We identified limited variation due to recombination in the core CC17 genome. We describe that loss of Pilus Island 1 and acquisition of different mobile genetic elements carrying determinants of antimicrobial resistance contribute to CC17 genetic diversity. Acquisition of some of these mobile genetic elements appears to correlate with clonal expansion of the strains that possess them. Our results provide a genome-wide portrait of the population structure and evolution of a major disease-causing clone of an opportunistic pathogen. PMID:26843175

  12. Telemedicine for cardiovascular disease continuum: A position paper from the Italian Society of Cardiology Working Group on Telecardiology and Informatics.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Scalvini, Simonetta; Acquistapace, Flavio; Parati, Gianfranco; Volterrani, Maurizio; Fedele, Francesco; Molinari, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine is the provision of health care services, through the use of information and communication technology, in situations where the health care professional and the patient, or 2 health care professionals, are not in the same location. It involves the secure transmission of medical data and information, through text, sound, images, or other forms needed for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of a patient. First data on implementation of telemedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of acute myocardial infarction date from more than 10 years ago. Telemedicine has a potential broad application to the cardiovascular disease continuum and in many branches of cardiology, at least including heart failure, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Telemedicine might have an important role as part of a strategy for the delivery of effective health care for patients with cardiovascular disease. In this document the Working Group on Telecardiology and Informatics of the Italian Society of Cardiology intends to remark some key-points regarding potential benefit achievable with the implementation of telemedicine support in the continuum of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25755064

  13. Geographic distribution, evolution, and disease importance of species within the Neotropical Anopheles albitarsis Group (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ruiz-Lopez, J. Freddy; Conn, Jan E.; Sallum, Maria Anice M.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Bergo, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Tatiane M. P.; Sucupira, Izis; Wilkerson, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles albitarsis group of mosquitoes comprises eight recognized species and one mitochondrial lineage. Our knowledge of malaria vectorial importance and the distribution and evolution of these taxa is incomplete. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for these taxa and used hypothesized phylogenetic relationships and ENMs to investigate environmental and ecological divergence associated with speciation events. Two major clades were identified, one north (Clade 1) and one south (Clade 2) of the Amazon River that likely is or was a barrier to mosquito movement. Clade 1 species occur more often in higher average temperature locations than Clade 2 species, and taxon splits within Clade 1 corresponded with a greater divergence of variables related to precipitation than was the case within Clade 2. Comparison of the ecological profiles of sympatric species and sister species support the idea that phylogenetic proximity is related to ecological similarity. Anopheles albitarsis I, An. janconnae, and An. marajoara ENMs had the highest percentage of their predicted suitable habitat overlapping distribution models of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and warrant additional studies of the transmission potential of these species. Phylogenetic proximity may be related to malaria vectorial importance within the Albitarsis Group. PMID:24820570

  14. Geographic distribution, evolution, and disease importance of species within the Neotropical Anopheles albitarsis Group (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Foley, Desmond H; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ruiz-Lopez, J Freddy; Conn, Jan E; Sallum, Maria Anice M; Póvoa, Marinete M; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sucupira, Izis; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    The Anopheles albitarsis group of mosquitoes comprises eight recognized species and one mitochondrial lineage. Our knowledge of malaria vectorial importance and the distribution and evolution of these taxa is incomplete. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for these taxa and used hypothesized phylogenetic relationships and ENMs to investigate environmental and ecological divergence associated with speciation events. Two major clades were identified, one north (Clade 1) and one south (Clade 2) of the Amazon River that likely is or was a barrier to mosquito movement. Clade 1 species occur more often in higher average temperature locations than Clade 2 species, and taxon splits within Clade 1 corresponded with a greater divergence of variables related to precipitation than was the case within Clade 2. Comparison of the ecological profiles of sympatric species and sister species support the idea that phylogenetic proximity is related to ecological similarity. Anopheles albitarsis I, An. janconnae, and An. marajoara ENMs had the highest percentage of their predicted suitable habitat overlapping distribution models of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and warrant additional studies of the transmission potential of these species. Phylogenetic proximity may be related to malaria vectorial importance within the Albitarsis Group. PMID:24820570

  15. Electroencephalographic coherence in Alzheimer's disease: comparisons with a control group and population norms.

    PubMed

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2000-01-01

    Previous research from independent laboratories has shown reduced electroencephalographic coherence in patients diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). This study added to this work by comparing interhemispheric and intrahemispheric coherence in nonmedicated DAT patients (n = 35) with that of a normal control group (n = 30), as well as with a data bank of population norms. Raw and Z-score transformed values showed reduced coherence, interhemispherically (in delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands) and intrahemispherically (delta and theta bands) in DAT patients with both comparison procedures. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 73% to 75% of patients. The results are discussed in relation to earlier research, "trait" versus "state" factors, the cholinergic system, and cognitive processes in dementia. PMID:10753001

  16. Genomic profiling of lower-grade gliomas uncovers cohesive disease groups: implications for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang-Ming; Brat, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Lower-grade gliomas (including low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) are diffusely infiltrative neoplasms that arise most often in the cerebral hemispheres of adults and have traditionally been classified based on their presumed histogenesis as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, or oligoastrocytomas. Although the histopathologic classification of lower-grade glioma has been the accepted standard for nearly a century, it suffers from high intra- and inter-observer variability and does not adequately predict clinical outcomes. Based on integrated analysis of multiplatform genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, lower-grade gliomas have been found to segregate into three cohesive, clinically relevant molecular classes. Molecular classes were closely aligned with the status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, tumor protein 53 mutations and the co-deletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q, but were not closely aligned with histologic classes. These findings emphasize the potential for improved definition of clinically relevant disease subsets using integrated molecular approaches and highlight the importance of biomarkers for brain tumor classification. PMID:26758195

  17. Guidelines for the assessment and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Canadian Thoracic Society Workshop Group.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fifth commonest cause of death in North America and is the only leading cause of death that is increasing in prevalence. Early detection and prevention through smoking cessation are essential to stem this epidemic. Once COPD is diagnosed there is a compelling rationale for vaccination against influenza and possibly pneumococcal pneumonia, although proof of efficacy is lacking. If airways obstruction is present, inhaled quaternary anticholinergic bronchodilators or inhaled beta 2 agonists or both may be of benefit, the former agents showing fewer side effects and often greater efficacy in elderly patients. Theophylline may enhance the effect or increase the duration of the bronchodilatation produced by an inhaled agent and may offer added nonbronchodilatory effects such as improved respiratory muscle endurance and ventilatory stimulation. If significant airflow obstruction persists, an objectively monitored trial of oral steroid therapy is required. Limitation of activity despite optimum medical therapy may be alleviated in selected patients by a supervised exercise rehabilitation program. If hypoxemia is present supplemental oxygen therapy will improve the patient's survival and quality of life. Additional therapies, from respiratory stimulants to lung transplantation, remain under investigation. PMID:1498754

  18. Impact of risk aversion and disease outbreak characteristics on the incentives of producers as a group to participate in animal disease insurance-A simulation.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Jarkko K; Heikkilä, Jaakko

    2011-06-01

    The participation of agricultural producers in financing losses caused by livestock epidemics has been debated in many countries. One of the issues raised is how reluctant producers are to participate voluntarily in the financing of disease losses before an outbreak occurs. This study contributes to the literature by examining whether disease losses should be financed through pre- or post-outbreak premiums or their combination. A Monte Carlo simulation was employed to illustrate the costs of financing two diseases of different profiles. The profiles differed in the probability in which the damage occurs and in the average damage per event. Three hypothetical financing schemes were compared based on their ability to reduce utility losses in the case of risk-neutral and risk-averse producer groups. The schemes were examined in a dynamic setting where premiums depended on the compensation history of the sector. If producers choose the preferred financing scheme based on utility losses, results suggest that the timing of the premiums, the transaction costs of the scheme, the degree of risk aversion of the producer, and the level and the volatility of premiums affect the choice of the financing scheme. PMID:21497923

  19. Ethical and social issues in presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease: a European Community collaborative study. European Community Huntington's Disease Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of social and ethical aspects of presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease has been carried out, based on data on linked DNA markers, from four major testing centres in different European Community countries (Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom). Information was available on 603 applicants, with 213 final results given, of which 32% gave an increased risk. A series of specific issues and problems were documented systematically for all applicants, results being given on frequency of occurrence and illustrated by individual case histories. The principal issues could be grouped as problems of inappropriate referral, problems involving relatives, and problems relating to disclosure of results. At least one important problem was encountered in 46% of applicants, emphasising the importance of expert counselling, preparation, and support of applicants, and of close liaison between clinical, counselling, and laboratory staff. The extensive and detailed information available for Huntington's disease from this and other studies will be of considerable value in relation to genetic testing for other late onset genetic disorders and will be even more relevant to Huntington's disease now that specific mutation analysis is possible for this disorder. PMID:8133502

  20. [PCR study of the human herpes virus type 6 and other viruses of the herpes group in eye diseases].

    PubMed

    Slepowa, O S; Svetlova, E V; Kovaleva, L A; Makarov, P V; Kugusheva, A E; Denisova, E V; Vahova, E S; Zaharova, G Yu; Kondrat'eva, Yu A; Andryushin, A E; Demkin, V V

    2015-01-01

    To study the role of the HHV-6 type in the development of eye diseases PCR tests of blood (152), cornea biopsies (61), and intraocular fluids (11) for HHV-6 and other viruses of the herpes group (HSV type 1 and 2, CMV, EBV) were conducted. It was found that the HHV-6, along with other representatives of the Herpesviridae, can be detected in patients with different clinical forms of ophthalmopathology (174 patients were surveyed). Viral DNA was detected in blood, cornea, and in the anterior chamber fluid. The obtained data allow that the HHV-6 to be suggested as a possible cause of the ophthalmic herpes along with the other viruses of this group. It makes finding the virus DNA an essential step towards setting the etiologic diagnosis of the ophthalmological patients. PMID:27024918

  1. Characterization of a Large Group of Individuals with Huntington Disease and Their Relatives Enrolled in the COHORT Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, E. Ray

    2012-01-01

    Background Careful characterization of the phenotype and genotype of Huntington disease (HD) can foster better understanding of the condition. Methods We conducted a cohort study in the United States, Canada, and Australia of members of families affected by HD. We collected demographic and clinical data, conducted the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination, and determined Huntingtin trinucleotide CAG repeat length. We report primarily on cross-sectional baseline data from this recently completed prospective, longitudinal, observational study. Results As of December 31, 2009, 2,318 individuals enrolled; of these, 1,985 (85.6%) were classified into six analysis groups. Three groups had expanded CAG alleles (36 repeats or more): individuals with clinically diagnosed HD [n = 930], and clinically unaffected first-degree relatives who had previously pursued [n = 248] or not pursued [n = 112] predictive DNA testing. Three groups lacked expanded alleles: first-degree relatives who had previously pursued [n = 41] or not pursued [n = 224] genetic testing, and spouses and caregivers [n = 430]. Baseline mean performance differed across groups in all motor, behavioral, cognitive, and functional measures (p<0.001). Clinically unaffected individuals with expanded alleles weighed less (76.0 vs. 79.6 kg; p = 0.01) and had lower cognitive scores (28.5 vs. 29.1 on the Mini Mental State Examination; p = 0.008) than individuals without expanded alleles. The frequency of “high normal” repeat lengths (27 to 35) was 2.5% and repeat lengths associated with reduced penetrance (36 to 39) was 2.7%. Conclusion Baseline analysis of COHORT study participants revealed differences that emerge prior to clinical diagnosis. Longitudinal investigation of this cohort will further characterize the natural history of HD and genetic and biological modifiers. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00313495 PMID:22359536

  2. Group motivational intervention in overweight/obese patients in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the primary healthcare area

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The global mortality caused by cardiovascular disease increases with weight. The Framingham study showed that obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor independent of other risks such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking. Moreover, the main problem in the management of weight-loss is its maintenance, if it is achieved. We have designed a study to determine whether a group motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, is more efficient than the latter alone in the treatment of overweight and obesity, for initial weight loss and essentially to achieve maintenance of the weight achieved; and, secondly, to know if this intervention is more effective for reducing cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity. Methods This 26-month follow up multi-centre trial, will include 1200 overweight/obese patients. Random assignment of the intervention by Basic Health Areas (BHA): two geographically separate groups have been created, one of which receives group motivational intervention (group intervention), delivered by a nurse trained by an expert phsychologist, in 32 group sessions, 1 to 12 fortnightly, and 13 to 32, monthly, on top of their standard program of diet, exercise, and the other (control group), receiving the usual follow up, with regular visits every 3 months. Discussion By addressing currently unanswered questions regarding the maintenance in weight loss in obesity/overweight, upon the expected completion of participant follow-up in 2012, the IMOAP trial should document, for the first time, the benefits of a motivational intervention as a treatment tool of weight loss in a primary care setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006213 PMID:20298557

  3. Patterns of cardiovascular disease in a group of HIV-infected adults in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Menanga, Alain Patrick; Ngomseu, Christelle Kougang; Jingi, Ahmadou M.; Mfangam, Brigitte Molu; Gweth, Marie Ntep; Blackett, Kathleen Ngu; Kingue, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an increasingly important issue in human immunodeficiency viral (HIV)-infected individuals. There is dearth of information on the patterns of cardiovascular disease especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) patients. This study reports on the clinical, biological, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic characteristics of a group of HIV-infected patients presenting with symptoms of heart disease in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Yaoundé Central Hospital and Jamot Hospital. Consenting HIV-infected adults aged ≥18 years with symptoms suggestive of heart disease were consecutively recruited between February and July 2014. All participants underwent a complete clinical examination; biological analyses including CD4 cell counts, fasting blood glucose, and serum lipids, resting electrocardiography and cardiac ultrasound, and a venous ultrasound where necessary. Results Forty four subjects (21 men) were included. Their mean age was 48 (SD 13) years. Thirty patients (68.2%) were in WHO clinical stages 3 and 4 of HIV infection, 27 (61.4%) had a CD4 cell count <200/mm3, and 31 (70.5%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Hypertension (43.2%, n=19) was the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor; and dyslipidemia which was found in 17 subjects (38.6%) was significantly associated with ART (48.4% vs. 15.4%, P=0.04). Only men where smokers (23% vs. 0%, P=0.019). Exertional dyspnea (86.4%, n=38) and cough (59.1%, n=26) were the most frequent symptoms, and the clinical presentation was dominated by heart failure (75%, n=33). The most frequent echocardiographic abnormalities were pericardial effusion (45.5%, n=20) and dilated cardiomyopathy (22.7%, n=10). Dilated cardiomyopathy was significantly associated with CD4 cell counts <200/mm3 (100%, P=0.003). Primary pulmonary hypertension (PH) rate was 11.4% (n=5) and all cases occurred at CD4 cell counts ≥200/mm3 (P=0.005). The most frequent

  4. A best practice position statement on pregnancy in chronic kidney disease: the Italian Study Group on Kidney and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Castellino, Santina; Gernone, Giuseppe; Santoro, Domenico; Moroni, Gabriella; Giannattasio, Michele; Gregorini, Gina; Giacchino, Franca; Attini, Rossella; Loi, Valentina; Limardo, Monica; Gammaro, Linda; Todros, Tullia; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy is increasingly undertaken in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, conversely, CKD is increasingly diagnosed in pregnancy: up to 3 % of pregnancies are estimated to be complicated by CKD. The heterogeneity of CKD (accounting for stage, hypertension and proteinuria) and the rarity of several kidney diseases make risk assessment difficult and therapeutic strategies are often based upon scattered experiences and small series. In this setting, the aim of this position statement of the Kidney and Pregnancy Study Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology is to review the literature, and discuss the experience in the clinical management of CKD in pregnancy. CKD is associated with an increased risk for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes since its early stage, also in the absence of hypertension and proteinuria, thus supporting the need for a multidisciplinary follow-up in all CKD patients. CKD stage, hypertension and proteinuria are interrelated, but they are also independent risk factors for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes. Among the different kidney diseases, patients with glomerulonephritis and immunologic diseases are at higher risk of developing or increasing proteinuria and hypertension, a picture often difficult to differentiate from preeclampsia. The risk is higher in active immunologic diseases, and in those cases that are detected or flare up during pregnancy. Referral to tertiary care centres for multidisciplinary follow-up and tailored approaches are warranted. The risk of maternal death is, almost exclusively, reported in systemic lupus erythematosus and vasculitis, which share with diabetic nephropathy an increased risk for perinatal death of the babies. Conversely, patients with kidney malformation, autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, stone disease, and previous upper urinary tract infections are at higher risk for urinary tract infections, in turn associated with prematurity. No risk for malformations other than those

  5. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  6. The Effect of Online Chronic Disease Personas on Activation: Within-Subjects and Between-Groups Analyses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although self-management of chronic disease is important, engaging patients and increasing activation for self-care using online tools has proven difficult. Designing more tailored interventions through the application of condition-specific personas may be a way to increase engagement and patient activation. Personas are developed from extensive interviews with patients about their shared values and assumptions about their health. The resulting personas tailor the knowledge and skills necessary for self-care and guide selection of the self-management tools for a particular audience. Objective Pre-post changes in self-reported levels of activation for self-management were analyzed for 11 chronic health personas developed for 4 prevalent chronic diseases. Methods Personas were created from 20 to 25 hour-long nondirected interviews with consumers with a common, chronic disease (eg, diabetes). The interviews were transcribed and coded for behaviors, feelings, and beliefs using the principles of grounded theory. A second group of 398 adults with self-reported chronic disease were recruited for online testing of the personas and their impact on activation. The activation variables, based on an integrated theory of health behavior, were knowledge of a given health issue, perceived self-management skills, confidence in improving health, and intention to take action in managing health. Pre-post changes in activation were analyzed with a mixed design with 1 within-subjects factor (pre-post) and 1 between-group factor (persona) using a general linear model with repeated measures. Results Sixteen pre-post changes for 4 measures of activation were analyzed. All but 2 of the within-subjects effects were statistically significant and all changes were in the direction of increased activation scores at posttest. Five significant differences between personas were observed, showing which personas performed better. Of low activation participants, 50% or more shifted to high

  7. Evaluating the Translation Process of an Internet-Based Self-Help Intervention for Prevention of Depression: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is common and treatable with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), for example. However, access to this therapy is limited. Internet-based interventions have been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of depression. The International Society for Research on Internet Interventions has highlighted the importance of translating effective Internet programs into multiple languages to enable worldwide dissemination. Objective The aim of the current study was to determine if it would be cost effective to translate an existing English-language Internet-based intervention for use in a non-English-speaking country. Methods This paper reports an evaluation of a trial in which a research group in Norway translated two English-language Internet-based interventions into Norwegian (MoodGYM and BluePages) that had previously been shown to reduce symptoms of depression. The translation process and estimates of the cost-effectiveness of such a translation process is described. Estimated health effect was found by using quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Results Conservative estimates indicate that for every 1000 persons treated, 16 QALYs are gained. The investment is returned 9 times and the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is 3432. The costs of the translation project totaled to approximately 27% of the estimated original English-language version development costs. Conclusions The economic analysis shows that the cost-effectiveness of the translation project was substantial. Hopefully, these results will encourage others to do similar analyses and report cost-effectiveness data in their research reports. PMID:23343481

  8. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25406801

  9. Evaluation of tuberculosis treatment results in Italy, report 1998. Tuberculosis section of the National AIPO Study Group on Infectious Disease and the SMIRA Group.

    PubMed

    Centis, R; Ianni, A; Migliori, G B

    2000-08-01

    In Italy no national data on tuberculosis (TB) treatment results were available. In 1995 the AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pneumologists) TB Study Group, in collaboration with the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (technical branch of the Ministry of Health), started a prospective monitoring activity based on World Health Organization (WHO) and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) recommendations. Data were collected from a representative network of TB units nationwide, managing a significant proportion of all TB cases notified in Italy each year. The aim of this study was to analyse the case findings and treatment results for the year 1998. The number of TB cases reported was 1162 (61.7% males; 28.2% immigrants), 888 (76.6%) being new cases. Of these cases, 1,001 (86.4%) were pulmonary, 132 (11.4%) extrapulmonary and 26 (2.2%) both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The main risk factors for TB were a history of recent contact, diabetes and alcohol abuse among native Italians and human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive status and history of recent contact among immigrants. The majority of immigrants were from Africa and South America, and had been in Italy > 24 months before diagnosis of TB. Forty-seven per cent (552 of 1,162) of patients had a positive direct sputum smear examination for alcohol acidfast bacilli; 30% were resistant to any drug (combined monoresistance (the sum of primary and acquired drug resistance) to rifampicin 2.3%; combined multidrug resistance 11.4%). In 97% of cases, the duration of treatment was < 12 months. The overall success rate (cured plus treatment completed excluding transferred out from the denominator) was 83%. A significantly higher percentage of deaths was found in native Italians (being age-related; p < 0.001), whereas immigrants had a higher default rate. PMID:11057082

  10. Web-based self-help intervention reduces alcohol consumption in both heavy-drinking and dependent alcohol users: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Sartes, Laisa Marcorela Andreoli; Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Bedendo, André; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    As part of a multicenter project supported by the World Health Organization, we developed a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol use and related problems. We evaluated the predictors of adherence to, and the outcomes of the intervention. Success was defined as a reduction in consumption to low risk levels or to <50% of the baseline levels of number of drinks. From the 32,401 people who accessed the site, 3389 registered and 929 completed the full Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a necessary condition to be considered eligible to take part in the intervention. Based on their AUDIT scores, these participants were classified into: low risk users (LRU; n=319) harmful/hazardous users (HHU; n=298) or suggestive of dependence users (SDU; n=312). 29.1% of the registered users (LRU=42; HHU=90; SDU=82) completed the evaluation form at the end of the six-week period, and 63.5% reported low-risk drinking levels. We observed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption in the HHU (62.5%) and SDU (64.5%) groups in relation to baseline. One month after the intervention, in the follow-up, 94 users filled out the evaluation form, and their rate of success was similar to the one observed in the previous evaluation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HHU participants presented higher adherence than LRU. Despite a relatively low adherence to the program, its good outcomes and low cost, as well as the high number of people that can be reached by a web-based intervention, suggest it has good cost-effectiveness. PMID:27424165

  11. Variable expression of Parkinson's disease: a base-line analysis of the DATATOP cohort. The Parkinson Study Group.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, J; McDermott, M; Carter, J; Gauthier, S; Goetz, C; Golbe, L; Huber, S; Koller, W; Olanow, C; Shoulson, I

    1990-10-01

    The DATATOP database, which includes clinical information on 800 patients with early untreated Parkinson's disease (PD), is well suited to explore clinical heterogeneity in PD. Patients with early-onset PD (less than or equal to 40 years, N = 33) reached the same level of disability as the late-onset PD (greater than or equal to 70 years, N = 85) group at a significantly slower rate (2.9 vs. 1.7 years). Early-onset PD patients functioned cognitively better than late-onset PD patients. Bradykinesia, and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD), were more common at onset in patients with a rapid rate of disease progression ("malignant PD"; duration of symptoms less than 1 year and Hoehn/Yahr stage of 2.5, N = 11) as compared with those with a relatively slow rate of progression ("benign PD"; duration of symptoms greater than 4 years, N = 65). Comparisons of tremor-dominant PD (mean tremor score/mean PIGD score less than or equal to 1.5, N = 441) with the PIGD-dominant type (mean tremor score/mean PIGD score greater than or equal to 1.0, N = 233) provided support for the existence of clinical subtypes. The PIGD group reported significantly greater subjective intellectual, motor, and occupational impairment than the tremor group. Stage II patients had higher depression scores than stage I patients. Among the patients participating in the DATATOP, older age at onset with bradykinesia, or with the PIGD form of PD, is associated with more functional disability than when the symptoms are dominated by tremor or begin at a younger age. PMID:2215943

  12. Random forest estimation of genomic breeding values for disease susceptibility over different disease incidences and genomic architectures in simulated cow calibration groups.

    PubMed

    Naderi, S; Yin, T; König, S

    2016-09-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the performance of random forest (RF) and genomic BLUP (GBLUP) for genomic predictions of binary disease traits based on cow calibration groups. Training and testing sets were modified in different scenarios according to disease incidence, the quantitative-genetic background of the trait (h(2)=0.30 and h(2)=0.10), and the genomic architecture [725 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and 290 QTL, populations with high and low levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD)]. For all scenarios, 10,005 SNP (depicting a low-density 10K SNP chip) and 50,025 SNP (depicting a 50K SNP chip) were evenly spaced along 29 chromosomes. Training and testing sets included 20,000 cows (4,000 sick, 16,000 healthy, disease incidence 20%) from the last 2 generations. Initially, 4,000 sick cows were assigned to the testing set, and the remaining 16,000 healthy cows represented the training set. In the ongoing allocation schemes, the number of sick cows in the training set increased stepwise by moving 10% of the sick animals from the testing set to the training set, and vice versa. The size of the training and testing sets was kept constant. Evaluation criteria for both GBLUP and RF were the correlations between genomic breeding values and true breeding values (prediction accuracy), and the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Prediction accuracy and AUROC increased for both methods and all scenarios as increasing percentages of sick cows were allocated to the training set. Highest prediction accuracies were observed for disease incidences in training sets that reflected the population disease incidence of 0.20. For this allocation scheme, the largest prediction accuracies of 0.53 for RF and of 0.51 for GBLUP, and the largest AUROC of 0.66 for RF and of 0.64 for GBLUP, were achieved using 50,025 SNP, a heritability of 0.30, and 725 QTL. Heritability decreases from 0.30 to 0.10 and QTL reduction from 725 to 290 were associated

  13. A cohort study on diet and the risk of Parkinson's disease: the role of food groups and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Sääksjärvi, K; Knekt, P; Lundqvist, A; Männistö, S; Heliövaara, M; Rissanen, H; Järvinen, R

    2013-01-28

    Previous studies on individual foods and nutrients and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk have been inconsistent. Furthermore, only one study has examined the association between the quality of diet and PD. We investigated the prediction of food groups and diet quality on PD in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Survey (1966-72). The population comprised 4524 individuals, aged 40-79 years and free from PD at baseline. Data collection included health examinations, a questionnaire and a 1-year dietary history interview. A modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index was formed to assess diet quality. Statistical analyses were based on Cox's model. During a 41-year follow-up, eighty-five incident cases of PD occurred. No statistically significant associations were found between PD incidence and most of the food groups examined. A few exceptions were fruits and berries in men and milk in women, which showed positive associations. An inverse association between the intake of meat products and PD was found in women. The diet quality index did not predict PD, the adjusted relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles being 1.83 (95 % CI 0.65, 5.18) in men and 0.97 (95 % CI 0.38, 2.48) in women. The present study suggests that since most of the single food groups or the quality of diet did not predict PD occurrence, the role of diet is apparently rather modest. PMID:22716925

  14. Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion's Disease in Amazonas, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Luis; Escobar, Jorge; Fernandez, Miguel; Solano, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Carrion's disease (CD), is a human bartonellosis, that is, endemic in the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Bartonella bacilliformis, a native hemotrophic bacteria, is the causative agent of CD, and the interaction with the host could have produced changes in the gene frequencies of erythrocyte antigens. The goal here is to investigate the relationship between allele frequencies of blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the clinical phases of CD, within a genetic context. In this associative and analytical study, 76 individuals from Bagua Grande, the province of Utcubamba, and the department of Amazonas in Peru, were enrolled. Forty of them resided in Tomocho-Collicate-Vista Hermosa area (high prevalence of cases in chronic phase, verrucous, or eruptive phase, without previous acute phase). Thirty-six individuals were from the area of Miraflores (high prevalence of cases in acute phase only) and were evaluated for blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy. This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P > 0.05) between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru. PMID:24847360

  15. The Group Oriented Arterial Leg Study (GOALS) to improve walking performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Domanchuk, Kathryn; Liu, Kiang; Guralnik, Jack M; Tian, Lu; Criqui, Michael H; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kibbe, Melina; Jones, Donald-Lloyd; Pearce, William H; Zhao, Lihui; Spring, Bonnie; Rejeski, W Jack

    2012-11-01

    People with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) have greater functional impairment and faster functional decline than those without PAD. We describe methods for the Group Oriented Arterial Leg Study (GOALS), an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial designed to determine whether a Group-Mediated Cognitive Behavioral (GMCB) intervention improves functional performance in PAD participants, compared to a health education control condition. In GOALS, PAD participants were randomized to either an intervention or a health education control condition in a parallel design. Both conditions consist of weekly group sessions with other PAD participants. In the intervention, cognitive behavioral techniques are used to assist participants in setting and adhering to home-based walking exercise goals. Participants are encouraged to walk for exercise at home at least 5 days/week. In the control condition, participants receive lectures on health-related topics. After 6 months of on-site weekly sessions, participants are transitioned to telephone follow-up for another 6 months. Participants in the intervention are asked to continue home walking exercise. The primary outcome is change in six-minute walk performance between baseline and six-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include change in six-minute walk performance at 12-month follow-up, and change in treadmill walking performance, the Walking Impairment Questionnaire, quality of life, and physical activity at six and 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, if our group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention is associated with improved walking performance in individuals with PAD, results will have major public health implications for the large and growing number of people with PAD. PMID:23158112

  16. Expressed Sense of Self by People With Alzheimer's Disease in a Support Group Interpreted in Terms of Agency and Communion.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Ragnhild; Hansebo, Görel; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Hellström, Ingrid; Norberg, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The self is constructed in cooperation with other people and social context influences how people perceive and express it. People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often receive insufficient support in constructing their preferred selves, but little is known about how they express themselves together with other people with AD. In accordance with Harré's social constructionist theory of self, this study aimed to describe how five people with mild and moderate AD express their Self 2 (i.e., their personal attributes and life histories) in a support group with a facilitator experienced in communicating with people with AD. The participants' expressions of their Self 2 were analyzed with qualitative abductive content analysis and interpreted in terms of agency and communion and a lack of agency and communion. The findings highlight the importance of supporting a sense of agency and communion when assisting people with AD in constructing their self. PMID:24776791

  17. Multi-Family Psychoeducational Support Group Therapy for Families with a Member Afflicted with Irreversible Brain Syndrome (Alzheimer's Disease): Report of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Evelyn S.; And Others

    Alzheimers Disease (AD), an incurable disability which afflicts older adults, can have devastating emotional consequences for the victim and the family. In an attempt to determine the effectiveness of multifamily psychoeducational support, group therapy (MFPSGT), 22 persons (13 families) from the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders…

  18. Diet and Exercise Adherence and Practices Among Medically Underserved Patients With Chronic Disease: Variation Across Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Orzech, Kathryn M.; Vivian, James; Torres, Cristina Huebner; Armin, Julie; Shaw, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors interact to create barriers to dietary and exercise plan adherence among medically underserved patients with chronic disease, but aspects related to culture and ethnicity are underexamined in the literature. Using both qualitative (n = 71) and quantitative (n = 297) data collected in a 4-year, multimethod study among patients with hypertension and/ or diabetes, the authors explored differences in self-reported adherence to diet and exercise plans and self-reported daily diet and exercise practices across four ethnic groups—Whites, Blacks, Vietnamese, and Latinos—at a primary health care center in Massachusetts. Adherence to diet and exercise plans differed across ethnic groups even after controlling for key sociodemographic variables, with Vietnamese participants reporting the highest adherence. Food and exercise options were shaped by economic constraints as well as ethnic and cultural familiarity with certain foods and types of activity. These findings indicate that health care providers should consider ethnicity and economic status together to increase effectiveness in encouraging diverse populations with chronic disease to make healthy lifestyle changes. PMID:22505574

  19. Interpretation of 2002 Centers for Disease Control Guidelines for Group B Streptococcus and Evolving Provider Practice Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Emma L.; Funai, Edmund F.; Bracken, Michael B.; Illuzzi, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated if clinicians were altering their care of group B streptococcus (GBS)-positive women in labor to achieve 4 hours of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis based on their interpretation of the 2002 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines on prevention of perinatal GBS disease. We surveyed all clinicians with privileges on the labor floor at our institution about their interpretation and clinical application of the 2002 CDC guidelines. Seventy of 96 eligible clinicians (72.9%) completed our survey. In our survey, only 22.9% of clinicians reported not altering their management of labor in GBS-positive pregnancies that achieved less than 4 hours of prophylaxis. These alterations included “laboring down” or delaying pushing; turning off or decreasing an oxytocin infusion; or delaying or avoiding artificial rupture of membranes. Clinicians are altering their management of labor to attempt to achieve 4 hours of intrapartum prophylaxis. The 2002 CDC guidelines do not specifically recommend prolonging labor and are being interpreted differently in the clinical setting than the authors may have intended. The effects and consequences of this interpretation are unknown. PMID:20640975

  20. Working Group Guidelines on the nursing roles in caring for patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kurek, Marzena; Poteralska, Aneta; Bieniek, Ewa; Marynka, Anna; Pabich, Grażyna; Liebert, Ariel; Kłopocka, Maria; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, present a major challenge for present-day gastroenterology due to their increasing incidence, chronic nature, risk of permanent worsening of quality of life of patients, and the costs of conservative and invasive treatment. Basic and advanced nursing care are important parts of the multidisciplinary care for patients. The developed guidelines on the nursing care, which are compliant with the European guidelines published by Nurses-European Crohn's & Colitis Organisation (N-ECCO), were adjusted to the current situation in Poland. Significant issues that are important for nursing teams have been identified, with particular emphasis on the specificity of working in centres specialising in the care of IBD patients. The Working Group paid attention to the conditions that should be satisfied in order to optimise the nursing care for IBD patients, and the necessity to develop professional and scientific cooperation with European centres within European Crohn's & Colitis Organisation (ECCO) and N-ECCO. PMID:25276248

  1. An ongoing six-year innovative osteoporosis disease management program: challenges and success in an IPA physician group environment.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ann; Hittell, Jodi; Beardsley, Carrie; Noh, Charles; Stoukides, Cheryl A; Kaul, Alan F

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this ongoing comprehensive osteoporosis disease management initiative is to provide the adult primary care physicians' (PCPs) offices with a program enabling them to systematically identify and manage their population for osteoporosis. For over six years, Hill Physicians Medical Group (Hill Physicians) has implemented multiple strategies to develop a best practice for identifying and treating members who were candidates for osteoporosis therapy. Numerous tools were used to support this disease management effort, including: evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, patient education sessions, the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE) questionnaire tool, member specific reports for PCPs, targeted member mailings, office-based Peripheral Instantaneous X-ray Imaging (PIXI) test and counseling, dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan guidelines, and web-based Electronic Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (eSCORE) questionnaire tools. Hill Physicians tabulated results for patients who completed 2649 SCORE tests, screened 978 patients with PIXI tests, and identified 338 osteopenic and 124 osteoporotic patients. The preliminary results of this unique six-year ongoing educational initiative are slow but promising. New physician offices express interest in participating and those offices that have participated in the program continue to screen for osteoporosis. Hill Physicians' message is consistent and is communicated to the physicians repeatedly in different ways in accordance with the principles of educational outreach. Physicians who have conducted the program have positive feedback from their patients and office staff and have begun to communicate their experience to their peers. PMID:15669581

  2. Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Gray, Ben; Stevenson, Fiona; Gilbert, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem. Aim To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses. Method 75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis. Results Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses by some health professionals. Identified facilitators included involving supportive others, improving patient engagement with services, continuity of care, providing positive feedback in consultations and goal setting. Conclusion We identified a range of factors which can be incorporated in to the design, delivery and evaluation of services to reduce cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care. The next step is determining the clinical and cost effectiveness of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses, and evaluating the most important components of such interventions. PMID:26317516

  3. Self-Help Hearing Programs in Ceylon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mary Anna

    1969-01-01

    Offers information about the S. S. HOPE and the training it provided for Ceylonese personnel who worked with the deaf. It gives instruction in the education of the deaf, testing procedures, and the production of custom-made hearing aids. Various agencies learned of each other through the program and began to cooperate to better serve their…

  4. Better Housing Through Self-Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opat, Ellen-Jane

    1976-01-01

    Three case studies describe successful squatter settlements in Panama City, Panama, San Salvador, El Salvador and Lusaka, Zambia and show how governments have improved the condition of squatters by utilizing government loans, sites and services projects, foreign technical and financial aid and private non-profit developers, instead of eliminating…

  5. Genetic and antigenic typing of border disease virus (BDV) isolates from Italy reveals the existence of a novel BDV group.

    PubMed

    Giammarioli, Monica; La Rocca, Severina Anna; Steinbach, Falko; Casciari, Cristina; De Mia, Gian Mario

    2011-01-27

    Border disease virus belongs to the Pestivirus genus, within the family Flaviviridae. Genetic analysis of pestiviruses isolated from sheep in continental Europe have led to the proposal that BDV isolates are segregated into at least seven clusters. In 2005 the molecular analysis of an Italian caprine BDV strain provided evidence for the presence of an atypical pestivirus, which may represent the first member of a putative novel pestivirus sub-group. To further build on this study, ovine pestivirus strains were isolated from small ruminant flocks and characterized both genetically and antigenically. A defined section of the 5'UTR and the complete N(pro) coding region were amplified and used for phylogenetic analysis. This revealed that these pestiviruses belong to the BDV species but differed significantly from all previously described ovine pestiviruses providing evidence for the presence of a novel genetic group. Four of the five isolates were also typed antigenically with a panel of pestivirus specific mAbs directed against NS2/3, E(rns) and E2 proteins. The four isolates reacted with a distinct set of mAbs, in particular against the BDV-E2 and the BDV-E(rns) epitopes. The isolates were greatly reactive for E(rns) and NS2/3 mAbs, which are otherwise typical for BVDV-2, and one E2 mAb that typically stains BVDV-1. The Italian pestiviruses analysed in this study, according to their antigenic and genetic properties, clustered into a novel phylogenetic group, that we propose to term BDV-7. PMID:20656426

  6. Lack of association between Behçet's disease and major histocompatibility complex class II antigens in an ethnically diverse North American Caucasoid patient group.

    PubMed

    Moore, S B; O'Duffy, J D

    1986-08-01

    A group of 25 North American Caucasoid patients with well defined Behcet's disease were serologically typed for HLA-DR and DQw antigens. No significant associations were seen when results were compared with a group of 73 normal Caucasoid controls tested concomitantly. PMID:3772926

  7. Chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and yeasts in the lower genital tract of females. Comparison between a group attending a venereal disease clinic and a control group.

    PubMed

    Møller, B R; Sparre Jørgensen, A; From, E; Stenderup, A

    1985-01-01

    162 women were investigated. Group I consisted of 85 women, who were partners to men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or presented macroscopic signs of cervicitis; patients who had harbored Neisseria gonorrhoeae were excluded from the study. Group II was a control group of 77 women without any complaints from the urogenital tract and with normal findings at pelvic examination. All the women were tested for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Candida albicans. In group I, chlamydiae and mycoplasmas were recovered in 44% and 36%, respectively, the corresponding figures for the control group (group II) being 5% and 19%. The difference is highly significant. No such difference between the two groups was found for ureaplasmas. Sixteen percent of the patients in group I were positive for C. albicans; 12% were positive in group II. Fifty per cent of asymptomatic NGU-partners were chlamydia-positive, and about one-third of patients with either dysuria or vaginal discharge harbored the organism. No difference in the isolation frequency of mycoplasmas was observed between asymptomatic partners to male NGU carriers and women with increased vaginal discharge, whereas the organism was isolated more frequently from patients with dysuria. Fifty-nine per cent of patients with cervicitis were chlamydia-positive, compared with 30% of patients with normal cervical appearance and normal vaginal discharge. Samples obtained from the cervix were more often positive than samples from the urethra. In conclusion, if samples can be taken from only one of the two sites in patients with lower genital tract infection, the cervix is the optimal sampling site. PMID:3885669

  8. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Anthony R; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J; Holder, Michael E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2015-05-19

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  9. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Anthony R.; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J.; Holder, Michael E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J.; Shelburne, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  10. Prevalence of group A streptococcal disease in North and Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Dylan D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Jabar, Ardil; Engel, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The true burden of group A streptococcal (GAS) disease in Africa is not known. GAS is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity on the global scale and in developing countries. According to Carapetis et al, the prevalence of severe GAS disease is at least 18.1 million cases with an incidence of at least 1.78 million cases per year. Methods and analyses We aim to provide a systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of GAS infection among people in North and Sub-Saharan African countries. A comprehensive literature search of a number of databases will be undertaken, using an African search filter, to identify GAS prevalence studies that have been published. Full copies of articles will be identified by a defined search strategy and will be considered for inclusion against predefined criteria. Statistical analysis will include two steps: (1) identification of data sources and documenting of estimates, and (2) the application of the random-effects and fixed-effects meta-analysis model to aggregate prevalence estimates, and to account for between study variability in calculating the overall pooled estimates and 95% CI for GAS prevalence. Heterogeneity will be evaluated using the I2 statistic to determine the extent of variation in effect estimates that is due to heterogeneity rather than chance. This systematic review protocol was prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 Statement. This review will provide updated evidence of a review published in 2009. Our data will have implications for the development of a GAS vaccine. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for this study given that this is a protocol for a systematic review of published studies. The results of this study will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO CRD4201401290 0. (http://www.crd

  11. [Nutrition and IBD-Consensus of the Austrian Working Group of IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Diseases) of the ÖGGH].

    PubMed

    Fuchssteiner, H; Nigl, K; Mayer, A; Kristensen, B; Platzer, R; Brunner, B; Weiß, I; Haas, T; Benedikt, M; Gröchenig, H P; Eisenberger, A; Hillebrand, P; Reinisch, W; Vogelsang, H

    2014-04-01

    This is a consensus of the Austrian working group of IBD (inflammatory bowel diseases) of the ÖGGH on nutrition in IBD. Malnutrition should be assessed in case of IBD (in 20 - 70 % of Crohn's patients) and weight loss(> 5 % within 3 months) or nutritional deficiencies or after extensive bowel resection and afterwards also treated. Malnutrition should be treated with medical therapy of IBD and also adequate - as far as possible - with oral nutritional therapy particularly because of reduced life quality, risk of opportunistic infections, osteopenia/osteoporosis, longer hospitalisations and higher mortality. Iron homeostasis, serum levels of Vitamin B12- and folic acid, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and zinc should be checked. Therapy with enteral liquid diets is only indicated as therapy of first choice in children and adolescents, but only in rare situations in adults with IBD. There is - up to now - no proven oral diet for maintenance of remission in IBD. Probiotics as E. coli Nissle could be used as alternative to mesalazine for maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. A specific dietary counselling is mandatory in patients with ileostoma or short bowel syndrome. Malnutrition of short bowel patients is particularly dependent on the function and length of the remaining bowel, therefore the most effective medical therapy should be administered. PMID:24718944

  12. Genomic Recombination Leading to Decreased Virulence of Group B Streptococcus in a Mouse Model of Adult Invasive Disease.

    PubMed

    Teatero, Sarah; Lemire, Paul; Dewar, Ken; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Calzas, Cynthia; Mallo, Gustavo V; Li, Aimin; Athey, Taryn B T; Segura, Mariela; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    Adult invasive disease caused by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is increasing worldwide. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) now permits rapid identification of recombination events, a phenomenon that occurs frequently in GBS. Using WGS, we described that strain NGBS375, a capsular serotype V GBS isolate of sequence type (ST)297, has an ST1 genomic background but has acquired approximately 300 kbp of genetic material likely from an ST17 strain. Here, we examined the virulence of this strain in an in vivo model of GBS adult invasive infection. The mosaic ST297 strain showed intermediate virulence, causing significantly less systemic infection and reduced mortality than a more virulent, serotype V ST1 isolate. Bacteremia induced by the ST297 strain was similar to that induced by a serotype III ST17 strain, which was the least virulent under the conditions tested. Yet, under normalized bacteremia levels, the in vivo intrinsic capacity to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar between the ST297 strain and the virulent ST1 strain. Thus, the diminished virulence of the mosaic strain may be due to reduced capacity to disseminate or multiply in blood during a systemic infection which could be mediated by regulatory factors contained in the recombined region. PMID:27527222

  13. Bacteremia with the bovis group streptococci: species identification and association with infective endocarditis and with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Marmolin, Ea S; Hartmeyer, Gitte N; Christensen, Jens J; Nielsen, Xiaohui C; Dargis, Rimtas; Skov, Marianne N; Knudsen, Elisa; Kemp, Michael; Justesen, Ulrik S

    2016-06-01

    DNA sequencing of the intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used to identify 53 blood culture isolates that had previously been designated to the bovis group streptococci and clinical data was collected retrospectively from patients' records using a standardized protocol. ITS sequencing identified 19 (35.8%) isolates as Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, 12 (22.6%) as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, two (3.8%) as S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus, seven (13.2%) as S. infantarius subsp. infantarius, 12 (22.6%) as S. lutetiensis and one (1.9%) as S. equinus. The association of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus with colorectal neoplasia and with infective endocarditis and the association between S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and pancreatic cancer were found to be clinically important. Also, a very high 1-year mortality rate with S. lutetiensis (66.7%) and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (58.7%) bacteremia calls for intensive investigation for underlying disease focusing on the pancreas and the hepatobiliary system. PMID:27117515

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of Group A Streptococci Reveals a Mutation That Modulates Global Phenotype and Disease Specificity

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Many human pathogens produce phenotypic variants as a means to circumvent the host immune system and enhance survival and, as a potential consequence, exhibit increased virulence. For example, it has been known for almost 90 y that clinical isolates of the human bacterial pathogen group A streptococci (GAS) have extensive phenotypic heterogeneity linked to variation in virulence. However, the complete underlying molecular mechanism(s) have not been defined. Expression microarray analysis of nine clinical isolates identified two fundamentally different transcriptomes, designated pharyngeal transcriptome profile (PTP) and invasive transcriptome profile (ITP). PTP and ITP GAS differed in approximately 10% of the transcriptome, including at least 23 proven or putative virulence factor genes. ITP organisms were recovered from skin lesions of mice infected subcutaneously with PTP GAS and were significantly more able to survive phagocytosis and killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Complete genome resequencing of a mouse-derived ITP GAS revealed that the organism differed from its precursor by only a 7-bp frameshift mutation in the gene (covS) encoding the sensor kinase component of a two-component signal transduction system implicated in virulence. Genetic complementation, and sequence analysis of covR/S in 42 GAS isolates confirmed the central role of covR/S in transcriptome, exoproteome, and virulence modulation. Genome-wide analysis provides a heretofore unattained understanding of phenotypic variation and disease specificity in microbial pathogens, resulting in new avenues for vaccine and therapeutics research. PMID:16446783

  15. Developing and Maintaining Mutual Aid Groups for Parents and Other Family Members: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise; And Others

    This 60-item bibliography, a compilation of abstracts of books, articles, handbooks, conference proceedings, and newsletters published from 1978 through 1989, addresses various aspects of groups, programs and other self-help resources for parents and other family members of people with disabilities. Literature in the first section provides…

  16. Writing Groups: History, Theory, and Implications: Studies in Writing and Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    Drawing on previously unpublished archival materials as well as historical accounts of American education and the self-help tradition of education in the United States, this book examines the origins, theoretical bases, and implications of writing groups. Following an introduction that points out the varied circumstances under which writing groups…

  17. Relationship between Serum Level of Interleukin-2 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Disease Activity in Comparison with Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Mehrdad; Musavi, Sara; Nomali, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the large number of surveys, there are not any validated biomarkers for SLE disease activity till now. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum level of IL-2 in patients with SLE and disease activity in comparison with control group. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 73 patients with lupus and 73 healthy subjects referred to the rheumatology clinic of 5 Azar Hospital in Gorgan (North of Iran).They were studied via convenience sampling during 2011-2012. Blood samples were taken from both groups and serum levels of interleukin -2 measured by Avi Bion Human IL-2 ELISA kit. Serum Level of IL-2 greater than 15 pg/ml defined positive and lesser than this amount defined negative. Disease activity evaluated with SLE disease activity index. Score greater than or equal to three or four defined as active disease. Data analysis conducted by SPSS software (version 16) and by using descriptive statistics and statistical tests. Results: Serum level of IL-2 was positive in 45.2% of sample studied and negative in 54.8% in case group, while in control group, serum level of IL-2 only in 11% of sample studied was positive and in 89% was negative. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between serum level of IL-2 and the SLE disease activity index (p=0.025). Conclusion: This study showed the relationship between serum levels of IL-2 and disease activity, so this biomarker can be used as a clinical indicator for assessing disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:25177590

  18. Chronic pruritus associated with dermatologic disease in infancy and childhood: update from an interdisciplinary group of dermatologists and pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Metz, Martin; Wahn, Ulrich; Gieler, Uwe; Stock, Philippe; Schmitt, Jochen; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    An effective treatment strategy for chronic pruritus in children with dermatologic disorders should consider the multidimensional aspects of pruritus, the unique challenges associated with treating pruritic skin disorders in the pediatric population, and evidence-based therapies with demonstrated antipruritic benefits and clinically relevant effects on patient/family quality of life (QoL). The Course of Advanced Learning for the Management of ITch (CALM-IT) Task Force is an interdisciplinary group of experts specializing in core aspects of pruritus treatment, integrating pediatrics, dermatology, psychotherapy, pruritus management, and sleep. CALM-IT recently convened to provide updated guidance on managing chronic pruritus associated with dermatologic diseases in pediatric patients, with a special focus on atopic dermatitis (AD) and chronic spontaneous urticaria (csU). This review highlights the updated concepts and best practices, which were built upon international PRACTALL consensus and modified for children and infants with AD and csU. CALM-IT supports the routine use of basic skin therapy and the escalation of topical medications, according to severity and focused on rapid itch control. Anti-inflammatory agents should be appropriate for infants and children (i.e., with an optimized therapeutic index) and have proven antipruritic properties, such as those demonstrated by methylprednisolone aceponate. New experimental findings do not support the use of non-sedating oral antihistamines as adjuvant antipruritic therapy for AD. In csU, oral H1 -antihistamine use is justified, consistent with the distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms of itch underlying AD and csU. All encompassing QoL assessments should consider the burden of both patient and caregiver and should address outstanding unmet clinical needs of pediatric patients. Future research areas include integrated QoL assessments and multidisciplinary treatment programs with pediatric-targeted pruritic therapies

  19. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, S; Jain, Jithesh; Simon, Sequiera Peter; Battur, Hemanth; Supreetha, S; Haridas, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups. Materials & Methods: An epidemiological study was was carried out on 220 subjects who were randomly selected from individuals referred for periodontal treatment or for other reasons regarding Oral health at Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences. Results: The findings of our study revealed that subject’s blood group O (65.8) and Rh positive (73.33%) had a greater propensity for periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed blood groups and Rh factor can act as a determinant of periodontitis. How to cite this article: Vivek S, Jain J, Simon SP, Battur H, Supreetha S, Haridas R. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):30-34. PMID:24155617

  20. [Management of urinary tract infections in children. Recommendations of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Group of the French Pediatrics Society and the French-Language Infectious Diseases Society].

    PubMed

    Cohen, R; Raymond, J; Faye, A; Gillet, Y; Grimprel, E

    2015-06-01

    Urine dipsticks have to be used more frequently for the screening of urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile infants and children (grade A). Confirmation of the UTI by urine culture should prefer other methods of sampling than the urine bag: sampling jet, urethral catheterization, or pubic puncture (grade A). The percentage of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in children accounts for less than 10 % in France and does not justify revising the 2007 recommendations (grade B). An increase in the use of carbapenems in first-line treatment is a major environmental hazard and exposes the patient to the risk of untreatable infections. For febrile UTI, the expert group recommended: (1) recover the results of susceptibility testing as soon as possible to quickly adapt treatment for possible resistant strains; (2) favor initial treatment with aminoglycosides (particularly amikacin) which remain active in the majority of ESBL strains for patients seen in the pediatric emergency department and/or hospital; (3) ceftriaxone (IV or IM) remains an appropriate treatment for patients seen in the emergency department or outpatient clinic because the percentage of ESBL-producing enterobacteria strains remains low; (4) use oral cefixime (grade B) in nonsevere cases and low-risk patients defined as age>3 months, general condition preserved, disease duration of fever<4 days, no associated comorbidity, and no history of urinary tract infection, uropathy, or prior antibiotic therapy in the last 3 months; (5) oral relay for parenteral treatment is guided by in vitro susceptibility testing, in an attempt to reduce the use of oral cephalosporins to limit the selection of resistant bacterial strains. The total duration of treatment recommended is usually 10 days. Except for special circumstances, there is no need to prescribe retrograde cystography or antibiotic prophylaxis after a first febrile urinary tract infection. For cystitis, the panel recommends